We may not go out [wearing] any weaponry on the Sabbath.1 [The following rules apply should one] go out [wearing weaponry]: If they are objects that are worn as garments - e.g., a coat of mail, a helmet, or iron boots2 - one is not liable. If, however, one goes out [carrying]3 articles that are not worn as garments - e.g., a spear, a sword, a bow, a round shield4 or a triangular shield - he is liable.5


כָּל כְּלֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה אין יוֹצְאִין בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת. וְאִם יָצָא אִם הָיוּ כֵּלִים שֶׁהֵן דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ כְּגוֹן שִׁרְיוֹן וְכוֹבַע וּמַגָּפַיִם שֶׁעַל הָרַגְלַיִם הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. וְאִם יָצָא בְּכֵלִים שֶׁאֵינָן דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ כְּגוֹן רֹמַח וְסַיִף וְקֶשֶׁת וְאַלָּה וּתְרִיס הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב:


We may not go out wearing a sandal studded with nails to fasten it.6 Even on festivals, the Sages decreed that we should not go out wearing [such sandals].7

It is permitted to go out wearing a belt with pieces of gold and silver imbedded into it as kings wear, for this is a piece of jewelry, and it is permitted [to wear] all jewelry. [This license is granted] provided [the belt] does not hang loosely, lest it fall in the public domain and one go and bring it.8


אֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּסַנְדָּל מְסֻמָּר שֶׁסְּמָרוֹ לְחַזְּקוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא בּוֹ. וּמֻתָּר לָצֵאת בְּאַבְנֵט שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו חֲתִיכוֹת קְבוּעוֹת שֶׁל כֶּסֶף וְשֶׁל זָהָב כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַמְּלָכִים עוֹשִׂין. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט וְכָל שֶׁהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט מֻתָּר. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא רָפוּי שֶׁמָּא יִפּל בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְיָבוֹא לַהֲבִיאוֹ:


A ring that has a seal9 is considered to be a piece of jewelry for a man, but not for a woman. A ring without a seal, by contrast, is considered to be a piece of jewelry for a woman,10 but not for a man. Accordingly, a woman who goes out wearing a ring that has a seal and a man who goes out wearing a ring without a seal are liable.11

Why are they liable? They did not transfer them in an ordinary manner12 - i.e., it is not an ordinary practice for a man to wear a ring on his finger that is not appropriate for him, nor for a woman to wear a ring on her finger that is not appropriate for her. [Nevertheless,] there are times when a man gives his ring to his wife to hide at home and she places it on her finger while she is walking. Similarly, there are times when a woman gives her ring to her husband to take to a jeweler to fix, and he places it on his finger while he is walking to the jeweler's store. Therefore, [although the rings are not appropriate for the individuals mentioned above, because they do occasionally wear such rings,] they are considered to have transferred them in an ordinary manner. Accordingly, they are liable.


טַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאִישׁ הִיא וְאֵינָהּ מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאִשָּׁה. וְשֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי אִשָּׁה וְאֵינָהּ מִתַּכְשִׁיטֵי הָאִישׁ. לְפִיכָךְ אִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצָאת בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם. וְאִישׁ שֶׁיָּצָא בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם חַיָּבִין. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הֵן חַיָּבִין וַהֲרֵי הוֹצִיאוּ אוֹתָן שֶׁלֹּא כְּדֶרֶךְ הַמּוֹצִיאִין שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ הָאִישׁ לְהוֹצִיא בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ אֶלָּא טַבַּעַת הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה אֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לְהוֹצִיא בְּאֶצְבָּעָהּ אֶלָּא טַבַּעַת הָרְאוּיָה לָהּ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁפְּעָמִים נוֹתֵן הָאִישׁ טַבַּעְתּוֹ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ לְהַצְנִיעָהּ בַּבַּיִת וּמַנַּחַת אוֹתָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעָהּ בְּעֵת הוֹלָכָה. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה נוֹתֶנֶת טַבַּעְתָּהּ לְבַעְלָהּ לְתַקְּנָהּ אֵצֶל הָאֻמָּן וּמַנִּיחַ אוֹתָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ בְּעֵת הוֹלָכָה עַד חֲנוּת הָאֻמָּן וְנִמְצְאוּ שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ אוֹתָן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהוֹצִיאָן וּלְפִיכָךְ חַיָּבִין:


Although a ring that does not have a seal is considered to be a piece of jewelry for a woman, a woman should not go out wearing such a ring, lest she take it off in the public domain and show it to her friends, as women often do.13 If, however, she went out wearing such a ring, she is not liable.14

A man, by contrast, may go out wearing a ring that has a seal, for it is considered to be a piece of jewelry for him and it is not usual practice for a man to show off [his jewelry to others].15 It has, [nevertheless,] become accepted practice for people to go out without wearing any rings at all.


לֹא תֵּצֵא אִשָּׁה בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִתַּכְשִׁיטֶיהָ גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תּוֹצִיאָהּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְהַרְאוֹת לְחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים עוֹשׂוֹת תָּמִיד. וְאִם יָצָאת בָּהּ פְּטוּרָה. אֲבָל הָאִישׁ מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט וְאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהֵרָאוֹת. וְנָהֲגוּ כָּל הָעָם שֶׁלֹּא יֵצְאוּ בְּטַבַּעַת כְּלָל:


A woman who goes out [wearing] a pin with an eye is liable,16 while a man is not liable.17 A man who goes out [wearing] a pin without an eye is liable,18 while a woman is not liable, for this is considered to be a piece of jewelry for her.19 She is prohibited against wearing it only because of a decree lest she [take it off and] show it to her friends.

The [following] general principles apply: Whenever a person goes out wearing an item that is not considered to be jewelry for him, and it is not [worn as] a garment, he is liable if he transfers it in an ordinary manner.

Whenever a man goes out wearing a piece of jewelry that hangs loosely and could easily fall and thus cause him to bring it through the public domain, and similarly, whenever a woman goes out wearing a piece of jewelry that she is likely to take off and show [to her friends], they are not liable.

Whenever an adornment that is not likely to fall, nor is it likely to be shown to others, [a woman] is permitted to go out [wearing] it. Therefore, she may go out [wearing] a bracelet that is placed on the forearm or [a garter that is placed on] the thigh if it clings tightly to the flesh and will not slip off.20 These rules apply in other similar situations.


אִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצְאָה בְּמַחַט נְקוּבָה חַיֶּבֶת וְהָאִישׁ פָּטוּר. וְאִישׁ שֶׁיָּצָא בְּמַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה חַיָּב וְהָאִשָּׁה פְּטוּרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מִתַּכְשִׁיטֶיהָ וְאֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תַּרְאֶה לְחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל הַיּוֹצֵא בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתַּכְשִׁיטָיו וְאֵינוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמּוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר חַיָּב. וְכָל הַיּוֹצֵא בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִתַּכְשִׁיטָיו וְהָיָה רָפוּי וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּפּל בִּמְהֵרָה וְיָבֹא לַהֲבִיאוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְכֵן אִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצָאת בְּתַכְשִׁיטִין שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לִשְׁלֹף אוֹתָן וּלְהַרְאוֹתָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּטוּרִין. וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא תַּכְשִׁיט וְאֵינוֹ נוֹפֵל וְאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לְהַרְאוֹתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ אֶצְעָדָה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתָהּ בַּזְּרוֹעַ אוֹ בַּשּׁוֹק יוֹצְאִין בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת וְהוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה דְּבוּקָה לַבָּשָׂר וְלֹא תִּשָּׁמֵט. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


A woman should not go out with woolen strands, linen strands, or straps attached to her head lest she remove them when she immerses herself21 and carry them in the public domain.

She should not go out [wearing] a frontlet on her forehead,22 nor with bangles of gold that hang from the frontlet on her cheeks if they are not sewn together.23 Nor may [she go out wearing] a crown of gold on her head,24 nor with the ankle chains worn by maidens so that they will not take long strides and thus destroy [the signs of] their virginity.

It is forbidden to go out [wearing] any of these articles lest they fall and one carry them by hand.


לֹא תֵּצֵא אִשָּׁה בְּחוּטֵי צֶמֶר אוֹ בְּחוּטֵי פִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ בִּרְצוּעוֹת הַקְּשׁוּרוֹת לָהּ עַל רֹאשָׁהּ שֶׁמָּא תַּחְלֹץ אוֹתָהּ בִּשְׁעַת טְבִילָה וְתַעֲבִירָהּ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְלֹא בְּצִיץ שֶׁמַּנַּחַת בֵּין עֵינֶיהָ וְלֹא בִּלְחָיַיִם שֶׁל זָהָב שֶׁיּוֹרְדִין מִן הַצִּיץ עַל לְחָיֶיהָ בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָן תְּפוּרִין זֶה בָּזֶה. וְלֹא בַּעֲטָרָה שֶׁל זָהָב שֶׁמֻּנַּחַת בְּרֹאשָׁהּ וְלֹא בִּכְבָלִים שֶׁיּוֹצְאִין בָּהֶן הַבָּנוֹת בְּרַגְלֵיהֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפְסְעוּ פְּסִיעָה גַּסָּה שֶׁלֹּא יַפְסִידוּ בְּתוּלֵיהֶן. כָּל אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין לָצֵאת בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁמָּא יִפְּלוּ וּתְבִיאֵן בְּיָדָהּ:


A woman should not go out [wearing] a necklace,25 a nose ring,26 a flask of perfume27 attached to her forearm, a small round pouch28 in which balsam oil29 is placed, referred to as a cochellet.30

Nor should she wear a wig that will give the appearance that she has a full head of hair,31 nor a woolen pad that goes around her face,32 nor a false tooth, nor a golden crown that she places over a black tooth or a red blemish that she has on her teeth. She may go out with a silver tooth, because this is not obvious.

All these prohibitions were instituted lest {the article fall and [the woman] carry it in her hand or}33 lest she remove it and show it to a friend.


לֹא תֵּצֵא אִשָּׁה בְּקַטְלָא שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָה וְלֹא בְּנִזְמֵי הָאַף וְלֹא בִּצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פְּלַיָּיטוֹן הַקְּבוּעָה עַל זְרוֹעָהּ. וְלֹא בַּכִּיס הַקָּטָן הֶעָגל שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַטּוֹב וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא כּוֹבֶלֶת. וְלֹא בְּפֵאָה שֶׁל שֵׂעָר שֶׁמַּנַּחַת עַל רֹאשָׁהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתֵּרָאֶה בַּעֲלַת שֵׂעָר הַרְבֵּה. וְלֹא בְּכָבוּל שֶׁל צֶמֶר שֶׁמַּקֶּפֶת אוֹתוֹ סָבִיב לְפָנֶיהָ. וְלֹא בְּשֵׁן שֶׁמַּנַּחַת בְּפִיהָ בִּמְקוֹם שֵׁן שֶׁנָּפַל. וְלֹא בְּשֵׁן שֶׁל זָהָב שֶׁמַּנַּחַת עַל שֵׁן שָׁחֹר אוֹ אָדֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּשִּׁנֶּיהָ. אֲבָל שֵׁן שֶׁל כֶּסֶף מֻתָּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכָּר. כָּל אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין לָצֵאת בָּהֶן שֶׁמָּא יִפְּלוּ וּתְבִיאֵם בְּיָדָהּ אוֹ תַּחְלֹץ וְתַרְאֶה לְחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ:


Whenever the Sages forbade wearing an item in the public domain, it is forbidden to go out [wearing] that item even in a courtyard for which there is no eruv.34 An exception is made with regard to a face pad and a wig; permission is granted to go out [wearing] them to a courtyard where there is no eruv so that [the woman] would not appear unattractive to her husband.

A woman who goes out [carrying] an empty flask with no perfume is liable.


כָּל שֶׁאָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לָצֵאת בּוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אָסוּר לוֹ לָצֵאת בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת. חוּץ מִכָּבוּל וּפֵאָה שֶׁל שֵׂעָר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן לְחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְגַּנֶּה עַל בַּעְלָהּ. וְהַיּוֹצֵאת בִּצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פְּלַיָּיטוֹן שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ בּשֶֹׁם כְּלָל חַיֶּבֶת:


A woman may go out [wearing] strands of hair that are attached to her head.35 Water passes through them and they are therefore not considered to be an interposing substance were she to immerse herself. [Consequently,] she will not remove them. Hence, there is no necessity to prohibit [wearing them lest she remove them] and carry them into the public domain.

This applies regardless of whether [the strands of hair were taken from] the woman's own tresses, those of another woman, or from an animal.36 An elderly woman should not, however, go out [wearing strands of hair from] a young woman, for they are becoming to her, [and we fear that] she might remove them and show them to a friend. A young woman, by contrast, may go out [wearing] strands of hair from an elderly woman.37

Any woven hair-covering may be worn.


יוֹצְאָה אִשָּׁה בְּחוּטֵי שֵׂעָר הַקְּשׁוּרִים לָהּ עַל רֹאשָׁהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם בָּאִין בָּהֶן וְאֵינָן חוֹצְצִין וְאֵינָהּ חוֹלַצְתָּן אִם אֵרְעָה לָהּ טְבִילָה עַד שֶׁנִּגְזֹר שֶׁמָּא תְּבִיאֵם לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ הַחוּטִין שֶׁלָּהּ בֵּין שֶׁל חֲבֶרְתָּהּ בֵּין שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה. וְלֹא תֵּצֵא הַזְּקֵנָה בְּשֶׁל יַלְדָּה שֶׁשֶּׁבַח הֵן לָהּ וְשֶׁמָּא תַּחְלֹץ וְתַרְאֵם לְחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ. אֲבָל יַלְדָּה יוֹצֵאת בְּחוּטֵי זְקֵנָה. וְכָל שֶׁהוּא אָרוּג יוֹצֵאת בּוֹ עַל רֹאשָׁהּ:


A woman may go out [wearing] strands38 [tied around] her neck, because she does not tie them tightly,39 and they are therefore not considered to be an interposing substance [with regard to ritual immersion]. If, however, they are colored, she may not go out wearing them, lest she show them to a friend.

A woman may go out wearing a golden diadem, since these are worn only by dignified woman who are not accustomed to removing [their jewelry] and showing them to their friends.40 A woman may also go out [wearing] a frontlet on her forehead with bangles of gold [that hang from the frontlet], provided they are sewn into her head-covering so that they do not fall.41 The same applies in all similar situations.


יוֹצְאָה אִשָּׁה בְּחוּטִין שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ חוֹנֶקֶת עַצְמָהּ בָּהֶן וְאֵינָן חוֹצְצִין. וְאִם הָיוּ צְבוּעִין אֲסוּרִים שֶׁמָּא תַּרְאֶה אוֹתָן לְחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ. וְיוֹצְאָה אִשָּׁה בְּכָלִיל שֶׁל זָהָב בְּרֹאשָׁהּ שֶׁאֵין יוֹצְאָה בּוֹ אֶלָּא אִשָּׁה חֲשׁוּבָה שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לַחֲלֹץ וּלְהַרְאוֹת. וְיוֹצְאָה בְּצִיץ וּבִלְחָיַיִם שֶׁל זָהָב בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵן תְּפוּרִין בִּשְׂבָכָה שֶׁעַל רֹאשָׁהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפּלוּ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם:


A woman may go out with wadding in her ear42 provided it is attached to her ear, with wadding in her sandal43 provided it is attached to her sandal, and with wadding for her menstrual discharge44 even though it is not attached. [The latter rule applies] even if it has a handle. Since it is repulsive, even if it falls, she would not carry it.


יוֹצְאָה אִשָּׁה בְּמוֹךְ שֶׁבְּאָזְנָהּ וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קָשׁוּר בְּאָזְנָהּ. וּבְמוֹךְ שֶׁבְּסַנְדָּלָהּ וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קָשׁוּר בְּסַנְדָּלָהּ. וּבְמוֹךְ שֶׁהִתְקִינָה לְנִדָּתָהּ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ עָשְׂתָה לוֹ בֵּית יָד שֶׁאִם נָפַל אֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה אוֹתוֹ מִפְּנֵי מְאִיסוּתוֹ:


She may go out with pepper, a grain of salt, or any other substance that is placed in the mouth [to prevent] bad breath. She should not, however, place these substances in her mouth on the Sabbath itself.45

Women may go out [wearing] slivers of wood in their ears,46 or with bells47 on their necks or garments, and with a cloak fastened with a make-shift button.48

Indeed, a woman may fasten her cloak in this manner using a stone or a nut49 on the Sabbath and go out, provided she does not [use this leniency as] a ruse and use a nut for this purpose in order to bring it to her young son. Similarly, she should not fasten her cloak in this manner using a coin,50 for it is forbidden to carry it. If her cloak was fastened [using a coin],51 she may go out wearing it.


וְיוֹצְאָה בְּפִלְפֵּל וּבְגַרְגִּיר מֶלַח וּבְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁתִּתֵּן לְתוֹךְ פִּיהָ מִפְּנֵי רֵיחַ הַפֶּה. וְלֹא תִּתֵּן לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת. יוֹצְאוֹת הַנָּשִׁים בְּקֵיסָמִין שֶׁבְּאָזְנֵיהֶן וּבִרְעָלוֹת שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָן אוֹ שֶׁבִּכְסוּתָן וּבָרְדִיד הַפָּרוּף וּפוֹרֶפֶת בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת עַל הָאֶבֶן וְעַל הָאֱגוֹז וְיוֹצְאָה. וְלֹא תַּעֲרִים וְתִפְרֹף עַל הָאֱגוֹז כְּדֵי לְהוֹצִיאוֹ לִבְנָהּ הַקָּטָן. וְכֵן לֹא תִּפְרֹף עַל הַמַּטְבֵּעַ לְכַתְּחִלָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ. וְאִם פָּרְפָה יוֹצְאָה בּוֹ:


A man may go out to the public domain with a sliver of wood in his teeth52 or in his sandal. If, however, it falls, he should not put it back. [He may go out with] wadding or a sponge over a wound,53 provided he does not wind a cord or a string over them. [The latter restriction applies] because he considers the cord or the string as important and they do not assist [the healing of] the wound.54

[He may go out with] a garlic peel or an onion peel on a wound, and with a bandage on a wound. He may open and close [the bandage] on the Sabbath. [He may go out with] a compress, a plaster, or a dressing on a wound. [Similarly, one may go out with] a sela55 on a footsore, a locust's egg,56 a fox's tooth,57 a nail from a gallows,58 and any other entity that is hung on a person's body to [bring] a cure, provided that physicians say that it is effective.59


יוֹצֵא אָדָם בְּקֵיסָם שֶׁבְּשִׁנָּיו וְשֶׁבְּסַנְדָּלוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְאִם נָפַל לֹא יַחֲזִיר. וּבְמוֹךְ וּבִסְפוֹג שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִכְרֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶן חוּט אוֹ מְשִׁיחָה שֶׁהֲרֵי הַחוּט וְהַמְּשִׁיחָה חֲשׁוּבִין אֶצְלוֹ וְאֵינָם מוֹעִילִין לַמַּכָּה. וְיוֹצֵא בִּקְלִפַּת הַשּׁוּם וּבִקְלִפַּת הַבָּצָל שֶׁעַל הַמַּכָּה וּבְאֶגֶד שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי מַכָּה וְקוֹשְׁרוֹ וּמַתִּירוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. וּבְאִסְפְּלָנִית וּמְלוּגְמָא וּרְטִיָּה שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַמַּכָּה וּבְסֶלַע שֶׁעַל הִצִּינִית וּבְבֵיצַת הַחַרְגּוֹל וּבְשֵׁן הַשּׁוּעָל וּבְמַסְמֵר הַצָּלוּב. וּבְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁתּוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ מִשּׁוּם רְפוּאָה וְהוּא שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ הָרוֹפְאִים שֶׁהוּא מוֹעִיל:


[A woman] may go out with a tekumah60 stone or with the weight of a tekumah stone61, which was weighed [and carried] with the intent that it serve as a remedy. This applies not only to a pregnant woman, but to all women, [as a safeguard] lest they become pregnant and miscarry.

One may go out [wearing] an amulet that has proven its efficacy. What is an amulet that has proven its efficacy? [An amulet] that has cured three individuals62 or that was prepared by an individual who cured three people with other amulets. If a person goes out wearing an amulet that has not proved its efficacy, he is not liable.63 [The rationale:] he carried it out as a garment.64 Similarly, a person who goes out [wearing] tefillin is not liable.65


יוֹצֵאת הָאִשָּׁה בְּאֶבֶן תְּקוּמָה וּבְמִשְׁקַל אֶבֶן תְּקוּמָה שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן וּשְׁקָלוֹ לִרְפוּאָה. וְלֹא אִשָּׁה עֻבָּרָה בִּלְבַד אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ שְׁאָר הַנָּשִׁים שֶׁמָּא תִּתְעַבֵּר וְתַפִּיל. וְיוֹצְאִין בְּקָמֵעַ מֻמְחֶה. וְאֵי זֶה הוּא קָמֵעַ מֻמְחֶה זֶה שֶׁרִפֵּא לִשְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם אוֹ שֶׁעֲשָׂהוּ אָדָם שֶׁרִפֵּא שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם בִּקְמֵעִין אֲחֵרִים. וְאִם יָצָא בְּקָמֵעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה פָּטוּר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ. וְכֵן הַיּוֹצֵא בִּתְפִלִּין פָּטוּר:


A person who has a wound on his foot may go out [wearing] one sandal on his healthy foot. If, however, a person does not have a wound on his foot, he may not go out [wearing] a single sandal.66

A child67 should not go out [wearing] the sandals of an adult.68 He may, however, go out [wearing] the cloak of an adult. A woman should not go out [on the Sabbath], [wearing] a loose-fitting sandal,69 nor [wearing] a new sandal that she did not wear for even a short period of time before [the commencement of the Sabbath].70

A one-legged man may not go out [wearing] his wooden leg. We may not go out [wearing] wooden shoes,71 because it is not the ordinary practice to wear them. If, however, one goes out [wearing] them, he is not liable.72


מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרַגְלוֹ מַכָּה יוֹצֵא בְּסַנְדָּל יְחִידִי בְּרַגְלוֹ הַבְּרִיאָה. וְאִם אֵין בְּרַגְלוֹ מַכָּה לֹא יֵצֵא בְּסַנְדָּל יָחִיד. וְלֹא יֵצֵא קָטָן בְּמִנְעָל גָּדוֹל אֲבָל יוֹצֵא הוּא בְּחָלוּק גָּדוֹל. וְלֹא תֵּצֵא אִשָּׁה בְּמִנְעָל רָפוּי וְלֹא בְּמִנְעָל חָדָשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יָצְאָה בּוֹ שָׁעָה אַחַת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וְאֵין הַקִּטֵּעַ יוֹצֵא בְּקַב שֶׁלּוֹ. אַנְקַּטְמִין שֶׁל עֵץ אֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן מִדַּרְכֵי הַמַּלְבּוּשׁ. וְאִם יָצְאוּ פְּטוּרִין:


[A man] may go out [wearing] tufts of flax or a woolen wig worn by men with sores on their heads.73 When does this apply? When he colored them with oil and wound them,74 or he went out [wearing] them [at least] momentarily75 before the commencement of the Sabbath. If, however, he did not perform a deed [that indicated his desire to use these articles], nor did he go out [wearing] them before the Sabbath, it is forbidden for him to go out [wearing] them.


יוֹצְאִין בִּפְקָרִיוֹן וּבְצִיפָה שֶׁבְּרָאשֵׁי בַּעֲלֵי חֲטָטִין. אֵימָתַי בִּזְמַן שֶׁצְּבָעָן בְּשֶׁמֶן וּכְרָכָן אוֹ שֶׁיָּצָא בָּהֶן שָׁעָה אַחַת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. אֲבָל אִם לֹא עָשָׂה בָּהֶן מַעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא יָצָא בָּהֶן קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת אָסוּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן:


We may go out [wearing] coarse sackcloth, tent-cloth,76a thick woolen blanket,77 or a coarse wrap78 [as protection] against rain.79 We may not, however, go out [wearing] a chest, a container, or a mat, [as protection] against the rain.80

When a pillow and a blanket are soft and thin as garments are, one may go out [wearing] them as a wrap on one's head on the Sabbath. When they are firm, they are considered to be burdens and it is forbidden.


יוֹצְאִין בְּשַׂק עָבֶה וּבִירִיעָה וּבְסָגוֹס עָבֶה וּבַחֲמִילָה מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים. אֲבָל לֹא בְּתֵבָה וְלֹא בְּקֻפָּה וְלֹא בְּמַחְצֶלֶת מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים. הַכַּר וְהַכֶּסֶת אִם הָיוּ רַכִּין וְדַקִּין כְּמוֹ הַבְּגָדִים מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָן מֻנָּחִין עַל רֹאשׁוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ. וְאִם הָיוּ קָשִׁין הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמַשּׂאוֹי וַאֲסוּרִין:


We may go out with bells woven81 into our clothes.82 A servant83 may go out [wearing] a clay seal84 around his neck,85 but not with a metal seal, lest it fall and he carry it.

[The following rules apply when] a person wraps himself in a tallit86 and folds it, either [holding the folds] in his hand, or [placing them] on his shoulder: If his intent is that [the ends of the garment] should not tear or become soiled, it is forbidden.87 If his intent is for the sake of fashion, since this is the style in which people of his locale wear their clothes, it is permitted.


יוֹצְאִין בְּזוֹגִין הָאֲרוּגִין בַּבְּגָדִים. וְיוֹצֵא הָעֶבֶד בְּחוֹתָם שֶׁל טִיט שֶׁבְּצַוָּארוֹ אֲבָל לֹא בְּחוֹתָם שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁמָּא יִפּל וִיבִיאֶנּוּ. הַמִּתְעַטֵּף בְּטַלִּיתוֹ וְקִפְּלָהּ מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן בְּיָדוֹ אוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לְקַבֵּץ כְּנָפָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקָּרְעוּ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלַכְלְכוּ אָסוּר. וְאִם קִבְּצָן לְהִתְנָאוֹת בָּהֶן כְּמִנְהַג אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁן מֻתָּר:


A person who goes out [to the public domain] with a garment that is folded and placed on his shoulders is liable. He may, however, go out with a wrap [folded] around his shoulders even though a thread is not tied to his fingers.88

Whenever a wrap does not cover [a person's] head and the majority of his body,89 he is forbidden to go out [wearing it]. A cloth that is worn as a head covering90 that is short and not wide should be tied below one's shoulders. Thus, it will serve as a belt and one will be permitted to go out [wearing] it.


הַיּוֹצֵא בְּטַלִּית מְקֻפֶּלֶת וּמֻנַּחַת עַל כְּתֵפוֹ חַיָּב. אֲבָל יוֹצֵא הוּא בְּסוּדָר שֶׁעַל כְּתֵפוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נִימָה קְשׁוּרָה לוֹ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ. וְכָל סוּדָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹפֶה רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ אָסוּר לָצֵאת בּוֹ. הָיְתָה סַכְנִית קְצָרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְחָבָה קוֹשֵׁר שְׁנֵי רָאשֶׁיהָ לְמַטָּה מִכְּתֵפַיִם וְנִמְצֵאת כְּמוֹ אַבְנֵט וּמֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ:


It is permitted to wrap oneself in a tallit91 that has unwoven strands92 at its edges, even though they are long and do not enhance the appearance of the tallit, because they are considered to be subsidiary to it. The person [wearing the tallit] does not care whether they exist or not.93

Based on the above, a person who goes out [wearing] a tallit whose tzitzit are not halachically acceptable is liable. For these strands are important to him and he is concerned with completing what they are lacking, so that they can be considered to be tzitzit.94

When, however, the tzitzit are halachically acceptable, it is permitted to go out [wearing this garment] during the day and during the night.95 Tzitzit that are halachically acceptable are not considered to be a burden, but rather to be an article that enhances the garment and beautifies it. Were the strands of tzitzit that are halachically acceptable to be considered a burden, one would be liable [for wearing such a garment] even on the Sabbath day, since a positive commandment [whose negation] is not [punishable by] karet does not supersede the Sabbath [prohibitions].96


מֻתָּר לְהִתְעַטֵּף בְּטַלִּית שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּשִׂפְתוֹתֶיהָ מֶלֶל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן חוּטִין אֲרֻכִּין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן נוֹי הַטַּלִּית מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בְּטֵלִים לְגַבֵּי הַטַּלִּית וְאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶן בֵּין הָיוּ בֵּין לֹא הָיוּ. לְפִיכָךְ הַיּוֹצֵא בְּטַלִּית שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְצֻיֶּצֶת כְּהִלְכָתָהּ חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאוֹתָן הַחוּטִין חֲשׁוּבִין הֵן אֶצְלוֹ וְדַעְתּוֹ עֲלֵיהֶן עַד שֶׁיַּשְׁלִים חֶסְרוֹנָן וְיֵעָשׂוּ צִיצִית. אֲבָל טַלִּית הַמְצֻיֶּצֶת כְּהִלְכָתָהּ מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ בֵּין בַּיּוֹם בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה. שֶׁאֵין הַצִּיצִית הַגְּמוּרָה מַשּׂאוֹי אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הִיא מִנּוֹי הַבֶּגֶד וּמִתַּכְסִיסָיו כְּמוֹ הָאִמְרָא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ. וְאִלּוּ הָיוּ חוּטֵי הַצִּיצִית שֶׁהִיא מְצֻיֶּצֶת כְּהִלְכָתָהּ מַשּׂאוֹי הָיָה חַיָּב הַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁאֵין מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ כָּרֵת דּוֹחָה שַׁבָּת:


A tailor should not go out on the Sabbath with a needle stuck into his clothes, nor a carpenter with a sliver of wood behind his ear,97 nor a weaver with wool in his ear, nor a carder of flax with a string around his neck, nor a money-changer with a dinar in his ear, nor a dyer with a sample in his ear.

If one [of these individuals] goes out [wearing such an article], he is not liable. Although this is the usual practice for artisans of this craft, [he is not liable,] because he is not considered to have transferred the article in an ordinary manner.98


לֹא יֵצֵא הַחַיָּט בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמַחַט הַתְּחוּבָה לוֹ בְּבִגְדוֹ. וְלֹא נַגָּר בְּקֵיסָם שֶׁבְּאָזְנוֹ. וְלֹא גַּרְדִּי בָּאִירָא שֶׁבְּאָזְנוֹ. וְלֹא סוֹרֵק בִּמְשִׁיחָה שֶׁבְּאָזְנוֹ. וְלֹא שֻׁלְחָנִי בְּדִינָר שֶׁבְּצַוָּארוֹ. וְלֹא צַבָּע בְּדֻגְמָא שֶׁבְּאָזְנוֹ. וְאִם יָצָא פָּטוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצָא דֶּרֶךְ אֻמָּנוּתוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיא כְּדֶרֶךְ הַמּוֹצִיאִין:


A zav99 who goes out with his receptacle is liable, for this is the only way this receptacle is transferred. [He is liable] although he has no need to take out [the receptacle] itself; [he needs it] only to prevent his clothes from being soiled.100 For a person who performs a labor is liable even when he has no need for the actual labor he performed.101


הַזָּב שֶׁיָּצָא בְּכִיס שֶׁלּוֹ חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כִּיס זֶה לְהוֹצִיאוֹ אֶלָּא כַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֹּאת וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְגוּף הַהוֹצָאָה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְלַכְלְכוּ בְּגָדָיו שֶׁהַמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ:


What should a man102 do when he finds tefillin in the public domain on the Sabbath?103 He should wear them in the ordinary fashion, placing the head tefillin on his head and the arm tefillin on his arm, enter a home and remove them there. Afterwards, he should go out, return, put on a second pair, [return to the home,] remove them, and [continue this pattern] until he brings in all [the tefillin].

If there were many pairs of tefillin and there was not enough time to bring them in during the time by wearing them as garments, he should remain [watching] them until [after] nightfall, and bring them in on Saturday night.104 In a time of oppressive decrees,105 when one might fear to linger and watch them until the evening because of the gentiles, he should cover them where they are located, leave them, and proceed [on his way].


הַמּוֹצֵא תְּפִלִּין בְּשַׁבָּת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה. לוֹבְשָׁן כְּדַרְכָּן, מֵנִיחַ שֶׁל יָד בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁל רֹאשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וְנִכְנָס וְחוֹלְצָן בְּבַיִת וְחוֹזֵר וְיוֹצֵא וְלוֹבֵשׁ זוּג שֵׁנִי וְחוֹלְצָן עַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיס אֶת כֻּלָּן. וְאִם הָיוּ הַרְבֵּה וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר מִן הַיּוֹם כְּדֵי לְהַכְנִיסָן דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה מַחְשִׁיךְ עֲלֵיהֶם וּמַכְנִיסָן בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת. וְאִם הָיָה בִּימֵי הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁמִּתְיָרֵא לֵישֵׁב וּלְשָׁמְרָן עַד הָעֶרֶב מִפְּנֵי הַכּוּתִים מְכַסָּן בִּמְקוֹמָן וּמַנִּיחָן וְהוֹלֵךְ:


Should he be afraid to wait until after nightfall because of thieves, he should take the entire group at once and carry them less than four cubits at a time, or he should give them to a colleague [standing within four cubits], who in turn will give them to another colleague106 until they reach the courtyard at the extremity of the city.107

When does the above apply? When they are found together with their straps that are tied with the knots with which tefillin are tied, since then they are surely tefillin. If, however, their straps are not tied, one should not pay attention to them.108


הָיָה מִתְיָרֵא לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עֲלֵיהֶן מִפְּנֵי הַלִּסְטִים נוֹטֵל אֶת כֻּלָּן כְּאַחַת וּמוֹלִיכָן פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אוֹ נוֹתְנָן לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהָיוּ בָּהֶן רְצוּעוֹתֵיהֶן וְהֵן מְקֻשָּׁרִין קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל תְּפִלִּין שֶׁוַּדַּאי תְּפִלִּין הֵן אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיוּ רְצוּעוֹתֵיהֶן מְקֻשָּׁרוֹת אֵינוֹ נִזְקָק לָהֶן:


A person who finds a Torah scroll should linger and watch it until after nightfall.109 In a time of danger, he may leave it110 and go on his way. If rain is descending, one should wrap himself in the parchment,111 cover it [with one's outer garments], and enter [a home] with it.


הַמּוֹצֵא סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמְּרוֹ וּמַחְשִׁיךְ עָלָיו. וּבַסַּכָּנָה מַנִּיחוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ. וְאִם הָיוּ גְּשָׁמִים יוֹרְדִין מִתְעַטֵּף בְּעוֹר וְחוֹזֵר וּמְכַסֶּה אוֹתוֹ וְנִכְנָס בּוֹ:


On Friday, shortly before nightfall, a tailor should not go carrying a needle in his hand,112 nor should a scribe [go out carrying] his pen, lest he forget and transfer it on the Sabbath.

A person is obligated to check his clothes on Friday before nightfall, lest he forget something in them and [inadvertently] transfer it on the Sabbath.

It is permissible to go out wearing tefillin on Friday shortly before sunset. Since a person is obligated to touch his tefillin at all times,113 there is no possibility that he will forget them. If a person forgets and goes out to the public domain [wearing] tefillin,114 [when] he remembers the tefillin on his head, he should cover his head115 until he reaches his home or the house of study.


לֹא יֵצֵא הַחַיָּט בְּמַחֲטוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְלֹא הַלַּבְלָר בְּקֻלְמוֹסוֹ עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיוֹצִיא. וְחַיָּב אָדָם לְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בְּבִגְדוֹ עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עִם חֲשֵׁכָה שֶׁמָּא יִהְיֶה שָׁם דָּבָר שָׁכוּחַ וְיֵצֵא בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בִּתְפִלִּין עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עִם חֲשֵׁכָה הוֹאִיל וְחַיָּב אָדָם לְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בִּתְפִלָּיו בְּכָל עֵת אֵינוֹ שׁוֹכְחָן. שָׁכַח וְיָצָא בָּהֶן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תְּפִלִּין בְּרֹאשׁוֹ מְכַסֶּה אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ אוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ: