1. Although Simchas Bais Hashoevah is celebrated every night of Sukkos, each night must see a successive increase in joy. The differences in Simchas Bais Hashoevah every night is mirrored by the differences between the “guests” who visit each night of Sukkos. Although all seven guests — Avraham, Yitzchok, Ya’akov, Moshe, Aharon, Yosef and Dovid -visit every night, there is a different principal guest each night — whom the others accompany. The guests differ in their mode of service, not just in secondary aspects, but also in principal aspects. Thus Simchas Bais Hashoevah, although celebrated every night of Sukkos, also differs each night -consonant to the differences between the guests of each night. In addition, each day is different according to the daily portion of Chumash of that year.

The guest of today is Aharon. There is also a “Chassidic” guest each night of Sukkos — the Baal Shem Tov, Maggid, Alter Rebbe, Mitteler Rebbe, Tzemach Tzedek, Rebbe Maharash, Rebbe Rashab. Today’s “Chassidic” guest is therefore the Tzemach Tzedek. Since both types of guests are really one concept, there must be a connection between Aharon and the Tzemach Tzedek.

Aharon’s character is summed up by the mishnah: “Be of the disciples of Aharon, loving peace and pursuing peace.” This was expressed in Aharon’s service of lighting the menorah — “When you shall light (lit. “raise up” (the flame of)) the lamps, the seven lamps shall illuminate towards the center of the menorah.” Chassidus explains that the seven lamps correspond to the seven categories of service among Jews. This begins from Avraham’s service of “ahavah” — loving kindness, and extends to Dovid’s service of “malchus” — acceptance of the yoke of heaven. Aharon’s service was “you shall raise up the lamps” — to raise up the Jewish souls and bring them near to G‑d. This is done such that “the seven lamps shall illuminate towards the center of the menorah,” meaning all the seven lamps are united in their illumination. Although there are seven different categories of service — loving kindness, severity, etc. — they must simultaneously be united together.

This emphasizes the idea of peace (“loving peace and pursuing peace”): Despite differences in service, true peace is made between them. Peace, then, is the quintessential quality of Aharon’s service.

We find the idea of peace also emphasized in the case of the Tzemach Tzedek. In the Tzemach Tzedek’s times there was peace among the Torah greats, to the extent of each helping the other. In the times of the previous Rebbeim this was not so apparent; in the times of, and through the Tzemach Tzedek, it happened.

In addition to peace being the chief characteristic of Aharon, there is another aspect to Aharon’s service, which expresses the contrast between his service and Moshe Rabbeinu’s. The essence of Moshe Rabbeinu is Torah, as stated “Remember the Torah of Moshe My servant.” Although there were other aspects of Moshe’s service — e.g. the “shepherd of Israel” — nevertheless, when Jews talk of Moshe they usually speak of Moshe Rabbeinu — Moshe our teacher, the idea of Torah.

Aharon is knows as Aharon the priest, whose principal aspect was service in the Bais Hamikdosh -offering sacrifices, and prayer which was instituted in the place of sacrifices.

The difference between them is that Torah was given from heaven to below on this physical world -from the loftiest level to the lowest level. Sacrifices are the idea of offering up something from below to above. Similarly, prayer is a “ladder rooted in the earth and its top reaching to the heavens”: through prayer one can go from the lowest place, “earth,” to the highest place, “heaven.”

Moshe and Aharon’s service are the same in that both connect the highest levels to the lowest. The way this is done is different: Moshe Rabbeinu’s way (Torah) is to draw down from above to below; Aharon’s (prayer) elevates that below to above. And in one aspect the latter way (Aharon’s) is superior, for through it one reaches a level higher than in the former way (Moshe’s).

Since Simchas Bais Hashoevah each night is connected with its “guest,” we can now see how tonight’s celebration can be loftier than the previous night’s. The previous night’s guest was Moshe, the idea of Torah, drawing down from above to below — and Torah study causes great joy. But tonight’s celebration must be more joyous still — “we rise in holiness.” Tonight’s guest is Aharon, and the extra joy is consonant to the superiority of Aharon’s service over Moshe’s.

2. The above is emphasized in today’s portion of Chumash, which begins: “Rejoice Zevulun in your going out and Yissachar in your tents.” The difference between Zevulun and Yissachar is similar to the difference between Moshe and Aharon. Yissachar is the idea of Torah study, as Rashi explains, that “Yissachar in your tents” means “sitting in your tents for Torah” (Moshe’s service). “Zevulun in your going out,” Rashi explains, means “goes out to do business in ships.” A Jew’s true place is in the realm of Torah, and he “goes out” to engage in worldly matters, to do business and make a profit. This is the idea of elevating worldly matters from below to above — similar to sacrifices and prayer (Aharon’s service).

Just as Aharon’s service is in one respect superior to Moshe’s type of service, so too there is a superior aspect in Zevulun’s service over Yissachar’s. Although Yissachar learns Torah and Zevulun does business, nevertheless “Zevulun ... does business .. makes a profit, and supports Yissachar.” Because of this, Yissachar is able to sit and study Torah (for he is supported by Zevulun). “Therefore, Scripture mentions Zevulun before Yissachar, for Yissachar’s Torah was made possible through Zevulun.”

The Tzemach Tzedek explains that the advantage of Zevulun over Yissachar is similar to the advantage of a baal teshuvah over a tzaddik. Our Sages say that “the place where baalei teshuvah stand, complete tzaddikim cannot stand.” For a baal teshuvah, through repentance, converts his past transgressions into good, thus elevating even evil. A tzaddik however, cannot elevate evil — he can only stay away from it.

Likewise in the case of Zevulun and Yissachar. Zevulun, through doing business honestly and for the sake of heaven, converts the darkness into light (i.e. reveals G‑dliness) in the sphere of actual deed. Yissachar however, through his Torah study, reveals G‑dliness mainly in the sphere of speech (Torah study).

The advantage of service in the manner of elevating the below to above is thus not just that one thereby reaches a loftier level than otherwise, but that one also refines and elevates that which is below. In other words, its superiority is expressed in both the highest level and the lowest level.

Since Zevulun’s service is to refine and elevate worldly matters, it follows that it is Zevulun who principally carries out the task of making this world a dwelling place for G‑d. Their function is “Zevulun in your going out” — to go out from one’s enclosed sphere of sanctity, and to elevate the world, thereby making it a dwelling place for G‑d.

This is alluded to in the name “Zevulun.” He was called Zevulun because (Bereishis 30:20): “Now my husband will dwell (Yizbeleni) with me.” Rashi explains that “Yizbeleni” is from the expression “a house of dwelling,” that henceforth his (her husband’s) chief dwelling will be only with me.” G‑d is referred to as the husband, and the Jewish people as the wife. Thus Zevulun symbolizes the idea of making a dwelling place for G‑d.

This is also connected with the idea of peace, Aharon’s service. Jews are called “Shulamis” (“Sholom” — “peace”) because they make peace between G‑d and His world, the ultimate of which will be in the fulfillment of the promise “The glory of the L‑rd will be revealed, and all flesh together will see” — the idea of a dwelling place for G‑d in this world.

The extra joy that is caused by Aharon’s type of service is also alluded to in today’s portion of Chumash — “Rejoice Zevulun in your going out.” Although this also refers to the rest of the verse “Yissachar in your tents” — nevertheless, the word “Rejoice” is actually written next to Zevulun. This is because of the greatness of Zevulun’s service. Thus this year, it is only on the fifth day of Sukkos that we find the emphasis on joy openly written in Scripture.

3. The lesson from this for man’s service to G‑d: Every Jew’s service must in both aspects: Yissachar — Torah study; and Zevulun elevating the world. A person whose principal service is Torah study must also engage in good works and tzedakah (elevating the world); and a businessman must also have fixed times for Torah study. That is, just as there are the two categories of Yissachar and Zevulun in Jewry in general, so every Jew must possess both aspects of service. But the principal reason for a soul coming down to this earth is to make the world a dwelling place for G‑d — elevating the below to above.

Today’s portion of Chumash “Rejoice Zevulun in your going out and Yissachar in your tents,” thus teaches us that although when learning Torah one is dealing with G‑d’s words, whereas Zevulun deals with the lowly world — nevertheless, the principal joy is in Zevulun’s service. For then one makes this world a dwelling place for G‑d.

The strength for this is from Simchas Bais Hashoevah. Since “whoever did not see the Simchas Bais Hashoevah has not seen joy in his life,” -i.e., the ultimate in joy, it follows that all joy is connected with and depends on the joy of Simchas Bais Hashoevah. Since Simchas Bais Hashoevah is relevant to every Jew, it follows that the strength from it is also given to all Jews.