1

When the inhabitants of a courtyard eat at the same table1 - even though they have their own individual dwellings - they are not required to establish an eruv; they are considered to be the inhabitants of a single household.

Just as the presence of a person's wife, the members of his household, or his servants does not cause him to be forbidden [to carry], nor does their presence make an eruv necessary, so too, these individuals are considered to be the members of a single household, for they all eat at the same table.2

א

אַנְּשֵׁי חָצֵר שֶׁהָיוּ כֻּלָּם אוֹכְלִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד יֵשׁ לוֹ בַּיִת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אֵין צְרִיכִין עֵרוּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּאַנְשֵׁי בַּיִת אֶחָד. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ וַעֲבָדָיו אוֹסְרִין עָלָיו וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְעָרֵב עִמָּהֶן כָּךְ אֵלּוּ כְּאַנְשֵׁי בַּיִת אֶחָד הֵן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כֻּלָּן סוֹמְכִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד:

2

Similarly, if [the inhabitants of this courtyard] must establish an eruv together with the inhabitants of another courtyard, they are required to bring only one loaf to the place where the eruv is established.3

Similarly, if the eruv is established in their [house], they do not have to contribute to the eruv, just as the house in which an eruv is placed does not have to contribute a loaf of bread. [The rationale for both these laws is] that all these dwellings are considered to be a single dwelling.

ב

וְכֵן אִם הֻצְרְכוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת עֵרוּב עִם אַנְשֵׁי חָצֵר אַחֶרֶת עֵרוּב אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן וּפַת אַחַת בִּלְבַד מוֹלִיכִין לְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין עִמּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה הָעֵרוּב בָּא אֶצְלָן אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב כְּמוֹ הַבַּיִת שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ הָעֵרוּב שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן אֶת הַפַּת שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ הַבָּתִּים כְּבַיִת אֶחָד הֵן חֲשׁוּבִין:

3

Similarly, the inhabitants of a courtyard who established an eruv together are considered to be [the members of] a single household.4 If it is necessary for them to establish an eruv together with the inhabitants of another courtyard, they are required to bring only one loaf to the place where the eruv is established. Similarly, if the eruv is established in their [house], they do not have to contribute a loaf of bread.

ג

וְכֵן אַנְשֵׁי חָצֵר שֶׁעֵרְבוּ נַעֲשׂוּ כֻּלָּן כְּבַיִת אֶחָד. וְאִם הֻצְרְכוּ לְעָרֵב עִם חָצֵר שְׁנִיָּה כִּכָּר אֶחָד בִּלְבַד הוּא שֶׁמּוֹלִיכִין עַל יְדֵי כֻּלָּן לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין בּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה הָעֵרוּב בָּא אֶצְלָן אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לִתֵּן פַּת:

4

When five people collect an eruv5 [for one courtyard] with the intent of bringing it to the place where an eruv will be established [together with the inhabitants of another courtyard],6 it is not necessary for all five to bring the bread there. Moreover, all th at is necessary is to bring a single loaf of bread. Since the eruv was collected, all [the inhabitants of the courtyard] are considered to be the members of a single household.

ד

חֲמִשָּׁה שֶׁגָּבוּ אֶת הָעֵרוּב לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ הָעֵרוּב כְּשֶׁהֵם מוֹלִיכִין אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְהוֹלִיךְ עַל יְדֵי חֲמִשְּׁתָּן אֶלָּא כִּכָּר אַחַת שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּבוּ כֻּלָּן נַעֲשׂוּ כְּאַנְשֵׁי בַּיִת אֶחָד:

5

When a father and his son, or a teacher and his student7are dwelling in the same courtyard, it is not necessary for them to establish an eruv; they are considered to be a single household. Although at times they eat at a single table and at times they do not eat [together], they are considered to be a single household.

ה

הָאָב וּבְנוֹ וְהָרַב וְתַלְמִידוֹ שֶׁהֵן שְׁרוּיִין בְּחָצֵר אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּבַיִת אֶחָד. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפְּעָמִים אוֹכְלִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד וּפְעָמִים אֵינָן אוֹכְלִין הֲרֵי הֵן כְּבַיִת אֶחָד:

6

[The following rules apply to] brothers, each of whom has a house of his own, and who do not eat at their father's table, and to wives and servants who do not eat at their husband's or master's table at all times, but rather they [occasionally] eat at his table in payment for the work they do for him,8 or as an expression of his favor for a specific amount of time, such as a person who enjoys a colleague's hospitality for a week or a month.9

If there are no other people dwelling together with them in the courtyard, they are not required to establish an eruv. If they establish an eruv with [the inhabitants of] another courtyard, a single eruv suffices for them. If the eruv is established in [one of] their [homes], they are not required to contribute a loaf of bread.

If there are other people living in the courtyard together with them, each of them is required to contribute a loaf of bread [for the eruv] like the other inhabitants of the courtyard. [The rationale is that] they do not eat at one table at all times.

ו

הָאַחִים שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶם לוֹ בַּיִת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ וְאֵינָן סוֹמְכִין עַל שֻׁלְחַן אֲבִיהֶן. וְכֵן הַנָּשִׁים אוֹ הָעֲבָדִים שֶׁאֵינָן סוֹמְכִין עַל שֻׁלְחַן בַּעֲלֵיהֶן אוֹ רַבָּן תָּמִיד אֲבָל אוֹכְלִין הֵם עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ בִּשְׂכַר מְלָאכָה שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לוֹ אוֹ בְּטוֹבָה יָמִים יְדוּעִין כְּמִי שֶׁסּוֹעֵד אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ שָׁבוּעַ אוֹ חֹדֶשׁ. אִם אֵין עִמָּהֶן דִּיּוּרִין אֲחֵרִים בֶּחָצֵר אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב. וְאִם עֵרְבוּ עִם חָצֵר אַחֶרֶת עֵרוּב אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן. וְאִם בָּא הָעֵרוּב אֶצְלָן אֵין נוֹתְנִין פַּת. וְאִם הָיוּ דִּיּוּרִין עִמָּהֶן בֶּחָצֵר צְרִיכִין פַּת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד כִּשְׁאָר אַנְשֵׁי הֶחָצֵר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן סוֹמְכִין עַל שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד תָּמִיד:

7

[The following rules apply when] five groups spend the Sabbath together in a single large hall: If a partition that reaches the ceiling10 separates each of the groups [from the others], it is as if each group has a room of its own, or is in a loft of its own. In such an instance, every group must contribute a loaf of bread. If, however, the partition does not reach the ceiling, a single loaf11of bread is sufficient for all of them. For they are all considered to be the members of a single household.

ז

חָמֵשׁ חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בִּטְרַקְלִין אֶחָד. אִם הָיָה מַפְסִיק בֵּין כָּל חֲבוּרָה וַחֲבוּרָה מְחִצָּה הַמַּגַּעַת לַתִּקְרָה הֲרֵי כָּל חֲבוּרָה מֵהֶן כְּאִלּוּ הִיא בְּחֶדֶר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אוֹ בַּעֲלִיָּה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ לְפִיכָךְ צְרִיכִין פַּת מִכָּל חֲבוּרָה. וְאִם אֵין הַמְּחִצּוֹת מַגִּיעוֹת לַתִּקְרָה כִּכָּר אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן שֶׁכֻּלָּן כְּאַנְשֵׁי בַּיִת אֶחָד חֲשׁוּבִין:

8

When a person owns one [of the following] structures12 - a gatehouse that people frequently walk through, an exedra,13a porch, a barn, a shed for straw, a shed for wood, or a storehouse - in a courtyard belonging to a colleague, he does not cause [his colleague] to be forbidden to carry. [Our Sages decreed that the presence of a person causes carrying] to be forbidden unless an eruv is established, only when the person possesses a dwelling in the courtyard in which he will [ordinarily] eat [a meal of] bread. The [possession of a] place to sleep, by contrast, does not cause carrying to be forbidden.

For this reason, even if a person decided to eat his meals consistently in a gatehouse or an exedra, his presence does not cause carrying to be forbidden, because this is not considered a dwelling.14

ח

מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בַּחֲצַר חֲבֵרוֹ בֵּית שַׁעַר שֶׁרַבִּים דּוֹרְסִין בּוֹ אוֹ אַכְסַדְרָה אוֹ מִרְפֶּסֶת אוֹ בֵּית הַבָּקָר אוֹ בֵּית הַתֶּבֶן אוֹ בֵּית הָעֵצִים אוֹ אוֹצָר הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עָלָיו עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ עִמּוֹ בֶּחָצֵר מְקוֹם דִּירָה שֶׁהוּא סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לֶאֱכל בּוֹ פִּתּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִהְיֶה אוֹסֵר עָלָיו עַד שֶׁיְּעָרֵב עִמּוֹ. אֲבָל מְקוֹם לִינָה אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם קָבַע לוֹ מָקוֹם לֶאֱכל בּוֹ בְּבֵית שַׁעַר אוֹ בְּאַכְסַדְרָה וּמִרְפֶּסֶת אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עָלָיו לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקוֹם דִּירָה:

9

[The following rules apply when] there are ten dwellings, one within the other:15 [The inhabitants of] the innermost dwelling and the one before it are required to provide the eruv. The eight outer dwellings, by contrast, are not required to contribute to the eruv. [The rationale is that] since many people walk through them, they are regarded as a gatehouse. [As mentioned above,] a person who lives in a gatehouse [does not cause others to be forbidden to carry].16

[The person living in] the ninth [house] does not have many people passing through his property - only one. Therefore, his presence causes [carrying] to be forbidden unless he contributes to the eruv.

ט

עֲשָׂרָה בָּתִּים זֶה לִפְנִים מִזֶּה הַבַּיִת הַפְּנִימִי וְהַשֵּׁנִי לוֹ הֵם שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין אֶת הָעֵרוּב וְהַשְּׁמוֹנָה בָּתִּים הַחִיצוֹנִים אֵינָן נוֹתְנִין אֶת הָעֵרוּב הוֹאִיל וְרַבִּים דּוֹרְסִין בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הֵן כְּבֵית שַׁעַר וְהַדָּר בְּבֵית שַׁעַר אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר. אֲבָל הַתְּשִׁיעִי אֵין דּוֹרְסִין בּוֹ רַבִּים אֶלָּא יָחִיד לְפִיכָךְ אוֹסֵר עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן עֵרוּבוֹ:

10

[The following rulings apply in the situation to be described:] There are two courtyards [each containing several houses] and three houses [in between them]. The houses have entrances to each other, and [the outer two houses]17 have entrances to the courtyards.

The inhabitants of one courtyard brought their eruv through the house that had an entrance for them and placed it in the middle house. Similarly, the inhabitants of the other courtyard brought their eruv through the house that had an entrance for them and placed it in the middle house.

[The inhabitants of] these three houses do not have to contribute a loaf of bread [to the eruv [for the following reasons]: The middle house is the house in which the eruv was placed. The two houses on its side are each considered to be a gatehouse for the inhabitants of the courtyard.

י

שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת וּבֵינֵיהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה בָּתִּים פְּתוּחִים זֶה לָזֶה וּפְתוּחִים לַחֲצֵרוֹת וְהֵבִיאוּ בְּנֵי חָצֵר זוֹ עֵרוּבָן דֶּרֶךְ הַבַּיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לָהֶן וְהִנִּיחוּהוּ בְּבַיִת אֶמְצָעִי. וְכֵן הֵבִיאוּ בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר הָאַחֵר עֵרוּבָן דֶּרֶךְ הַפָּתוּחַ לָהֶן וְהִנִּיחוּהוּ בַּבַּיִת הָאֶמְצָעִי. אוֹתָן הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה בָּתִּים אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לִתֵּן אֶת הַפַּת. הָאֶמְצָעִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִנִּיחוּ בּוֹ הָעֵרוּב וְהַשְּׁנַיִם שֶׁמִּצְּדָדָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן בֵּית שַׁעַר לְאַנְשֵׁי חָצֵר:

11

[Different rules apply, however, if the situation changes. For example,] there are two courtyards [each containing several houses] and two houses [in between them] with entrances to each other. [The inhabitants of one courtyard] bring their eruv through the house that is open to them and place it in the second house, which is adjacent to the other courtyard.

[The inhabitants of the other courtyard also] bring their eruv through the entrance that is open to them and place it in the other house [which is adjacent to the other courtyard]. In such a situation, [the inhabitants of] neither [of the courtyards are considered to have] established an eruv. For each of them has placed his eruv in the gatehouse of another courtyard.18

יא

שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת וּשְׁנֵי בָּתִּים פְּתוּחִין זֶה לָזֶה בֵּינֵיהֶן וְהֵבִיאוּ אֵלּוּ עֵרוּבָן דֶּרֶךְ הַבַּיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לָהֶן וְהִנִּיחוּהוּ בַּבַּיִת הַשֵּׁנִי הַסָּמוּךְ לֶחָצֵר הָאַחֶרֶת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֵלּוּ עֵרוּבָן דֶּרֶךְ הַפֶּתַח הַסָּמוּךְ לָהֶן וְהִנִּיחוּהוּ בַּבַּיִת הָאַחֵר. שְׁתֵּיהֶן לֹא קָנוּ עֵרוּב. שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּבֵית שַׁעַר שֶׁל חָצֵר אַחֶרֶת:

12

Although one of the inhabitants of a courtyard is in the midst of his death throes,19 even when [it is obvious] that he will not survive the day, his presence causes the other inhabitants of the courtyard to be forbidden [to carry] until they grant him [by proxy]20 a share in a loaf of bread and include him in the eruv.

Similarly, when a minor [owns a house in the courtyard], although he is incapable of eating an amount of food the size of an olive, his presence causes [carrying] to be forbidden until [the inhabitants of the courtyard] include him in the eruv. [The presence of] a guest, by contrast, does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden, as explained above.21

יב

אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁהָיָה גּוֹסֵס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִחְיוֹת בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹסֵר עַל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר עַד שֶׁיְּזַכּוּ לוֹ בְּפַת וִיעָרְבוּ עָלָיו. וְכֵן קָטָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכל כַּזַּיִת הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹסֵר עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ עָלָיו. אֲבָל הָאוֹרֵחַ אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר לְעוֹלָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

13

[The following rules apply when] one of the inhabitants of a courtyard leaves his home and spends the Sabbath in another courtyard, even in a courtyard adjacent [to the one in which his home is located]: If he had no thought of returning to his home on the Sabbath, he does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden.22

When does the above apply? With regard to a Jew.23 With regard to a gentile, by contrast, he causes [carrying] to be forbidden even when he spends the Sabbath in another city,24 unless his domain is rented from him. [The rationale is] that it is possible for him to return on the Sabbath.

יג

אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חָצֵר שֶׁהִנִּיחַ בֵּיתוֹ וְהָלַךְ וְשָׁבַת בְּחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה סְמוּכָה לַחֲצֵרוֹ. אִם הִסִּיעַ מִלִּבּוֹ וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶן. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים אֲפִלּוּ הָלַךְ לִשְׁבֹּת בְּעִיר אַחֶרֶת אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶן עַד שֶׁיִּשְׂכְּרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיָּבוֹא בְּשַׁבָּת:

14

When the owner of a courtyard rents houses in the courtyard to others and [stipulates that] he may [continue] to leave articles or types of merchandise in each of these homes, [the presence of the renters] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden. Since he still has authority in each of the houses, everyone is considered to be his guest.25

When does the above apply? When he left an article that may not be carried26 on the Sabbath - e.g., tevel27 or slabs of metal,28 in these homes. When, by contrast, he leaves articles that may be carried in each of the homes, [the presence of the renters] causes [carrying] to be forbidden unless they establish an eruv. For it is possible that he will remove them [on the Sabbath], and then he will be left without any authority [in these dwellings].

יד

בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר שֶׁהִשְׂכִּיר מִבָּתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים וְהִנִּיחַ לוֹ כֵּלִים אוֹ מִינֵי סְחוֹרָה בְּכָל בַּיִת וּבַיִת מֵהֶן אֵינָן אוֹסְרִין עָלָיו הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ לוֹ תְּפִיסַת יָד בְּכָל בַּיִת מֵהֶן נַעֲשׂוּ הַכּל כְּאוֹרְחִין אֶצְלוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהִנִּיחַ שָׁם דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּגוֹן טֶבֶל וַעֲשָׁשִׁיּוֹת. אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁאַר לוֹ בְּכָל בַּיִת מֵהֶן כֵּלִים שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן הוֹאִיל וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיּוֹצִיאֵם הַיּוֹם וְלֹא יִשָּׁאֵר לוֹ שָׁם תְּפִיסַת יָד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אוֹסְרִין עָלָיו עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ:

15

[The following rules apply when] the inhabitants of a courtyard forgot and did not establish an eruv. They may not remove articles from their homes to the courtyard, nor from the courtyard to their homes. However, concerning articles that were left in the courtyard at the commencement of the Sabbath:29 [the inhabitants] may carry such articles throughout the courtyard and all its extensions.30

[The following rules apply when] there is a porch31 or an upper storey [that opens out to a courtyard],32 and the inhabitants of the courtyard have established an eruv for themselves and the inhabitants of the porch have established an eruv for themselves:33 Regarding articles that were left in their homes at the beginning of the Sabbath, the inhabitants of the porch or the upper storey are permitted to carry them throughout the porch and all of its extensions or throughout the upper storey and all of its extensions. The inhabitants of the courtyard may carry within the courtyard and all its extensions, [but they are forbidden to carry from the courtyard to the upper storey or the porch, or from the upper storey or the porch to the courtyard unless an eruv is established].

Similarly, if one person lives in the courtyard, and another person lives in the upper storey, and they forgot to establish an eruv, the owner of the upper storey may carry within the upper storey and all of its extensions, and the owner of the courtyard may carry within the courtyard and all of its extensions. [They may not, however, carry from one domain to the other without an eruv].

טו

אַנְשֵׁי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁשָּׁכְחוּ וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ אֵין מוֹצִיאִים מִבָּתִּים לְחָצֵר וְלֹא מֵחָצֵר לְבָתִּים אֲבָל מְטַלְטְלִין הֵן כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בֶּחָצֵר בְּכָל הֶחָצֵר וּבְכָל הַנֶּחְשָׁב עִם הֶחָצֵר. וְאִם הָיְתָה שָׁם מִרְפֶּסֶת אוֹ עֲלִיָּה וְעֵרְבוּ אַנְשֵׁי הֶחָצֵר לְעַצְמָן וְאַנְשֵׁי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת לְעַצְמָן. אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת אוֹ אַנְשֵׁי הָעֲלִיָּה מְטַלְטְלִין כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּבָתֵּיהֶן בְּכָל הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת וּבְכָל הַנֶּחְשָׁב עִמָּהּ אוֹ בְּכָל רֹחַב הָעֲלִיָּה וּבְכָל הַנֶּחְשָׁב עִמָּהּ. וְאַנְשֵׁי הֶחָצֵר מְטַלְטְלִין בְּכָל הֶחָצֵר וּבְכָל הַנֶּחְשָׁב עִמָּהּ. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה יָחִיד דָּר בְּחָצֵר וְיָחִיד דָּר בַּעֲלִיָּה וְשָׁכְחוּ וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ. זֶה מְטַלְטֵל בְּכָל הָעֲלִיָּה וְהַנֶּחְשָׁב עִמָּהּ וְזֶה מְטַלְטֵל בְּכָל הֶחָצֵר וְהַנֶּחְשָׁב עִמָּהּ:

16

What is implied? When there is a rock or a mound within the courtyard that is less than ten handbreadths high, it is considered to be [important to] both the courtyard and the porch, and [the inhabitants of] both are forbidden to bring articles there from their homes.

If [the rock or the mound] is ten handbreadths high and is less than four handbreadths removed from the porch, it is considered to be an extension of the porch, for they are of similar [height]. Therefore, the inhabitants of the porch may carry on it.

If it is four or more handbreadths removed from the porch, even when it is ten [handbreadths high] it is considered to be an extension of both the courtyard and the porch, since both can use it by throwing [objects onto it]. Therefore, [the inhabitants of] both are forbidden to bring articles there from their homes until they establish an eruv.

When there is a pillar four [or more] handbreadths wide in front of the porch [it is considered to be a divider]. [Therefore, the presence of] the porch does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden within the courtyard, for a separation has been made between [one domain and the other].

טז

כֵּיצַד. הַסֶּלַע אוֹ תֵּל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הֶחָצֵר אִם אֵינָן גְּבוֹהִין עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶחְשָׁבִין בֵּין הֶחָצֵר וּבֵין הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת וּשְׁנֵיהֶן אֲסוּרִין לְהוֹצִיא שָׁם כֵּלִים שֶׁבַּבָּתִּים. וְאִם גְּבוֹהִין עֲשָׂרָה וְהָיָה בֵּינֵיהֶן וּבֵין הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶחְשָׁבִין עִם הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן שָׁוִין לָהּ וּבְנֵי מִרְפֶּסֶת מֻתָּרִין בָּהֶם. וְאִם הָיוּ רְחוֹקִין מִן הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים אוֹ יֶתֶר עַל כֵּן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגְּבוֹהִין עֲשָׂרָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בִּכְלַל הֶחָצֵר וְהַמִּרְפֶּסֶת לְפִי שֶּׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן אֶפְשָׁר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי זְרִיקָה. לְפִיכָךְ שְׁנֵיהֶן אֲסוּרִין לְהוֹצִיא לְשָׁם כְּלֵי הַבָּתִּים עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ. הָיְתָה מַצֵּבָה רְחָבָה אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת אֵין הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת אוֹסֶרֶת עַל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶחְלְקָה מֵהֶן:

17

When projections protrude from the walls [of the courtyard], all those that are below ten handbreadths high are considered to be extensions of the courtyard, and may be used by the inhabitants of the courtyard. All those that are within ten handbreadths of the upper storey may be used by the inhabitants of the upper storey.

The remainder, those that are located more than ten handbreadths above the ground and more than ten handbreadths below the upper storey, are forbidden to them both. Neither may use them for articles from the homes unless an eruv is established.

יז

זִיזִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מִן הַכְּתָלִים. כָּל שֶׁהוּא לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי זֶה נֶחְשָׁב מִן הֶחָצֵר וּבְנֵי הֶחָצֵר מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ. וְכָל שֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הַסְּמוּכִין לַעֲלִיָּה. אַנְשֵׁי עֲלִיָּה מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בֵּין עֲשָׂרָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים עַד תְּחִלַּת עֲשָׂרָה הָעֶלְיוֹנִים מִן הַזִּיזִין הַיּוֹצְאִין שָׁם שְׁנֵיהֶן אֲסוּרִין בּוֹ וְאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בָּהֶן בַּכֵּלִים שֶׁבַּבָּתִּים אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עֵרְבוּ:

18

[The following rules apply to] a cistern located in [such] a courtyard: If it is filled with produce that was tevel - and hence is forbidden to be carried on the Sabbath - or with objects of a similar kind, it and the enclosure around it,34 are regarded like a rock or a mound in a courtyard.35 If [the enclosure] is ten handbreadths high and close to the porch, it is considered to be an extension of the porch.

If, by contrast, it is filled with water,36 neither the inhabitants of the courtyard nor the inhabitants of the porch may bring [water] to their homes from it unless they establish an eruv.

יח

בּוֹר שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר אִם הָיָה מָלֵא פֵּרוֹת טְבָלִים שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן בְּשַׁבָּת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי הוּא וְחֻלְיָתוֹ כְּסֶלַע אוֹ תֵּל שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר. אִם הָיָה גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְהָיָה סָמוּךְ לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת הֲרֵי הוּא נֶחְשָׁב עִם הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מָלֵא מַיִם אֵין בְּנֵי חָצֵר וְלֹא בְּנֵי מִרְפֶּסֶת מַכְנִיסִין מִמֶּנּוּ לַבָּתִּים עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ:

19

[The following rules apply when] there are two courtyards, one lying behind the other, and the inhabitants of the inner courtyard enter and exit by passing through the outer courtyard: When [the inhabitants of] the inner courtyard have established an eruv, but [the inhabitants of] the outer courtyard have not, [the inhabitants of] the inner courtyard may carry [within their domain], but [the inhabitants of] the outer courtyard may not.37

When [the inhabitants of] the outer courtyard have established an eruv, but [the inhabitants of] the inner courtyard have not, [the inhabitants of] both are forbidden to carry; [the inhabitants of] the inner courtyard because they did not establish an eruv, and the inhabitants of the outer courtyard because the people who pass through [their domain] did not establish an eruv [even within their own domain].38

If [the inhabitants of] both domains have established separate eruvin,39 they may each carry within their own domain; they may not carry from one [domain] to the other.

יט

שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ וְאַנְשֵׁי הַפְּנִימִית יוֹצְאִין וְנִכְנָסִין וְעוֹבְרִין עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה. עֵרְבָה הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרְבָה הַחִיצוֹנָה הַפְּנִימִית מֻתֶּרֶת וְהַחִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה. עֵרְבָה הַחִיצוֹנָה וְלֹא עֵרְבָה הַפְּנִימִית שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת. הַפְּנִימִית מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבָה וְהַחִיצוֹנָה מִפְּנֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ שֶׁעוֹבְרִין עֲלֵיהֶן. עֵרְבוּ זוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ וְזוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ וְזוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ אֲבָל אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ:

20

[If the inhabitants of both domains have established separate eruvin,] but one of the inhabitants of the outer courtyard forgot to join in the eruv [in his domain], the inhabitants of the inner courtyard are still permitted to carry.40

When, by contrast, one of the inhabitants of the inner courtyard forgot to join in the eruv [in his domain], [not only are the inhabitants of the inner courtyard forbidden to carry, the inhabitants of] the outer courtyard are also forbidden to do so. [This restriction is instituted] because the inhabitants of the inner courtyard whose eruv is not acceptable pass through their [domain].

כ

שָׁכַח אֶחָד מִן הַחִיצוֹנָה וְלֹא עֵרֵב הַפְּנִימִית בְּהֶתֵּרָהּ עוֹמֶדֶת. שָׁכַח אֶחָד מִן בְּנֵי הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרֵב עִמָּהֶן אַף הַחִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה מִפְּנֵי אֵלּוּ בְּנֵי הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁלֹּא עָלָה לָהֶן עֵרוּב שֶׁהֵן עוֹבְרִין עֲלֵיהֶן:

21

[The following rules apply when] both courtyards establish a single eruv: If the eruv is placed in the outer courtyard, and one of the inhabitants - whether an inhabitant of the outer courtyard or of the inner courtyard - forgets to join in the eruv, [all] the inhabitants of both courtyards are forbidden [to carry]41 unless he subordinates [the ownership of] his domain to them. [This is possible for, as we explained,42 one may subordinate the ownership of a domain in one courtyard to [people dwelling in] another.

[Different rules apply when] the eruv is placed in the inner courtyard: If one of the inhabitants of the outer courtyard did not join in the eruv, [the inhabitants of] the outer courtyard are forbidden to carry. [The inhabitants of] the inner courtyard, by contrast, are permitted to carry within their own [domain].43 If one of the inhabitants of the inner courtyard did not join in the eruv, [all the inhabitants of] both [courtyards] are forbidden [to carry]44 unless he subordinates [the ownership of] his domain to them.

כא

עָשׂוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן עֵרוּב אֶחָד אִם הִנִּיחוּהוּ בַּחִיצוֹנָה וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְלֹא עֵרֵב בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִבְּנֵי הַחִיצוֹנָה בֵּין מִבְּנֵי הַפְּנִימִית שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת עַד שֶׁיְּבַטֵּל לָהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁמְּבַטְּלִין מֵחָצֵר לֶחָצֵר. וְאִם הִנִּיחוּ עֵרוּבָן בַּפְּנִימִית וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הַחִיצוֹנָה וְלֹא עֵרֵב הַחִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה וּפְנִימִית מֻתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ. שָׁכַח אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרֵב שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת עַד שֶׁיְּבַטֵּל לָהֶן:

22

If [only] one person45 was dwelling in one [of these] courtyards and [only] one person was dwelling in the other, there is no need for them to establish an eruv;46 each one is permitted to carry in his courtyard.

If, however, a gentile dwells in the inner courtyard, even though he is merely a single [household], he is considered as many individuals, and [his presence] causes [the inhabitants of] the outer courtyard to be forbidden to carry until his domain is rented.47

כב

הָיָה אֶחָד דָּר בֶּחָצֵר זוֹ וְאֶחָד דָּר בֶּחָצֵר זוֹ אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב אֶלָּא כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל חֲצֵרוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים וּמַזָּלוֹת בַּפְּנִימִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אֶחָד הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרַבִּים וְאוֹסֵר עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה עַד שֶׁיִּשְׂכְּרוּ מְקוֹמוֹ:

23

[The following laws apply when there are] three courtyards with entrances to each other, and there are many people dwelling in each courtyard: When [the inhabitants of] the two outer courtyards have established an eruv together with [the inhabitants of] the inner courtyard,48 [the inhabitants of] the inner courtyard are permitted to carry within the outer courtyards, and [the inhabitants of] the outer courtyards are permitted to carry within the inner courtyard, but the inhabitants of the two outer courtyards may not carry in the other outer courtyard unless all three join in a single eruv.

If a single individual dwells in each courtyard, there is no need for them to establish an eruv, although many individuals pass through the outer courtyard.49 [The rationale is that] each of these individuals is permitted to carry in his own domain. If, however, there are two individuals living in the inner courtyard [different rules apply]. Since [these individuals] are forbidden to carry in their own domain until they establish an eruv, they cause the single individuals in the middle and in the outer domains to be forbidden [to carry] unless the two inhabitants of the inner domain establish an eruv.

This is the governing principle: When a person who is forbidden to carry in his own domain passes through another domain, his passage causes carrying to be forbidden there. When, by contrast, the person may carry in his own domain, his passage through another domain does not cause carrying to be forbidden there.

כג

שָׁלֹשׁ חֲצֵרוֹת הַפְּתוּחוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ וְרַבִּים בְּכָל חָצֵר מֵהֶן. עֵרְבוּ שְׁתַּיִם הַחִיצוֹנוֹת עִם הָאֶמְצָעִית הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת עִמָּהֶן וְהֵן מֻתָּרוֹת עִמָּהּ וּשְׁתַּיִם הַחִיצוֹנוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עֵרוּב אֶחָד. הָיָה בְּכָל חָצֵר מֵהֶן אֶחָד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרַבִּים דּוֹרְסִין בַּחִיצוֹנָה אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן מֻתָּר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם בַּפְּנִימִית הוֹאִיל וְהֵן אֲסוּרִין בִּמְקוֹמָן עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ הֲרֵי הֵן אוֹסְרִין עַל הַיְחִידִים שֶׁבָּאֶמְצָעִית וְשֶׁבַּחִיצוֹנָה עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ שְׁנַיִם שֶׁבַּפְּנִימִית. זֶה הַכְּלָל רֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹמָהּ וְרֶגֶל הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹמָהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעוֹבֶרֶת עֲלֵיהֶן:

24

[The following rules apply when] there are two balconies positioned over a body of water, and one is positioned above the other: Although [the inhabitants of] each of them have constructed a partition ten handbreadths high descending [to the water],50 if the two balconies are within ten handbreadths of each other,51 it is forbidden for [their inhabitants] to draw water unless they establish a single eruv. [The rationale is that, because of their closeness] they are considered to be a single balcony.52

If the distance between the upper balcony and the lower balcony is more than ten handbreadths, and [the inhabitants of] each have established separate eruvin, they are both permitted to draw [water].

כד

שְׁתֵּי כְּצוֹצְטְרִיּוֹת זוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ שֶׁהֵן לְמַעְלָה מִן הַמַּיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשְׂתָה כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן מְחִצָּה גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים יוֹרֶדֶת מִכָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת. אִם הָיוּ שְׁתֵּי הַכְּצוֹצְטְרִיּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין לְמַלְּאוֹת עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן עֵרוּב אֶחָד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כִּכְצוֹצְטְרָא אַחַת. וְאִם הָיָה בֵּין הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנָה יוֹתֵר עַל עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וְעֵרְבָה זוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ וְזוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן מֻתָּרוֹת לְמַלְּאוֹת:

25

If [the inhabitants of] the upper [balcony] did not make a partition, but the inhabitants of the lower [balcony] did, even [the inhabitants of] the lower balcony are forbidden to draw [water]. [The rationale is that] the buckets of the upper [balcony], which are forbidden, pass through their domain.53

If [the inhabitants of] the upper [balcony] have made a partition, but [the inhabitants of] the lower [balcony] have not, [the inhabitants of] the upper balcony are permitted to draw water,54 but [the inhabitants of] the lower balcony are forbidden.55

If the inhabitants of the lower [balcony] joined together with [the inhabitants of] the upper [balcony] in the construction of the partition, [the inhabitants of] both are forbidden to draw water56 until they establish a single eruv.

כה

לֹא עָשְׂתָה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה מְחִצָּה וְעָשְׂתָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה אַף הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה לְמַלְּאוֹת מִפְּנֵי דְּלִי שֶׁל בְּנֵי הָעֶלְיוֹנָה שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין שֶׁעוֹבֵר עָלֶיהָ. עָשְׂתָה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה מְחִצָּה וְלֹא עָשְׂתָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה מֻתֶּרֶת לְמַלְּאוֹת וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בְּנֵי הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה עִם בְּנֵי הָעֶלְיוֹנָה בַּמְּחִצָּה שֶׁעָשׂוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת לְמַלְּאוֹת עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ עֵרוּב אֶחָד:

26

[The following rules apply to a building] with three storeys, one above the other; the upper and the lower storeys belong to one individual, and the middle storey belongs to another: One may not lower articles from the top storey to the bottom storey through the middle storey.57 For we may not pass articles from one domain to another domain via a third domain. One may, however, lower articles from the top [storey] to the lower [storey] [if] they do not [pass] through the middle [storey].58

כו

שָׁלֹשׁ דִּיאֲטוֹת זוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִזּוֹ עֶלְיוֹנָה וְתַחְתּוֹנָה שֶׁל אֶחָד וְאֶמְצָעִית שֶׁל אֶחָד לֹא יְשַׁלְשֵׁל מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנָה לַתַּחְתּוֹנָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶמְצָעִית שֶׁאֵין מְשַׁלְשְׁלִין מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת אַחֵר. אֲבָל מְשַׁלְשֵׁל הוּא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנָה לְהַתַּחְתּוֹנָה שֶׁלֹּא דֶּרֶךְ אֶמְצָעִית:

27

[The following rules apply when] two buildings face each other and there is a courtyard below them into which water is poured.59 They should not pour water into the courtyard unless they join together in a single eruv.

If [the inhabitants of one building]60 dig a pit in the courtyard into which to pour water, while [the inhabitants of the other building] do not, those who dig the pit may pour water into it. The others are forbidden to pour water into the courtyard unless they join together in a single eruv.

If [the inhabitants of both buildings] each dig a pit, each may pour water into the pit they have dug, even though they did not establish an eruv.

כז

שְׁתֵּי דִּיאֲטוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ וְחָצֵר אַחַת תַּחְתֵּיהֶן שֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִין לְתוֹכָהּ הַמַּיִם לֹא יִשְׁפְּכוּ לְתוֹכָהּ עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן עֵרוּב אֶחָד. עָשׂוּ מִקְצָתָן עוּקָה בֶּחָצֵר לִשְׁפֹּךְ בָּהּ הַמַּיִם וּמִקְצָתָן לֹא עָשׂוּ. אֵלּוּ שֶׁעָשׂוּ שׁוֹפְכִים לָעוּקָה שֶׁלָּהֶן וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא עָשׂוּ לֹא יִשְׁפְּכוּ לַחֲצֵר עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ. וְאִם עָשׂוּ אֵלּוּ עוּקָה וְאֵלּוּ עוּקָה כָּל אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן שׁוֹפֶכֶת לָעוּקָה שֶׁלָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ: