1

Any entity that protects from ritual impurity as a sealed covering in a structure that is impure because of a human corpse, protects from ritual impurity as a sealed covering in the inner space of an earthenware container. If it can prevent an entity from contracting ritual impurity from a severe form of impurity, i.e., a structure that is impure because of a human corpse, it can be assumed that it will also prevent impurity in the more lenient instance of an earthenware container. Any entity that does not protect from ritual impurity in a structure that is impure because of a human corpse, does not protect from ritual impurity in the inner space of an earthenware container.

א

כָּל הַמַּצִּיל בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת מַצִּיל בְּצָמִיד פּתִיל בּאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס. אִם הִצִּיל בְּמֵת הֶחָמוּר דִּין הוּא שֶׁיַּצִּיל בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס הַקַּל. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַצִּיל בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל בַּאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס:

2

Just as a sealed covering does not prevent impurity from escaping in a structure that is impure because of] a human corpse, so too, it does not prevent impurity from escaping into the inner space of an earthenware container.

What is implied? If a pot was filled with food and liquids and sealed closed and placed in an impure oven, the pot and its contents are pure. When the pot contained the carcass of a crawling animal or impure liquids, even though it is sealed closed, if it is placed in the inner space of an oven, the oven contracts impurity. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.

ב

וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין צָמִיד פָּתִיל לְטֻמְאָה בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת כָּךְ אֵין צָמִיד פָּתִיל לְטֻמְאָה בַּאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס. כֵּיצַד. קְדֵרָה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין וּמֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּנְתוּנָה בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי הַקְּדֵרָה וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ טְהוֹרִין. הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ אוֹ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בְּתוֹכָהּ וּמֻקֶּפֶת צָמִיד פָּתִיל וּנְתוּנָה בַּאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר [וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה]:

3

When an impure ring was enclosed within a brick or an impure needle was enclosed within a block of wood that fell into the inner space of an earthenware container, it contracts impurity. Even though a loaf of bread that is terumah that would touch this wood or brick would be pure, these articles impart impurity to an earthenware container by virtue of their presence in its inner space.

ג

טַבַּעַת טְמֵאָה שֶׁמֻּבְלַעַת בְּתוֹךְ הַלְּבֵנָה אוֹ מַחַט טְמֵאָה שֶׁמֻּבְלַעַת בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵץ וְנָפְלוּ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס נִטְמָא. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם נָגַע כִּכַּר תְּרוּמָה בְּעֵץ זֶה אוֹ בִּלְבֵנָה זוֹ טָהוֹר הֲרֵי הֵן מְטַמְּאִין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מֵאֲוִירוֹ:

4

When a rooster swallows the carcass of a crawling animal or flesh from a human corpse and falls into the inner space of an oven, the oven is pure. If the rooster dies there, the oven contracts impurity. The rationale is that the fact that these entities were swallowed by a living being generates protection from the impurity in an earthenware container, just as it generates protection from impurity in a structure that is impure because of a human corpse.

ד

תַּרְנְגוֹל שֶׁבָּלַע שֶׁרֶץ אוֹ בְּשַׂר מֵת וְנָפַל לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. וְאִם מֵת שָׁם הַתַּרְנְגוֹל נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר. שֶׁהַבְּלוּעִין בְּחַי מַצִּילִין מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמַּצִּילִין בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת:

5

Entities in a person's mouth or in the folds of his body are not considered as swallowed.

What is implied? A person had impure liquids in his mouth. If he closes his mouth and inserts his head into the inner space of an earthenware container, he imparts impurity to it. Similarly, if a pure person who had food and liquids in his mouth inserted his head into the inner space of an impure oven, the food and the liquids in his mouth contract impurity. If he had a lentil-sized portion of the carcass of a crawling animal and inserted it in the inner space of an oven, the oven contracts impurity even though the source of impurity is found in the folds of the person's body.

ה

דְּבָרִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּה אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּמָטִין אֵינָן כִּבְלוּעִין. כֵּיצַד. אָדָם שֶׁהָיוּ מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין בְּתוֹךְ פִּיו וְקָפַץ פִּיו וְהִכְנִיס רֹאשׁוֹ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס טִמְּאָהוּ. וְכֵן טָהוֹר שֶׁהָיוּ אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין לְתוֹךְ פִּיו וְהִכְנִיס רֹאשׁוֹ לַאֲוִיר תַּנּוּר טָמֵא נִטְמְאוּ אֳכָלִים שֶׁבְּפִיו. הָיָה לוֹ בְּתוֹךְ קֻמְטוֹ כַּעֲדָשָׁה מִן הַשֶּׁרֶץ וְהִכְנִיסוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹךְ הַקֶּמֶט:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.

6

When a sponge absorbed impure liquids, even though its surface is dry, if it fell into the inner space of an earthenware container, it imparts impurity to the container, because ultimately, the impurity will emerge. Similar laws apply to a piece of turnip or a reed.

When shards that were used for impure liquids became dry and fell into the inner space of an earthenware container, they do not impart impurity to it. If they fell into an oven and it was heated, they impart impurity to it, because ultimately, the liquids will emerge.

When does the above apply? With regard to impure liquids of a lesser severity. When, however, the impurity of the liquids is severe, e.g., the blood of a woman in the nidah state or her urine, if it is possible that they will emerge and the person is concerned that they emerge, they impart impurity to the oven even if was not heated. If he is not concerned that they emerge, they do not impart impurity until the oven is heated and the liquid emerges.

Similarly, when new olive dregs that come from impure liquids are used as kindling fuel for an oven, it contracts impurity, for, ultimately, the liquids will emerge. If, however, the olive dregs are old, the oven is pure. When are dregs considered old? After twelve months. When, however, it is known that liquids will emerge from the dregs when the oven will be heated, the oven contracts impurity when heated even if the dregs are three years old.

ו

סְפוֹג שֶׁבָּלַע מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נָגוּב מִבַּחוּץ אִם נָפַל לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס טִמְּאָהוּ שֶׁסּוֹף מַשְׁקֶה לָצֵאת. וְכֵן חֲתִיכָה שֶׁל לֶפֶת וְשֶׁל גֶּמִי. חֲרָסִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהֶן מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין וְנִגְּבוּ וְנָפְלוּ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס לֹא טִמְּאוּהוּ. נָפְלוּ לְתַנּוּר וְהֻסַּק נִטְמָא שֶׁסּוֹף מַשְׁקֶה לָצֵאת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמַשְׁקִין קַלִּין. אֲבָל בַּחֲמוּרִין כְּגוֹן דַּם הַנִּדָּה וּמֵימֵי רַגְלֶיהָ אִם הָיוּ יְכוֹלִין לָצֵאת וְהִקְפִּיד עָלָיו שֶׁיֵּצֵא הֲרֵי זֶה מְטַמֵּא הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֻסַּק וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא עַד שֶׁיֻּסַּק וְיֵצֵא הַמַּשְׁקֶה. וְכֵן בְּגֶפֶת חֲדָשָׁה הַבָּאָה מִמַּשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין שֶׁהֻסַּק בָּהּ הַתַּנּוּר נִטְמָא שֶׁסּוֹף מַשְׁקֶה לָצֵאת אֲבָל בִּישָׁנָה טָהוֹר. אֵיזוֹ הִיא יְשָׁנָה לְאַחַר שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. וְאִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנָּה מַשְׁקֶה בִּשְׁעַת הֶסֵּק אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים נִטְמָא הַתַּנּוּר כְּשֶׁיֻּסַּק:

7

Even though an earthenware container was divided with a partition extending from its rim until its bottom, if impurity enters the inner space of one of the portions, the entire container contracts impurity. The rationale is that it is not common practice for people to divide earthenware containers as they divide structures. Therefore, if an oven is divided with boards or curtains and the carcass of a crawling animal is found in one place, the entire oven is impure.

ז

כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁחִלְּקוֹ בִּמְחִצָּה מִשְּׂפָתוֹ עַד קַרְקָעִיתוֹ וְנִכְנְסָה טֻמְאָה בַּאֲוִיר אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי הַחֲלָקִים נִטְמָא הַכְּלִי כֻּלּוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לְחַלֵּק כְּלֵי חֶרֶס כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁחוֹלְקִין הָאֹהָלִים. לְפִיכָךְ תַּנּוּר שֶׁחֲצָצוֹ בִּנְסָרִים אוֹ בִּירִיעוֹת וְנִמְצָא הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד הַכּל טָמֵא:

8

When a container in which impurity was located was inserted into the inner space of an earthenware container, if the edge of the impure container extends outside the earthenware container, the earthenware container is ritually pure even though the impurity is positioned inside of it, for Leviticus 11:33 states: "Into whose inner space one of these will fall." Implied is that the presence of impurity in the inner space of a container conveys impurity but not its presence in the inner space of a container in the inner space of a second container.

ח

כְּלִי שֶׁהָיְתָה הַטֻּמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ וְהִכְנִיס הַכְּלִי לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס וּשְׂפַת הַכְּלִי הַטָּמֵא חוּץ לִכְלִי חֶרֶס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה מְכֻוֶּנֶת בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "אֶל תּוֹכוֹ" לֹא אֶל תּוֹךְ תּוֹכוֹ:

9

A similar concept applies if there was an impure earthenware container and another container holding food or liquids was inserted into its inner space. If the edges of the other container extend beyond the impure earthenware container, the food and the liquids remain pure. This is derived from the continuation of the above verse: "Everything in its inner space shall contract impurity," i.e., "in its inner space," and not in the inner space of a container in its inner space.

What is implied? When a bee-hive shaped container, a basket, a pot, a flask, or the like contained the carcass of a crawling animal and then one lowered the basket or the like into the inner space of a barrel or into the inner space of an oven, even though the carcass of the crawling animal is positioned inside the inner space of the barrel or the oven since the edge of the basket or the flask extends above the edge of the barrel or the edge of the oven, the barrel or the oven is pure. In such a situation, if there were pure food or liquids in a flask, in a pot, or the like and one lowered them into the inner space of an impure oven or barrel, the food and liquids are pure.

If, however, the bee-hive shaped container, the basket, the flask, or the like had a hole, they do not save entities from ritual impurity. Instead, if they contained the carcass of a crawling animal and they were lowered into the inner space of a pure earthenware container, it contracts impurity. If there were pure food or liquids and one lowered them into the inner space of an impure earthenware container, the food and the liquids contract impurity.

How large must the hole be for these laws to apply? In keilim that can be purified by immersion: large enough for an olive to fall out. If it was an earthenware container made to hold foods, the measure of the hole is: enough for olives to fall out. If it was intended to hold liquids, the measure is: enough for liquids to seep in when the container is placed in them. If it was made for both these purposes, it is judged stringently and when this earthenware container has a hole large enough for liquids to seep in, it does not save entities from impurity when inserted in the inner space of an earthenware container.

ט

וְכֵן אִם הָיָה כְּלִי חֶרֶס טָמֵא וְהִכְנִיס לַאֲוִירוֹ כְּלִי אַחֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֳכָלִים וּמַשְׁקִין וּשְׂפַת הַכְּלִי הָאַחֵר חוּץ לִכְלִי חֶרֶס אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאֳכָלִין וְהַמַּשְׁקִין מְכֻוָּנִין בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לג) "כּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא" וְלֹא שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ תּוֹכוֹ. כֵּיצַד. כַּוֶּרֶת אוֹ קֻפָּה אוֹ קְדֵרָה אוֹ חֵמֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁהָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּתוֹכָהּ וְשִׁלְשֵׁל הַקֻּפָּה לַאֲוִיר הֶחָבִית אוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשֶּׁרֶץ מְכֻוָּן בְּתוֹךְ אֲוִיר הֶחָבִית הוֹאִיל וּשְׂפַת הַקֻּפָּה אוֹ הַחֵמֶת לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׂפַת הֶחָבִית אוֹ מִשְּׂפַת הַתַּנּוּר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הַחֵמֶת אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין וְשִׁלְשְׁלָן לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר אוֹ לַאֲוִיר הֶחָבִית הַטְּמֵאִין הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין. הָיְתָה הַכַּוֶּרֶת אוֹ הַקֻּפָּה אוֹ הַחֵמֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן נְקוּבִין אֵינָן מַצִּילִין אֶלָּא אִם הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ לְתוֹכָן וְשִׁלְשְׁלָן לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּהוֹר נִטְמָא. וְאִם הָיוּ אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין לְתוֹכָן וְשִׁלְשְׁלָן לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא נִטְמְאוּ. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה בַּנֶּקֶב אִם הָיָה בִּכְלִי שֶׁטֶף בְּמוֹצִיא זֵיתִים וְאִם הָיָה בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס הֶעָשׂוּי לָאֳכָלִין שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּזֵיתִים וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְמַשְׁקִין שִׁעוּרוֹ בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה. וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְכָךְ וְכָךְ מְטִילִין אוֹתוֹ לְחֻמְרוֹ וּכְשֶׁיִּנָּקֵב כְּלִי חֶרֶס זֶה בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס:

10

The following rules apply if one sealed a hole in an earthenware container with tar. If the carcass of a crawling animal was in such a container and it was lowered into the inner space of a pure oven, the oven contracts impurity. For a sealed covering does not protect entities from contracting impurity, as we explained.

If, however, this container held pure food or liquids and it was lowered into the inner space of an impure oven, the food and the liquids are pure, because the hole has been sealed. When holes in all other types of containers were sealed close with tar and the like, they do not protect their contents from contracting ritual impurity from an earthenware container.

י

סָתַם נֶקֶב כְּלִי חֶרֶס בְּזֶפֶת אִם הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בִּכְלִי זֶה וְשִׁלְשְׁלוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר הַטָּהוֹר נִטְמָא שֶׁאֵין הַצָּמִיד מַצִּיל עַל הַטֻּמְאָה מִלְּטַמֵּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בִּכְלִי זֶה אֳכָלִין אוֹ מַשְׁקִין וְשִׁלְשְׁלוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר הַטָּמֵא הֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי הַנֶּקֶב סָתוּם. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁסְּתָמָן בְּזֶפֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס:

11

When a bee-hive shaped container has an opening, even though the opening was closed with straw, it no longer protects its contents from contracting impurity from an earthenware container, because it is not a container.

יא

כַּוֶּרֶת פְּחוּתָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסָּתַם הַפְּחָת בְּקַשׁ אֵינָהּ מַצֶּלֶת מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ כְּלִי:

12

Although a flask or stone container was opened to the extent that a pomegranate would fall from them - and thus they were no longer considered in the category of keilim - they still save entities from contracting impurity due to their presence in the inner space of an earthenware container, provided the opening is above the outer edge of the earthenware container and the receptacle is lowered within the inner space of the earthenware container.

יב

הַחֵמֶת וְהַכְּפִישָׁה שֶׁנִּפְחֲתוּ בְּמוֹצִיא רִמּוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּטְּלוֹ מִתּוֹרַת כְּלִי הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַצִּילִין מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַפְּחָת לְמַעְלָה מִשְּׂפַת כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִבַּחוּץ וְיִהְיֶה בֵּית קִבּוּל שֶׁלָּהֶן מְשֻׁלְשָׁל לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס:

13

When a simple hide or the like is hanging into the inner space of an earthenware container or into the inner space of an oven and there is a carcass of a crawling animal on the hide, the oven contracts impurity. If the carcass was inside the oven, any food or liquids on the hide are impure. The rationale is that the only type of entity that can prevent impurity from spreading due to the inner space of an earthenware container is a container that has a receptacle, e.g., a basket, a bin, or a flask.

יג

עוֹר פָּשׁוּט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁהָיָה שָׁקוּעַ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס אוֹ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר וְהַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּתוֹךְ הָעוֹר הֲרֵי הַתַּנּוּר טָמֵא. וְאִם הָיָה הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּתַּנּוּר אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הָעוֹר טְמֵאִין שֶׁאֵין מַצִּיל מִיַּד כְּלִי חֶרֶס אֶלָּא כֵּלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן תּוֹךְ כְּגוֹן הַסַּל וְהַקֻּפָּה וְהַחֵמֶת:

14

When there is impurity in the inner space of an earthenware container and there was another pure earthenware container turned upside and resting on the impure container, even though their inner space is combined, the impure one is impure and the pure one is pure. This same ruling applies if the impurity was attached to the wall of one container and it was overturned and resting on a pure container. The rationale is that the impurity itself has not entered the inner space of the pure earthenware container.

Therefore, if a barrel that was filled with pure liquids was found below an oven and the carcass of a crawling animal fell into the oven, the barrel and the liquids are pure, even though the inner space of the oven is combined with the inner space of the barrel. Similarly, if the barrel is turned facing the opening of the oven and its mouth opens to the inner space of the oven, even the liquid at the base of the barrel is pure.

יד

כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהָיְתָה טֻמְאָה בְּתוֹכוֹ וְהָיָה כְּלִי חֶרֶס טָהוֹר כָּפוּי עַל פִּי הַכְּלִי הַטָּמֵא אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הַכְּלִי שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה דְּבוּקָה בְּתוֹכוֹ כָּפוּי עַל פִּי הַכְּלִי הַטָּהוֹר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲוִיר שְׁנֵיהֶן מְעֹרָב הַטָּמֵא בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ וְהַטָּהוֹר בְּטָהֳרָתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִכְנְסָה הַטֻּמְאָה עַצְמָהּ לַאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּהוֹר. לְפִיכָךְ חָבִית שֶׁהָיְתָה מְלֵאָה מַשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין וּנְתוּנָה לְמַטָּה מִנְּחֻשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר וְנָפַל שֶׁרֶץ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר הֲרֵי הֶחָבִית וְהַמַּשְׁקִין טְהוֹרִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר מְעֹרָב עִם אֲוִיר הֶחָבִית. וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה הֶחָבִית כְּפוּיָה עַל פִּי הַתַּנּוּר וּפִיהָ לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר אֲפִלּוּ הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁבְּשׁוּלֵי הֶחָבִית טָהוֹר: