1. The Previous Rebbe related that his father, the Rebbe Rashab, used to mention the Rebbeim on Rosh HaShanah. Accordingly, it is customary at this farbrengen to mention the names of all the Rebbeim: The Baal Shem Tov, the Maggid, the Alter Rebbe, the Mitteler Rebbe, the Tzemach Tzedek, the Rebbe Maharash, the Rebbe Rashab, and the previous Rebbe, leader of our generation.

It is customary to also mention something of their teachings. Also, since in addition to the new teachings of each of the Rebbeim, there is also the idea of explaining the concepts of Kabbalah, it follows that by mentioning their teachings we are reminded also of the AriZal and Rashbi, through whom the inner aspect of Torah (kabbalah) was revealed.

It is also customary to sing the melodies of each of the Rebbeim (tunes composed by them, or associated specially with them). This possesses a quality loftier even than mentioning their teachings, for a melody is the pen of the heart, through which the heart’s inner dimension — its essence — is revealed. Such a level cannot be revealed through speech (their teachings), which is the pen of the intellect.

This has special relevance to Rosh HaShanah, for on Rosh HaShanah (when Adam, the first man, was created), the inner aspect of the world is renewed. In man’s service to G‑d, this corresponds to the idea of ‘In Your behalf my heart says, ‘Seek My countenance’; Your countenance L‑rd, I seek’ — service of the heart’s innermost aspect, which cannot be expressed by speech.

This is also the connection to the inner aspect of Torah, Chassidus (the concept of the Rebbeim — mentioning their teachings). For Chassidus is the ‘soul of the Torah,’ encompassing the very highest levels, including the soul’s essence which transcends all levels.

Although we have been discussing the inner aspect of things, they are drawn down into, and affect, the external aspects too. On Rosh HaShanah, for example, although it is the inner aspect of the worlds which is renewed, this renewal affects also the external nature of the worlds.

The same phenomenon is observable in a Jew also, for ‘From my flesh I will see G‑dliness’ — a Jew’s inner being affects his external being. Indeed, the loftiest of matters are revealed specifically in the lowest regions. The blowing of the shofar is one of the loftiest services, drawing down the innermost aspect of the level of ‘ta’anug,’ delight. Yet the actual shofar, through which this is achieved, is an animal’s horn.

The revelation of the inner aspect of Torah, Chassidus, is another example. Although it is the innermost level of Torah, its essence, it adds to all the Torah’s aspects — for the inner aspect effects the external. And as above, the essence and inner aspect is revealed specifically in the lowest regions. The Baal Shem Tov, founder of Chassidus, was wont to urge simple Jews to say ‘Blessed be G‑d’ or ‘With the help of G‑d,’ or their equivalent in Yiddish (not the holy tongue). The loftiest concepts in Chassidus were thereby drawn down below, in the simple people’s recital of ‘Blessed be G‑d’ — and they thereby grasped the essence.

In practical terms, the melodies of the Rebbeim should now be sung. It would be best if melodies without words be used, for just as a melody has an advantage over a spoken teaching (as explained above) — since the innermost level and essence of the heart, which cannot be revealed through words, is thereby revealed — so for the same reason a melody without words has an advantage over a melody with words.

May it be G‑d’s will that all these matters which we connected with the revelation of the essence, be drawn down in a manner of ‘mamash.’ There are two meanings to the word ‘mamash,’ as explained by the Previous Rebbe on the Alter Rebbe’s words, that the soul is ‘a part of G‑d above mamash.’ One meaning is ‘verily’ — i.e., that a soul is verily and actually a part of G‑d. A second meaning stems from the word ‘mishush,’ which is the sense of feel — i.e., that the soul, a part of G‑d above, descends below to the lowest levels, that of the sense of feel which is the most gross of all the senses.

When we say, therefore, that all the matters of Rosh HaShanah should be drawn down in the manner of mamash — we mean in both the above meanings: that the actual innermost aspects and essence be revealed; and that they should be drawn down to even the lowest levels.

That they should be drawn down to the lowest levels is emphasized by the fact that all these matters — mentioning the Rebbeim’s names and teachings, and singing their melodies — is connected with a physical meal.

The revelation of the essence below, which now, in the time of exile, is limited, will reach its fullness in the future era. May it therefore be G‑d’s will that from the revelations now (however much that is possible), we speedily merit its completion in the future, in the true and complete redemption through our righteous Mashiach.

2. The Previous Rebbe related that his father, the Rebbe Rashab, used to prolong the delivery of the Chassidic discourse of Rosh HaShanah into the night of Motzaei Rosh HaShanah, so as to infuse the revelations of the 48 hours of Rosh HaShanah into the world — that the light of Chassidus should illumine and be heard in all things.

In our days, we may add, the same thing should be done concerning the revealed aspect of Torah: the revelations of Rosh HaShanah should be fused with the world by both the revealed and hidden aspects of Torah.

In Torah itself, the study of children has special status, as our sages have said (Shabbos 119b), ‘The world exists only for the sake of the breath of children in the house of learning’ — for it is ‘breath without sin.’ This is especially relevant to Rosh HaShanah, for, as noted above, the world is created anew on Rosh HaShanah. It is therefore appropriate that children of pre bar-mitzvah age now recite some Torah passages.

The first passage should be connected with Rosh HaShanah. In the Kiddush recited on Rosh HaShanah (in the daytime), we say two verses: ‘Blow the shofar of the New Moon, on the designated day of our Holy Day,’ and ‘For it is a decree for Israel, a [day of] judgment for the G‑d of Yaakov.’ Incidentally, there are many Chassidic discourses recited on Rosh HaShanah that begin with these verses, indicating that they form the theme of Rosh HaShanah also according to the inner aspect of Torah.

In addition, the Alter Rebbe taught that Jews must ‘live’ with the times, meaning live according to the weekly parshah read and learned at the time. Thus they should also recite the beginning verse of the weekly parshah: ‘Give ear, heavens, and I will speak, and let the earth hear the utterance of my mouth.’ This verse, too, has a special association with Rosh HaShanah, for it talks of the heavens and earth, which are renewed on Rosh HaShanah. This concept is emphasized particularly this year, since this verse, part of the first section of Parshas Haazinu, is learned on Sunday, which this year is the 25th of Elul, the first day of creation.

Likewise, the children should recite the verse, ‘In the beginning G‑d created the heavens and the earth,’ which refers to the literal creation of the world. And, as noted above, this is particularly related to children, for the sake of whom the world exists.

May it be G‑d’s will that through the children who learn Torah, who are called ‘My Mashiach’ — ‘My anointed ones,’ the level of the individual ‘Mashiach’ in each Jew be revealed. And through this, may the Mashiach of all Israel be revealed, and come in the true and complete redemption — speedily in our times.