1

To what degree is it necessary for an earthenware utensil to be broken so that it can no longer serve as an effective container and, hence, have its impurity nullified if it was impure or no longer be considered as susceptible to impurity if it was pure?

For a container made for food - when it has a hole through which olives can fall. For a container made for liquids - when it has a hole through which liquids can seep in; i.e., when it is inserted into liquids, the liquids will seep into the container through the hole. If it was made for both foods and liquids, it is judged stringently and it is susceptible to impurity unless it has a hole large enough for olives to fall through.

The measure "enough for liquids to seep out" was stated only with regard to a base for containers, because it is made to collect liquids that flow from containers and if liquids seep from it, it no longer serves its function.

א

כַּמָּה שִׁעוּר הַשֶּׁבֶר שֶׁיִּשָּׁבֵר כְּלִי חֶרֶס וְיִטְהַר מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ אִם הָיָה טָמֵא. אוֹ לֹא יְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה אִם הָיָה טָהוֹר. הֶעָשׂוּי לָאֳכָלִין מִשֶּׁיִּנָּקֵב בְּמוֹצִיא זֵיתִים. וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְמַשְׁקִין מִשֶּׁיִּנָּקֵב בְּמַכְנִיס מַשְׁקִין, כְּשֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה יִכָּנֵס הַמַּשְׁקֶה לַכְּלִי בַּנֶּקֶב. הֶעָשׂוּי לְכָךְ וּלְכָךְ מְטִילִין אוֹתוֹ לְחֻמְרוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּנָּקֵב בְּמוֹצִיא זַיִת. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ בְּמוֹצִיא מַשְׁקֶה אֶלָּא בְּגִסְטְרָא בִּלְבַד לְפִי שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה לְקַבֵּל הַמַּשְׁקִין הַנּוֹזְלִים מִן הַכֵּלִים וְאִם הוֹצִיאָה מַשְׁקִין הֲרֵי זֶה בָּטֵל תַּשְׁמִישָׁהּ:

2

There are five categories applicable with regard to an earthenware container:

a) if it has a hole through which liquids can seep out, it is pure with regard to contracting impurity as a base for containers, but it is still considered a container with regard to the consecration of water for the ashes of the red heifer;

b) if it has a hole that allows liquid to seep in, it is no longer considered as a container with regard to the consecration of water for the ashes of the red heifer, but it is still considered a container with regard to making produce subject to ritual impurity because of the liquids contained within it, as we explained;

c) if it has a hole large enough for a small root to emerge from it, the water it contains do not make produce subject to ritual impurity because the liquids contained within it are considered as if they are not in a container; nevertheless, it is still considered as a container with regard to holding olives and hence, it is susceptible to impurity;

d) if it has a hole large enough for olives to fall through, it is pure and it is regarded as a k'li made from animal turds or stone that is not susceptible to impurity, nevertheless, it is still considered as a container with regard to saving its contents when sealed closed in a building where a corpse is located unless its larger portion is broken, as we explained in Hilchot Tum'at Meit.

ב

חָמֵשׁ מִדּוֹת בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס. נִקַּב בְּמוֹצִיא מַשְׁקֶה טָהוֹר מִלְּהִתְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם גִּסְטְרָא וַעֲדַיִן הוּא חָשׁוּב כְּלִי לְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ מֵי חַטָּאת. נִקַּב בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ מֵי חַטָּאת וַעֲדַיִן כְּלִי הוּא חָשׁוּב לְהַכְשִׁיר הַזְּרָעִים בְּמַשְׁקִין הַתְּלוּשִׁין בּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. נִקַּב כְּשֹׁרֶשׁ קָטָן אֵין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ מַכְשִׁירִין אֶת הַזְּרָעִים וַהֲרֵי הֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵינָן בַּכְּלִי וַעֲדַיִן כְּלִי הוּא חָשׁוּב לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ זֵיתִים וּמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. נִקַּב בְּמוֹצִיא זֵיתִים טָהוֹר וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּכְלֵי גְּלָלִים וַאֲבָנִים שֶׁאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וַעֲדַיִן כְּלִי הוּא חָשׁוּב לְהַצִּיל בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל עַד שֶׁיִּפָּחֵת רֻבּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּטֻמְאַת מֵת (בְּפֶרֶק שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר):

3

The size of a hole necessary for a barrel not to contract impurity is one through which nuts would fall. The size of a hole necessary for a frying pan or a pot not to contract impurity is one through which olives would fall. Similarly, even when an earthenware kneading trough is large and contains 40 se'ah of liquids, if it has holes large enough for olives to fall through, even though one turns it on its side and kneads with it, it is pure, for it was not made with this intent at the outset.

ג

הֶחָבִית שִׁעוּרָהּ כֶּאֱגוֹזִים. הָאִלְפָּס וְהַקְּדֵרָה שִׁעוּרָן כְּזֵיתִים. וְכֵן עֲרֵבָה שֶׁל חֶרֶס אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה גְּדוֹלָה וּמַחְזֶקֶת אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה בְּלַח וְנִפְחֲתָה בְּמוֹצִיא זֵיתִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מַטָּהּ עַל צִדָּה וְלָשׁ בָּהּ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּתָהּ לֹא נַעֲשֵׂית לְכָךְ:

4

The size of a hole necessary for a cruse and a container not to contract impurity is one through which oil can seep through. The size of a hole necessary for a pitcher not to contract impurity is one through which water can seep in.

ד

הַפַּךְ וְהַטֶּנִי שִׁעוּרָן בְּשֶׁמֶן. וְהַצַּרְצוּר שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּמַיִם:

5

When the opening of a lamp is removed, it is pure. A lamp of earth whose mouth was fired by the wick is not susceptible to impurity and is not considered as an earthenware container until the entire lamp was fired in a kiln like an earthenware container.

ה

נֵר שֶׁנִּטַּל פִּיו טָהוֹר. וְשֶׁל אֲדָמָה שֶׁהֻסַּק פִּיו בִּפְתִילָה אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה וְאֵינוֹ בִּכְלַל כְּלֵי חֶרֶס עַד שֶׁיֻּסַּק כֻּלּוֹ בַּכִּבְשָׁן כִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס:

6

When a barrel is broken, but it can hold liquids when it is turned on its side or if it was split and it is like two kneading troughs, it is still susceptible to impurity. If it became cracked and cannot be carried while holding half a kab of dried figs, it is pure.

ו

חָבִית שֶׁנִּפְחֲתָה וּכְשֶׁמַּטִּין אוֹתָהּ עַל דָּפְנָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת אוֹ שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה כְּמִין שְׁתֵּי עֲרֵבוֹת עֲדַיִן הִיא מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. נִתְרַעְעָה וְאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהִטַּלְטֵל בַּחֲצִי קַב גְּרוֹגָרוֹת טְהוֹרָה:

7

When the handles of a barrel are removed, it is considered as a base placed under a container. This is true even if only one handle was removed. If it was cracked below its handles, even though its handles are intact, it is also considered only as a base. If initially it was made without handles, it is considered as a barrel.

ז

חָבִית שֶׁנִּטְּלוּ אָזְנֶיהָ הֲרֵי הִיא כְּגִסְטְרָא אֲפִלּוּ אֹזֶן אַחַת. נִסְדְּקָה לְמַטָּה מֵאָזְנֶיהָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָזְנֶיהָ קַיָּמוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּגִסְטְרָא. וְאִם עֲשָׂאָהּ מִתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא בְּאָזְנַיִם נִדּוֹנֶת כְּחָבִית:

8

The following laws apply when a barrel became cracked in the oven and thus two bases for containers were produced. If it cracked after the work necessary to fashion it was completed, each of the bases is susceptible to ritual impurity. If it was cracked before the work necessary to complete it was finished and afterwards, it was fired in the kiln, it is pure.

How can this matter be determined? If the broken pieces were flat and the clay was red beneath the surface, it can be assumed that it was broken before the work necessary to fashion it was completed. If the broken pieces were not flat and the clay was not red beneath the surface, it can be assumed that it was broken after the work necessary to fashion it was completed. Hence it is susceptible to impurity like other broken earthenware containers that are fit to be used.

ח

חָבִית שֶׁנִּסְדְּקָה בַּכִּבְשָׁן וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהִיא כִּשְׁתֵּי גִּסְטְרָאוֹת. אִם מִשֶּׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּהּ נִסְדְּקָה כָּל גִּסְטְרָא מֵהֶן מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְאִם נִסְדְּקָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשְׂרְפָה בַּכִּבְשָׁן טְהוֹרָה. וְהֵיאַךְ יִוָּדַע דָּבָר זֶה. אִם הָיוּ שְׁבָרֶיהָ שָׁוִין וְתוֹכָהּ מַאֲדִים עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּהּ נִסְדְּקָה. אֵין שְׁבָרֶיהָ שָׁוִין וְאֵין תּוֹכָהּ מַאֲדִים בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁאַחַר שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּהּ נִשְׁבְּרָה וּמְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה כִּשְׁאָר שִׁבְרֵי כְּלֵי חֶרֶס הָרְאוּיִין לְתַשְׁמִישׁ:

9

When a base to be placed under containers is cracked and it is not suitable to hold liquids, it is pure even though it is still suitable to hold food. The rationale is that it is made only to collect liquids that seep out as we explained. If it would leak, it would be useless, because a base is not placed under another base.

Similarly, a base that is broken or divided into two is pure, because it was not said that the remnants of remnants are susceptible to impurity. Instead, it is only the remnants of earthenware containers themselves that are susceptible to impurity.

ט

גִּסְטְרָא שֶׁנִּתְרַעְעָה וְאֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת מַשְׁקִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקַבֶּלֶת אֳכָלִין הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲשׂוּיָה אֶלָּא לְקַבֵּל מַשְׁקִין הַדּוֹלְפִין כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְאִם הָיְתָה דּוֹלֶפֶת אֵין עוֹשִׂין גִּסְטְרָא לְגִסְטְרָא. וְכֵן גִּסְטְרָא שֶׁנִּפְחֲתָה אוֹ שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה לִשְׁתַּיִם טְהוֹרָה שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ שְׁיָרִים שֶׁל שְׁיָרִים מִתְטַמְּאִין אֶלָּא שְׁיָרֵי כְּלֵי חֶרֶס בִּלְבַד הֵן שֶׁמִּתְטַמְּאִין:

10

If there are protrusions emerging from a base, whether it is resting upright or leaning on its side, whenever the protrusions can hold olives if the base is filled with olives, it contracts impurity when the base is touched by impurity and when impurity enters the inner space opposite it. If it cannot hold olives, it contracts impurity when the base is touched by impurity, but does not contract impurity when impurity enters the inner space opposite it.

י

גִּסְטְרָא שֶׁחִדּוּדִין יוֹצְאִין מִמֶּנָּה בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה יוֹשֶׁבֶת בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻטָּה עַל צִדָּהּ כָּל הַמְקַבֵּל מִן הַחִדּוּדִין זֵיתִים כְּשֶׁיִּתְמַלֵּא הַגִּסְטְרָא זֵיתִים מְטַמֵּא בְּמַגָּע וּכְנֶגְדוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בָּאֲוִיר וְכָל שֶׁאֵין מְקַבֵּל עִמָּהּ בְּזֵיתִים מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמַגָּע וְאֵין כְּנֶגְדּוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בָּאֲוִיר:

11

What is meant by the statement: it contracts impurity when the base is touched by impurity, but does not contract impurity when impurity enters the inner space opposite it? If impurity touches the actual body of the inside of the base, the protrusion contracts impurity. If impurity enters the inner space of the base, even if it is directly opposite the protrusion, the protrusion does not contract impurity.

יא

כֵּיצַד מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמַגָּע וְאֵין כְּנֶגְדּוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בָּאֲוִיר. שֶׁאִם נָגְעָה הַטֻּמְאָה בַּגִּסְטְרָא מִתּוֹכָהּ מִתְטַמֵּא הַחִדּוּד. נִכְנְסָה הַטֻּמְאָה בַּאֲוִיר הַגִּסְטְרָא אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה כְּנֶגֶד הַחִדּוּד לֹא נִטְמָא הַחִדּוּד:

12

What is meant by the statement that a base contracts impurity when impurity enters the inner space opposite it? That if impurity enters the inner space of the base opposite the protrusion, the protrusion contracts impurity together with the base.

Similar concepts apply whenever it is stated that an earthenware container, an oven, or a range contract impurity if touched by impurity, they contract impurity when impurity enters the inner space opposite them, or that they do not contract impurity when impurity enters the inner space opposite them. Similarly, whenever the concept of contracting impurity through contact is mentioned with regard to an earthenware container, an oven or a range, the intent is that the impurity will touch the inside of these entities. Contracting impurity via their inner space means that the impurity will not touch them at all, merely enter into their inner space.

יב

וְכֵיצַד כְּנֶגְדּוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא בָּאֲוִיר. שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בַּאֲוִיר הַגִּסְטְרָא כְּנֶגֶד הַחִדּוּד נִטְמָא הַחִדּוּד עִם הַגִּסְטְרָא. וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ זֶה הוּא בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ה יז) "בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס" וּבְתַנּוּר וְכִירַיִם מִתְטַמֵּא בְּמַגָּע וּכְנֶגְדוֹ בָּאֲוִיר אוֹ אֵין מִתְטַמֵּא כְּנֶגְדּוֹ בָּאֲוִיר. וְכֵן כָּל טֻמְאַת מַגָּע הָאֲמוּרָה בְּעִנְיַן כְּלִי חֶרֶס אוֹ תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם הוּא שֶׁתִּגַּע הַטֻּמְאָה בָּהֶן מִתּוֹכָן וְכָל טֻמְאַת אֲוִיר הוּא שֶׁלֹּא תִּגַּע הַטֻּמְאָה כְּלָל אֶלָּא תִּכָּנֵס לָאֲוִיר בִּלְבַד:

13

When a barrel was cracked and one held it together by smearing animal turds upon it - even though the shards would fall if the turds were removed - it remains susceptible to impurity, because its classification as a k'li was never nullified.

If it was broken and, after the shards fell apart, one stuck them together with turds or one brought shards from another place and stuck them together with turds - even though the shards would stand as a unit if the turds were removed - it is pure, because there was a time when it was no longer considered as a k'li. If one of the shards could hold a revi'it, that shard alone contracts impurity if impurity enters its inner space, because it is considered as a k'li in its own right. The remainder of the barrel does not contract impurity unless impurity touches it from the inside, because it is not a whole k'li.

יג

חָבִית שֶׁנִּתְרַעְעָה וּטְפָלָהּ בִּגְלָלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת הַגְּלָלִים וְהַחֲרָסִים נוֹפְלִים הֲרֵי זוֹ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא בָּטַל שֵׁם כְּלִי מֵעָלֶיהָ. נִשְׁבְּרָה וְדִבֵּק חֲרָסֶיהָ אַחַר שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ אוֹ שֶׁהֵבִיא חֲרָסִים מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר וּטְפָלָם בִּגְלָלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנּוֹטֵל אֶת הַגְּלָלִים וַחֲרָסֶיהָ עוֹמְדִין הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבָּטַל מֵעָלֶיהָ שֵׁם כְּלִי. הָיָה בָּהֶן חֶרֶס מַחֲזִיק רְבִיעִית כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתוֹ הַחֶרֶס בִּלְבַד מִתְטַמֵּא בָּאֲוִיר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וּשְׁאָר הֶחָבִית אֵינוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא עַד שֶׁתִּגַּע בָּהּ הַטֻּמְאָה מִתּוֹכָהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ כְּלִי שָׁלֵם:

14

The following laws apply if a barrel was perforated, one plugged the hole with tar, and then the barrel was broken. If the shard plugged with tar could hold a revi'it, it is susceptible to impurity, because it is considered as a broken portion of a barrel and its classification as a k'li was never nullified.

If, however, one plugged a hole in a shard with tar after it was separated from the k'li, it is pure, even though it is now capable of holding a revi'it. The rationale is that when a shard is perforated, it is no longer considered as a k'li and it is pure. And once an earthenware container has been considered as pure for even one moment, it never becomes susceptible to impurity again.

יד

חָבִית שֶׁנִּקְּבָה וְסָתַם הַנֶּקֶב בְּזֶפֶת וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשְׁבְּרָה אִם יֵשׁ בַּחֶרֶס הַסָּתוּם בְּזֶפֶת כְּדֵי לְהַחֲזִיק רְבִיעִית הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִשִּׁבְרֵי הֶחָבִית וְלֹא בָּטַל שֵׁם כְּלִי מֵעָלֶיהָ. אֲבָל חֶרֶס שֶׁנִּקַּב אַחַר שֶׁפֵּרַשׁ מִן הַכְּלִי וְסָתַם הַנֶּקֶב בְּזֶפֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מַחֲזִיק רְבִיעִית טָהוֹר. שֶׁהַחֶרֶס שֶׁנִּקַּב בָּטַל שֵׁם כְּלִי מֵעָלָיו וְטָהַר וְכָל שֶׁטָּהַר בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס שָׁעָה אַחַת אֵין לוֹ טֻמְאָה לְעוֹלָם:

15

When a kettle was perforated and it was patched with tar, it is pure, because it cannot hold hot liquids as it holds cold ones. Similarly, keilim made from tar, beeswax, or the like are pure and are not considered as keilim.

טו

קוּמְקוּמוֹס שֶׁנִּקַּב וַעֲשָׂאָהוּ בְּזֶפֶת טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְקַבֵּל הַחַמִּין כְּצוֹנֵן. וְכֵן כְּלֵי הַזֶּפֶת וְהַשַּׁעֲוָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן טְהוֹרִין וְאֵינָן בִּכְלַל הַכֵּלִים:

16

When an earthenware funnel was plugged with tar, it is not susceptible to impurity, because the tar does not cause it to be considered as a container. If, however, a wooden funnel is plugged in this manner, it is considered as a container and it is susceptible to impurity.

טז

מַשְׁפֵּךְ שֶׁל חֶרֶס שֶׁפְּקָקוֹ בְּזֶפֶת אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה שֶׁאֵין הַזֶּפֶת מְשִׂימוֹ כְּלִי קִבּוּל. אֲבָל מַשְׁפֵּךְ שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁסְּתָמוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כִּכְלִי קִבּוּל וּמִתְטַמֵּא: