1. Every night of Sukkos possesses a new aspect of Simchas Bais Hashoeva. Tonight’s aspect is evident to all: It is the first night on which Simchas Bais Hashoeva can be celebrated with musical instruments — for the preceding nights were Shabbos and Yomtov — and the joy is correspondingly great. Although the restrictions of Shabbos and Yomtov (restrictions that are for holy reasons) which prevented playing music do not lessen the joy — and indeed, the joy of Shabbos and Yomtov is loftier — nevertheless, in the area of actual deed, the joy of Motzoei Shabbos and Yomtov is greater than that of Shabbos and Yomtov, due to the fact that music can be played. And “deed is paramount,” for through it, all the upper words are elevated.

Tonight is also special (compared to the preceding nights) in regard to its “guests.” The guests of the first three nights are, respectively, Avraham, Yitzchok and Ya’akov. There is, however, a difference in opinion as to who is the “guest” of the fourth night. The Siddur of the Arizal states that it is Moshe Rabbeinu; other sources opine that we follow a chronological order, and therefore the guest is Yosef (followed by Moshe, Aharon and David).

Although the halachic ruling follows the Arizal — that the fourth night’s guest is Moshe Rabbeinu — nevertheless, “these and these are the words of the living G‑d,” and therefore the opinion that Yosef is tonight’s guest also has a place. Thus, tonight is special in that there are two “guests:” Moshe and Yosef. Correspondingly, extra strength is bestowed to derive lessons from both guests.

Because “deed is paramount” (as noted above), the new element in tonight’s Simchas Bais Hashoeva must be expressed first and foremost in deed — just as the ability to play musical instruments tonight (which increases in its joy) indicates that we should do so. That is, the aspect of deed in one’s joy — a joy expressed in all one’s actions — is emphasized tonight. Similarly, the idea of rejoicing in a public domain (“reshus harabbim”) is also stressed, for the “world” of deed corresponds to the public domain (the four “domains” corresponding to the four “worlds”).

Because deed applies equally to all categories of Jews, tonight’s joy emphasizes the unity of all Jews, ranging from the “heads of your tribes” to the “hewers of your wood and the drawers of your water.” All participate equally in the joy as expressed in the realm of deed. It does not matter that a simple Jew has no understanding of the lofty concepts associated with Simchas Bais Hashoeva, for “deed is paramount,” and a simple Jew can participate in the realm of deed equally as well as any other Jew. Indeed, it is easier for a simple Jew, for he fulfills his mission of serving G‑d with a simple faith, undistracted by anything.

On the other hand, those who are of the “heads of your tribes” must also participate in the Simchas Bais Hashoeva with actual deed, and not think that his place is only in the intellectual realm, delving into the reasons for Simchas Bais Hashoeva. For when it comes to a mitzvah that cannot be deferred to another time, no amount of lofty thoughts can compensate: without actually performing the mitzvah, one has not fulfilled G‑d’s will at all. No mitzvah has been done without the actual deed!

2. The unity of all Jews present tonight is associated with tonight’s “guests,” and also with today’s portion of Chumash. As mentioned before, tonight’s guest is Moshe Rabbeinu, and its “Chassidic guest” is the Mitteler Rebbe. Today’s daily portion of Chumash (the first section of parshas Berachah) has an obvious connection to Moshe Rabbeinu, for it begins with the words (Devorim 33:1) “This is the blessing which Moshe blessed ... the children of Israel.” Later on (33:4), it explains what was Moshe’s principal achievement — “The Torah which Moshe commanded us is a heritage of the congregation of Ya’akov.” This stresses the unity of all Jews, for an inheritance passes to all Jews equally, regardless of the heir’s standing; even a new-born child inherits everything.

The above leads understanding to the connection of each and every Jew to tonight’s “Chassidic guest,” the Mitteler Rebbe. The unique quality of the Mitteler Rebbe was that he elucidated and elaborated on the ideas of Chassidus at great length. The Alter Rebbe set forth the principles of Chassidus in rudimentary, seminal form (corresponding to the sefirah of “chochmah”); the Mitteler Rebbe expanded on these ideas, clarifying and elaborating on them in great detail (corresponding to the sefirah of “binah”).

How can we concern ourselves with the differences between the Alter Rebbe and the Mitteler Rebbe, individuals of such gigantic spiritual stature? However, if by doing so we can gain extra piety, or fear of heaven, etc., it is permitted. Thus, an understanding of the above unique quality of the Mitteler Rebbe must be utilized in the service to G‑d of every Jew.

Every Jew, even the simplest, not only has an association with the elaborate understanding of Chassidus, but, since all of Torah is “a heritage of the congregation of Ya’akov,” such an in-depth understanding of Chassidus actually belongs to him (just as a heir inherits everything). Simultaneously, however, it is not enough to just inherit it, but one must translate it from potential into actuality.

The unity of Jews is yet further emphasized in the continuation of today’s portion of Chumash (33:5): “He was king of Yeshurun when the heads of the people were gathered together, the tribes of Israel were united.” “He was king in Yeshurun” refers to Moshe Rabbeinu, whose greatness was possible only “when the heads of the people were gathered together” and “the tribes of Israel were united.” Two aspects are present in this theme: 1) Moshe could be king only when the tribes of Israel united (and not just when the leaders were together); 2) Not just when they were “gathered together,” but only when “united” — all become one entity; And when the tribes are united, so automatically are the leaders. Thus, despite the internal differences between Jews — “king,” “heads of people” and “tribes of Israel” — the bottom line is that the “tribes of Israel were united,” one entity.

In greater clarification: There are two interpretations to “He was king in Yeshurun.” 1) It refers to the Supreme King of kings — G‑d; 2) it refers to Moshe Rabbeinu. The connection between them is that Moshe served as the connecting link. Because Jews are bonded with G‑d — and “G‑d is one” (which is paralleled by Moshe, the connecting link, the leader — for there is “one leader in a generation) — they too are one: “the tribes of Israel were united.” This is similar to the idea of “You are standing today, all of you before the L‑rd your G‑d; the heads of your tribes ... from the hewers of your wood unto the drawers of your water.” Despite the differences between Jews, “heads” and “water drawers,” they are one entity (“all of you”) — for “you are standing ... before the L‑rd your G‑d.”

This is why the rest of today’s portion of Chumash talks of Moshe’s blessing to the tribes of Reuven and Yehudah specifically — for it emphasizes the unity between the tribes. Reuven was the firstborn, whereas Yehudah was king. In man’s service to G‑d, Reuven corresponds to the beginning of service, deriving from one’s nature. Yehudah corresponds to the conclusion and completion of service (king over his brothers). Thus these two types of service encompass all the different levels of service of Jews, ranging from the beginning of service to its completion.

The same applies to a Jew’s individual, daily service. Upon awakening, a Jew immediately says “Modeh Ani” — which is the beginning of service (prior to any comprehension of G‑dliness), deriving from the very fact that he is created anew (similar to Reuven, who was the firstborn). Afterwards, a Jew proceeds from one level to the next, until he reaches the ultimate in service — the Amidah prayer. This is similar to the idea of Yehudah, of whose birth it is stated (Bereishis 29:35) “Va’tamod miledes” — “she ceased to bear children.” Chassidus explains that this corresponds to the state of absolute self-nullification, the ultimate in man’s service (and prayer).

The above beginning and end of service is in the form of “the beginning is rooted in the end, and the end in the beginning.” “Modeh Ani Lefonecha” means “I offer thanks to You.” A person says “You” only when one can actually see the being he is addressing face to face. This shows the greatness of a Jew, stemming from his very nature (as he is created): Even at the beginning of service (“Reuven”) a Jew is face to face with G‑d — “I offer thanks to You.” In other words, he is already in the state of absolute self-nullification, the idea of the Amidah prayer — and hence we see how “the beginning is rooted in the end, and the end of the beginning.” But since this idea of self-nullification must permeate a person’s every faculty, he must continue with the rest of his service, until its ultimate, the self-nullification of Amidah prayer — and until the end of prayer: “Indeed, the righteous will give thanks to Your Name ...”

Now we can understand why Moshe’s blessings began with the tribes of Reuven and Yehudah specifically. After stressing the unity of all Jews (“The Torah ... is a heritage” and “the tribes of Israel were united”), Moshe started to bless the tribes individually. He began with Reuven and Yehudah, for they represent the beginning and end of service, which encompass all the levels in between (of both Jewry in general, and of man’s individual service) — in the manner of “the beginning is rooted in the end, and the end in the beginning.”

3. We explained previously that the aspect of deed in Simchas Bais Hashoeva is associated with special emphasis on rejoicing in the public domain (since it corresponds to the “world” of deed). This too is stressed in today’s portion of Chu-mash, which concludes with the blessing to Yehudah (33:7): “His hands fight for him, and You shall be a help against his enemies.” It emphasizes a Jew’s work and effect in the world, in the manner of “fill the earth and subdue it.” In our case, a Jew must extend Simchas Bais Hashoeva outside his own “four ells” to the public domain, and in the manner of “subdue it” — the public domain itself dances!

Furthermore, not only does a Jew thus influence his particular environment (his “portion .in the world”), but thereby also affects the whole world. The Rambam (Hilchos Teshuvah, 3:4) rules that when a Jew “does one mitzvah, he tilts himself and the whole world to the meritorious side, and causes redemption and salvation for himself and for them.” In other words, the Rambam rules, halachically, that a Jew has the power to redeem and save the whole world!

That a person can influence the whole world is openly demonstrated in these latter generations, for with today’s technology, a person’s words can be heard simultaneously throughout the entire earth. The lesson from this, consonant to the Baal Shem Tov’s teaching that everything encountered by a Jew can provide a lesson for his service to G‑d, is that a Jew can influence the whole world.

In previous generations, it was possible to think that while spiritual things have no bounds, physical things are limited. And thus a person could think that he has as yet not reached a spiritual level necessary to abolish physical limitations. But today, when we see that even physical objects have no limits, we must certainly utilize the G‑dly energy invested by G‑d in creation. In our case, a Jew has the power to extend Simchas Bais Hashoeva to the whole world. And this is particularly emphasized tonight, Motzoei Shabbos, the first time that such technology can be used to include Jews of other parts of the world in Simchas Bais Hashoeva of this locality.

The above (joy in the public domain, and unity of Jews) is associated with the unique aspect of the Mitteler Rebbe, the in-depth elaboration of Chassidus. Despite their differences, the unity between Jews stems from a service that transcends the very possibility of divisions; and that source is revealed in the “sefirah” of binah (associated with the Mitteler Rebbe).

Further, the extension of Simchas Bais Hashoeva into the public domain is analogous to the expansion of Chassidus — to the extent of “Your wellsprings shall spread forth to the outside.” Thus the Mitteler Rebbe, in conjunction with today’s portion of Chumash, teaches that efforts in the dissemination of Chassidus, even to the “outside” (the public domain) and in the whole world (“subdue it”), must be increased. Regardless of the spiritual standing of a Jew met in the “outside,” he too must learn Chassidus, for in essence, he already has all aspects of Torah as a heritage — they only have to be translated from the potential into reality.

In summation: Even after celebrating Simchas Bais Hashoeva on the previous three nights, tonight must be celebrated in even loftier fashion, to the extent that, compared to the previous nights, one can say of tonight’s celebration “Whoever did not see Simchas Bais Hashoeva has not seen joy in his life.” This is particularly so since there is a totally new element present tonight — the “Melave Malka of Dovid, Moshiach.” Not only does King Dovid participate in this meal, but the meal becomes part of each Jew’s flesh and blood. And with its strength, one goes to dance in Simchas Bais Hashoeva.

May it be G‑d’s will that at this time, in the days of Sukkos and Simchas Bais Hashoeva, we speedily merit the true and complete redemption.