1

How is the assessment for embarrassment evaluated? Everything depends on the character of the person who causes the embarrassment and that of the one who is embarrassed. For the embarrassment caused by a child cannot be compared to the embarrassment caused by a respected adult, since the embarrassment caused by the ignoble one is greater.

א

כֵּיצַד מְשַׁעֲרִין הַבּשֶׁת. הַכּל לְפִי הַמְבַיֵּשׁ וְהַמִּתְבַּיֵּשׁ. אֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מִן הַקָּטָן לְמִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאָדָם גָּדוֹל וּמְכֻבָּד שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁבִּיְּשׁוֹ זֶה הַקַּל בָּשְׁתּוֹ מְרֻבָּה:

2

A person who embarrasses someone who is naked, or who is in the bathhouse is not liable. If the wind blew and raised a person's clothes up against his face, revealing his nakedness, and then another person removed more of his garments, the latter is liable for causing embarrassment. Nevertheless, the embarrassment caused to this person whose nakedness was revealed cannot be compared to the embarrassment of a person who was not naked at all.

Similarly, if a person lifted up his clothes to go down to a river or to ascend from a river, and another person embarrassed him, that person is liable. Nevertheless, the embarrassment caused to this person cannot be compared to the embarrassment of a person who was fully clothed.

ב

הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הֶעָרֹם אוֹ מִי שֶׁהוּא בְּמֶרְחָץ פָּטוּר. נָשְׁבָה הָרוּחַ וְהָפְכָה שׁוּלָיו עַל פָּנָיו וַהֲרֵי הוּא עָרֹם וְהוֹסִיף זֶה בְּהַפְשָׁטָתוֹ חַיָּב בְּבֹשֶׁת. וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת זֶה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה עָרֹם לִמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָרֹם. וְכֵן אִם הִגְבִּיהַּ בְּגָדָיו לֵירֵד לַנָּהָר אוֹ שֶׁעָלָה מִן הַנָּהָר וּבִיְּשׁוֹ חַיָּב. וְאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מְבַיֵּשׁ זֶה לִמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַמְכֻסֶּה בִּבְגָדָיו:

3

When a person embarrasses a colleague who is sleeping, he is liable for the embarrassment he caused. If the person died in his sleep and never became aware that this person had embarrassed him, the assessment for embarrassment should not be expropriated from the person who caused the embarrassment. If, however, the embarrassed person's heirs seized this amount from the property of the person who caused the embarrassment, it is not expropriated from them.

ג

הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַיָּשֵׁן חַיָּב בְּבשֶׁת. וְאִם מֵת בְּתוֹךְ שְׁנָתוֹ וְלֹא הֵקִיץ וְלֹא הִרְגִּישׁ בָּזֶה שֶׁבִּיְּשׁוֹ אֵין גּוֹבִין בּשֶׁת זֶה מִן הַמְבַיֵּשׁ. וְאִם תָּפְשׂוּ הַיּוֹרְשִׁין אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדָן:

4

A person who embarrasses a mentally incompetent person is not liable. A person who embarrasses a deaf mute is liable.

A person who embarrasses a convert or a servant is liable. The following rules apply when a person embarrasses a minor: If the minor becomes embarrassed when he is shamed, the person is liable. If the minor does not feel the shame, the other person is not liable.

Even when he is liable, the liability for embarrassing a minor cannot be compared to the liability for embarrassing an adult, nor can that required for embarrassing a servant be compared to that required for embarrassing a free man, nor can that required for embarrassing a deaf mute be compared to that required for embarrassing a mentally competent person.

ד

הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַשּׁוֹטֶה פָּטוּר. וְהַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַחֵרֵשׁ חַיָּב. הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַגֵּר אוֹ אֶת הָעֶבֶד חַיָּב. הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַקָּטָן אִם כְּשֶׁמַּכְלִימִין אוֹתוֹ נִכְלָם חַיָּב וְאִם לָאו פָּטוּר. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַקָּטָן לִמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַגָּדוֹל. וְלֹא הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הָעֶבֶד לִמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת בֶּן חוֹרִין. וְלֹא מְבַיֵּשׁ חֵרֵשׁ לִמְבַיֵּשׁ פִּקֵּחַ:

5

When a person embarrasses a colleague with words, or he spits on his clothing, he is not liable for a financial penalty. The court should, however, impose appropriate restraints concerning such matters in every place and time.

If a person embarrasses a Torah scholar, he is liable to pay him for the full measure of embarrassment, even though he embarrassed him only by verbal abuse. The rule has already been ordained that anyone who embarrasses a Torah scholar, even with mere verbal abuse, is penalized and is required to pay 35 gold dinarim - i.e., the weight of 8 and 3/4 sela'im. It is an accepted tradition, that this penalty is exacted in all places, in Eretz Yisrael and in the diaspora.

ה

הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בִּדְבָרִים אוֹ שֶׁרָקַק עַל בְּגָדָיו פָּטוּר מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין. וְיֵשׁ לְבֵית דִּין לִגְדֹּר בַּדָּבָר בְּכָל מָקוֹם וּבְכָל זְמַן כְּפִי שֶׁיִּרְאוּ. וְאִם בִּיֵּשׁ תַּלְמִיד חֲכָמִים חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ בּשֶׁת שְׁלֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא בִּיְּשׁוֹ אֶלָּא בִּדְבָרִים. כְּבָר נִפְסַק הַדִּין שֶׁכָּל הַמְבַיֵּשׁ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם אֲפִלּוּ בִּדְבָרִים קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ וְגוֹבִין מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁקַל שְׁלֹשִׁים וַחֲמִשָּׁה דִּינָר מִן הַזָּהָב שֶׁהוּא מִשְׁקַל תֵּשַׁע סְלָעִים פָּחוֹת רְבִיעַ. וְקַבָּלָה הִיא בְּיָדֵינוּ שֶׁגּוֹבִין קְנָס זֶה בְּכָל מָקוֹם בֵּין בָּאָרֶץ בֵּין בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ:

6

There have continually been instances of this in our community in Spain. There are some scholars who have waived this payment, and this is praiseworthy of them. There are those who demand payment and reach a compromise. The judges, however, tell the person who caused the embarrassment: "You are obligated to pay him a pound of gold."

ו

מַעֲשִׂים הָיוּ אֶצְלֵנוּ תָּמִיד בְּכָךְ בִּסְפָרַד. וְיֵשׁ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים שֶׁהָיוּ מוֹחֲלִין עַל זֶה וְכָךְ נָאֶה לָהֶם. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁתּוֹבֵעַ וְעוֹשִׂין פְּשָׁרָה בֵּינֵיהֶן. אֲבָל הַדַּיָּנִים הָיוּ אוֹמְרִין לַמְבַיֵּשׁ חַיָּב אַתָּה לִתֵּן לוֹ לִיטְרָא זָהָב:

7

Although a person who embarrasses someone else verbally is not liable for a financial payment, it is a grave sin. Only a wicked and foolish person abuses and insults people. The Sages of the earlier generations said: "Whoever embarrasses a proper Jewish person in public with words does not have a share in the world to come."

ז

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמְבַיֵּשׁ שְׁאָר הָעָם בִּדְבָרִים פָּטוּר מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין עָוֹן גָּדוֹל הוּא. וְאֵינוֹ מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף לָעָם אֶלָּא רָשָׁע שׁוֹטֶה. וְאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁכָּל הַמַּלְבִּין פְּנֵי אָדָם כָּשֵׁר מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל בִּדְבָרִים אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא:

8

There are many types of blows that involve embarrassment and a small amount of pain, but no permanent damage. Our Sages have already ordained specific payments for these types of blows. Whoever strikes a colleague with one of these blows must pay this specified amount. These are all considered k'nasot.

The specific amount that the person must pay is the assessment for pain, embarrassment, medical attention and unemployment. Whether or not the injured requires medical attention and loses employment, this is the amount that must be paid.

ח

יֵשׁ הַכָּאוֹת רַבּוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בִּזּוּי וְצַעַר מְעַט וְאֵין בָּהֶן נֵזֶק. וּכְבָר פָּסְקוּ לָהֶם חֲכָמִים דָּמִים קְצוּבִים. וְכָל הַמַּכֶּה לַחֲבֵרוֹ הַכָּאָה מֵהֶן מְשַׁלֵּם אוֹתוֹ הַמָּמוֹן הַקָּצוּב וְכֻלָּן קְנָסוֹת הֵן. וְאוֹתוֹ הַמָּמוֹן הַקָּצוּב הוּא דְּמֵי הַצַּעַר וְהַבּשֶׁת וְהָרִפּוּי וְהַשֶּׁבֶת. בֵּין צָרִיךְ לִרְפוּאָה וְשֶׁבֶת בֵּין לֹא צָרִיךְ כָּזֶה הוּא מְשַׁלֵּם:

9

How much must be paid? A person who kicks a colleague with his foot must pay five sela'im. If he butts him with his knee, he must pay three sela'im. If he hits him with a fist, he must pay thirteen sela'im. If he slams his colleague with his palm, he must pay a sela. If he slaps him in the face, he must pay fifty sela'im. If he slaps him in the face with the back of his hand, he must pay 100 sela'im.

Similarly, if he twists his ear, pulls his hair, spits at him and the spittle touches his body, removes a man's garment or a woman's head covering, he must pay 100 sela'im.

He must pay this amount for every blow he gives. What is implied? If he kicks his colleague four times - even if he kicks him in immediate succession, he must pay him twenty sela'im. If he slaps him in the face twice, he must pay him 100 sela'im. The same rule applies with regard to the other payments.

ט

וְכַמָּה הוּא מְשַׁלֵּם. הַבּוֹעֵט בַּחֲבֵרוֹ בְּרַגְלוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים. הִכָּהוּ בְּאַרְכֻּבָּתוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם שָׁלֹשׁ סְלָעִים. קִבֵּץ אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו כְּמוֹ אוֹגֵד אֲגוּדָה וְהִכָּהוּ בְּיָדוֹ כְּשֶׁהִיא אֲגוּדָה מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה סְלָעִים. תָּקַע אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בְּכַפּוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם סֶלַע. סְטָרוֹ עַל פָּנָיו מְשַׁלֵּם חֲמִשִּׁים סְלָעִים. סְטָרוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרֵי יָדוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם מֵאָה סֶלַע. וְכֵן אִם צִירֵם בְּאָזְנוֹ אוֹ תָּלַשׁ בִּשְׂעָרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁרָקַק וְהִגִּיעוֹ [הָרֹק בִּבְשָׂרוֹ אוֹ הֶעֱבִיר טַלִּית מֵעָלָיו וּפָרַע רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה] מְשַׁלֵּם מֵאָה סֶלַע. וְכָזֶה הוּא מְשַׁלֵּם עַל כָּל מַעֲשֶׂה וּמַעֲשֶׂה. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁבָּעַט בַּחֲבֵרוֹ אַרְבַּע בְּעִיטוֹת אֲפִלּוּ זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם עֶשְׂרִים סְלָעִים. סְטָרוֹ עַל פָּנָיו שְׁתֵּי סְטִירוֹת מְשַׁלֵּם מֵאָה סֶלַע. וְכֵן בַּשְּׁאָר:

10

All the sela'im mentioned in this context refer to the silver coins used in Eretz Yisrael at that time. Every sela was composed of half a dinar of pure silver and three and a half dinarim of copper. Therefore, if a person became liable to pay a colleague 100 sela'im because of such blows, he is liable to pay him twelve and a half sela'im of pure silver.

י

כָּל אֵלּוּ הַסְּלָעִים הֵם מִכֶּסֶף אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאוֹתוֹ הַזְּמַן. שֶׁהָיָה בְּכָל סֶלַע חֲצִי דִּינָר כֶּסֶף וּשְׁלֹשָׁה דִּינָרִין וּמֶחֱצָה נְחשֶׁת. לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בְּהַכָּאוֹת אֵלּוּ לְשַׁלֵּם מֵאָה סֶלַע הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה סֶלַע וּמֶחֱצָה כֶּסֶף נָקִי:

11

When are these assessments imposed? When a distinguished person is involved. If, however, an ignoble person is involved - one who is not particular about these things or the like - he receives only the amount of money that is appropriate for him, as assessed by the judges.

For there are base people who are not concerned with being shamed and will demean themselves in any humiliating manner for foolishness and frivolity, or to receive a p'rutah from the fools who jest with them.

יא

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּמְכֻבָּד. אֲבָל אָדָם שֶׁהוּא מְבֻזֶּה וְאֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל אֶלָּא לְפִי מַה שֶּׁרָאוּי לוֹ וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּרְאוּ הַדַּיָּנִים שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לִטּל. לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּנֵי אָדָם כְּעוּרִין שֶׁאֵין מַקְפִּידִין עַל בָּשְׁתָּם וְכָל הַיּוֹם מְבַזִּים עַצְמָן בְּכָל מִינֵי בִּזּוּי דֶּרֶךְ שְׂחוֹק וְקַלּוּת רֹאשׁ אוֹ כְּדֵי לִטּל פְּרוּטָה אַחַת מִן הַלֵּצִים הַמְשַׂחֲקִים עִמָּהֶם: