Five things prevent one from praying, even though the time [for prayer] has arrived:
1) the purification of one's hands;
2) the covering of nakedness;
3) the purity of the place of prayer;
4) things that might bother and distract one; and
5) the proper intention of one's heart.


חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַתְּפִלָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּה. טָהֳרַת יָדַיִם. וְכִסּוּי הָעֶרְוָה. וְטָהֳרַת מְקוֹם תְּפִלָּה. וּדְבָרִים הַחוֹפְזִים אוֹתוֹ. וְכַוָּנַת הַלֵּב:


The purification of one's hands - What does this imply? One must wash his hands in water until the joint. [Only] afterwards may he pray.

[The following rules apply when] a person is travelling on the road when the time for prayer arrives: If he has no water, but is within four millin - i.e., 8000 cubits - of a source of water, he should proceed to it, wash his hands, and then pray. If the distance to the water is greater than this, he should clean his hands with pebbles, earth, or a beam, and pray.


טָהֳרַת יָדַיִם כֵּיצַד. רוֹחֵץ יָדָיו בְּמַיִם עַד הַפֶּרֶק וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְהִגִּיעַ זְמַן תְּפִלָּה וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מַיִם. אִם הָיָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אַרְבָּעָה מִילִין שֶׁהֵם שְׁמוֹנַת אֲלָפִים אַמָּה הוֹלֵךְ עַד מְקוֹם הַמַּיִם וְרוֹחֵץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. הָיָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם יוֹתֵר עַל כֵּן מְקַנֵּחַ יָדָיו בִּצְרוֹר אוֹ בְּעָפָר אוֹ בְּקוֹרָה וּמִתְפַּלֵּל:


When does this apply? [When the water is] ahead of him. However, if the place with water is behind him, we do not obligate him to retrace his steps more than one mil. However, if he has passed further beyond the water, he is not obligated to return. Rather, he should clean his hands and pray.

When do the above statements requiring one to purify merely his hands alone for prayer apply? To the other services, but not for the Morning Prayer. For the Morning Prayer, one should wash his face, hands, and feet, and only afterwards, may he pray. If he is far from water, he may clean his hands only and then pray.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים לְפָנָיו אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מְקוֹם הַמַּיִם לַאֲחוֹרָיו אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לַחֲזֹר לַאֲחוֹרָיו אֶלָּא עַד מִיל. אֲבָל אִם עָבַר מִן הַמַּיִם יוֹתֵר אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לַחֲזֹר אֶלָּא מְקַנֵּחַ יָדָיו וּמִתְפַּלֵּל. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַהֵר לִתְפִלָּה אֶלָּא יָדָיו בִּלְבַד, בִּשְׁאָר תְּפִלּוֹת חוּץ מִתְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית. אֲבָל שַׁחֲרִית רוֹחֵץ פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. וְאִם הָיָה רָחוֹק מִן הַמַּיִם מְקַנֵּחַ יָדָיו בִּלְבַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל:


All the ritually impure need only wash their hands in order to pray, just like those not in such a state. Even if they are able to immerse themselves [in a mikveh] and ascend from their impure state, this immersion is not required [for prayer].

We have already explained that Ezra decreed that only one who has had a seminal emission is prohibited from Torah study until he has immersed himself. The Rabbinical Court [that existed afterwards] decreed that [this applies] even to prayer, i.e., such a person alone should not pray until he immerses himself.

These decrees were not put into effect because of questions of ritual purity and impurity, but rather to ensure that the Torah scholars would not overindulge in marital intimacy with their wives. Therefore, they instituted ritual immersion only for one who has a seminal emission, thereby excepting him from the other ritually impure.


כָּל הַטְּמֵאִין רוֹחֲצִין יְדֵיהֶן בִּלְבַד כִּטְהוֹרִין וּמִתְפַּלְּלִים. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לִטְבּל וְלַעֲלוֹת מִטֻּמְאָתָן אֵין הַטְּבִילָה מְעַכֶּבֶת. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁעֶזְרָא תִּקֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרָא בַּעַל קֶרִי בִּלְבַד בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁעָמְדוּ אַחַר כֵּן הִתְקִינוּ אַף לִתְפִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַל קֶרִי בִּלְבַד עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל. וְלֹא מִפְּנֵי טֻמְאָה וְטָהֳרָה נָגְעוּ בָּהּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים מְצוּיִים אֵצֶל נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן כְּתַרְנְגוֹלִים. וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה תִּקְּנוּ טְבִילָה לְבַעַל קֶרִי לְבַדּוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוּהוּ מִכְּלַל הַטְּמֵאִין:


Therefore, at the time of this decree, it was said that even a זב who had a seminal emission, a menstruating woman who emitted semen, and a woman who saw traces of menstrual blood after relations, required immersion to recite the Shema and to pray because of the seminal emission, despite [the fact that they remained] ritually impure.

This is reasonable, since this immersion was not a matter of purity, but a result of the decree so that they would not constantly be with their wives.

This decree regarding prayer was also abolished, since it was not universally accepted by the Jewish people, and the community at large was unable to observe it.


לְפִיכָךְ הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין בִּזְמַן תַּקָּנָה זוֹ שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ זָב שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי וְנִדָּה שֶׁפָּלְטָה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שֶׁרָאֲתָה דַּם נִדָּה צְרִיכִין טְבִילָה לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְכֵן לִתְפִלָּה מִפְּנֵי הַקֶּרִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם טְמֵאִין. וְכֵן הַדִּין נוֹתֵן שֶׁאֵין טְבִילָה זוֹ מִפְּנֵי טָהֳרָה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַגְּזֵרָה שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ מְצוּיִין אֵצֶל נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן תָּמִיד. וּכְבָר בָּטְלָה גַּם תַּקָּנָה זוֹ שֶׁל תְּפִלָּה לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא פָּשְׁטָה בְּכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא הָיָה כֹּחַ בַּצִּבּוּר לַעֲמֹד בָּהּ:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


It is widespread custom in Shin'ar and Spain that one who has had a seminal emission does not pray until he has washed his whole body in water, [based on the command]: "Prepare to meet your God, Israel" (Amos 4:12).

To whom does this refer? To a healthy person or to a sick person who engaged in intimacy, but a sick person who has had an accidental emission is exempt from bathing and there is no such custom regarding this matter. Similarly, there is no such custom regarding a זב who has a seminal emission and a menstruating woman who emits semen. Rather, they should clean themselves, wash their hands, and pray.


מִנְהָג פָּשׁוּט בְּשִׁנְעָר וּבִסְפָרַד שֶׁאֵין בַּעַל קֶרִי מִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁרוֹחֵץ כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם מִשּׁוּם (עמוס ד יב) ״הִכּוֹן לִקְרַאת אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל״. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּבָרִיא אוֹ בְּחוֹלֶה שֶׁבָּעַל. אֲבָל חוֹלֶה שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי לְאָנְסוֹ פָּטוּר מִן הָרְחִיצָה וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִנְהָג. וְכֵן זָב שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי וְנִדָּה שֶׁפָּלְטָה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע אֵין בָּהֶן מִנְהָג אֶלָּא מְקַנְּחִין עַצְמָן וְרוֹחֲצִין יְדֵיהֶן וּמִתְפַּלְּלִין:


The proper covering of one's nakedness: What is implied?

Even if one covers his genitalia in the fashion necessary for the recital of the Shema, he may not pray until he covers his heart. If one did not - or was unable to - cover his heart, as long as he covered his nakedness when he prayed, he has fulfilled his obligation. However, a priori, he should not do so.


כִּסּוּי הָעֶרְוָה כֵּיצַד. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכִּסָּה עֶרְוָתוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּכַסִּין לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁיְּכַסֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ. וְאִם לֹא כִּסָּה לִבּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱנַס וְאֵין לוֹ בְּמָה יְכַסֶּה הוֹאִיל וְכִסָּה עֶרְוָתוֹ וְהִתְפַּלֵּל יָצָא. וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה:


The purity of the place of prayer: What is implied?

One should not pray in a place of filth, a bathhouse, a latrine or garbage heap. [Similarly, one should not pray] in a place that is not presumed to be clean until he checks it.

The general rule is that one should not pray in any place in which one would not recite the Shema. [Thus,] just as one separates oneself from excreta, urine, a foul odor, a corpse and the sight of nakedness for Kri'at Shema, so too, he should separate himself for Shemoneh Esreh.


טָהֳרַת מְקוֹם הַתְּפִלָּה כֵּיצַד. לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל בִּמְקוֹם הַטִּנֹּפֶת וְלֹא בַּמֶּרְחָץ וְלֹא בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא וְלֹא בָּאַשְׁפָּה וְלֹא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה עַד שֶׁיִּבְדְּקֶנּוּ. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין קוֹרִין בּוֹ קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע אֵין מִתְפַּלְּלִין בּוֹ. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמַּרְחִיקִין מִצּוֹאָה וּמִמֵּי רַגְלַיִם וְרֵיחַ רַע וּמִן הַמֵּת וּמֵרְאִיַּת הָעֶרְוָה לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע כָּךְ מַרְחִיקִין לִתְפִלָּה:


[The following rules apply] when one finds excreta in his place [of prayer.] Since he transgressed by not checking the place before he began to pray, he must pray again in a clean place.

[The following rules apply] when one finds excreta while he is in the midst of prayer: If he can walk forwards such that [the feces] will be left four cubits behind him, he should do so. If not, he should move to the side. If he is unable [to do the latter], he should stop praying.

The great Sages would refrain from praying in a house in which there was beer or brine at the time of its foaming because of the foul odor, even though it was a clean place.


הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וּמָצָא צוֹאָה בִּמְקוֹמוֹ הוֹאִיל וְחָטָא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא בָּדַק עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִתְפַּלֵּל חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר. הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּתְפִלָּה וּמָצָא צוֹאָה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ אִם יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּזְרְקֶנָּה לְאַחֲרָיו אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת יְהַלֵּךְ וְאִם לָאו יְסַלְּקֶנָּה לַצְּדָדִין. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל יַפְסִיק. גְּדוֹלֵי הַחֲכָמִים לֹא הָיוּ מִתְפַּלְּלִים בְּבַיִת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שֵׁכָר וְלֹא בְּבַיִת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מוּרְיָיס בְּעֵת עִפּוּשׁוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרֵיחוֹ רַע אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם טָהוֹר:


Things that might bother and distract him: What is implied?

One who must relieve himself should not pray. Whenever anyone who must relieve himself prays, his prayer is an abomination and he must pray again after he relieves himself.

If a person can restrain himself for the length of time that it takes to walk a parsah, his prayer is considered prayer.

Nevertheless, a priori, one should not pray until he has checked himself very well, checked his intestines, rid himself of phlegm and mucus and any [other] bothersome thing. [Only] afterwards should he pray.


דְּבָרִים הַחוֹפְזִים אוֹתוֹ כֵּיצַד. אִם הָיָה צָרִיךְ לִנְקָבָיו לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל. וְכָל הַצָּרִיךְ לִנְקָבָיו וְהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּתוֹ תּוֹעֵבָה וְחוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל אַחַר שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה צְרָכָיו. וְאִם יָכוֹל לְהַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ כְּדֵי פַּרְסָה תְּפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁיִּבְדֹּק עַצְמוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה וְיִבְדֹק נְקָבָיו וְיָסִיר כִּיחוֹ וְנִיעוֹ וְכָל הַדָּבָר הַטּוֹרְדוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל:


[The following rules apply to] one who burps, yawns, or sneezes during prayer: Should a person do so voluntarily, it is deprecating. [However,] if the person checked himself before he prayed and did so against his will, it is of no consequence.

If saliva comes up during prayer, one should cause it to be absorbed into his tallit or clothes. If he is bothered by this, he may throw it behind him with his hand in order that he not be bothered during his prayer and be distracted.

If one passes gas unwittingly during prayer, he should wait until the gas subsides and return to his prayer.


מִי שֶׁגִּהֵק וּפִהֵק וְנִתְעַטֵּשׁ בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ אִם לִרְצוֹנוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְגֻנֶּה. וְאִם בָּדַק גּוּפוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל וּבָא לְאָנְסוֹ אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם. נִזְדַּמֵּן לוֹ רֹק בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ מַבְלִיעוֹ בְּטַלִּיתוֹ אוֹ בְּבִגְדוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה מִצְטַעֵר בְּכָךְ זוֹרְקוֹ בְּיָדוֹ לַאֲחוֹרָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטַעֵר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְנִמְצָא טָרוּד. יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ רוּחַ מִלְּמַטָּה כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בִּתְפִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתּוֹ שׁוֹהֶה עַד שֶׁתִּכְלֶה הָרוּחַ וְחוֹזֵר לִתְפִלָּתוֹ:


One who desires to pass gas from below and is bothered exceedingly, to the extent that he cannot restrain himself, should walk back four cubits, [expel the gas], and then wait until the gas subsides. He should say:

Master of all the world, You created us with many orifices and ducts. Our shame and disgrace is apparent and known before You. Shame and disgrace during our life, worm-eaten and decaying in our death.

He then returns to his place and prays.


בִּקֵּשׁ לְהוֹצִיא רוּחַ מִלְּמַטָּה וְנִצְטַעֵר הַרְבֵּה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַעֲמִיד עַצְמוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ לְאַחֲרָיו אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּמַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁתִּכְלֶה הָרוּחַ. וְאוֹמֵר רִבּוֹן כָּל הָעוֹלָמִים יְצַרְתָּנוּ נְקָבִים נְקָבִים חֲלוּלִים חֲלוּלִים גָּלוּי וְיָדוּעַ לְפָנֶיךָ חֶרְפָּתֵנוּ וּכְלִמָּתֵנוּ חֶרְפָּה וּכְלִמָּה בְּחַיֵּינוּ תּוֹלֵעָה וְרִמָּה בְּמִיתָתֵנוּ וְחוֹזֵר לִמְקוֹמוֹ וּמִתְפַּלֵּל:


When urine flows on a person's legs during Shemoneh Esreh, he should wait until the flow ceases, and return to the place at which he stopped. If he waited the time necessary to complete his Shemoneh Esreh, he should return to the beginning.


הָיָה עוֹמֵד בִּתְפִלָּה וְנָטְפוּ מֵי רַגְלָיו עַל בִּרְכָּיו מַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיִּכְלוּ הַמַּיִם וְחוֹזֵר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁפָּסַק. וְאִם שָׁהָה כְּדֵי לִגְמֹר אֶת הַתְּפִלָּה חוֹזֵר לָרֹאשׁ:


Similarly, one who urinates should wait the length of time it takes to walk four cubits, and then pray. After one has prayed, he should wait this length of time before urinating, in order to make a distinction following the words of prayer.


וְכֵן הַמַּשְׁתִּין מַיִם שׁוֹהֶה כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ ד׳‎ אַמּוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. וּמִשֶּׁהִתְפַּלֵּל שׁוֹהֶה אַחַר תְּפִלָּתוֹ כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַשְׁתִּין כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְסֹק דִּבְרֵי הַתְּפִלָּה מִפִּיו:


Proper intention: What is implied?

Any prayer that is not [recited] with proper intention is not prayer. If one prays without proper intention, he must repeat his prayers with proper intention.

One who is in a confused or troubled state may not pray until he composes himself. Therefore, one who comes in from a journey and is tired or irritated is forbidden to pray until he composes himself. Our Sages taught that one should wait three days until he is rested and his mind is settled, and then he may pray.


כַּוָּנַת הַלֵּב כֵּיצַד. כָּל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּכַוָּנָה אֵינָהּ תְּפִלָּה. וְאִם הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל בְּכַוָּנָה. מָצָא דַּעְתּוֹ מְשֻׁבֶּשֶׁת וְלִבּוֹ טָרוּד אָסוּר לוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁתִּתְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ הַבָּא מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וְהוּא עָיֵף אוֹ מֵצֵר אָסוּר לוֹ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁתִּתְיַשֵּׁב דַּעְתּוֹ. אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים יִשְׁהֶה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ וְתִתְקָרֵר דַּעְתּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל:


What is meany by [proper] intention?

One should clear his mind from all thoughts and envision himself as standing before the Divine Presence. Therefore, one must sit a short while before praying in order to focus his attention and then pray in a pleasant and supplicatory fashion.

One should not pray as one carrying a burden who throws it off and walks away. Therefore, one must sit a short while after praying, and then withdraw.

The pious ones of the previous generations would wait an hour before praying and an hour after praying. They would [also] extend their prayers for an hour.


כֵּיצַד הִיא הַכַּוָּנָה. שֶׁיְּפַנֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ מִכָּל הַמַּחֲשָׁבוֹת וְיִרְאֶה עַצְמוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עוֹמֵד לִפְנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לֵישֵׁב מְעַט קֹדֶם הַתְּפִלָּה כְּדֵי לְכַוֵּן אֶת לִבּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל בְּנַחַת וּבְתַחֲנוּנִים וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה תְּפִלָּתוֹ כְּמִי שֶׁהָיָה נוֹשֵׂא מַשּׂאוֹי וּמַשְׁלִיכוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ לוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לֵישֵׁב מְעַט אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִפָּטֵר. חֲסִידִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ שׁוֹהִין שָׁעָה אַחַת קֹדֶם תְּפִלָּה וְשָׁעָה אַחַת לְאַחַר תְּפִלָּה וּמַאֲרִיכִין בִּתְפִלָּה שָׁעָה:


A person who is drunk should not pray, because he cannot have proper intention. If he does pray, his prayer is an abomination. Therefore, he must pray again when he is clear of his drunkenness. One who is slightly inebriated should not pray, [but] if he prays, his prayer is prayer.

When is a person considered as drunk? When he is unable to speak before a king. [In contrast,] a person who is slightly inebriated is able to speak before a king without becoming confused. Nevertheless, since he drank a revi'it of wine, he should not pray until his wine has passed from him.


שִׁכּוֹר אַל יִתְפַּלֵּל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כַּוָּנָה. וְאִם הִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּתוֹ תּוֹעֵבָה. לְפִיכָךְ חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל כְּשֶׁיִּתְרוֹקֵן מִשִּׁכְרוּתוֹ. שָׁתוּי אַל יִתְפַּלֵּל וְאִם הִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּתוֹ תְּפִלָּה. אֵי זֶה שִׁכּוֹר זֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ. שָׁתוּי יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר בִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּבֵּשׁ. אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הוֹאִיל וְשָׁתָה רְבִיעִית יַיִן לֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל עַד שֶׁיָּסִיר יֵינוֹ מֵעָלָיו


Similarly, one should not stand to pray in the midst of laughter or irreverent behavior, nor in the midst of a conversation, argument or anger, but rather in the midst of words of Torah.

[However, one should not stand to pray] in the midst of a judgment or a [difficult] halachic issue, even though these are words of Torah, lest one's mind be distracted by the halachah in question. Rather, [one should pray] in the midst of words of Torah that do not require deep concentration, e.g., laws that have already been accepted.


וְכֵן אֵין עוֹמְדִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לֹא מִתּוֹךְ שְׂחוֹק וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ שִׂיחָה וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ מְרִיבָה וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ כַּעַס אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה. וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ דִּין וַהֲלָכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא לִבּוֹ טָרוּד בַּהֲלָכָה. אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ עִיּוּן כְּגוֹן הֲלָכוֹת פְּסוּקוֹת:


Before reciting occasional prayers, e.g., the Musaf Prayer of Rosh Chodesh or the prayers of the festivals, one must review his prayers lest he make mistakes in them.

A person walking in a dangerous place, e.g., a place frequented by wild animals or bandits, when the time of the Amidah arrives, should recite [only] a single blessing:

The needs of Your people, Israel, are great and their knowledge is limited. May it be Your will, O God, our Lord, that You will provide each and every one with a sufficient livelihood, and give to each individual all that he lacks. And that which is good in Your eyes, You should do. Blessed are You, God, the One who hears prayer.

He may recite it as he walks on the road. [However,] if he is able to stop [to recite it], he should. When he arrives at a settlement and his mind is composed, he should recite a proper Amidah of 19 blessings.


תְּפִלּוֹת הַפְּרָקִים כְּגוֹן תְּפִלַּת מוּסָף רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וּתְפִלַּת מוֹעֲדוֹת צָרִיךְ לְהַסְדִּיר תְּפִלָּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ עוֹמֵד וּמִתְפַּלֵּל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּשֵׁל בָּהּ. הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנָה כְּגוֹן מְקוֹם גְּדוּדֵי חַיּוֹת וְלִסְטִים וְהִגִּיעַ זְמַן תְּפִלָּה מִתְפַּלֵּל בְּרָכָה אַחַת. וְזוֹ הִיא. צָרְכֵי עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל מְרֻבִּים וְדַעְתָּם קְצָרָה. יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה׳‎ אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁתִּתֵּן לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד כְּדֵי פַּרְנָסָתוֹ וּלְכָל גְּוִיָּה וּגְוִיָּה דֵּי מַחְסוֹרָהּ וְהַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֶיךָ עֲשֵׂה בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְיָ׳‎ שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה. וּמִתְפַּלֵּל אוֹתָהּ בַּדֶּרֶךְ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ, וְאִם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד עוֹמֵד. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לְיִשּׁוּב וְתִתְקָרֵר דַּעְתּוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה כְּתַקָּנָתָהּ תְּשַׁע עֶשְׂרֵה בְּרָכוֹת: