Partaking of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan is a positive commandment, as Exodus 12:8 states: "And you shall eat the meat on this night, roasted on the fire. With matzot and bitter herbs shall you eat it."


אֲכִילַת בְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח בְּלֵיל חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ח) "וְאָכְלוּ אֶת הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה צְלִי אֵשׁ וּמַצּוֹת עַל מְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ":


Matzah and bitter herbs are not indispensable elements of the mitzvah. If one did not find matzah or bitter herbs, he fulfills his obligation by eating the meat of the Paschal sacrifice alone. There is no mitzvah to partake of bitter herbs without the Paschal sacrifice, as implied by Numbers 9:11: "Eat it with matzot and bitter herbs."


וְאֵין מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר מְעַכְּבִין. אִם לֹא מָצְאוּ מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר יוֹצְאִין יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן בַּאֲכִילַת בְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח לְבַדּוֹ. אֲבָל מָרוֹר בְּלֹא פֶּסַח אֵינוֹ מִצְוָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ט יא) "עַל מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ":


The optimum manner of performing the mitzvah is to partake of the Paschal sacrifice in a manner leading to satiation. Therefore if one sacrificed festive peace-offerings on the fourteenth of Nisan, one should partake of them first and then partake of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice to be satiated from the festive offering. Even if one does not eat more than an olive-size portion, he fulfills his obligation.

Similarly, partaking of the second Paschal sacrifice on the fifteenth of the month of Iyar is a positive commandment, as stated: "Eat it with matzot and bitter herbs."


מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לֶאֱכל בְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח אֲכִילַת שֹׂבַע. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִקְרִיב שַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר. אוֹכֵל מֵהֶן תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹכֵל בְּשַׂר הַפֶּסַח כְּדֵי לִשְׂבֹּעַ מִמֶּנּוּ. וְאִם לֹא אָכַל אֶלָּא כְּזַיִת יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ. וְכֵן אֲכִילַת בְּשַׂר פֶּסַח שֵׁנִי בְּלֵילֵי חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (במדבר ט יא) "עַל מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ":


Both of them are eaten only roasted with fire. One who partakes of an olive-sized portion from their meat lightly-roasted or cooked in liquid on the nights of Pesach is liable for lashes, as Exodus 12:9 states: "Do not partake of it lightly-roasted or cooked in water." If one partook of a Paschal sacrifice that was both lightly-roasted and cooked, he is liable for only one set of lashes, because both these forbidden activities are included in one prohibition.

If, before nightfall, one partakes of a Paschal sacrifice that was lightly-roasted or cooked, he is not liable for lashes, as can be inferred from the continuation of the above verse: "except roasted in fire." Implied is that at the time it is a mitzvah to partake of the sacrifice roasted, one is liable for partaking of it lightly-roasted or cooked. If one partook of a sacrifice prepared in this manner while it was still day, he is exempt.


וּשְׁנֵיהֶן אֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִין אֶלָּא צְלִי אֵשׁ. וְהָאוֹכֵל מֵהֶן כְּזַיִת נָא אוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל בְּלֵילֵי פְּסָחִים לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ט) "אַל תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ נָא וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל בַּמָּיִם". אָכַל נָא וּמְבֻשָּׁל כְּאַחַת אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אֶלָּא אַחַת. לְפִי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן נִכְלָלוֹת בְּלָאו אֶחָד. אָכַל מִמֶּנּוּ נָא אוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ט) "כִּי אִם צְלִי אֵשׁ" בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמִּצְוָה לְאָכְלוֹ צָלִי חַיָּב עַל אֲכִילַת נָא וּמְבֻשָּׁל. אֲבָל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם פָּטוּר:


If one partook of an olive-sized portion of a roasted Paschal sacrifice while it is still day, he violates a positive commandment, as Exodus 12:8 states: "And they shall eat the meat on that night," i.e., at night and not during the day. A prohibition resulting from a positive commandment is considered as a positive commandment.


אָכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת צָלִי מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם עָבַר עַל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ח) "וְאָכְלוּ אֶת הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה". בַּלַּיְלָה וְלֹא בַּיּוֹם. וְלָאו הַבָּא מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה עֲשֵׂה הוּא:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


The term na which the Torah mentioned in its prohibition refers to meat which began to be subjected to fire. It became roasted slightly, but was not yet fit for human consumption. If, however, one partakes of the meat of the Paschal sacrifice while raw, he is not liable for lashes, but he did nullify a positive commandment, for it is written: "roasted with fire." Implied is that if it is not roasted, it is prohibited.

If one roasted it to the full extent until it became charred, he is exempt.


(שמות יב ט) "נָא" שֶׁהִזְהִירָה עָלָיו תּוֹרָה הוּא הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁהִתְחִיל בּוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה הָאוּר וְנִצְלָה מְעַט וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילַת אָדָם עֲדַיִן. אֲבָל אִם אָכַל מִמֶּנּוּ בָּשָׂר חַי אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה וּבִטֵּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ט) "צְלִי אֵשׁ". הָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָלִי אָסוּר. צָלָהוּ כָּל צָרְכּוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְחָרֵךְ וַאֲכָלוֹ פָּטוּר:


The term "cooked" which the Torah mentioned in its prohibition refers to cooking the meat in water, other liquids, or fruit juice. The use of the phrase bashail mevushal by Exodus 12:9 includes all types of cooking.


(שמות יב ט) "מְבֻשָּׁל" שֶׁהִזְהִירָה עָלָיו תּוֹרָה בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּמַיִם בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין אוֹ בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ט) "וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל" רִבָּה הַכּל:


If one roasted it and afterwards cooked it, cooked it and afterwards, roasted it, or pot-roasted it, and partook of it, he is liable. It is, however, permitted to baste it with wine, oil, honey, all other liquids, and fruit juice — except water. After it is roasted, it is permitted to dip the meat in liquids and in fruit juice.


צָלָהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ בִּשְּׁלוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ צָלָהוּ. אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂהוּ צְלִי קְדֵרָה וַאֲכָלוֹ חַיָּב. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לָסוּךְ אוֹתוֹ בְּיַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן וּדְבַשׁ וּבִשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת. חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם. וּמֻתָּר לְטַבֵּל הַבָּשָׂר אַחַר שֶׁנִּצְלָה בְּמַשְׁקִים וּבְמֵי פֵּרוֹת:


One may not roast the Paschal sacrifice on a stoneware utensil or a metal utensil, for it is written: "roasted with fire," i.e., and not roasted by anything else. Therefore if the utensil was perforated so that the fire could affect the meat, one may roast with it. One may not roast it with a metal spit, because the entire spit will be hot and will roast the meat where it touches it.


אֵין צוֹלִין אֶת הַפֶּסַח עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלֵי אֶבֶן אוֹ כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יב ח ט) "צְלִי אֵשׁ" לֹא צְלִי דָּבָר אַחֵר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה כְּלִי מְנֻקָּב כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּשְׁלֹט בּוֹ הָאוּר צוֹלִין עָלָיו. וְאֵין צוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשִׁפּוּד שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁהֲרֵי הַשִּׁפּוּד כֻּלּוֹ חַם וְצוֹלֶה מְקוֹמוֹ:


When one kindles an oven, removes all the fire, and then hangs the Paschal sacrifice in the oven and roasts it, it is forbidden to partake of it, because this is not "roasted with fire." If the sacrificial animal was cut up and hung over coals, it is considered "roasted with fire." If he roasted it over lime, clay, or the hot springs of Tiberias, it is forbidden, because this is not "roasted with fire."

How is the animal offered as a Paschal sacrifice roasted? One pierces it from its mouth until its anus with a wooden spit and hangs it in an oven with the fire beneath it. One hangs its legs and its intestines in the oven, outside of it. One should not place them inside of its body cavity, for this is comparable to cooking. They would choose a pomegranate spit to roast it so that it will not cast its sap into the meat and cook it.


הִסִּיק אֶת הַתַּנּוּר וְגָרַף אֶת כָּל הָאֵשׁ וְתָלָהוּ בַּתַּנּוּר וְצָלָהוּ הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שֶׁאֵין זֶה צְלִי אֵשׁ. חֲתָכוֹ וְתָלָהוּ עַל גַּבֵּי גֶּחָלִים הֲרֵי זֶה צְלִי אֵשׁ. צָלָהוּ עַל גַּבֵּ סִיד אוֹ חַרְסִית אוֹ חַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָה הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר שֶׁאֵין זֶה צְלִי אֵשׁ. כֵּיצַד צוֹלִין אוֹתוֹ. תּוֹחֲבוֹ מִתּוֹךְ פִּיו עַד בֵּית נְקוּבָתוֹ בְּשִׁפּוּד שֶׁל עֵץ וְתוֹלֵהוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר וְהָאֵשׁ לְמַטּה וְתוֹלֶה כְּרָעָיו וּבְנֵי מֵעָיו בְּתַנּוּר חוּצָה לוֹ וְלֹא יִתְּנֵם בְּתוֹכוֹ שֶׁזֶּה כְּמִין בִּשּׁוּל הוּא. ושִׁפּוּד שֶׁל רִמּוֹן הָיוּ בּוֹרְרִין לִצְלִיָּתוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִזְרֹק אֶת מֵימָיו וִיבַשְּׁלֵהוּ:


If the meat touches the earthenware sides or floor of the oven, one should skin off that place, because it is roasted because of the earthenware.


נָגַע הַבָּשָׂר בְּחַרְסוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר יִקְלֹף אֶת מְקוֹמוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא צְלִי הַחֶרֶס:


If its juices drip on the earthenware and then return to it, that place should be cut off. For any juice and liquid which it emits while being roasted is forbidden, for it is not roasted meat.


נָטָף מֵרָטְבּוֹ עַל הַחֶרֶס וְחָזַר עָלָיו יִטּל אֶת מְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁכָּל הַמָּרָק וְהַלֵּחָה שֶׁתִּפְרשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּשֶׁיִּצָּלֶה אֲסוּרָה שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ בְּשַׂר צָלִי:


If its juices drip on flour, he should take a handful from the place the juice fell and discard it.


נָטַף מֵרָטְבּוֹ עַל הַסּלֶת יִקְלֹף אֶת מְקוֹמוֹ וְיַשְׁלִכֶנּוּ:


The following laws apply if one applied oil that is terumah to the Paschal sacrifice. If the company was made up of priests, they should partake of it. If the company was made up of Israelites and the meat is still raw, it should be washed and dried and then it may be roasted. If it has been roasted, the outer portion should be skinned off.

If oil from the second tithe was applied to it, one should not charge the other members of the company for its value, for the second tithe should not be redeemed in Jerusalem, as explained in the appropriate place.

We do not roast two Paschal sacrifices together lest they become intermingled. This applies even to a goat and a lamb.


סָכוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אִם חֲבוּרַת הַכֹּהֲנִים יֹאכְלוּ. וְאִם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם חַי הוּא יְדִיחֶנּוּ וִינַגֵּב וְאִם צָלִי יִקְלֹף אֶת הַחִיצוֹן. סָכוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן שֶׁל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ דָּמִים עַל בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה שֶׁאֵין פּוֹדִין מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בִּמְקוֹמוֹ. וְאֵין צוֹלִין שְׁנֵי פְּסָחִים כְּאַחַת מִפְּנֵי הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת אֲפִלּוּ גְּדִי וְטָלֶה:


We already stated in several places that the Paschal sacrifice should be eaten only until midnight to distance a person from transgression. According to Scriptural Law, one may partake of it throughout the entire night until dawn.

We already explained in Hilchot Chametz UMatzah that the Paschal sacrifice requires the recitation of Hallel during the time that it is being eaten and that the members of the company do not partake of the meat after they fell asleep, even if they did so at the beginning of the night.


כְּבָר בֵּאַרנוּ בְּכַמָּה מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין הַפֶּסַח נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא עַד חֲצוֹת כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיק מִן הָעֲבֵרָה וְדִין תּוֹרָה שֶׁיֹּאכַל כָּל הַלַּיְלָה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת חָמֵץ וּמַצָּה שֶׁהוּא טָעוּן הַלֵּל בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָתוֹ וְשֶׁאֵין בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה חוֹזְרִין וְאוֹכְלִין אַחַר שִׁנִּרְדְּמוּ בְּשֵׁנָה אֲפִלּוּ בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה: