1

No keilim are susceptible to ritual impurity until the work involved in fashioning them is completed. When do wooden keilim become susceptible to ritual impurity? A bed and a cradle, when they are rubbed with fish skin. If one decided not to rub them, they become susceptible to impurity when they are fashioned.

Wooden baskets are considered as completed when their borders are sealed and the ends of the branches and small pieces of wood that emerge over the rim of the basket are trimmed. If the baskets were made of palm leaves, they are susceptible to impurity even though one did not trim the ends of the leaves on the inside, because they are left like that. A hanging basket is considered as completed when its border is sealed, the ends of the branches are trimmed, and the loop on which it hangs is completed. A basket for cups or for jugs is susceptible to impurity even though the leaves were not cut off on the inside of the basket. Wicker servers and reed bowls become susceptible to impurity when their borders are sealed and the branches that stick out are cut off.

Large wicker serving trays and containers become susceptible to impurity when two circles are wound around their width. A sifter, a sieve, or a weighing pan become susceptible to impurity when one circle is wound around their width. A large basket becomes susceptible to impurity when two circles are wound around their width. A long, narrow basket becomes susceptible to impurity when one circle is wound around its width. Even though the walls of these baskets are not completed, they become susceptible to ritual impurity, because they have already become fit for the purpose for which they were fashioned and they already have taken on the form of that utensil. To what can the matter be compared? To a garment that has been partially woven.

The task of fashioning a mat is completed when the long leaves from which it is made are trimmed. All keilim made from thin shoots of wood do not become susceptible to impurity until their borders are sealed. Unfinished wooden keilim become susceptible to impurity when the keilim are fashioned into their desired shape even though in the future one will paint designs onto them with dye, even them with a compass, improve their appearance with a plane, to perform similar tasks. Although they are still unfinished, since there is no need to make engravings and their shape has been hewn out, they are susceptible to impurity.

All unfinished wooden keilim become susceptible to impurity except those made from boxwood, because a k'li made from such wood is not considered as a k'li until it has been finished. It appears to me that keilim made of bone are like those made of boxwood and unfinished keilim made from bone are not susceptible to ritual impurity.

A wooden object that has not been formed into a k'li is not susceptible to ritual impurity even though it is being used as a k'li. Long wooden trays used by bakers upon which loaves are arranged while they are still dough are susceptible to ritual impurity, because they are considered to have the shape of a k'li. Those used by ordinary private persons are not susceptible to impurity. If, however, they were painted with red dye, saffron, or the like, they are susceptible to impurity, because they have been given the form of a k'li.

A baker's accessory in which water used to daub the dough is placed is impure. Those used by ordinary private persons are pure. If a private person made a rim around its four sides, it is susceptible to impurity. If the rim is broken down on one side, it is pure. The board on which loaves are arranged is susceptible to impurity. The container into which the sifters of flour would sift flour is susceptible to impurity. That used by ordinary private persons is pure.

A winnowing shovel for beans is susceptible to impurity. One used for gathering kernels into a storehouse is pure. One used for gathering wastes from the vat is susceptible to impurity. One used for gathering grain into a grainheap is pure. This is the general principle: A k'li made to serve as a receptacle is susceptible to impurity. If it is made to gather items together, it is pure.

א

כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּן. וּכְלֵי עֵץ מֵאֵימָתַי מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. הַמִּטָּה וְהָעֲרִיסָה מִשֶּׁיְּשׁוּפֵם בְּעוֹר הַדָּג. גָּמַר שֶׁלֹּא לָשׁוּף מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. הַסַּלִּים שֶׁל עֵץ מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן וְיִכְרֹת עֵקְצֵי הַשָּׂרִיגִים וְהָעֵצִים הַקְּטַנִּים הַיּוֹצְאִים עַל גַּבֵּי הַסַּל. הָיוּ הַסַּלִּים שֶׁל תְּמָרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא כָּרַת הַהוּצִין מִבִּפְנִים מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁכָּךְ מְקַיְּמִין אוֹתָן. הַכַּלְכָּלָה מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם פִּיהָ וְיִכְרֹת הַהוּצִים וְיִגְמֹר אֶת הַתְּלוּיוֹת. בֵּית הַכּוֹסוֹת וְהַלָּגִינִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא כָּרַת מִבִּפְנִים מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁכָּךְ מְקַיְּמִין אוֹתָם. הַקְּנוֹנִים הַקְּטַנִּים וְהַקְּלָתוֹת מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן וְיִכְרֹת הַהוּצִין הַיּוֹצְאִים. הַקְּנוֹנִים הַגְּדוֹלִים וְהַסְּיוֹגִים הַגְּדוֹלִים מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁנֵי דּוֹרִים לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהֶן. הַנָּפָה וְהַכְּבָרָה וְכַף מֹאזְנַיִם מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה דּוֹר אֶחָד לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהֶן. הַקֻפָּה מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁתֵּי צְפִירוֹת לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהּ. וְהָעֲרָק מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בּוֹ צְפִירָה אַחַת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא גָּמַר גַּבֵּיהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי נִרְאוּ לְמַה שֶּׁנַּעֲשׂוּ וְצוּרַת הַכְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן. הָא לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְבֶגֶד שֶׁנֶּאֱרַג מִקְצָתוֹ. הַמַּחְצֶלֶת מִשֶּׁיִּכְרֹת הַהוּצִין וְזֶהוּ גְּמַר מְלָאכָה. וְכָל כְּלֵי הַנְּסָרִים אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיִּתְחַסְּמוּ שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶן. גָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה מִשֶּׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַכְּלִי בְּצוּרָתוֹ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָתִיד לְתָאֲרוֹ בִּשְׂרַד אוֹ לְהַשְׁווֹתוֹ בִּמְחוֹגָה אוֹ לְיַפּוֹתוֹ בַּמַּעֲצָד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּמַעֲשִׂים אֵלּוּ וַעֲדַיִן הוּא גּלֶם הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ מְחֻסַּר חֲקִיקָה וַהֲרֵי הִשְׁלִים חֲפִירָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וְכָל גָּלְמֵי כְּלֵי עֵץ מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה חוּץ מִשֶּׁל אֶשְׁכְּרוֹעַ שֶׁאֵין הַכְּלִי מִמֶּנּוּ חָשׁוּב כְּלִי עַד שֶׁיִּתְיַפֶּה. וְקָרוֹב בְּעֵינַי שֶׁכְּלֵי עֶצֶם כִּכְלֵי אֶשְׁכְּרוֹעַ וְאֵין גָּלְמֵיהֶן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. כְּלִי עֵץ שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת כְּלִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. אֲרֻבּוֹת שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִין שֶׁסּוֹדְרִים עֲלֵיהֶן הַחַלּוֹת כְּשֶׁהֵן בָּצֵק מִתְטַמְּאוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי צוּרַת הַכְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן. וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים אֵינָן מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. וְאִם צְבָעָן בְּסִקְרָא אוֹ בְּכַרְכּוֹם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִתְטַמְּאוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית לָהֶן צוּרַת כְּלִי. סְרוֹד שֶׁל נַחְתּוֹמִין שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין בּוֹ הַמַּיִם שֶׁמְּקַטְּפִין בּוֹ טָמֵא וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים טָהוֹר. וְאִם גִּפְּפוֹ מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹתָיו מִתְטַמֵּא. נִפְרָץ מֵרוּחַ אַחַת טָהוֹר. וְהַלּוּחַ שֶׁעוֹרְכִין עָלָיו מִתְטַמֵּא. כְּלִי עֵץ שֶׁהַסַּלָּתִים מְרַקְּדִין עָלָיו אֶת הַסּלֶת מִתְטַמֵּא. וְשֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָּתִּים טָהוֹר. רַחַת הַגָּרוֹסוֹת מִתְטַמְּאָה. שֶׁל אוֹצָרוֹת טְהוֹרָה שֶׁל גִּתּוֹת מִתְטַמְּאָה וְשֶׁל גֳּרָנוֹת טְהוֹרָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל הֶעָשׂוּי לְקַבָּלָה מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה וְהֶעָשׂוּי לְכַנֵּס בּוֹ טָהוֹר:

2

All loops are pure with the exception of the loops for a sifter of flour makers, the loop for a sieve used in granaries, the loop for a handheld sickle, and the loop for a staff used by inspectors because they are of assistance when work is being performed. This is the general principle: Anything made to be of assistance at the time work is being performed is susceptible to impurity. If it only serves as a hanger for the k'li, it is pure.

ב

כָּל הַתְּלוֹיִין טְהוֹרִין חוּץ מִתְּלוֹיֵי נָפָה שֶׁל סַלָּתִין וּתְלוֹי כְּבָרָהּ שֶׁל גֳּרָנוֹת וּתְלוֹי מַגַּל יָד וּתְלוֹי מַקֵּל הַבַּלָּשִׁין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מְסַיְּעִין בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל הֶעָשׂוּי לְסַיְּעוֹ בִּשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה מִתְטַמֵּא לִתְלוֹת בּוֹ הַכְּלִי בִּלְבַד טָהוֹר:

3

Lyres of singers are susceptible to ritual impurity, but the lyres of the Levites that were used to play in the Temple were pure. A guitar, a standing harp, and a drum are susceptible to ritual impurity.

ג

נִבְלֵי הַמְשׁוֹרְרִים מִתְטַמְּאִין. נִבְלֵי בְּנֵי לֵוִי שֶׁמְּזַמְּרִין בָּהֶן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ טְהוֹרִין. הַבִּטְנוֹן וְהַנִּקְטְמוֹן וְהָאִירוּס מִתְטַמְּאִין:

4

A trap for moles is susceptible to ritual impurity; one for mice is pure. The rationale is that it does not have a receptacle and it is not made in the form of a k'li.

ד

מְצוּדַת הַחֻלְדָּה מִתְטַמֵּא וְשֶׁל עַכְבָּרִים טְהוֹרָה לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ בֵּית קִבּוּל וְאֵין עָלֶיהָ צוּרַת כְּלִי:

5

A basket that is woven from branches in which figs are placed and the like are susceptible to ritual impurity. Those which are woven into the form of a large silo where wheat is stored are pure, because they do not have the form of a k'li.

ה

קוֹצִין שֶׁאוֹרְגִין בָּהֶן כְּמוֹ כְּפִיפָה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בָּהּ הַתְּאֵנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִתְטַמְּאִין. וְשֶׁאוֹרְגִין בָּהֶן כְּתַבְנִית מְנוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁאוֹצְרִין בָּהֶן הַחִטִּין טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלֶיהָ:

6

When leaves are woven like a divider around produce, they are pure. If, however, one made a divider from twigs, it is susceptible to impurity.

ו

עָלִין שֶׁמְּסָרְגִין אוֹתָן כְּמִין סְיָג סָבִיב לַפֵּרוֹת טָהוֹר. וְאִם עָשׂוּ סְיָג שֶׁל נְסָרִין מִתְטַמְּאִין:

7

With regard to a pocket made of palm branches into which fresh dates and the like are placed: if one places fruit inside of it and removes it from it, it is susceptible to ritual impurity. If one cannot take the fruit stored in it unless he tears it or undoes it or one intends to eat the fruit inside of it and cast away the pocket, it is pure.

Similarly, a horn that is used and then discarded is not susceptible to impurity. If one thinks of using it as a utensil, it is susceptible to impurity.

ז

חֹתֶל שֶׁל הוּצִין שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ הָרֹטֶב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אִם הוּא נוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ וְנוֹטֵל מִתּוֹכוֹ מִתְטַמֵּא וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטּל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּקְרָעֶנּוּ אוֹ יַתִּירֶנּוּ אוֹ שֶׁחָשַׁב לֶאֱכל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ וּלְזָרְקוֹ טָהוֹר. וְכֵן הַקֶּרֶן שֶׁהוּא מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ וּמַשְׁלִיכָהּ אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְאִם חָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה:

8

A ram's horn is not susceptible to ritual impurity. If it was cut to be used as a useful k'li, it is susceptible to ritual impurity.

ח

הַשּׁוֹפָר אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. חֲתָכוֹ לִהְיוֹת קֶרֶן תַּשְׁמִישׁ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה:

9

The following rules apply when a bowl was permanently affixed to a chest, counter, or closet. If it is affixed in a way that it still serves as a container, it is susceptible to ritual impurity. If it was affixed to the wall of the chest - and thus cannot serve as a container unless the chest is turned on its side, it is considered as part of the chest and is pure.

ט

קְעָרָה שֶׁקְּבָעָהּ בְּשִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל אִם הִיא כְּדֶרֶךְ קַבָּלָתָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת טֻמְאָה. וְאִם קְבָעָהּ בַּדֹּפֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ מְקַבֶּלֶת עַד שֶׁמַּטִּים שִׁדָּה עַל צִדָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ מִכְּלַל הַשִּׁדָּה וּטְהוֹרָה:

10

A fishing trap, a trap for fowl, and a wooden cage are pure.

י

הָאַקּוֹן וְהָרָטוֹב וְהַכְּלוּב שֶׁל עֵץ טְהוֹרִין:

11

A flat trap for fowl, a snare for fowl, and the snare in a dam are susceptible to ritual impurity because they do have the form of a k'li.

יא

הַמַּדָּף וְהַפַּלְצוּר וּמְצוּדַת סְכָרִים מִתְטַמְּאִין שֶׁהֲרֵי צוּרַת כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶם:

12

Benches set up in inns and by the teachers of young children are pure even though they have holes into which legs are inserted. If the legs were affixed to them with nails, they are susceptible to impurity.

This is the general principle: Whenever a seat is portable and its legs are not carried with it, it is pure. Any seat that is portable and its legs are carried with it is susceptible to impurity. If both of its legs are made of wood or bone, it is susceptible to impurity. If one of them was made of stone, it is not susceptible to impurity.

יב

הַסַּפְסָלִין שֶׁבַּפֻּנְדְּקָאוֹת וְשֶׁל מְלַמְּדֵי תִּינוֹקוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן נְקוּבִין וּמַכְנִיסִין בָּהֶן אֶת הָרַגְלַיִם טְהוֹרִים. קָבְעוּ בָּהֶן רַגְלַיִם בְּמַסְמֵר מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל כָּל שֶׁנִּטָּל וְאֵין רַגְלָיו נִטָּלוֹת עִמּוֹ טָהוֹר. וְכָל שֶׁנִּטַּל וְרַגְלָיו נִטָּלוֹת עִמּוֹ טָמֵא. וְאִם הָיוּ כֻּלָּן שֶׁל עֵץ אוֹ עֶצֶם מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. הָיְתָה אַחַת מֵרַגְלָיו שֶׁל אֶבֶן אֵינוֹ מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה: