All the laws involving making foods susceptible to ritual impurity originate in the Oral Tradition. According to that tradition, it was taught that the verse Leviticus 11:38: "When water will be placed on seeds," refers not only to water, but to all the other seven liquids as well. And it applies only when the crops were exposed to the liquids willfully by the owner after the crops were uprooted from the earth. This is logical, for it is well known that there are no crops that were not exposed to water while they were connected to the ground. "When water will be placed..." applies only after the crops were uprooted and the liquids also were displaced.


כָּל דִּבְרֵי הֶכְשֵׁר אֳכָלִין דִּבְרֵי קַבָּלָה הֵן מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יא לח) "וְכִי יֻתַּן מַיִם עַל זֶרַע" אֶחָד הַמַּיִם וְאֶחָד שְׁאָר שִׁבְעָה מַשְׁקִין. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּנָּתֵן עֲלֵיהֶם בִּרְצוֹן בְּעָלִים וְאַחַר שֶׁנֶּעֶקְרוּ מִן הַקַּרְקַע. שֶׁדָּבָר יָדוּעַ הוּא שֶׁאֵין לְךָ זֶרַע שֶׁלֹּא בָּא עָלָיו מַיִם כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר. לֹא נֶאֱמַר וְכִי יֻתַּן מַיִם אֶלָּא לְאַחַר שֶׁנֶּעֶקְרוּ הָאֳכָלִין וְנִתְלְשׁוּ הַמַּשְׁקִין:


When a liquid fell on food and originally, it was desired by the owner, but ultimately, he was not pleased, or ultimately, he would be satisfied, even though initially, he was not, it becomes susceptible to impurity. If the food was exposed to liquids against his will, it does not make them susceptible to impurity. Even if the owner exposed his foods to liquids because of danger or out of necessity, but he does not desire that they become wet, they do not become susceptible to impurity.

What is implied? When a person hides his crops in water because of thieves or places them in a flowing river to transport them with him, they do not become susceptible to impurity.


כָּל מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁנָּפַל עַל הָאֹכֶל בַּתְּחִלָּה בִּרְצוֹן בְּעָלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין סוֹפוֹ בְּרָצוֹן אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה סוֹפוֹ בְּרָצוֹן וְאֵין תְּחִלָּתוֹ בְּרָצוֹן הִכְשִׁיר. נָפַל שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְצוֹנוֹ אֵינוֹ מַכְשִׁיר אֲפִלּוּ בָּלַל הוּא פֵּרוֹתָיו מִפְּנֵי הַסַּכָּנָה אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַצֹּרֶךְ וְהוּא אֵין רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בְּלוּלִין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא הֻכְשְׁרוּ. כֵּיצַד. הַטּוֹמֵן פֵּרוֹתָיו בְּמַיִם מִפְּנֵי הַגַּנָּבִים אוֹ הַנּוֹתֵן פֵּרוֹתָיו לְשִׁבּלֶת הַנָּהָר לַהֲבִיאָן עִמּוֹ אֵינָן מֻכְשָׁרִים:


When liquids were uprooted from the ground against a person's will, they do not impart impurity to foods. Therefore if a person, a k'li, or produce became wet with moisture and then was picked up from the ground against the person's will, even though foods came in contact with those liquids willfully, they do not become susceptible to ritual impurity. The rationale is that the water was uprooted from the ground against the person's will. Thus it is as if it is still on the ground and it does not make foods susceptible to impurity.

If there was water on a person, on a k'li, or foods that were uprooted willfully and foods touched them willfully, the foods become susceptible to impurity.

What is implied? If a person turns a bowl upside down on a wall so that it would be washed, the water it collects can make foods susceptible to impurity. If produce was placed in the water intentionally, it becomes susceptible to impurity, because the water was intentionally caused to enter the bowl. If he placed the bowl there so that the water would not damage the wall, the water the bowl contains is not considered to have been uprooted from the ground. Therefore if he placed foods in it, they do not become susceptible to impurity.

Different laws apply if he turned the bowl over with the intent that the wall be washed. If the wall was the wall of a house, the water makes foods susceptible to impurity. The rationale is that the walls of the house are considered as an independent entity, even though they are connected to the ground, because an entity that was separate and then connected to the ground, is considered as separate from the ground with regard to making foods susceptible to impurity. Thus the water on this wall is like water in containers. If it is the wall of a cave which was not built, but instead, it is part of the ground itself, the water on it is not considered as uprooted from the ground.


מַשְׁקִין שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ מִן הַקַּרְקַע שֶׁלֹּא בְּרָצוֹן אֵינָן מַכְשִׁירִין. לְפִיכָךְ אָדָם אוֹ כֵּלִים אוֹ פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּבְלְלוּ בְּמַשְׁקִין וְנִתְלְשׁוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּרָצוֹן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּגְעוּ אֳכָלִין בְּאוֹתָן מַשְׁקִין בְּרָצוֹן לֹא הֻכְשְׁרוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי אוֹתָן הַמַּיִם שֶׁלֹּא לְרָצוֹן נִתְלְשׁוּ וּכְאִלּוּ הֵן עֲדַיִן בַּקַּרְקַע שֶׁאֵינָן מַכְשִׁירִין. הָיוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל הָאָדָם וְעַל הַכֵּלִים וְעַל הַפֵּרוֹת תְּלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן וְנָגְעוּ בָּהֶן אֳכָלִין בְּרָצוֹן הֻכְשְׁרוּ. כֵּיצַד. הַכּוֹפֶה קְעָרָה עַל הַכֹּתֶל בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁתּוּדַח הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהּ מַכְשִׁירִין. וְאִם הִנִּיחַ בָּהֶן פֵּרוֹת הֻכְשְׁרוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן תְּלוּשִׁין בַּכְּלִי לְדַעַת. כְּפָאָהּ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יִלְקֶה הַכֹּתֶל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהּ אֵינָן כִּתְלוּשִׁין וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם נָתַן בָּהּ אֳכָלִין לֹא הֻכְשְׁרוּ. נִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיּוּדַח הַכֹּתֶל אִם הָיָה כֹּתֶל בַּיִת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַכְשִׁירִין שֶׁהַתָּלוּשׁ שֶׁחִבְּרוֹ לְעִנְיַן הֶכְשֵׁר הֲרֵי הוּא כְּתָלוּשׁ וְנִמְצְאוּ מַיִם שֶׁעַל כֹּתֶל בַּיִת זֶה כַּמַּיִם שֶׁבַּכֵּלִים. וְאִם הָיָה כֹּתֶל מְעָרָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּנְיָן אֶלָּא עַצְמָהּ שֶׁל קַרְקַע הַמַּיִם שֶׁעָלֶיהָ אֵינָן כִּתְלוּשִׁין מִן הַקַּרְקַע:


When a person bends down to drink, the water that ascends on his mustache and mouth is considered to have been uprooted willfully, for it is well known that one who drinks will raise up water on his mouth and mustache. Water that ascends on his nose, his beard, and his head, is not considered as having been uprooted willfully.


הַשּׁוֹחֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם הָעוֹלִים בִּשְׂפָמוֹ וּבְפִיו תְּלוּשִׁין בִּרְצוֹנוֹ. שֶׁדָּבָר יָדוּעַ הוּא שֶׁהַשּׁוֹתֶה יַעֲלֶה הַמַּיִם בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו וְהוֹאִיל וְשָׁתָה בִּרְצוֹנוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נִתְלְשׁוּ בְּרָצוֹן. אֲבָל הַמַּיִם הָעוֹלִים בְּחָטְמוֹ וּבִזְקָנוֹ וּבְרֹאשׁוֹ אֵינָן תְּלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן:


When a person fills a jug from a well, the water that ascends after it, on the rope that is wrapped around its opening, and on the portion of the rope that is required to lift it up is considered as having been uprooted willfully. The water on the portion of the rope that is not required to lift it up are not considered as having been uprooted willfully.

If a person placed a jug beneath a drainpipe, all of the water on its outside and on the rope are not considered as having been uprooted willfully. Therefore water found there does not make foods susceptible to impurity.


הַמְמַלֵּא אֶת הֶחָבִית הַמַּיִם הָעוֹלִים אַחֲרֶיהָ וּבַחֶבֶל שֶׁהוּא מְכוֹנֵן עַל צַוָּארָהּ וּבַחֶבֶל שֶׁהוּא לְצָרְכָּהּ הֲרֵי הֵן תְּלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן. וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּחֶבֶל הַיָּתֵר עַל צָרְכָּהּ אֵינָן תְּלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן. נְתָנָהּ תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל גַּבָּהּ וּבַחֶבֶל אֵינָן תְּלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן לְפִיכָךְ אֵין מַכְשִׁירִין:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When rain falls upon a person, even if he is a primary source of impurity, the water on his body is pure, even though it runs down from the upper portion to the lower portion, provided he shakes it off immediately with all of his power. If, however, the water flows and runs down slowly, it does contract impurity at the time it is separated from him. If the water is pure, while it is on his body or clothes, it does not make foods susceptible to ritual impurity, for it did not flow on to him willfully. If he shakes the water off his clothes, it is considered as willful.

If he stood under a drainpipe to cool off or to wash himself, he is considered to have come into contact with water willfully. If he was impure, the water that is on his body is impure.


מִי שֶׁיָּרְדוּ עָלָיו גְּשָׁמִים אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה אַב הַטֻּמְאָה. הַמַּיִם שֶׁעָלָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּרְדוּ מִצַּד הָעֶלְיוֹן לַתַּחְתּוֹן טְהוֹרִין וְהוּא שֶׁיְּנַתְּקֵם מֵעָלָיו בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שׁוֹתְתִין וְיוֹרְדִים בִּשְׁעַת פְּרִישָׁתָם מִתְטַמְּאִין. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהֵן טְהוֹרִין אֵינָן מַכְשִׁירִין שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָן תְּלוּשִׁין עָלָיו לִרְצוֹנוֹ. וְאִם נִעֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לְרָצוֹן. עָמַד תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר לְהָקֵר אוֹ לִידוֹחַ הֲרֵי זֶה לְרָצוֹן. וְאִם הָיָה טָמֵא הַמַּיִם שֶׁעָלָיו טְמֵאִין:


When a barrel was filled with produce and water from a drainpipe from a roof spilled into it, the owner should pour the water off the produce. It is not considered as susceptible to impurity even though he desired that the water be in the barrel until he pours it off.


חָבִית שֶׁהָיְתָה מְלֵאָה פֵּרוֹת וְיָרַד הַדֶּלֶף לְתוֹכָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה יְעָרֶה הַמַּיִם מֵעֲלֵיהֶן וְאֵינָן מַכְשִׁירִין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בְּתוֹכָהּ עַד שֶׁיְּעָרֶה הַמַּיִם מֵעֲלֵיהֶן:


When water from a drainpipe flows into a kneading trough, the drops that sputter off and the water that flows over the edge are not considered as having been uprooted willfully. Even if the owner picks up the kneading trough to pour out the water, the water it contains is not considered as having been uprooted willfully. If he left the trough for the water to drain into it, the drops that sputter off and the water that flows over the edge are not considered as having been uprooted willfully. If he picks up the kneading trough to pour out the water, it makes foods susceptible to impurity. The rationale is that since he did not overturn it and pour the water out in its place, it is considered as having been uprooted willfully.


עֲרֵבָה שֶׁיָּרַד הַדֶּלֶף לְתוֹכָהּ הַמַּיִם הַנִּתָּזִין וְהַצָּפִין מֵעָלֶיהָ אֵינָן תְּלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן. נְטָלָהּ לְשָׁפְכָהּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אֵינָן בְּרָצוֹן. הִנִּיחָהּ שֶׁיֵּרֵד הַדֶּלֶף לְתוֹכָהּ הַנִּתָּזִין וְהַצָּפִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אֵינָן תְּלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן. וְאִם נְטָלָהּ לְשָׁפְכָהּ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַכְשִׁירִין שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא שְׁפָכָהּ בִּמְקוֹמָהּ הֲרֵי תְּלָשָׁן בִּרְצוֹנוֹ:


When a person immerses his keilim in a mikveh or washes his clothes in a cave, the water that ascends on his hands is considered as drawn willfully. The water on his feet is not considered as having been uprooted willfully.


הַמַּטְבִּיל אֶת כֵּלָיו וְהַמְכַבֵּס אֶת כְּסוּתוֹ בִּמְעָרָה הַמַּיִם הָעוֹלִין בְּיָדָיו בְּרָצוֹן וּבְרַגְלָיו אֵינָן כִּתְלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן:


When fruits fell into water and one extended his hand and took them, they do not become susceptible to impurity. If he intended that his hand would be rinsed while picking them up, they become susceptible to impurity because of the water on his hand. For the water on his hand and on the produce are considered as having been uprooted willfully.


פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם וּפָשַׁט יָדָיו וּנְטָלָן לֹא הֻכְשְׁרוּ. וְאִם חִשֵּׁב שֶׁיּוּדְחוּ יָדָיו הֻכְשְׁרוּ בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבְּיָדָיו שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּיָדָיו וְשֶׁעַל הַפֵּרוֹת הֲרֵי הֵן כִּתְלוּשִׁין בְּרָצוֹן:


When a person willfully placed his produce in water, if the water is on the ground, the produce does not become susceptible to impurity as long as it is in the water. If he removed the produce, it becomes susceptible to impurity because of the water on it or on his hands, because it was uprooted willfully.

What is implied? If there were radishes or turnips in water in a cave, a woman who is a nidah, may wash it there and it is still pure. If she raised it out of the water at all, it became impure because of her touch.


הַנּוֹתֵן פֵּרוֹתָיו לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם בִּרְצוֹנוֹ אִם הָיוּ מַיִם שֶׁבַּקַּרְקָעוֹת אֵינָן מֻכְשָׁרִין כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן בַּמַּיִם. הוֹצִיאָן הֻכְשְׁרוּ בַּמַּיִם שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן אוֹ שֶׁעַל יָדָיו שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְלְשׁוּ בְּרָצוֹן. כֵּיצַד. צְנוֹן אוֹ לֶפֶת שֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַמְּעָרָה נִדָּה מְדִיחַתּוּ שָׁם וְהוּא טָהוֹר. הֶעֱלַתְהוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא מִן הַמַּיִם נִטְמָא בְּמַגָּעָהּ:


When a container was filled with turmos beans and placed in a mikveh, a person who is impure may extend his hand and take beans from it and they are pure. The rationale is that they were not made susceptible to impurity inside of it and he does not desire the water that is upon them.

If he lifted the entire container from the water, the beans that are touching the container are impure, because they became susceptible to impurity due to the water in the container that was willfully raised from the mikveh. The remainder of the beans in the container are pure.


קֻפָּה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה תּוּרְמוּסִין וּנְתוּנָה לְתוֹךְ הַמִּקְוֶה מוֹשִׁיט יָדוֹ הַטָּמֵא וְנוֹטֵל תּוּרְמוּסִין מִתּוֹכָהּ וְהֵן טְהוֹרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הֻכְשְׁרוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי מִתּוֹכָהּ נָטַל וְאֵין רְצוֹנוֹ בַּמַּיִם שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן. הֶעֱלָם מִן הַמַּיִם הַנּוֹגְעִין בַּקֻּפָּה טְמֵאִין שֶׁהֲרֵי הֻכְשְׁרוּ בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבַּקֻּפָּה שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ בִּרְצוֹנוֹ. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַתּוּרְמוּסִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַקֻּפָּה טְהוֹרִין: