In the name of the Lord, the God of the world.
Prepare my steps with Your word, and do not allow any iniquity to rule over me.

The fifth book which is The Book of Holiness

It contains three sets of Halachot and this is their order:

The Laws of Issurei Biah
The Laws of Ma'achalot Assurot
The Laws of Shechita

Introduction to Hilchos Issurei Biah

They contain 37 mitzvot: one positive commandment and 36 negative commandments. They are:

1. Not to have sexual relations with one’s mother,
2. Not to have relations with one’s father’s wife,
3. Not to have relations with one’s sister,
4. Not to have relations with the daughter of one’s father’s wife,
5. Not to have relations with the daughter of one’s son,
6. Not to have relations with one’s daughter,
7. Not to have relations with the daughter of one’s daughter,
8. Not to marry a woman and her daughter,
9. Not to marry a woman and her son’s daughter,
10. Not to marry a woman and her daughter’s daughter,
11. Not to have relations with the sister of one’s father,
12. Not to have relations with the sister of one’s mother,
13. Not to have relations with the wife of the brother of one’s father,
14. Not to have relations with the wife of one’s son,
15. Not to have relations with the wife of one’s brother,
16. Not to have relations with the sister of one’s wife,
17. Not to have relations with an animal,
18. For a woman not to engage in relations with an animal,
19. For [a man] not to engage in relations with another man,
20. Not to have relations with one’s father,
21. Not to have relations with the brother of one’s father,
22. Not to have relations with a married woman,
23. Not to have relations with [a woman in] the niddah state,
24. Not to marry a gentile,
25. For an Ammonite [convert] or a Moabite [convert] not to marry into God’s congregation, [i.e., the Jewish people,]
26. Not to prevent a third generation Egyptian [convert] from marrying among the Jewish people,
27. Not to prevent a third generation Edomite [convert] from marrying among the Jewish people,
28. Not to allow a mamzer to marry among the Jewish people,
29. Not to allow a castrated male to marry among the Jewish people,
30. Not to castrate a male; [this includes] even an animal, beast, or fowl,
31. For a High Priest not to marry a widow,
32. For a High Priest not to engage in relations with a widow even outside the bounds of marriage,
33. That a High Priest should marry a virgin maiden,
34. That a priest should not marry a divorcee,
35. That he should not marry a zonah,
36. That he should not marry a chalalah,
37. That a person should not draw close to any of the woman forbidden to him even though he does not engage in relations.

These mitzvot are explained in the ensuing chapters.

בְּשֵׁם יי אֵל עוֹלָם (בראשית כא לג)
פְּעָמַי הָכֵן בְּאִמְרָתֶךָ, וְאַל תַּשְׁלֶט בִּי כָל אָוֶן (תהלים קיט קלג)

ספר חמישי והוא ספר קדושה

הלכותיו שלוש, וזה הוא סידורן:

הלכות איסורי ביאה
הלכות מאכלות אסורות
הלכות שחיטה

הלכות איסורי ביאה

יש בכללן שבע ושלשים מצות: מצוה אחת עשה, ושלשים ושש מצות לא תעשה. וזה הוא פרטן:
(א) שלא לבא על האם
(ב) שלא לבא על אשת אב
(ג) שלא לבעול אחות
(ד) שלא לבעול בת אשת אב
(ה) שלא לבעול בת הבן
(ו) שלא לבעול הבת
(ז) שלא לבעול בת הבת
(ח) שלא לישא אשה ובתה
(ט) שלא לישא אשה ובת בנה
(י) שלא לישא אשה ובת בתה
(יא) שלא לבעול אחות אב
(יב) שלא לבעול אחות אם
(יג) שלא לבעול אשת אחי האב
(יד) שלא לבעול אשת הבן
(טו) שלא לבעול אשת אח
(טז) שלא לבעול אחות אשתו
(יז) שלא לשכב עם בהמה
(יח) שלא תביא אשה בהמה עליה
(יט) שלא לשכב עם זכר
(כ) שלא לגלות ערות אב
(כא) שלא לגלות ערות אחי אב
(כב) שלא לבעול אשת איש
(כג) שלא לבעול נדה
(כד) שלא להתחתן בעכו"ם
(כה) שלא יבוא עמוני ומואבי בקהל ה'
(כו) שלא להרחיק דור שלישי מצרי מלבוא בקהל
(כז) שלא להרחיק דור שלישי אדומי מלבוא בקהל
(כח) שלא יבא ממזר בקהל
(כט) שלא יבא סריס בקהל
(ל) שלא לסרס זכר אפילו בהמה חיה ועוף
(לא) שלא ישא כהן גדול אלמנה
(לב) שלא יבעול כהן גדול אלמנה אפילו בלא נישואין
(לג) שישא כהן גדול בתולה בנערותיה
(לד) שלא ישא כהן גרושה
(לה) שלא ישא זונה
(לו) שלא ישא חללה
(לז) שלא יקרב אדם לאחת מכל העריות ואף על פי שלא בעל.
וביאור מצות אלו בפרקים אלו:


When a person voluntarily engages in sexual relations with one of the arayot1 mentioned in the Torah, he is liable for kerait,2 as [Leviticus 18:29] states: "Whenever anyone performs any of these abominations, the souls will be cut off...." [The plural is used, referring to] the man and the woman.3 If they transgressed unknowingly, they are liable to bring a fixed4 sin offering. There are some arayot with whom relations are punishable by execution5 in addition to kerait which is applicable in all cases.6


הַבָא עַל אַחַת מִכָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה בְּמֵזִיד חַיָּב כָּרֵת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח כט) "כִּי כָּל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה מִכּל הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְרְתוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת" וְגוֹ' שְׁנֵיהֶם הַבּוֹעֵל וְהַנִּבְעֶלֶת. וְאִם הָיוּ שׁוֹגְגִין חַיָּבִין חַטָּאת קְבוּעָה. וְיֵשׁ מִן הָעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁהוּא בְּמִיתַת בֵּית דִּין יֶתֶר עַל הַכָּרֵת הַשָּׁוֶה בְּכֻלָּן:


With regard to the arayot that are punishable by execution by the court. If there were witnesses, they delivered a warning,7 and the transgressors did not cease their actions, they are executed through the means prescribed for them.


אוֹתָן הָעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין אִם הָיוּ שָׁם עֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה וְלֹא פָּרְשׁוּ מִמַּעֲשֵׂיהֶם מְמִיתִין אוֹתָן מִיתָה הָאֲמוּרָה בָּהֶן:


Even if a transgressor was a Torah scholar neither execution or lashes is administered unless a warning was given. For [the obligation for] a warning was instituted universally only to make a distinction between a person who transgresses inadvertently and one who transgresses intentionally.8


וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הָעוֹבֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם אֵין מְמִיתִין וְלֹא מַלְקִין עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה שָׁם הַתְרָאָה. שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה הַתְרָאָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֶלָּא לְהַבְחִין בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד:


Among the arayot punishable through execution by the court are those for [which the violators are] executed by stoning, those for which they are executed by burning, and those for which they are executed by strangulation.9

The following transgressions are punishable by stoning: one who has relations with his mother, with his father's wife,10 his son's wife; she is called his daughter-in-law,11 one who sodomizes a male, a male who has relations with an animal, and a woman who has relations with an animal.


הָעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין מֵהֶן שֶׁמִּיתָתָן בִּסְקִילָה. וּמֵהֶן שֶׁמִּיתָתָן בִּשְׂרֵפָה. וּמֵהֶן שֶׁמִּיתָתָן בְּחֶנֶק. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁמִּיתָתָן בִּסְקִילָה. הַבָּא עַל אִמּוֹ. וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו. וְעַל אֵשֶׁת בְּנוֹ וְהִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת כַּלָּתוֹ. וְהַשּׁוֹכֵב עִם זָכָר. וְהַשּׁוֹכֵב עִם בְּהֵמָה. וְהָאִשָּׁה הַמְּבִיאָה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה עָלֶיהָ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


The following arayot are punishable by burning: a person who has relations with his wife's daughter12 during his wife's lifetime,13 with the daughter of her daughter, with the daughter of her son, with her mother, with the mother of her mother, with the mother of her father, with his own daughter, with the daughter of his daughter, or with the daughter of his son.


וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הָעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁמִּיתָתָן בִּשְׂרֵפָה. הַבָּא עַל בַּת אִשְׁתּוֹ בְּחַיֵּי אִשְׁתּוֹ. וְעַל בַּת בִּתָּהּ. וְעַל בַּת בְּנָהּ. וְעַל אֵם אִשְׁתּוֹ. וְעַל אֵם אִמָּהּ. וְעַל אֵם אָבִיהָ. וְהַבָּא עַל בִּתּוֹ. וְעַל בַּת בִּתּוֹ. וְעַל בַּת בְּנוֹ:


The only instance in which forbidden sexual relations are punishable by execution by strangulation is adultery, as [derived from Leviticus 20:10]: "The adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." Whenever the Torah mentions "putting to death" without further description, the intent is strangulation.14

If [the adulteress] is the daughter of a priest, she should be executed by burning and the adulterer by strangulation, as [ibid. 21:9] states: "The daughter of a priest, when she begins to act promiscuously, she shall be burnt with fire."15 If the adulteress is a consecrated16 maiden,17 both she and the adulterer should be stoned,18 as [Deuteronomy 22:23-24] states: "When a virgin maiden.... they shall be stoned with rocks...." Whenever the Torah uses the phrase "They shall surely be put to death, they are responsible for their own blood" [Leviticus 20:11] - they are executed by stoning.19


אֵין לְךָ עֶרְוָה בְּחֶנֶק אֶלָּא אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כ י) "מוֹת יוּמַת הַנֹּאֵף וְהַנֹּאָפֶת" וּמִיתָה הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה סְתָם הִיא חֶנֶק. וְאִם הָיְתָה בַּת כֹּהֵן הִיא בִּשְׂרֵפָה וּבוֹעֲלָהּ בְּחֶנֶק שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כא ט) "וּבַת אִישׁ כֹּהֵן כִּי תֵחֵל לִזְנוֹת" (ויקרא כא ט) "בָּאֵשׁ תִּשָּׂרֵף". וְאִם הָיְתָה נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָשָׂה שְׁנֵיהֶם בִּסְקִילָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כד) "כִּי תִּהְיֶה נַעֲרָה בְתוּלָה" וְגוֹ' (דברים כב כד) "וּסְקַלְתֶּם אֹתָם בָּאֲבָנִים". וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּתּוֹרָה(ויקרא כ יג) (ויקרא כ טז) "מוֹת יוּמְתוּ דְּמֵיהֶם בָּם" הֲרֵי הֵן בִּסְקִילָה:


All of the other arayot are punishable by kerait alone and are not punishable by execution by the court. Therefore if there were witnesses and a warning was administered, the court punishes them with lashes, for all those who are obligated for kerait are lashed.


שְׁאָר הָעֲרָיוֹת כֻּלָּן בְּכָרֵת בִּלְבַד וְאֵין בָּהֶם מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיוּ שָׁם עֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה בֵּית דִּין מַלְקִין אוֹתָן. שֶׁכָּל חַיָּבֵי כְּרֵתוֹת לוֹקִין:


When a person enters into relations with women who are forbidden by merely a negative commandment,20 both he and she are lashed. If they do so unknowingly, they are not liable for punishment. When a person enters into relations with one of the shniyot,21 Rabbinic Law ordains that he be given "stripes for rebellious conduct."22 When, however, a person enters into relations with a woman who is forbidden merely by a positive commandment,23 he need not be punished. If, however, the court [wishes to] administer stripes for rebellious conduct to him to distance him from sin, they have that option.24


הַבָּא עַל אַחַת מֵחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין בְּמֵזִיד. הוּא לוֹקֶה וְהִיא. וְאִם בְּשׁוֹגֵג פְּטוּרִין מִכְּלוּם. וְהַבָּא עַל אַחַת מֵהַשְּׁנִיּוֹת בְּמֵזִיד מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. אֲבָל הַבָּא עַל אַחַת מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. וְאִם הִכּוּ אוֹתָם בֵּית דִּין מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיק מִן הָעֲבֵרָה הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדָם:


A person compelled [to engage in forbidden relations] is not liable at all, not for lashes nor for a sacrifice. Needless to say, there is no obligation for capital punishment, as [reflected by Deuteronomy 22:26]: "And to the maiden, do not do anything."25

To whom does the above apply? To the victim of rape. When, by contrast, a man engages in relations, there is no concept of being compelled against his will. For an erection is always a willful act.26

When a woman is compelled into relations at the outset and afterwards, she consents, she is not liable. Once [a man] compels her to engage in relations, it is beyond her control whether to desire [or] not. For man's natural tendency and inclination is compelling her to desire.27


אָנוּס פָּטוּר מִכְּלוּם מִן הַמַּלְקוֹת וּמִן הַקָּרְבָּן וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מִן הַמִּיתָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כו) "וְלַנַּעֲרָה לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה דָבָר". בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁנֶּאֱנַס הַנִּבְעָל. אֲבָל הַבּוֹעֵל אֵין לוֹ אֹנֶס שֶׁאֵין קִשּׁוּי אֶלָּא לְדַעַת. וְאִשָּׁה שֶׁתְּחִלַּת בִּיאָתָהּ בְּאֹנֶס וְסוֹפָהּ בְּרָצוֹן פְּטוּרָה מִכְּלוּם שֶׁמִּשֶּׁהִתְחִיל לִבְעל בְּאֹנֶס אֵין בְּיָדָהּ שֶׁלֹּא תִּרְצֶה שֶׁיֵּצֶר הָאָדָם וְטִבְעוֹ כּוֹפֶה אוֹתָהּ לִרְצוֹת:


A person who inserts the corona into [the woman's vaginal channel] is referred to as one who "uncovers" as [Leviticus 20:18] states: "He uncovered her source."28 A person who inserts the entire organ is referred to as one who completes [intercourse]. With regard to all the forbidden relations [mentioned] by the Torah, one who "uncovers" and one who "completes [intercourse] are [equally] liable for execution by the court, kerait, lashes, or stripes for rebellious conduct. Even though the man did not ejaculate and even if he withdrew and did not complete relations, [the man and the woman] both become liable.29 Whether a person engages in vaginal or anal intercourse,30 when he "uncovers" [the woman], they both become liable for execution, kerait, lashes, or stripes for rebellious conduct. Whether they were lying or standing,31 liability is established by the insertion of the corona.


הַמַּכְנִיס רֹאשׁ הָעֲטָרָה בִּלְבַד הוּא הַנִּקְרָא מְעָרֶה מִלְּשׁוֹן (ויקרא כ יח) "אֶת מְקֹרָהּ הֶעֱרָה". וְהַמַּכְנִיס כָּל הָאֵיבָר הוּא הַנִּקְרָא גּוֹמֵר. וּבְכָל הַבִּיאוֹת הָאֲסוּרוֹת אֶחָד הַמְעָרֶה וְאֶחָד הַגּוֹמֵר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיא שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפֵּרַשׁ וְלֹא גָּמַר כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִכְנִיס רֹאשׁ הָעֲטָרָה נִתְחַיְּבוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין אוֹ כָּרֵת אוֹ מַלְקוֹת אוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת. (וְאֶחָד הַבָּא עַל הָעֶרְוָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ וְאֶחָד הַבָּא עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ) מִשֶּׁיְּעָרֶה בָּהּ יִתְחַיְּבוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן מִיתָה אוֹ כָּרֵת אוֹ מַלְקוֹת אוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹכְבִין בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹמְדִים עַל הַכְנָסַת הָעֲטָרָה הוּא הַחִיּוּב:


[There is never any liability when] a man engages in forbidden relations without an erection, instead his organ was hanging loosely like the organ of the dead, e.g., one who was sick or a person with a congenital malady, i.e., he was born sexually inadequate. Even though he inserts his organ with his hand, he is not liable for kerait or lashes. Needless to say, he is not liable for execution. For this is not considered sexual intercourse. Nevertheless, [such an act] disqualifies a woman from partaking of terumah.32 And the court subjects both of them to stripes for rebellious conduct.33


כָּל הַבָּא בִּיאָה אֲסוּרָה בְּלֹא קִשּׁוּי. אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה הָאֵיבָר שֶׁלּוֹ מְדֻלְדָּל כְּמוֹ אֵיבָר הַמֵּתִים כְּגוֹן הַחוֹלִים. אוֹ מִי שֶׁנּוֹלַד כָּךְ כְּגוֹן סְרִיס חַמָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִכְנִיס אֶת הָאֵיבָר בְּיָדוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לֹא כָּרֵת וְלֹא מַלִקוֹת וִאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מִיתָה. שֵׁאֵין זוֹ בִּיאָה. אֲבָל פּוֹסֵל הוּא מִן הַתִּרוּמָה. וּבֵית דִּין מַכִּין אֵת שִׁנֵיהֵם מַכַּת מַרִדּוּת:


When a person enters into sexual relations with one of the arayot as a casual act,34 although he did not intend to do so, he is liable.35Similar concepts apply with regard to one who enters into relations with women forbidden by a negative commandment alone or with one of the shniyot.36

When, however, a man has relations with one of the arayot after she died, he is not liable at all.37 Needless to say, this applies with regard to those women with whom relations are forbidden by a negative commandment alone. When, by contrast, one has relations with a person who is trefe38 or who has relations with an animal which is trefe, he is liable. [The person or the animal] is [now] alive even though he will ultimately die from this illness. Even when the two signs39 which validate ritual slaughter were slit but [the woman or the animal] is making its last movements, if one enters into relations with [her or it] he is liable until she or it dies or is decapitated.


הַבָּא עַל עֶרְוָה מִן הָעֲרָיוֹת כְּמִתְעַסֵּק אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ לְכָךְ חַיָּב. וְכֵן בְּחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין וּבִשְׁנִיּוֹת. אֲבָל הַבָּא עַל עֶרְוָה מִן הָעֲרָיוֹת וְהִיא מֵתָה פָּטוּר מִכְּלוּם. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר. וְהַבָּא עַל הַטְּרֵפָה אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁכַב עִם בְּהֵמָה טְרֵפָה חַיָּב. חַי הוּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לָמוּת מֵחלִי זֶה. וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁחַט בָּהּ שְׁנֵי סִימָנִין וַעֲדַיִן הִיא מְפַרְכֶּסֶת הַבָּא עָלֶיהָ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁתָּמוּת אוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּתִּיז רֹאשָׁהּ:


When an adult male enters into relations with any of the women forbidden in connection with the above transgressions who is three years and one day old or more,40 he is liable for execution, kerait, or lashes and she is not liable41 unless she is past majority. If she is younger than this, both participants are not liable, for the act is not considered as sexual relations.42

Similarly, when an adult woman enters into sexual relations with a minor, if he is nine years and one day old, she is liable for execution, kerait,43 or lashes and he is not liable. If he is younger than nine years old, they are both free of liability.44


כָּל אִשָּׁה אֲסוּרָה מֵאֵלּוּ אִם הָיְתָה בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד וָמַעְלָה גָּדוֹל הַבָּא עָלֶיהָ חַיָּב מִיתָה אוֹ כָּרֵת אוֹ מַלְקוֹת וְהִיא פְּטוּרָה מִכְּלוּם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה גְּדוֹלָה. וְאִם הָיְתָה פְּחוּתָה מִזֶּה הֲרֵי שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּטוּרִין שֶׁאֵין בִּיאָתָהּ בִּיאָה. וְכֵן אִשָּׁה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ קָטָן אִם הָיָה בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד וָמַעְלָה הִיא חַיֶּבֶת כָּרֵת אוֹ מִיתָה אוֹ מַלְקוֹת וְהוּא פָּטוּר. וְאִם הָיָה בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וּלְמַטָּה שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּטוּרִין:


When a man enters into relations with a male or has a male enter into relations with him, once the corona is inserted [into the anus] they should both be stoned if they are both adults. As [Leviticus 18:22] states: "Do not lie with a man," [holding one liable for the act, whether] he is the active or passive partner.

If a minor of nine years and a day or more is involved, the man who enters into relations or has the minor enter into relations with him should be stoned and the minor is not liable. If the male [minor] was less than nine years old, they are both free of liability.45 It is, however, appropriate for the court to subject the adult to stripes for rebellious conduct for homosexual relations46 although his companion was less than nine years old.


הַבָּא עַל הַזָּכָר אוֹ הֵבִיא זָכָר עָלָיו כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶעֱרָה אִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם גְּדוֹלִים נִסְקָלִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח כב) "וְאֶת זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכָּב" בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹעֵל אוֹ נִבְעָל. וְאִם הָיָה קָטָן בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד וָמַעְלָה זֶה שֶׁבָּא עָלָיו אוֹ הֱבִיאוֹ עַל עַצְמוֹ נִסְקָל וְהַקָּטָן פָּטוּר. וְאִם הָיָה הַזָּכָר בֶּן תֵּשַׁע אוֹ פָּחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּטוּרִין וְרָאוּי לְבֵית דִּין לְהַכּוֹת הַגָּדוֹל מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת לְפִי שֶׁשָּׁכַב עִם זָכָר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא פָּחוֹת מִבֶּן תֵּשַׁע:


One is liable for anal intercourse with an androgynus47 just as one is liable for relations with another male. One who engages in vaginal intercourse with [an androgynus] is not liable.48

There is a doubt concerning the gender of a tumtum.49 Therefore a person who has relations with a tumtum or vaginal intercourse with an androgynus should be given stripes for rebellious conduct.50

An androgynus may marry a woman.51


[אֶחָד הַבָּא עַל הַזָּכָר אוֹ] הַבָּא עַל אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס דֶּרֶךְ זִכְרוּתוֹ חַיָּב. [וְאִם בָּא עָלָיו דֶּרֶךְ נְקֵבוּתוֹ פָּטוּר] וְהַטֻּמְטוּם סָפֵק הוּא לְפִיכָךְ הַבָּא עַל הַטֻּמְטוּם אוֹ עַל אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס [דֶּרֶךְ נְקֵבוּתוֹ] מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת וְהָאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס מֻתָּר לִשָּׂא אִשָּׁה:


When a person sodomizes an animal or has an animal insert its organ in him, both the person and the animal should be stoned to death,52 as [Leviticus 18:23] states: "Do not lie down with any animal," prohibiting [such relations] whether he sodomizes the animal or has the animal enter him. All [living creatures] animals, beasts, and fowl should be stoned to death.53 The Torah did not make any distinction with regard to the age of an animal whether it is young or old. "Any animal" implies a prohibition on the day of its birth. Whether the person enters into vaginal or anal intercourse with the animal, when he inserts the corona or the animal inserts the corona within him, they are liable.


הַבָּא עַל הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ שֶׁהֵבִיא בְּהֵמָה עָלָיו שְׁנֵיהֶן נִסְקָלִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח כג) "וּבְכָל בְּהֵמָה לֹא תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ" בֵּין שֶׁרִבְּעָהּ אוֹ הֱבִיאָהּ עָלָיו. וְאֶחָד בְּהֵמָה וְאֶחָד חַיָּה וָעוֹף הַכּל בִּסְקִילָה. וְלֹא חִלַּק הַכָּתוּב בִּבְהֵמָה בֵּין גְּדוֹלָה לִקְטַנָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּבְכָל בְּהֵמָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם לֵדָתָהּ (הַבָּא עָלֶיהָ בֵּין כְּדַרְכָּהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ) כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶעֱרָה בָּהּ אוֹ שֶׁהֶעֶרְתָה בּוֹ חַיָּב:


When a boy nine years old sodomizes an animal or has an animal engage in relations with him, the animal should be stoned, but he is not liable.54 If the boy was less than nine years old, the animal is not stoned. Similarly, when a girl three years old or more causes an animal or a beast to have relations with her, whether it is an older animal or a younger animal, once the corona of the animal is inserted into her vagina or anus, the animal is stoned to death and she is not liable.55 If she was past majority, they both should be stoned to death. If she was less than three years old, the animal should not be stoned.56


קָטָן בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁבָּא עַל הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ הֱבִיאָהּ עָלָיו הִיא נִסְקֶלֶת עַל יָדוֹ וְהוּא פָּטוּר. הָיָה בֶּן תֵּשַׁע אוֹ פָּחוֹת אֵין סוֹקְלִין אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה. וְכֵן קְטַנָּה בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁהֵבִיאָה בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה עָלֶיהָ בֵּין בְּהֵמָה גְּדוֹלָה בֵּין בְּהֵמָה קְטַנָּה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶעֶרְתָה בָּהּ הַבְּהֵמָה (בֵּין כְּדַרְכָּהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ) הַבְּהֵמָה נִסְקֶלֶת וְהִיא פְּטוּרָה. וְאִם הָיְתָה גְּדוֹלָה שְׁנֵיהֶן נִסְקָלִין. וְאִם הָיְתָה מִבַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וּלְמַטָּה אֵין הַבְּהֵמָה נִסְקֶלֶת:


When a person lies with an animal inadvertently or a woman causes an animal to have relations with her inadvertently,57 the animal is not stoned to death even though they are past majority.58 With regard to [relations with] all the arayot, when one is an adult and the other a minor, the minor is not liable and the adult is liable, as explained. If one is awake and one is sleeping, the one who is sleeping is not liable.59 If one [transgresses] intentionally and the other inadvertently, the one who [transgresses] intentionally is liable60 and the one who transgresses inadvertently must bring a sacrifice. If one acted under duress and one acted willingly, the one who acted under duress is not liable as stated above.61


וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹכֵב עִם הַבְּהֵמָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְהָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהֵבִיאָה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה עָלֶיהָ בִּשְׁגָגָה אֵין הַבְּהֵמָה נִסְקֶלֶת עַל יָדָן וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן גְּדוֹלִים. כָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת כֻּלָּן שֶׁהָיָה אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד קָטָן הַקָּטָן פָּטוּר וְהַגָּדוֹל חַיָּב כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֶחָד עֵר וְאֶחָד יָשֵׁן הַיָּשֵׁן פָּטוּר. אֶחָד מֵזִיד וְאֶחָד שׁוֹגֵג הַמֵּזִיד חַיָּב וְהַשּׁוֹגֵג מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן. אֶחָד אָנוּס וְאֶחָד בְּרָצוֹן הָאָנוּס פָּטוּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


The witnesses are not required to see [the precise details] of couple's intimate relations, the man inserting [his organ]as one inserts a piston into a pipe. Instead, once they see them clinging together as is the way of all who engage in relations, they may be executed on the basis of this evidence. We do not say: Maybe he did not insert the corona, because we can assume that in this position, the corona was inserted.62


אֵין הָעֵדִים נִזְקָקִין לִרְאוֹת הַמְנָאֲפִים שֶׁהֶעֱרוּ זֶה בָּזֶה וְהִכְנִיס כְּמִכְחוֹל בִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת. אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁיִּרְאוּ אוֹתָן דְּבוּקִין זֶה עִם זֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הַבּוֹעֲלִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶהֱרָגִין בִּרְאִיָּה זוֹ. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמָּא לֹא הֶעֱרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֶזְקַת צוּרָה זוֹ שֶׁהֶעֱרָה:


When an established presumption that people are close relatives has been established, we judge accordingly even though there is no clear proof that they were relatives.63 We give lashes and execute by burning, stoning, and strangulation based on such a presumption.

What is implied? If it is an accepted presumption that a particular woman is a man's sister, daughter, or mother and he had relations with her in the presence of witnesses, he is given lashes or executed by burning or stoning even though there is no clear-cut evidence that the woman is his sister, mother, or daughter, only the accepted presumption.

An incident occurred with a woman who came to Jerusalem carrying an infant on her shoulders and she raised it, [establishing] the assumption that he was her son. [After he grew older,] he had relations with her and they brought her to the court who executed her by stoning.64

A proof of this law can be drawn from the fact that the Torah speaks of the judgment of execution for one who curses his father and strikes his father65 How can we find clear proof that he is his father?66 Instead, we operate according to the existing presumption. So, too, with regard to other relatives, we operate according to the existing presumption.


מִי שֶׁהֻחְזַק בִּשְׁאֵר בָּשָׂר דָּנִין בּוֹ עַל פִּי הַחֲזָקָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם רְאָיָה בְּרוּרָה שֶׁזֶּה קָרוֹב. וּמַלְקִין וְשׂוֹרְפִין וְסוֹקְלִין וְחוֹנְקִין עַל חֲזָקָה זוֹ. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהֻחְזַק שֶׁזּוֹ אֲחוֹתוֹ אוֹ בִּתּוֹ אוֹ אִמּוֹ וּבָא עָלֶיהָ בְּעֵדִים הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה אוֹ נִשְׂרָף אוֹ נִסְקָל וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם רְאָיָה בְּרוּרָה שֶׁזּוֹ הִיא אֲחוֹתוֹ אוֹ אִמּוֹ אוֹ בִּתּוֹ אֶלָּא בַּחֲזָקָה בִּלְבַד. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּאִשָּׁה אַחַת שֶׁבָּאת לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְתִינוֹק מֻרְכָּב לָהּ עַל כְּתֵפָהּ וְהִגְדִּילַתּוּ בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהוּא בְּנָהּ וּבָא עָלֶיהָ וֶהֱבִיאוּהָ לְבֵית דִּין וּסְקָלוּהָ. רְאָיָה לְדִין זֶה מַה שֶּׁדָּנָה תּוֹרָה בִּמְקַלֵּל אָבִיו וּמַכֶּה אָבִיו שֶׁיּוּמַת. וּמִנַּיִן לָנוּ רְאָיָה בְּרוּרָה שֶׁזֶּה אָבִיו, אֶלָּא בַּחֲזָקָה, כָּךְ שְׁאָר קְרוֹבִים בַּחֲזָקָה:


[The following rules apply when] a man and a woman come from overseas, he says: "This is my wife," and she says: "This is my husband." If in [their new] city, he establishes the presumption that she is his wife67 for 30 days,68 we execute [an adulterer who has relations] with her. Within 30 days, however, we do not execute anyone on the presumption that she is a married woman.69


אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה שֶׁבָּאוּ מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם הוּא אוֹמֵר זֹאת אִשְׁתִּי וְהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת זֶה בַּעְלִי. אִם הֻחְזְקָה בָּעִיר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם שֶׁהִיא אִשְׁתּוֹ הוֹרְגִין עָלֶיהָ. אֲבָל בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם אֵין הוֹרְגִין עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ:


When a woman is presumed to be a niddah among her neighbors,70 her husband is given lashes for [engaging in relations] with her in the niddah state.71

[The following rule applies when] a person issues a warning [not to enter into seclusion with a specific man]72 to his wife and she enters into seclusion with him. If one witness comes and testifies that she was unfaithful,73 her husband was a priest, and he engaged in relations with her afterwards, he receives lashes because of her because he had relations with a zonah.74 Although the fundamental element of this testimony is established by one witness,75 [her conduct caused] her identity to be established as a zonah.76


הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהֻחְזְקָה נִדָּה בִּשְׁכוּנוֹתֶיהָ בַּעְלָהּ לוֹקֶה עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם נִדָּה. הַמְקַנֵּא לְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְנִסְתְּרָה וּבָא עֵד אֶחָד וְהֵעִיד שֶׁנִּטְמָא וְהָיָה בַּעְלָהּ כֹּהֵן וּבָא עָלֶיהָ אַחַר כָּךְ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם זוֹנָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעִקַּר הָעֵדוּת בְּעֵד אֶחָד כְּבָר הֻחְזְקָה בְּזוֹנָה:


When a father says: "My daughter is consecrated to this person," his word is accepted77 and she must marry him.78 [Nevertheless,] if she acts unfaithfully while [consecrated] to him, she is not stoned to death79 because of her father's statements unless there are witnesses [who testify] that she was consecrated in their presence.80

Similarly, when a woman states: "I have been consecrated," [if it is discovered that she engaged in relations with another man,] she is not executed on the basis of her own statements. Instead, there must be witnesses [that she was consecrated] or she must have established a common conception [that this was the case].


הָאָב שֶׁאָמַר בִּתִּי זוֹ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת הִיא לָזֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נֶאֱמָן וְתִנָּשֵׂא לוֹ אִם זִנְּתָה אֵינָהּ נִסְקֶלֶת עַל פִּיו עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שָׁם עֵדִים שֶׁנִּתְאָרְסָה בִּפְנֵיהֶם. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁאָמְרָה מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת אֲנִי אֵינָהּ נֶהֱרֶגֶת עַל פִּיהָ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שָׁם עֵדִים אוֹ תֻּחְזַק: