1. The fifth night of Sukkos possesses a unique quality. It is well-known that the seven days of Sukkos correspond to the seven emotional attributes and thus, represent a full cycle of time. However, it is explained that the fifth attribute, the attribute of Hod is the conclusion of the essential emotional attributes and from the level of Hod of Hod begins the influence beyond oneself. Thus, tonight represents the conclusion of the essence of the emotions, the remaining two days being included within it. Thus, the celebration of Simchas Beis HaShoeivah tonight must be with increased strength and power.

The emphasis of Simchas Beis HaShoeivah was always celebration; not the study of Torah or the fulfillment of mitzvos, but rejoicing, singing, dancing, and the like. This is particularly true in the diaspora, when we cannot perform the water libation — nor do we even commemorate that libation in any form — and the entire Simchas Beis HaShoeivah centers around rejoicing and celebration. Therefore, that rejoicing must be carried out with added fervor and energy, surpassing the celebrations in the time of the Temple.

[Also, in regard to the concept of Ruach HaKodesh (prophetic inspiration). Our Sages explained that a person could attain Ruach HaKodesh from the celebrations of Simchas Beis HaShoeivah. In this context, the Maggid explained that Ruach HaKodesh is more accessible in the present generations than while the Temple was standing.]

This uniqueness of the present night is also reflected in the Ushpizin associated with this night, Aharon and the Tzemach Tzedek. As mentioned in previous years, the common factor the two share is the quality of Ahavas Yisrael, the love for the Jewish people.

In regard to Aharon, this quality is stated explicitly in the Mishnah, “Be of the students of Aharon, loving peace, pursuing peace, loving the creatures, and drawing them close to Torah.” This quality is also expressed by the mitzvah of the priestly blessing which must be granted to the people in a spirit of love.

[The latter is an absolute requirement for the mitzvah to be fulfilled. Though the two are separate mitzvos, they are fundamentally linked together to the extent that a priest who lacks Ahavas Yisrael cannot recite the priestly blessing.]

Similarly, the aspect of Ahavas Yisrael can be seen in regard to the Tzemach Tzedek who totally gave himself over with a total commitment of love — to the point of Mesirus Nefesh — to the education of Jewish children.

2. The above is also associated with the daily portions of study, in particular, the daily portion of Psalms.

The daily portion begins (90:1) — “A prayer by Moshe.” Furthermore, the following eleven Psalms which include the entire daily portion were all authored by Moshe. Thus, on the surface, this appears more appropriate to the previous day when Moshe was the Ushpizin and not the present night when Aharon is the Ushpizin.

The explanation of the above is dependent on the explanation of the final verses of the Psalm: “May the pleasantness of the L‑rd, our G‑d, be upon us. Establish for us the work of our hands; establish the work of our hands.” This was the blessing with which Moshe blessed the Jewish people after the construction of the Sanctuary, implying, “May the Shechinah rest in the work of your hands.”

This emphasizes the service of Aharon, as Rashi explains in his commentary on the Torah. During the seven days that Moshe constructed the Sanctuary, the Shechinah did not descend. The Jews were ashamed and complained to Moshe that all the effort which they invested in building the Sanctuary appeared to be of no avail. Moshe told them: “Aharon, my brother, is worthy and is more important than me. It is through his sacrifices and service that the Shechinah will rest among you.” Indeed, we see that it is through Aharon’s service that “fire emerged from before G‑d,” and the Shechinah came to rest among the Jews.

Aharon’s importance is also alluded to in the above verse: “the work of our hands,” which the Tzemach Tzedek interprets as referring to the priestly benediction. Thus, we see that even the “prayer by Moshe,” emphasizes the unique qualities of Aharon.

Aharon was also connected with the transmission of the entire Torah. Our Sages explain that after Moshe heard a teaching from G‑d, he would teach it to Aharon, then teach it to Aharon’s sons, then to the elders, then to the Jewish people at large. Afterwards, Moshe would return to his personal affairs and Aharon would teach it to the people. Thus, Aharon was the first to receive the Torah from Moshe.

[There is no contradiction between the above statement and the Mishnah in Avos. “Moshe received the Torah from Sinai and gave it over to Yehoshua.” The latter refers to the transmission of the Torah from generation to generation, which took place close to Moshe’s death. At that time, Aharon had already passed away. However, as long as Aharon was alive, he was the first to receive the Torah from Moshe.]

Nevertheless, the contribution of Aharon’s service alluded to in “the prayer by Moshe” surpasses the contribution he made as the first to receive the Torah from Moshe. In the latter context, he did not contribute anything new of his own, rather, he communicated Moshe’s teachings. In contrast, through his service and the priestly blessings, Aharon was able to contribute a unique quality of his own.

Furthermore, there is an additional advantage to the qualities of Aharon as they are emphasized by “the prayer by Moshe” than as they exist in their own right. Moshe represents the quality of truth and Aharon, the quality of gracious kindness. However, as our Sages commented on the verse “Kindness and truth meet,” there is a further dimension to the quality of kindness when it is emphasized and revealed by the quality of truth personified by Moshe.

[In this light, we find that it was Moshe who told the people, “Aharon, my brother, is worthy... It is through his sacrifices... that the Shechinah will rest among you,” and he commanded Aharon to recite the priestly blessings.]

There is also an aspect of today’s portion of Psalms that is related to the Tzemach Tzedek. Since the first Psalm relates to Aharon, we can assume that the final Psalm is related to the qualities of the Tzemach Tzedek.

The final Psalm of the daily portion begins, “Sing to the L‑rd a new song.” In this context, it is interesting to note that when the Previous Rebbe mentioned the different Chassidic Ushpizin, he referred to each of them by their title or their family ties to him, e.g., my father and teacher — referring to the Rebbe Rashab, with the exception of the Tzemach Tzedek. The Previous Rebbe referred to him by the name of his text, the Tzemach Tzedek, and not his personal name.

It is interesting to note that the name, Tzemach Tzedek, was given to him after his death, when his responsa were printed. The name was chosen because the name Tzemach is numerically equivalent to the name Menachem and the name Tzedek, to the name Mendel.

Indeed, for that reason, the text was named Tzemach Tzedek and not Tzemach Tzaddik. The latter name might seem more appropriate for, the Tzemach Tzedek was the Tzaddik of the generation. However, the name was chosen because of the numerical equivalence.

Furthermore, the name Tzemach Tzedek alludes to the Mashiach. Our Sages state — and we mention it in the Hosha’anos — that Tzemach is Mashiach’s name and Tzedek — righteousness, describes his behavior. Tzemach also means “growth.” Thus, it alludes to an entity which exists, but must grow to attain its full dimension. Similarly, the concept of Mashiach preceded the entire creation. Thus, on the verse: “And the spirit of G‑d hovered over the waters,” our Sages stated: “This refers to the spirit of Mashiach.” However, its growth, i.e., its revelation within the context of the world has been withheld, we have not merited it.

[The latter expression recalls a relevant concept: The Midrash Eichah contains an entire chapter which reads: “If you had merited, you would read... (and continues, mentioning a prophecy of blessing), now, that you have not merited, you must read... (and continues mentioning one of the Bible’s curses).” It mentions a blessing and a contrasting curse for each of the letters of the alphabet.

This is not merely a literary device. Rather, it relates to the concept explained on the previous nights that the source for everything in the world, even those which appear negative, have their source in holiness. Furthermore, even when, through the process of descent through the spiritual realms, an undesirable result occurs, it is only with the intent that ultimately, man will be able to transform those undesirable factors to good.

This is the intent of the Midrash, teaching that it is impossible for an undesirable event to happen unless it has a source in a positive aspect of the Torah. It demonstrates this concept using each of the twenty-two letters of the alphabet, for these letters are the instruments of creation with which G‑d brought the world into being.]

On the basis of the allusion to Mashiach mentioned above, we can understand the connection between the Tzemach Tzedek and the Psalm — “Sing to the L‑rd a new song.” Our Sages state that the expression “a new song” is a reference to the Messianic age. All the previous songs sang by the Jewish people were described as shirah, using the feminine gender, for the redemption that they celebrated was incomplete and followed by further subjugation. However, the song to be sung in the Messianic age is described as a shir, using the masculine gender, because it will be the complete and ultimate redemption.

Furthermore, a number of the verses of the Psalm, particularly those referring to the gentile nations, indicate that the Psalm is describing the age of Messianic peace when “the sovereignty will be the L‑rd’s” and the gentiles’ nature will be transformed to good.

There is another aspect of that Psalm which relates to the Tzemach Tzedek. On the verse (96:12), “then all the trees of the forest will sing,” the Tzemach Tzedek explains that this refers to “the tree of knowledge” and “the tree of life.” Their singing together implies that “even from the tree of knowledge the quality of separateness will not emanate, but rather, it will unite with the tree of life.”

The Tzemach Tzedek continues to explain that the tree of knowledge which relates to both good and evil can be compared to the Oral Law and the tree of life to the Written Law. Joining the two together implies that one can use the tree of knowledge to refine worldly things with the power of the light from the tree of life that shines upon it.

The tree of knowledge is also interpreted as a reference to Nigleh, the revealed aspects of Torah law and the tree of life, as a reference to Pnimiyus HaTorah. Thus, joining the two together refers to the combination of these two areas of study. This aspect also serves as an allusion to the Tzemach Tzedek who personified such a combination.

All the Rebbeim combined both areas of study, e.g., the Alter Rebbe was known as the author of the Tanya (Pnimiyus HaTorah) and the Shulchan Aruch (Nigleh). Nevertheless, there is a marked difference between the other Rebbeim and the Tzemach Tzedek. The other Rebbeim’s works on Nigleh were strictly in that realm of study and their works on Pnimiyus HaTorah confined to that discipline. In contrast, the Tzemach Tzedek would mix the two areas of study together, i.e., his maamarim would contain a full range of quotes from the TaNaCh, the Mishnah, and the Talmud (mentioning exactly the sources). Furthermore, the aspects of Nigleh are all illuminated with the light of Pnimiyus HaTorah.

The concluding verse of the Psalm states: “He has come to judge the world.” This also applies to the Tzemach Tzedek for his halachic decisions were accepted as judgments by the entire Jewish world, even those who were not from a Chassidic approach.

The above must also influence our celebration of Simchas Beis HaShoeivah. We must rejoice with a joy that parallels the joy of the Messianic age when we will “sing a new song to the L‑rd.” Though we cannot experience the full measure of this celebration until then, there is the potential to taste the Messianic revelations as we taste all the foods of Shabbos on the preceding Friday. Similarly, we must taste all the types of rejoicing that will be experienced at that time, singing, dancing, playing musical instruments.

Furthermore, these celebrations should be held in the public domain, the street, with the celebration reaching the intensity that the street itself dances. May these celebrations herald the celebrations of the Messianic era, when from the dancing and rejoicing of each person in his present place, we will proceed to Eretz Yisrael and to the Messianic Temple. May it be speedily, in our days.