Although the Torah allowed carrying on a holiday even when it is not necessary [for the preparation of food], one should not carry heavy loads as he is accustomed to do on a weekday; instead, he must depart [from his regular practice].1 If, however, making such a departure is impossible, it is permitted.

What is implied? A person who brings jugs of wine from one place to another place should not bring them in a basket or in a container. Instead, he should carry them on his shoulder or in front of him. A person who is carrying hay should not sling the bale over his shoulder. Instead, he should carry it in his hands.


אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הוֹצָאָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ לֹא יִשָּׂא מַשָּׂאוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְשַׁנּוֹת. וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְשַׁנּוֹת מֻתָּר. כֵּיצַד. הַמֵּבִיא כַּדֵּי יַיִן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם לֹא יְבִיאֵם בְּסַל וּבְקֻפָּה אֲבָל מֵבִיא הוּא עַל כְּתֵפוֹ אוֹ לְפָנָיו. הַמּוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַתֶּבֶן לֹא יַפְשִׁיל אֶת הַקֻּפָּה לְאַחֲרָיו אֲבָל מוֹלִיכָהּ בְּיָדוֹ:


Similarly, loads that a person might ordinarily carry with a pole should be carried on his back. Those that are ordinarily carried on one's back should be carried on one's shoulder. And those that one usually carries on one's shoulder should be carried in one's hands before him, or a cloth should be spread over them. Similarly, one should depart from one's ordinary practice with regard to carrying loads. If it is impossible to depart from one's ordinary practice,2 one may bring the load in the ordinary manner.

When does the above apply? When a person is carrying the burden. If, however, an animal is carrying the burden, one should not bring them at all, so that one does not follow one's weekday practice.3


וְכֵן מַשּׂוֹאוֹת שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לִשָּׂא אוֹתָן בְּמוֹט יִשָּׂא אוֹתָן עַל גַּבּוֹ מֵאַחֲרָיו. וְשֶׁדַּרְכָּן לִשָּׂא אוֹתָן מֵאֲחוֹרָיו יִשָּׂא אוֹתָן עַל כְּתֵפוֹ. וְשֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהִנָּשֵׂא עַל הַכָּתֵף יִשָּׂא אוֹתָן בְּיָדוֹ לְפָנָיו אוֹ יִפְרשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן בֶּגֶד וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה מִשִּׁנּוּי הַמַּשָּׂא. וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְשַׁנּוֹת נוֹשֵׂא וּמֵבִיא כְּדַרְכּוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּנוֹשֵׂא עַל הָאָדָם אֲבָל עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה לֹא יָבִיא כְּלָל שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל:


We may not direct an animal with a staff, nor may a blind man go out with a cane,4 nor may a shepherd carry his pack.5

Neither a man nor a woman may be carried out in a chair, so that the ordinary weekday practice will not be followed. A person whose presence is required by many6 may be carried out on a chair on another person's back. Similarly, he may be carried out in a litter, even on people's shoulders.


אֵין מַנְהִיגִין אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה בְּמַקֵּל. וְאֵין הַסּוּמָא יוֹצֵא בְּמַקְלוֹ וְלֹא הָרוֹעֶה בְּתַרְמִילוֹ. וְאֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּכִסֵּא אֶחָד הָאִישׁ וְאֶחָד הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל. ואִישׁ שֶׁהָיוּ רַבִּים צְרִיכִין לוֹ יוֹצְאִין בְּכִסֵּא אַחֲרָיו וּמוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הַכָּתֵף אֲפִלּוּ בְּאַפִּרְיוֹן:


We may not move a ladder used for a dovecote7 from one dovecote to another in the public domain, lest [an observer] say, "He is moving [the ladder] to fix his roof."

It is, however, permitted to move such a ladder in a private domain. Although all the restrictions instituted by the Sages because of the impression that might be made on an onlooker normally apply even in the most private places, leniency was granted in this instance [to increase] rejoicing on the holiday.8


אֵין מוֹלִיכִין אֶת הַסֻּלָּם שֶׁל שׁוֹבָךְ מִשּׁוֹבָךְ לְשׁוֹבָךְ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ לְתַקֵּן גַּגּוֹ הוּא מוֹלִיכוֹ. אֲבָל בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד מוֹלִיכוֹ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַדְרֵי חֲדָרִים אָסוּר כָּאן הִתִּירוּ מִפְּנֵי שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב:


A person who has [left] produce [to dry] on his roof and who must move it from one place to another9 should not pass it from one roof to another roof - even if both roofs are of the same height - nor should he lower it by a rope from a window or carry it down a ladder. [These restrictions were instituted] so that he will not follow his ordinary practice. He may, however, throw it down through an aperture, [thus moving it] from place to place on one roof.10

If one slaughters an animal in a field,11 one should not carry it to the city [hanging from] a small or large pole. Instead, one should carry [its meat] limb by limb.12


מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת עַל גַּגּוֹ וְצָרִיךְ לְפַנּוֹתָם לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר לֹא יוֹשִׁיטֵם מִגַּג לְגַג וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּגַּגִּין הַשָּׁוִין. וְלֹא יְשַׁלְשְׁלֵם בְּחֶבֶל מִן הַחַלּוֹנוֹת וְלֹא יוֹרִידֵם בְּסֻלָּמוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל. אֲבָל מַשִּׁילָן אֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ אֲרֻבָּה מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם בְּאוֹתוֹ הַגַּג. שָׁחַט בְּהֵמָה בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא יְבִיאֶנָּה בְּמוֹט לָעִיר אוֹ בְּמוֹטָה אֲבָל מְבִיאָהּ אֵיבָרִים אֵיבָרִים:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


On a holiday it is permitted to send a colleague13 any article from which one could benefit on a weekday, even though one cannot benefit from it on a holiday - e.g., tefillin. Needless to say, one may send [a colleague] articles from which one may benefit on the holiday itself - e.g., wine, oil, and fine flour.14

When, however, one could not derive benefit from an article on a weekday unless one performed a task whose performance is forbidden on a holiday, one may not send that article to a colleague on a holiday.15


כָּל שֶׁנֵּאוֹתִין בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּחל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נֵאוֹתִין בּוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב כְּגוֹן תְּפִלִּין מֻתָּר לְשָׁלְחָן לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר דָּבָר שֶׁנֵּאוֹתִין בּוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב כְּגוֹן יֵינוֹת שְׁמָנִים וּסְלָתוֹת שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְשָׁלְחָן. וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין נֵאוֹתִין בּוֹ בְּחל עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בּוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֵין מְשַׁלְּחִין אוֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב:


What is implied? One may not send grain, because one does not benefit from it on a weekday unless one grinds it,16 and it is forbidden to grind on a holiday. We may, by contrast, send legumes, since one may cook them on a holiday or roast them, and eat them.

We may send a beast, a domestic animal, or a fowl on a holiday even when alive, because it is permitted to slaughter them on a holiday.17 The same rules apply in other similar situations.


כֵּיצַד. אֵין מְשַׁלְּחִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב תְּבוּאָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין נֵאוֹתִין בָּהּ בְּחל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן טָחַן וְאָסוּר לִטְחֹן בְּיוֹם טוֹב. אֲבָל מְשַׁלְּחִין קִטְנִיּוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב אוֹ קוֹלֶה אוֹתָן וְאוֹכְלָן. וּמְשַׁלְּחִין חַיָּה בְּהֵמָה וְעוֹפוֹת אֲפִלּוּ חַיִּים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִשְׁחֹט בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


When one sends a colleague as a present any article that is permitted to be sent on a holiday, one should not send it with a delegation.18 A delegation includes at least three people.

What is implied? When one sends a colleague animals or wines with a group of three people who walk together, or four who walk one after the other, and they all walk in a single line,19 this is forbidden, so that one does not follow one's weekday procedure.20It is permitted, however, to send three different types [of articles] with three people who walk together.


כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְשָׁלְחוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁלָחֶנּוּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ תְּשׁוּרָה לֹא יִשְׁלָחֶנּוּ בְּשׁוּרָה וְאֵין שׁוּרָה פְּחוּתָה מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁשָּׁלַח לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּהֵמוֹת אוֹ יֵינוֹת בְּיַד שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם כְּאֶחָד אוֹ אַרְבָּעָה זֶה אַחַר זֶה וְכֻלָּן הוֹלְכִין בְּשׁוּרָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל. שָׁלַח שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינִין בְּיַד שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם כְּאֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:


When a person establishes an eruv t'chumim for a holiday, his animal, his articles, and his produce are bound by the same restrictions as he is.21 They also may not be taken beyond two thousand cubits in all directions from the place where the person established his eruv.


הַמְעָרֵב עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין לְיוֹם טוֹב הֲרֵי בְּהֶמְתּוֹ וְכֵלָיו וּפֵרוֹתָיו כָּמוֹהוּ. וְאֵין מוֹלִיכִין אוֹתָן אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ:


[The holiday limits] of ownerless articles follow the limits of those who acquire them.22 [The holiday limits] of articles belonging to a gentile are determined by their place [at the commencement of the holiday]. They are granted [only] two thousand cubits in all directions from this place.23 This is a decree. [Our Sages placed restrictions on articles] belonging to gentiles, because of articles belonging to Jews.

When produce was taken beyond [the holiday limits] and returned - even if this was done with a conscious intent to violate the prohibitions involved - there is no prohibition against moving it throughout [the holiday limits]. It is considered analogous to a person who was forcibly taken beyond [the holiday limits] and forcibly returned.24


חֶפְצֵי הֶפְקֵר הֲרֵי הֵן כְּרַגְלֵי מִי שֶׁזָּכָה בָּהֶן. וְחֶפְצֵי הַכּוּתִים קוֹנִין שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹמָן וְיֵשׁ לָהֶן אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ מִמְּקוֹמָן גְּזֵרָה בְּעָלִים כּוּתִים מִשּׁוּם בְּעָלִים יִשְׂרָאֵל. פֵּרוֹת שֶׁיָּצְאוּ חוּץ לִמְקוֹמָן וְחָזְרוּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד לֹא הִפְסִידוּ אֶת מְקוֹמָן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּאָדָם שֶׁיָּצָא בְּאֹנֶס וְחָזַר בְּאֹנֶס:


When a person entrusts an animal to his son, [the holiday limits] of the animal follow those of the father.25 If he entrusts [an animal] to a shepherd, even if he gives it to him on a holiday,26 its [holiday limits] follow those of the shepherd. If he entrusts it to two shepherds, its [holiday limits] follow those of the owner, since neither acquired [responsibility for it beforehand].27


הַמּוֹסֵר בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לִבְנוֹ הֲרֵי הִיא כְּרַגְלֵי הָאָב. מְסָרָהּ לְרוֹעֶה וַאֲפִלּוּ נְתָנָהּ לוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הֲרֵי הִיא כְּרַגְלֵי הָרוֹעֶה. מְסָרָהּ לִשְׁנֵי רוֹעִים הֲרֵי הִיא כְּרַגְלֵי בְּעָלֶיהָ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא קָנָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן:


When a person invites guests on a holiday, [the guests] should not carry the portions [of food they were given] to a place where their host may not go himself. For the [holiday limits] of [the food served at] the feast depend on those of the host, and not on those of the guests.28 [These restrictions apply] unless [the host] granted [the guests] their portions [as presents via] another individual29 before the commencement of the holiday.


מִי שֶׁזִּמֵּן אֶצְלוֹ אוֹרְחִים בְּיוֹם טוֹב לֹא יוֹלִיכוּ בְּיָדָם מָנוֹת לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין בַּעַל הַסְּעֻדָּה יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ בּוֹ. שֶׁכָּל הַסְּעֵדָּה כְּרַגְלֵי בַּעַל הַסְּעֻדָּה לֹא כְּרַגְלֵי הָאוֹרְחִין. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן זָכָה לָהֶן אַחֵר בְּמָנוֹת אֵלּוּ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב:


Similarly, when produce belonging to a person was left in another city for safekeeping, and the inhabitants of that city established an eruv [t'chumim] so that they could visit [the owner], they should not bring him his produce. For his produce [is governed by the same laws] as he is,30 even though it was [entrusted] to people who established an eruv [t'chumim].

When does the above apply? When the people to whom the produce was entrusted have designated a corner of their property for it.31 If, however, they did not designate [a place for the produce], its [holiday limits] follow those of the people to whom it was entrusted.32


וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיוּ פֵּרוֹתָיו מֻפְקָדִין בְּעִיר אַחֶרֶת וְעֵרְבוּ בְּנֵי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר לָבֹא אֶצְלוֹ לֹא יָבִיאוּ לוֹ מִפֵּרוֹתָיו שֶׁפֵּרוֹתָיו כָּמוֹהוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן בְּיַד אֵלּוּ שֶׁעֵרְבוּ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁיִּחֵד לָהֶן קֶרֶן זָוִית אֲבָל אִם לֹא יִחֵד לָהֶן הֲרֵי הֵן כְּרַגְלֵי זֶה שֶׁהֵן מֻפְקָדִין אֶצְלוֹ:


[The holiday limits of the water in] a cistern belonging to one person follow those of the owner.33 If a cistern is owned by a city, [the holiday limits of its water] follow those of the inhabitants of the city.34 [The holiday limits of the water in a cistern made] for the festive pilgrims coming from Babylon, which is donated to the public at large, follow those of the person who draws the water.35 Whoever draws water may carry it wherever he is allowed to proceed.

[The holiday limits of the water in] springs that flow freely follow those of all people.36 Even if [the water] flows from outside the [holiday] limits within those limits, we may draw water from [such springs] on the Sabbath.37 Needless to say, this is permitted on a holiday.


בּוֹר שֶׁל יָחִיד כְּרַגְלֵי בְּעָלָיו. וְשֶׁל אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר כְּרַגְלֵי אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר. וְשֶׁל עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל שֶׁהֵן מְסוּרִין לַכּל כְּרַגְלֵי הַמְמַלֵּא מֵהֶן שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁמִּלֵּא מֵהֶן מוֹלִיכָן לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ. נְהָרוֹת הַמּוֹשְׁכִין וּמַעֲיָנוֹת הַנּוֹבְעִין כְּרַגְלֵי כָּל אָדָם וְאִם הָיוּ בָּאִין מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם מְמַלְּאִין מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּיוֹם טוֹב:


[The holiday limits of] an ox belonging to a herder follow those of the inhabitants of his city.38 [The holiday limits of] an ox fattened for slaughter follow those of the person who purchased it with the intention of slaughtering it on the holiday [even if he lives outside the city]. [This leniency was granted] because the fact that it was fattened for slaughter makes its reputation well known, and many come to purchase it [even from afar].

Similarly, if the owner slaughtered [such an ox] on a holiday and sold its meat [to many different people], each of the purchasers may bring the meat to any place where he is allowed to proceed himself. [The reason for this leniency is] that on the day before the holiday, [the ox's] owner had the intent that people from [surrounding] villages would purchase [its meat]. Therefore, this ox is comparable to a well designated for festive pilgrims, [the water of] which is provided to the public at large.


שׁוֹר שֶׁל רוֹעֶה כְּרַגְלֵי אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר. וְשׁוֹר שֶׁל פְּטָם כְּרַגְלֵי מִי שֶׁלְּקָחוֹ לְשָׁחֳטוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּעַת בְּעָלָיו לְמָכְרוֹ לַאֲנָשִׁים אֲחֵרִים חוּץ מֵאַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְפֻטָּם וְהַכּל שׁוֹמְעִין שָׁמְעוֹ וּבָאִין לִקְנוֹתוֹ. וְכֵן אִם שְׁחָטוֹ בְּעָלָיו בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּמָכַר בְּשָׂרוֹ. כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִן הַלֹּקְחִים מוֹלִיךְ מְנָתוֹ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּעַת בְּעָלָיו מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב כָּךְ הוּא שֶׁיִּקְחוּ מִמֶּנּוּ אַנְשֵׁי עֲיָרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת וְנִמְצָא שׁוֹר זֶה כְּבוֹר שֶׁל עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל שֶׁהוּא מָסוּר לַכּל:


[The holiday limits of] a coal follow those of its owners,39 and not those of a person who borrows it. [Those of] a flame, by contrast, follow those of the person carrying it.40 Therefore, a person who lights a lamp or a piece of wood [from] a colleague's [flame] may carry it to any place where he is permitted to proceed himself.


הַגַּחֶלֶת כְּרַגְלֵי בְּעָלֶיהָ לֹא כְּרַגְלֵי שׁוֹאֲלָהּ וְהַשַּׁלְהֶבֶת כְּרַגְלֵי מִי שֶׁהִיא בְּיָדוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הַמַּדְלִיק נֵר אוֹ עֵץ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ מוֹלִיכוֹ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ:


When on the day prior to a holiday, a person [secures] a colleague's [consent] to lend him a utensil, [on the holiday, the holiday limits of] the utensil follow those of the borrower, even when [the owner] did not give him the utensil until [after the commencement of] the holiday.41

When a person borrows a utensil on the holiday, even if he always borrows this utensil from [its owner] on a holiday, [the holiday limits of the utensil] follow those of the owner.42


הַשּׁוֹאֵל כְּלִי מֵחֲבֵרוֹ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נְתָנוֹ לוֹ אֶלָּא בְּיוֹם טוֹב הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרַגְלֵי הַשּׁוֹאֵל. שְׁאָלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ תָּמִיד לִשְׁאל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלִי זֶה בְּכָל יוֹם טוֹב הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרַגְלֵי הַמַּשְׁאִיל:


When [before a holiday commences] two people both [arrange to] borrow the same cloak [from a person on the holiday], one [asks] to borrow it on the morning and the other [asks] to borrow it towards evening, [the holiday limits] of this [cloak] are dependent on those of both borrowers.43 They may not bring it to a place other than one to which they both may proceed.


שְׁנַיִם שֶׁשָּׁאֲלוּ חָלוּק אֶחָד הָאֶחָד שְׁאָלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁיִּתְּנוֹ לוֹ שַׁחֲרִית וְהַשֵּׁנִי שְׁאָלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁיִּתְּנוֹ לוֹ עַרְבִית הֲרֵי כְּלִי זֶה כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁנֵי הַשּׁוֹאֲלִים וְאֵינָם מוֹלִיכִים אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם יְכוֹלִין לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ:


What is implied? If the first established an eruv [t'chumim] that was one thousand cubits to the east of the cloak, and the other established an eruv that was five hundred cubits to the west of the cloak, when the first person takes the cloak he may move it no more than one thousand five hundred cubits to the east of the cloak's present location. For this is the end of the holiday limits to which the person who established his eruv to the west may proceed.

When the second person takes the cloak, he may move it no more than one thousand cubits to the west of the cloak's present location. For this is the end of the holiday limits to which the person who established his eruv to the east may proceed.

Based on the above, if one person established his eruv two thousand cubits to the east of the cloak and the other established his eruv two thousand cubits to the west [of the cloak], they may not move it from its place.44


כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁעֵרֵב הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּרִחוּק אֶלֶף אַמָּה מִמְּקוֹם הֶחָלוּק לְמִזְרָח וְעֵרֵב הַשֵּׁנִי בְּרִחוּק חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה מִמְּקוֹם הֶחָלוּק לַמַּעֲרָב. כְּשֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ הָרִאשׁוֹן הֶחָלוּק אֵינוֹ מוֹלִיכוֹ לַמִּזְרָח אֶלָּא עַד אֶלֶף אַמָּה וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה מִמְּקוֹם הֶחָלוּק שֶׁהוּא סוֹף הַתְּחוּם שֶׁיָּכוֹל זֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב בַּמַּעֲרָב לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ. וּכְשֶׁיִּקַּח הַשֵּׁנִי כְּלִי זֶה אֵינוֹ מוֹלִיכוֹ בַּמַּעֲרָב אֶלָּא עַד אֶלֶף אַמָּה מִמְּקוֹם הַכְּלִי שֶׁהוּא סוֹף הַתְּחוּם שֶׁיָּכוֹל זֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב בַּמִּזְרָח לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם עֵרֵב זֶה בְּרִחוּק אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה מִן הֶחָלוּק לַמִּזְרָח וְזֶה בְּרִחוּק אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לַמַּעֲרָב הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יְזִיזוּהוּ מִמְּקוֹמוֹ:


Similarly, when a woman borrows water or salt from a friend to use in the kneading of dough or in the preparation of food, [the holiday limits of] the dough or the food are dependent on those of both women.45

By the same token, if two people purchased an animal in partnership and slaughtered it on a holiday, [the holiday limits of] the meat are dependent on those of both [partners]. If, by contrast, they purchased a jug [of wine] in partnership, and divided it on the holiday, [the holiday limits of] each partner's portion follow those of [its owner].

[What is the difference between these two laws? In the latter instance,] since the [prohibition against going beyond the holiday] limits is Rabbinic in origin,46 the principle of b'reirah applies. Thus, it is considered as if the portion that is given to [either partner] were distinct and separated as his in the jug before the holiday; [i.e.,] it is as if [the two portions of wine] were not mixed with [the other].47

This cannot be said with regard to an animal. Even if the portion that was given to [either partner] were considered to be separated within the animal, and it is as if it were distinct [leniency cannot be shown in this instance]. For the portion derived nurture from the portion belonging to the other colleague while the animal was alive, since all of an animal's limbs derive nurture from each other. Thus, all the animal's limbs are considered as being intermingled with the portions belonging to both partners. Therefore, [the holiday limits of the animal] are dependent on both of them.48


וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁאֲלָה מֵחֲבֶרְתָּהּ מַיִם אוֹ מֶלַח וְלָשָׁה בָּהֶן עִסָּתָהּ אוֹ בִּשְּׁלָה בָּהֶן תַּבְשִׁיל הֲרֵי הָעִסָּה אוֹ הַתַּבְשִׁיל כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן. וְכֵן שְׁנַיִם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ בְּהֵמָה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת וְשָׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלָּקַח כָּל אֶחָד מְנָתוֹ הֲרֵי כָּל הַבָּשָׂר כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁנֵיהֶן. אֲבָל אִם לָקְחוּ חָבִית בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת וְחָלְקוּ אוֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הֲרֵי חֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל כָּל אֶחָד כְּרַגְלָיו. הוֹאִיל וּתְחוּמִין מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים יֵשׁ בְּרֵרָה בָּהֶן וְנַחְשֹׁב כְּאִלּוּ חֵלֶק שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לָזֶה הָיָה בָּרוּר לוֹ וּמֻבְדָּל בֶּחָבִית מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וּכְאִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה מְעֹרָב. וְאֵין אַתָּה יָכוֹל לוֹמַר כֵּן בִּבְהֵמָה שֶׁחֵלֶק זֶה שֶׁהִגִּיעוֹ אֲפִלּוּ נַחְשֹׁב אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מֻבְדָּל בִּבְהֵמָה מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וּכְאִלּוּ הָיָה בָּרוּר הֲרֵי יָנַק מֵחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה קַיֶּמֶת שֶׁכָּל אֵיבָרֶיהָ יוֹנְקִין זֶה מִזֶּה וְנִמְצָא כָּל אֵיבָר וְאֵיבָר מְעֹרָב מֵחֶלְקוֹ וְחֵלֶק חֲבֵרוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הֵן כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁנֵיהֶן: