1

It is written:1 "And bread, and roasted grain and fresh grain2 you shall not eat until this very day" etc. This means that it is forbidden to eat of any of the five species [of grain] [wheat, barley, oats, spelt, rye] from the new grain crop until after the offering of the omer, which was offered on the sixteenth day of Nissan. In a time when there is no omer [as in our times], it is forbidden to eat the new crop the entire day. In countries outside Eretz Yisroel, where two days of Yom Tov are celebrated, because of the doubt (of the actual day of Yom Tov,) it is also forbidden the entire seventeenth day until the beginning of the night of the eighteenth day. Grain which had been sown and taken root before the sixteenth day of Nissan, is made valid for use by (bringing) the omer, and it may be eaten immediately after it is harvested. However, if it did not take root before the sixteenth of Nissan, it is forbidden until next year's omer is brought.

א

כְּתִיב, וְלֶחֶם וְקָלִי וְכַרְמֶל לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַד עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וְגוֹ'. פֵּרוּשׁ, שֶׁאֲסוּרִין לֶאֱכֹל מִתְּבוּאָה חֲדָשָׁה מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִים עַד לְאַחַר הַקְרָבַת הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ בְּשִׁשָׁה עָשָר בְּנִיסָן. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁאֵין עֹמֶר, כָּל הַיוֹם אֲסוּרִין. וְּלִבְנֵי חוּץ לַאָרֶץ שֶׁעוֹשִין יוֹם טוֹב שְׁנֵי יָמִים מֵחֲמַת סְפֵקָא, גַּם כָּל יוֹם שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר, אָסוּר עַד תְּחִלַּת לֵיל שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר. וּתְבוּאָה שֶׁנִּזְרְעָה וְנִשְׁרְשָׁה קֹדֶם ט"ז בְּנִיסָן, הַעֹמֶר הַזֶה הִתִּירָהּ, וּמֻתֶּרֶת מִיָד לְאַחַר קְצִירָתָהּ. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִשְׁרְשָׁה קֹדֶם שִׁשָׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן, אֲסוּרָה עַד שֶׁיָבוֹא הָעֹמֶר הַבָּא.

2

According to most of the greatest Poskim,3 the above prohibition, even outside Eretz Yisroel, is a Scriptural prohibition. Therefore we must pay careful attention to grain crops that are sometimes sown after Pesach or so close to Pesach that it has not taken root before the sixteenth of Nissan, such as barley and oats, and in some places also wheat, for they are forbidden until after the seventeenth of Nissan of the next year. (If it had taken root on the sixteenth day of Nissan, it is permitted at the beginning of the seventeenth night of Nissan of the next year in any event.) Also the beer4 made from this grain, is forbidden until after the next Pesach. Also the lees are forbidden. If dough was leavened with it, even if the dough was made from the old grain crops, the entire dough is forbidden due to the yeast. Concerning crops about which there is a doubt whether it is old or new, you should consult a Poseik.

ב

לְדַעַת רֹב גְּדוֹלֵי הַפּוֹסְקִים, אִסּוּר זֶה גַּם בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְלָכֵן צְרִיכִין לְהַשְׁגִּיחַ מְאֹד בִּתְבוּאָה שֶׁנִזְּרְעָה לִפְעָמִים אַחַר הַפֶּסַח אוֹ סָמוּךְ לִפְנֵי הַפֶּסַח, שֶלֹּא הִשְׁרִישָׁה קֹדֶם שִׁשָׁה עָשָֹר בְּנִיסָן, כְּגוֹן שְׂעוֹרִים וְשִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל, וּבִקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת גַּם חִטִּין, שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרוֹת עַד לְאַחַר שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן הַבָּא. (וְאִם הִשְׁרִישָׁה בְּיוֹם שִׁשָׁה עָשָׂר, מֻתֶּרֶת בִּתְחִלַּת לֵיל שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן הַבָּא, מִכֹּחַ מִמַּה נַפְשָׁךְ). וְגַם הַשֵּׁכָר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִתְּבוּאָה זוֹ, אָסוּר עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הַבָּא. וְכֵן הַשְּׁמָרִים, אֲסוּרִים. וְאִם חִמְּצוּ בָהֶם עִסָּה, אֲפִלּוּ מִתְּבוּאָה יְשָׁנָה, כָּל הָעִסָּה אֲסוּרָה מֵחֲמַת הַשְּׁמָרִים. תְּבוּאָה שֶׁמִּסְתַּפְּקִים בָּהּ אִם הִיא יְשְׁנָה אוֹ חֲדָשָׁה, יַעֲשׂוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁאֵלַת חָכָם.

3

Some Poskim maintain that the prohibition of eating the new crops applies only to grain that grew in the field of a Jew. Even if the field belongs to a non-Jew, but it has been leased by a Jew, the law of new crops applies to this grain. However, if the grain grew in the field of a non-Jew, the prohibition of new crops does not apply. Many people rely on this in difficult circumstances.5 Nevertheless, if the grain grew in the field of a Jew, it is not permitted at all. Most Poskim disagree, and maintain that even grain that grew in the field of a non-Jew is subject to the prohibition of new crops; and a blessing will come upon one who is strict about it.6

ג

יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, דְּאֵין אִסּוּר חָדָשׁ אֶלָּא בִּתְבוּאָה שֶׁגָּדְלָה בִּרְשׁוּת יִשְֹרָאֵל. וַאֲפִלּוּ הַשָֹּדֶה שַׁיֶכֶת לַגּוֹי, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַיִשְֹרָאֵל שְׂכָרָהּ, יֵשׁ בִּתְבוּאָה זוֹ אִסּוּר חָדָשׁ. אֲבָל בִּתְבוּאָה שֶׁגָּדְלָה בּרְשׁוּת הַגּוֹי, אֵין בָּהּ אִסּוּר חָדָשׁ. וְעַל זֶה סוֹמְכִים הַרְבֵּה בִּשְׁעַת הַדְחָק. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּתְבוּאָה שֶׁגָּדְלָה בִּרְשׁוּת ִיִשְֹרָאֵל, אֵין שׁוּם הֶתֵּר. אֲבָל רַבּוּ הַחוֹלְקִים וְאוֹמְרִים, דְּגַם בְּשֶׁל גּוֹי אִיכָּא אִסּוּר חָדָשׁ. וְהַמַּחְמִיר תָּבוֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה.