1. The unique nature of the month of Tammuz need not be explained to those assembled here for it is popularly referred to by Chassidim as “the month of redemption,” commemorating the Previous Rebbe’s release from prison on Yud-Beis Tammuz.

Though there are other opposite factors associated with the month of Tammuz, e.g. the fast of the seventeenth of Tammuz, nevertheless for ourselves, who witnessed the Previous Rebbe’s release, this must surely be considered the dominant factor.

The Previous Rebbe’s release and subsequently, his departure from Russia and ultimate arrival in America which resulted from that release, led to an increase in the “spreading of the wellsprings of Chassidus outward.” Thus, the service associated with the month of Tammuz must be concentrated on this service — Yafutzu Mayonosechoh Chutzah.

Since this phrase originates in the Bible, Mishlei 5:16, it follows that each of its words, like those of any Biblical verse contains unlimited significance. Thus, they each can provide us with significant lessons associated with Yud-Beis Tammuz, emphasizing how we can increase the spread of Chassidus in an unlimited manner.

A) Yafutzu — “Shall Spread”: This implies spreading the teachings of Chassidus in an unlimited manner, with no limitations or constraints. If there are any restrictions whatsoever, one cannot consider this as yafutzu — spreading — in the true sense.

In addition, this spread must effect:

1) The place where Chassidus is studied; that study must permeate every aspect of the place without leaving a single element whose nature is not effected by Chassidus.

2) The nature of the concepts spread. One should not think that since the people “outside” are on a low level, only the lower, more basic aspects of Chassidus should be spread to them and the “higher,” more refined aspects should be regarded as too precious to be “spread outward.”

This attitude is the very opposite of Yafutzu for it places limitations on Chassidus’ spread. Rather, Chassidus has to be spread in an unbounded manner, even to the extent that it is “wasted.” In this vein, in the discourses of Basi LeGani, the Previous Rebbe relates the metaphor of a king who opens his treasure houses and uses the most precious and most valuable articles that have been stored for generations in order to provide the necessary funds to be victorious in battle.

B) Mayonosechoh — “Your wellsprings”: This word emphasizes the unlimited quality that must be associated with the spreading of Chassidus for the very nature of a wellspring is unlimited. Thus, a wellspring causes an article immersed within it to regain ritual purity regardless of the quantity of water present.

When water has become separated from its source, its quantity is significant and it cannot bring about ritual purity unless a specific amount is present. However, as long as a wellspring is connected with its source, it has unlimited power and hence, quantity is not significant.

This teaches that in addition to spreading even the “highest” aspects of Chassidus outward without any restrictions, our efforts to do so must involve our deepest spiritual powers. Not only those aspects of our souls that have already come into existence, our “revealed powers,” but even, our “hidden soul powers,” the qualities connected to the essence of the soul must be employed. This, in turn, will cause the spreading of Chassidus to be without any limits or constraints.

C) Chutzah — “outward”: As mentioned above, the spreading of Chassidus must be carried out in an unlimited manner. It can be explained that a lack of limitation is only possible because of G‑d’s infinity; while, in contrast, the creations are limited.

Thus, Chassidus explains, that in the world of Beriah and in the spiritual worlds below it, and how much more, in our physical world, there are limitations. Atzilus is a combination of two opposites, G‑d’s infinity and the concept of limitation. Nevertheless, the worlds below Atzilus are by nature limited.

Surely, this applies to a place which Torah itself describes as “outside,” beyond the limits of holiness. Its limitations are surely greater for it is lacking a connection with G‑d’s holiness, the source for the qualities of infinity. Nevertheless, since Chutzah is a word in the Bible, that itself endows it with an unlimited quality. This allows the wellsprings to be spread to even the furthest reaches possible.

The redemption of Yud-Beis Tammuz had an effect on each of the three aspects of Yafutzu, Mayonosechoh, Chutzah, and expressed the unlimited quality associated with this service.

The source and root of the Previous Rebbe was in Lubavitch, more generally, in the province of Moholiev and, even more generally, in Russia as a whole. This is displayed in the great dearness with which the Previous Rebbe held the Jews from that country. Nevertheless, from there, the Previous Rebbe began a series of exiles from Lubavitch to Rostov — until he was forced to leave that country — and ultimately came to America, a place where the observance of Judaism was lacking — the “outer reaches” of Jewry in his time.

However, the intent of all these exiles was an elevation to a higher rung, indeed, to a rung so high that it could not be reached except through the process of these exiles. Each exile and descent brought about an increase in the spreading of Chassidus until, ultimately, the greatest descent, coming to America, brought about an unlimited and unbounded increase in these activities. This effected Yafutzu — the unlimited and unbounded efforts; Mayonosechoh — the essential qualities of the soul; and Chutzah — the furthest reaches. On a very simple level, we saw how the Previous Rebbe was granted “a plentiful and settled atmosphere” which gave him the potential to increase his service of spreading Chassidus.

The above is related to the general concept of exile. The Hebrew word for exile golah resembles the Hebrew for redemption geulah except that it lacks an alef. Alef stands for G‑d, the “L‑rd (Alufo) of the world.” However, the relationship between exile (golah) and revelation (gilah) is even closer. There is no need even to add a letter. All that is necessary is to change the vowels. Thus, even when the Alef of the redemption is still hidden in the exile, the exile itself can lead to greater revelation.

The above is also related to the portion of the Torah read this week, Parshas Shelach. Shelach means “send out”; one is sent out of one’s physical and spiritual place.

The command Shelach was associated with the conquest of Eretz Yisrael. Thus, it relates to our service of, to quote the Tzemach Tzedek, “making Eretz Yisrael here,” making the place to which we are sent an extension of Eretz Yisrael by spreading Torah.

This involves:

a) The manner in which the mission is carried out — an unbounded spread of activity as explained regarding Yafutzu.

b) The source from which one is sent — this should represent the highest aspects of our spiritual potential — Mayonosechoh; and,

c) the place to which one is sent — one must effect even the furthest reaches — Chutzah.

The above is not related to the Previous Rebbe alone, but to each and every Jew. The Previous Rebbe was the Nasi (leader) of the generation. The nature of a Nasi is that he exists for the people as G‑d told Moshe “the only reason I endowed you with greatness is for the sake of Israel.” Thus, the increase in the service of Yafutzu Mayonosechoh Chutzah experienced by the Previous Rebbe in relation to Yud-Beis Tammuz is related to each and every individual. Thus, everyone has to carry out the mission of Shelach in a manner of Yafutzu Mayonosechoh Chutzah as described above.

The Previous Rebbe himself expressed this point in the letter he sent regarding Yud-Beis Tammuz, stating “G‑d did not redeem me alone on Yud-Beis Tammuz, but rather, all those who hold the Torah dear, keep its mitzvos, and all those who are called by the name Israel.” The Hebrew words for the latter phrase “Kol Asher B’Shaim Yisrael Yichuneh” also imply a relation to a Jew whose Jewish identity is only a kinui, i.e. it is not the name he commonly uses. Nevertheless, he is a Jew and is effected by the Previous Rebbe’s redemption.

This above is further emphasized by the fact that this concept was expressed in a letter. Were it to have been stated in a discourse, one might state that it would require meditation and concentration in order to be understood. However, everyone appreciates that a letter sent by the Nasi of the generation is something that should be read by everyone without hesitation and immediately put into practice.

May the service of Shelach and that of Yafutzu Mayonosechoh Chutzah, which involves making our surroundings into Eretz Yisrael, lead to the era when we will all go to Eretz Yisrael, in the literal sense. May we continue from the redemption of Yud-Beis Tammuz to the Messianic redemption. May it be speedily, in our days.

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2. In addition to the general lesson taught by Parshas Shelach which was explained above, there is a more specific lesson that can be derived from an analysis of the story of the spies in detail. When one begins to consider the story of the spies and their refusal to enter Eretz Yisrael, one becomes amazed. How is it possible that they did not want to enter Eretz Yisrael! One is forced to say that they must have had a valid reason which would be acceptable even from the perspective of holiness. Yet, nevertheless, that reason should not have been followed and they should have fulfilled G‑d’s will in a manner of Kabbalas Ol.

The above can be understood within the context of the proper perspective with which one should appreciate stories concerning our great Jewish leaders. Many err in their conception of these stories, for example, the stories about Moshe.

The Midrash relates that G‑d “tested” Moshe to see if he was fit to lead the Jewish people when he was shepherding Yisro’s flocks. One lamb ran away from the flock and Moshe ran after it. When the lamb reached a pool of water, it stopped to drink. Moshe caught up to it; and realizing its fatigue gently carried it back to the herd on his shoulder. When G‑d saw this, He commented, “Since you tend to sheep with mercy, I will let you tend to My flock, Israel.”

When a person looks at such a story simply, it appears to teach that Moshe’s display of mercy to Yisro’s sheep proved that he possessed the qualities necessary to lead the Jewish people. However, when one begins to think of the matter, that is difficult to conceive. Moshe was a “soul of Atzilus.” That term implies that not only was his soul ultimately rooted in Atzilus, but rather, as he existed here in this physical world, the G‑dliness of Atzilus was revealed for him. Even in Pharaoh’s palace and in Yisro’s home, Moshe’s conception was of the G‑dliness of Atzilus. Hence, it is difficult to comprehend: Is it necessary that a “soul of Atzilus” prove that he is merciful? Furthermore, is caring for Yisro’s sheep a proper expression of that mercy?

Rather, this can be explained on the basis of a statement of the Shaloh: “The Torah speaks about what transpires in the spiritual realm and hints at what takes place in the physical realms.” Many view the matter in reverse, seeing the Torah as describing material reality, but having spiritual implications. The opposite is true. The story is really a description of spiritual reality which is reflected also in physical terms.

In this context, the lamb which fled in Moshe’s story can be interpreted to mean “a spark of Atzilus” which became separated from its source and descended. Moshe had two choices: to remain in his own place, taking care of “the herd of Atzilus,” or to descend and try to bring this spark back to its source. Moshe was naturally motivated by mercy and pursued the lamb. He thus saw how it reached water, i.e. how through its descent, it could reach an even higher level.

A similar concept applies regarding the story of the spies. Their story is also incomprehensible when viewed simply. They were present at Mount Sinai and witnessed a direct revelation of G‑dliness. After that, how could they become so frightened of gentiles that they did not want to enter Eretz Yisrael?

The Alter Rebbe asks this question in Likkutei Torah and explains that it was precisely because of the spies’ high spiritual level that they did not want to enter Eretz Yisrael.

To explain further, one of the reasons the Torah was given in the desert was because there, a person can be totally devoted to the Torah without being at all disturbed by material things. In the desert, all the people’s needs were met in a miraculous manner. They ate manna, received water from Miriam’s well, were protected by the clouds of glory. Therefore, the spies did not want to leave the desert and enter Eretz Yisrael where they would have to deal with material reality.

From an even deeper perspective, the desert is described (Yirmeyahu 2:6) as a place where “man did not dwell there” — i.e. it alludes to a level above all relation to human form or even to the spiritual source for that form. There is an aspect of the desert which alludes to a low level, the place of the forces of evil. However, in the present context, the desert must be seen as a metaphor for the highest spiritual levels, G‑d’s essence itself. Indeed, for this reason, the Torah was given in the desert for the Torah has its root in these sublime spiritual peaks.

Accordingly, the spies did not want to descend from these high spiritual peaks and involve themselves with the performance of Torah and mitzvos on the plane of deed and action as would be required when they entered Eretz Yisrael. The spies were not interested in the spiritual rungs they could achieve in Eretz Yisrael for they had an even higher spiritual goal in mind, the revelation of G‑d’s essence in the desert.

This relates to the parable told by the Baal Shem Tov on the verse: “The prayer of the poor man... before G‑d, he pours out his statements.” When the poor man enters the king’s palace, he is shown all the king’s wealth and possessions. However, he shows no interest in them whatsoever. He has one desire, to enter the king’s private chamber and see the king himself!

He is not too foolish to appreciate the value of the king’s treasures. He is poor and surely understands how the gold and silver will benefit him. Nevertheless, since he appreciates the tremendous difference between these royal treasures and the king himself, he is not at all distracted by them and begs and prays to be allowed to enter the king’s chamber.

The king’s gold and silver are metaphors for fear and love. The poor man is not content with the spiritual heights of love and fear. He has one desire — to see the king. Similarly, it can be explained that the spies were conscious of the revelation of G‑d’s essence in the desert and accordingly, were willing to forego all the spiritual heights that could be achieved in Eretz Yisrael in order to remain in the desert.

This relates to the Rambam’s statements in Hilchos Teshuvah concerning the service out of love; that man’s service should not be in order to receive a reward — not even the reward of the World to Come. Rather, the service should be for G‑d’s sake, emulating “the service of Avraham, My lover”; “loving G‑d with a great love... until his soul is bound up in the love of G‑d, constantly obsessed with it.”

Isn’t it enough that one is being asked to forego this world, must he also forego the World to Come? And furthermore, we are not speaking about a person who has no connection with the World to Come. Rather, we are speaking about someone who has the right to demand that G‑d give him his portion of the World to Come. However, he is not concerned with the World to Come for he is involved in something infinitely greater, “pouring out his statements before G‑d,” “constantly obsessed in His love.”

Thus we can understand the spies. They knew that G‑d commanded them to enter Eretz Yisrael in order that they could reach high spiritual levels. Nevertheless, they were willing to forego these peaks for they did not desire to depart at all from the revelations of the desert.

There are two elements to the above:

a) Every descent involves a certain danger. Though we are assured that ultimately, everyone will fulfill G‑d’s desires, this may take a long time, perhaps, several incarnations. How could they be asked to risk departing from the revelations of the desert for so long?

b) Even if one could reach all these elevated rungs immediately — how can one be concerned with them, for they are related to the service of refinement and the reward in the world to come, when instead, one could appreciate the wondrous bond with G‑d “constantly obsessed in His love”?

The answer to the spies can be derived from the words of Yehoshua and Calev: “The land is very, very good. If G‑d desires us....” First, they are concerned with G‑d’s desire and realize that He wants the Jews to enter Eretz Yisrael. G‑d’s will should be fulfilled regardless of one’s own perceptions. This is the true service lishmah, for G‑d’s sake, to fulfill His will, in contrast to desiring to cling to Him as did the spies. On the contrary, once G‑d’s desire that the Jews enter Eretz Yisrael was revealed, anyone who does not strive to have that desire realized, is rebelling against G‑d.

Furthermore, through fulfilling G‑d’s will with an acceptance of the yoke of heaven (Kabbalas Ol), one comes to an unlimited peak as implied by the words “very, very — me’od, me’od.” The word “me’od” refers to the aspect of creation which transcends limits and restrictions. At the beginning of creation, the Torah relates how “everything was very good,” mentioning me’od once. This was the aspect of infinity which the spies desired to relate to by remaining in the desert. However, Yehoshua and Calev realized how an even higher level of infinity could be reached by entering Eretz Yisrael as implied by the repetition of the word me’od.

This produces a lesson for us in our service of G‑d. The intent of the entry into Eretz Yisrael was to transform the land of Canaan into Eretz Yisrael. In a personal sense, this implies that one should not be content with carrying out service with one’s self. Rather, one must also be involved with other Jews and also, with gentiles as the Rambam states each Jew is obligated to influence all of the world’s inhabitants to accept the seven mitzvos of Noach’s descendants. Through this service G‑d’s intent in Creation is fulfilled and the world is transformed into a dwelling place for Him.

A person might argue: “I’d rather remain in `the desert.’ I will lock myself up in Torah study, in prayer, and cleave to G‑d.”

If one tells him that doing so ignores the service of refining the world, he will answer that he is willing to forego the achievements possible in those realms so that he can study Torah and pray lishmah — for G‑d’s sake.

Here, we see a twofold reply:

a) There is no need to seek the revelation of G‑dliness. What is necessary is to carry out G‑d’s will — including His desire to have a dwelling place in the lower worlds — without considering one’s own benefit. This is true service lishmah, for His sake.

b) Even from the point of view of the level the person himself reaches, by following G‑d’s with Kabbalas Ol, a person reaches a higher level.

The above is also implied by the Rambam’s choice of Avraham as the epitome of the service of love. Not only was Avraham willing to forego reward in the World to Come, he was also willing to give up the service of “constantly obsessed in His love” and spend his time “commanding his children and his household... to perform charity and judgment.” Furthermore, he went out and publicized the knowledge of G‑d throughout the entire world.

The above also contains a lesson that is relevant even to gentiles. In the previous ages, the wise men of the gentiles would live separate from the common people, removed from worldly things, and spend their entire day involved in wisdom. They looked down on the common people, considering them even lower than animals (for an animal has no possibility of gaining wisdom, while these people do and yet, they do not utilize the opportunity).

Thus, to benefit from these wise men, the common people had to search for them and, by offering both honor and gifts, try to influence the wise man to interrupt his involvement with his studies and provide them with guidance.

Shelach teaches that a person has to reach out to others, not to seek solitude in order to reach one’s personal perfection, but, rather, to go beyond one’s self and afford one’s wisdom to others. This is included in the command: “Love your neighbor as yourself.” That command teaches that when a person is given a good thing, including the ability to develop in a certain sphere of knowledge, he should not keep this good to himself, but rather should share it with others.

This approach was epitomized by Moshe. Whenever G‑d taught him a new Torah concept, he would teach it to the Jewish people. Furthermore, Moshe did not rely on others to teach it to the common people. After teaching the concepts to Aharon, his sons, and the elders, he himself instructed the entire nation.

This approach should be followed not only in regard to the wisdom of Torah, but regarding all forms of knowledge. A wise man, e.g. a doctor, should not wait until somebody comes to him and asks for his help. Rather, if there is an opportunity for him to help others, he should take advantage of it and help the person himself. Furthermore, he should not do it causally, without really involving himself. Rather, he should give himself over to the matter in a complete way.

There are two reasons for such an approach. Firstly, a person must realize that he was not created to gather honor for himself. Rather, as the Mishnah states, he, together with “everything G‑d created in His world was created only for His glory.” Thus, if G‑d created a person with the ability to become a wise man, He did not do so in order that the latter would swell up with pride — is there any lack of egocentricity and self-service in this world that this would be G‑d’s intent? Rather, G‑d desired that he use his wisdom to help better G‑d’s world.

Once when a person complained to the Alter Rebbe about his difficulties, the Alter Rebbe answered him: “You are only worried about what you need and pay no attention to what you are needed for.” The Alter Rebbe did not intend to upset the person. However, it was necessary to show him the proper approach; to teach him that the purpose of his creation was not for himself, but to increase “G‑d’s glory.”

Accordingly, one of a person’s basic principles must be that he should not strive for his own self-perfection at the expense of helping others. This is the purpose of his creation. Indeed, the Baal Shem Tov taught that a soul may descend and live seventy or eighty years for the purpose of doing a favor for another Jew, be it in material things, how much more so, in spiritual things. This does not necessarily apply to a Jew with whom he is familiar, for Ahavas Yisrael applies to every Jew, even one at the other end of the world whom one has never met. Thus, if one was created with the ability to attain knowledge, one must be willing to use this knowledge to help others.

Secondly, the approach which teaches one to forego his own attainments for the sake of others is the only way one can truly attain wisdom. The very first condition when striving for wisdom is that one must be willing to be objective and not have any vested interests. Otherwise, one is likely to err. There is no greater vested interest than pride and self-esteem.

How hard is it for a person who has advanced in a field of knowledge — medicine, for example — to acknowledge that he made a mistake! On the contrary, when a mistake is pointed out to him, rather than look at the matter objectively, his first response is self-defense, seeking all sorts of proofs and rationalizations — not to discover the truth, but rather to defend his position. When it is pointed out that people’s lives depend on this, he takes no notice — of what consequence are their lives in comparison to him!

Thus, the lessons for Shelach are relevant on all planes, even in regard to gentiles. On a basic level, Shelach teaches that a Jew must be willing to leave his self-concern and go out to create Eretz Yisrael. In particular, the story of the spies teaches the importance of Kabbalas Ol — not only for a person on a low level, but for someone who, like the Jews in the desert, is part of “a generation of knowledge.” Even such an individual must go beyond his self-concern. Nevertheless, such an approach will ultimately lead him to the highest levels, me’od, me’od — a true transcendence of limitation.

The fact that this lesson applies to both Jews and gentiles sheds light on another concept. Pirkei Avos (3:14) teaches: “Beloved is man, for he was created in the image of G‑d... as it is stated: `for in the image of G‑d, He made man.’“ This applies to all men, even gentiles (as obvious from the fact that the following clause deals specifically with Jews). Thus, we see that all men — Jews and gentiles — share the quality of having been created “in the image of G‑d.”

The human form — the common denominator between all men — is also related to the above lesson. It is well known that the human body is appropriate to the form of the human soul. For this reason, there is a difference between a human body and an animal body — a man’s head is above his heart while an animal’s heart is on the same level as his head — to teach how man has the power to use his mind to govern and control the drives and desires of his heart.

One’s hands are usually below one’s heart, i.e. that they should be controlled by the heart as it is directed by the brain. However, a person can also lift his hands above his head — i.e. he can make a complete commitment to carry out G‑d’s will in a manner which transcends intellect. Since the human form is also possessed by gentiles, it follows that this lesson is relevant to them as well.

This leads to a further concept. The Hebrew word for life — and as is known the Hebrew name for an entity reveals its true nature — chayim is a plural form, teaching us that even our life force is not individual or private, but rather related to others and the world at large.

May carrying out the above lessons — sending ourselves out from our own individual existence to influence the environment outside, and for a teacher to send his students out to make the entire world Eretz Yisrael — cause us to merit to enter Eretz Yisrael, with Mashiach in the ultimate and complete redemption.