All flat wooden implements made to sit, lie, or ride upon are susceptible to midras impurity, e.g., a bed, a chair, or the like.


כָּל פְּשׁוּטֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ הָעֲשׂוּיִין לִישִׁיבָה אוֹ לִשְׁכִיבָה אוֹ לִרְכִיבָה מִתְטַמְּאִין בְּמִדְרָס כְּגוֹן הַמִּטָּה וְהַכִּסֵּא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:


The bier, the pillow, and the cushion of a corpse, the chair of a bride, the birthing chair of a woman in childbirth, the chair of a launderer on which he washes clothes, and the chair of a child that has legs, even though it is not a handbreadth high, are all susceptible to midras impurity.


הַמִּטָּה וְהַכַּר וְהַכֶּסֶת שֶׁל מֵת וְכִסֵּא שֶׁל כַּלָּה וּמַשְׁבֵּר שֶׁל חַיָּה וְכִסֵּא שֶׁל כּוֹבֵס שֶׁכּוֹבֵס עָלָיו אֶת הַכֵּלִים וְכִסֵּא שֶׁל קָטָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ רַגְלַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ גֹּבַהּ טֶפַח כָּל אֵלּוּ מִתְטַמְּאִין בְּמִדְרָס:


An iron seat covered with leather that is used in a lavatory is susceptible to midras impurity and to other types of impurity. If the leather covering was removed, that leather is susceptible to midras impurity. The metal seat is susceptible to other types of impurity, but not to midras impurity.


כִּסֵּא שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא וְהָעוֹר נָתוּן עָלָיו הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס וּבִשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת. הִפְרִישׁ עוֹר הַמְחֻפֶּה עַל הַבַּרְזֶל הָעוֹר מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס וְהַבַּרְזֶל מִתְטַמֵּא בִּשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת אֲבָל לֹא בְּמִדְרָס:


A small basket made from reeds or the like that is covered with leather is susceptible to midras impurity and to other types of impurity. If the leather covering was removed, that leather is susceptible to midras impurity, but the basket is entirely pure, for it is considered like other broken keilim.


טְרַסְקָל שֶׁל גֶּמִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ הַמְחֻפֶּה בְּעוֹר מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס וּבִשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת. הִפְרִישׁ הָעוֹר מֵעָלָיו הָעוֹר מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס אֲבָל הַטְּרַסְקָל טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה כְּשִׁבְרֵי כֵּלִים:


When the two legs of benches in a bathhouse are made of wood, they are susceptible to midras impurity. If one was made of wood and the other of marble, it is not susceptible to impurity.


סַפְסָלִין שֶׁבַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁשְּׁתֵּי רַגְלָיו שֶׁל עֵץ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס. הָיְתָה אַחַת שֶׁל עֵץ וְאַחַת שֶׁל שַׁיִשׁ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When boards of a bathhouse were covered with cork, they are not susceptible to impurity, for they are not made to be sat upon, but so that the water will flow under them.


נְסָרִים שֶׁבַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁשִּׁגְמָן אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין לִישִׁיבָה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהַלְּכוּ הַמַּיִם תַּחְתֵּיהֶן:


When a large basket or wicker holder was filled with straw or fragments of cloth, even though they were adapted to be sat upon, they are not susceptible to midras impurity, because they are not fit to be sat upon. If they were laced with reeds or string over their opening, they are susceptible to midras impurity.


הַכַּלְכָּלָה וְהַסַּל שֶׁמִּלְּאָן תֶּבֶן אוֹ מוֹכִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְקִינָן לִישִׁיבָה אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאַת מִדְרָס שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לִישִׁיבָה. וְאִם סֵרְגָן בְּגֶמִי אוֹ בִּמְשִׁיחָה עַל פִּיהֶן מִתְטַמְּאִין בְּמִדְרָס:


When one made a seat on one of the ends of a beam of an olive press, it is not susceptible to midras impurity, for if a person were to sit there, he would be told: "Stand up and let us do our work." If, however, a chair was affixed to the beam of an olive press, the chair is susceptible to midras impurity. Nevertheless, if a zav trod on the beam, the chair does not contract impurity.

Similarly, if one affixed a chair to a large beam or made a chair at the end of a large beam, only the place of the chair itself is susceptible to impurity. The remainder of the beam is pure. The same law applies to a chair that is affixed to a kneading trough; it is pure.


קוֹרַת בֵּית הַבַּד שֶׁעָשָׂה רֹאשָׁהּ הָאֶחָד כִּסֵּא אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאוֹמְרִין לוֹ עֲמֹד וְנַעֲשֶׂה מְלַאכְתֵּנוּ. אֲבָל אִם קָבַע אֶת הַכִּסֵּא בְּקוֹרַת בֵּית הַבַּד הַכִּסֵּא מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס וְאִם דָּרַס הַזָּב עַל הַקּוֹרָה לֹא נִטְמָא הַכִּסֵּא. וְכֵן אִם קָבַע הַכִּסֵּא בְּקוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה אוֹ עָשָׂה רֹאשׁ הַקּוֹרָה הַגְּדוֹלָה כִּסֵּא אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא מְקוֹם הַכִּסֵּא בִּלְבַד וּשְׁאָר הַקּוֹרָה טָהוֹר. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכִסֵּא שֶׁקְּבָעוֹ בַּעֲרֵבָה שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר:


When a stonecutter prepares the edge of a beam to sit upon, the place where he sits is susceptible to midras impurity. The place where a person sits in the back of a carriage is not susceptible to impurity, because it is uncomfortable to sit there.


קְצָת הַקּוֹרָה שֶׁמְּתַקֵּן הַמְסַתֵּת אֶת הָאֶבֶן לֵישֵׁב עָלָיו הֲרֵי מְקוֹם יְשִׁיבָתוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס. וּמְקוֹם יְשִׁיבָה שֶׁאֲחוֹרֵי הַקָּרוֹן טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא יְשִׁיבַת צַעַר:


The tops of beams on which craftsmen sit and smooth stones or the like are pure. Similarly, a piece hewn from a date palm upon which one sits is pure even if it is a handbreadth high. The rationale is that this is not a k'li. Similarly, a lump of wood, even if it was colored red or saffron and made part of the façade of a gateway or the like, is not considered a k'li, nor is it susceptible to impurity unless one engraves decorative designs in the wood.


רָאשֵׁי כְּלוּנְסוֹת שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין עֲלֵיהֶן הָאֻמָּנִין וְשָׁפִין אֶת הָאֲבָנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן כֹּפֶת שֶׁל תְּמָרָה שֶׁהוּא יוֹשֵׁב עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ גָּבוֹהַּ טֶפַח טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין זֶה כְּלִי. וְכֵן בּוּל שֶׁל עֵץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסֵּרְקוֹ וְכִרְכְּמוֹ וַעֲשָׂאָהוּ פָּנִים לְשָׁעַר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אֵינוֹ כְּלִי וְלֹא מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיָּחֹק בּוֹ:


The following laws apply to heads of beams that have been hewn out. If they were hewn out with the intent that one sit upon them, they are susceptible to midras impurity. If one intended to sit upon them, they are susceptible to impurity from this time onward. If a deaf-mute, an intellectually or emotionally challenged person, a minor or a person to whom they did not belong intended to sit upon them, they are pure. For the only intent that is effective in changing the status of an entity vis-à-vis ritual impurity is the intent of the owner who is sound of mind.


רָאשֵׁי כְּלוּנְסוֹת הַחֲקוּקִין אִם חֲקָקָן לְדַעַת מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. מְצָאָן חֲקוּקִין אִם חִשֵּׁב עֲלֵיהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִכָּאן וּלְהַבָּא וְאִם חִשֵּׁב עֲלֵיהֶן חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן אוֹ אָדָם שֶׁאֵינָן שֶׁלּוֹ טְהוֹרִין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה אֶלָּא בְּמַחְשָׁבָה שֶׁאֵין לְךָ מַחֲשָׁבָה מוֹעֶלֶת אֶלָּא מַחֲשֶׁבֶת בְּעָלִים שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי דֵּעָה:


When a person makes a mound from dried yeast and designates it as a seat, it is nullified as a food and susceptible to midras impurity, for it serves the purpose of a wooden article.


הָעוֹשֶׂה כִּפָּה מִן הַשְּׂאוֹר וְיִבְּשָׁהּ וְיִחֲדָהּ לִישִׁיבָה הֲרֵי בְּטֵלָה מִתּוֹרַת אֹכֶל וּמִתְטַמְּאָה בְּמִדְרָס שֶׁהֲרֵי מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת תַּשְׁמִישֵׁי הָעֵץ:


A straw mat is susceptible to midras impurity. One made of reeds or grass is pure, because they are not fit to serve as supports. With regard to other types of mats, if they were made to lie on, they are susceptible to impurity, if they were made to give shade, they are pure. If they were made without any specific intent, the ruling is dependent on its size. If they are large, it can be assumed that they were made for shade. If they are small, it can be assumed that they were made to lie upon.


מַחְצֶלֶת הַקַּשׁ מִתְטַמְּאָה בְּמִדְרָס וְשֶׁל קִנִּים וְשֶׁל חֵלֶף טְהוֹרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לְמִדְרָס. וּשְׁאָר הַמַּחְצְלָאוֹת אִם עֲשָׁאָהּ לִשְׁכִיבָה מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה עֲשָׂאָהּ לְסִכּוּךְ טְהוֹרָה. עֲשָׂאָהּ סְתָם גְּדוֹלָה סְתָמָהּ לְסִכּוּךְ קְטַנָּה סְתָמָהּ לִשְׁכִיבָה:


If reeds were attached to a mat lengthwise for reinforcement, it is susceptible to midras impurity, because it is still fit to lie upon. If they were attached in the form of the Greek letter chi, it is pure. If the reeds were attached widthwise and there were less than four handbreadths between them, it is pure.

A mat that was divided across its width is still susceptible to impurity. If it was divided across its length, different rules apply. If three bonds of six handbreadths remain, it is still fit to use as a support and is susceptible to impurity. If a smaller portion remains, it is pure. Similarly, if one released the bonds, the mat is pure.

A mat will not become susceptible even to midras impurity until the work involved with its fashioning is completed and its edges are trimmed, as we explained.


מַחְצֶלֶת שֶׁעָשָׂה לָהּ קָנִים לְאָרְכָּהּ טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס שֶׁעֲדַיִן רְאוּיָה לִשְׁכִיבָה. עֲשָׂאָהּ כְּמִין כִּי טְהוֹרָה. עָשָׂה לָהּ קָנִים לְרָחְבָּהּ אִם אֵין בֵּין קָנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים טְהוֹרָה. נֶחְלְקָה לְרָחְבָּהּ עֲדַיִן מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. לְאָרְכָּהּ נִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ בָּהּ שְׁלֹשָׁה מַעֲדַנִּים שֶׁל שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים עֲדַיִן הִיא רְאוּיָה לְמִדְרָס וּמִתְטַמְּאָה. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן טְהוֹרָה. וְכֵן אִם הִתִּיר רָאשֵׁי מַעֲדַנִּים טְהוֹרָה. וְאַף טֻמְאַת מִדְרָס לֹא תְּקַבֵּל הַמַּחְצֶלֶת עַד שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּהּ וְתִתְנַקֵּב כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


A chest that opens from above is pure with regard to midras impurity, because it is not fit to sit upon. It is, however, susceptible to other types of impurity. If it opens from its side, it is susceptible to midras impurity and other types of impurity.


תֵּבָה שֶׁפִּתְחָהּ מִלְּמַעְלָה טְהוֹרָה מִן הַמִּדְרָס שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לֵישֵׁב עָלֶיהָ. וּמְקַבֶּלֶת שְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת. פִּתְחָהּ מִצִּדָּהּ טְמֵאָה בְּמִדְרָס וּבִשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת:


The carriage of a child is susceptible to midras impurity, because he will lean upon it.


עֲגָלָה שֶׁל קָטָן מִתְטַמְּאָה בְּמִדְרָס שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁעָן עָלֶיהָ:


A walking stick used by an old man is absolutely pure, because it is only an aid.


מַקֵּל שֶׁל זְקֵנִים טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְסַיֵּעַ:


A sandal used by limeworkers - which is made of wood - is susceptible to midras impurity, because, at times, a limeworker will wear it while walking until he reaches his home.


סַנְדָּל שֶׁל סַיָּדִין וְהוּא סַנְדָּל שֶׁל עֵץ מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַסַּיָּד פְּעָמִים מְטַיֵּל בּוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ:


A prosthetic leg of a person whose leg was amputated that has a receptacle for the remnants of his flesh is susceptible to other types of impurity, because of the receptacle and is susceptible to midras impurity, because he leans upon it.


קַב שֶׁל קִטֵּעַ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ בֵּית קִבּוּל כְּתִיתִין מִתְטַמֵּא בִּשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת מִפְּנֵי בֵּית קִבּוּלוֹ. וּמִתְטַמֵּא בְּמִדְרָס שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁעָן עָלָיו:


These items are susceptible to impurity, because they are surfaces upon which one rides: the saddle-blanket of a donkey, the saddle of a horse, the cushion for a camel, the saddle of a female camel, and the like.

The boards that are placed on a donkey, after which, a burden is placed upon them, are pure. If it is fit to be used as a saddle, it is susceptible to impurity.


וְאֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין מִשּׁוּם מֶרְכָּב. מִרְדַּעַת שֶׁל חֲמוֹר. וְטַפִּיטָן שֶׁל סוּס. וְכַר הַגָּמָל. וְאֻכָּף שֶׁל נָאקָה וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. הַלּוּחוֹת שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַחֲמוֹר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו הַמַּשּׂאוֹי טְהוֹרוֹת וְאִם הָיְתָה רְאוּיָה לְמֶרְכָּב טְמֵאָה: