Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 27

16And if a man consecrates some of the field of his inherited property to the Lord, the valuation shall be according to its sowing: an area which requires a chomer of barley seeds at fifty silver shekels.   טז וְאִ֣ם | מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֗וֹ יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ לְפִ֣י זַרְע֑וֹ זֶ֚רַע חֹ֣מֶר שְׂעֹרִ֔ים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כָּֽסֶף:
the valuation shall be according to its sowing: And not according to its value, whether it is a field of good quality or a field of bad quality, their redemption from consecration is equal, [namely]: The area requiring a kor (a chomer in Scripture) of barley seeds [must be redeemed] for fifty [silver] shekels. This is Scripture’s decree. — [Torath Kohanim 27:90] Now, this applies to one who comes to redeem it at the beginning of the Jubilee cycle [namely, in its first year]. However, if he comes to redeem it in the middle [of the Jubilee cycle, i.e., after the first year has elapsed], he must pay according to the calculation of one sela (i.e., a shekel) and a pundyon (one forty-eighth of a shekel) per year [depending on how many years until the next Jubilee (see Rashi on verse 18 below)]. — [Arachin 25a] [And why so?] Because property is consecrated only according to the years of the Jubilee cycle-if it is redeemed [within the Jubilee cycle], very good, [i.e., it reverts to its original owners and is no longer Temple property]; but if not, the [Temple] treasurer sells it to someone else at the aforementioned rate, and it remains in the purchaser’s possession until the next Jubilee, just like any other fields which are sold. Then, when it leaves the possession of this purchaser [in the Jubilee], it reverts to the kohanim of that watch, namely, [namely, the shift officiating] when [Yom Kippur of that] Jubilee occurs, and is apportioned among them. — [Arachin 28b] [The kohanim are divided into 24 family watches, or shifts, each in rotation for two or three one-week periods every year.] This is the law stated regarding one who consecrates a field. I will now explain it according to the order of the verses.   וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ לְפִי זַרְעוֹ: לֹא כְּפִי שָׁוְיָהּ, אַחַת שָׂדֶה טוֹבָה וְאַחַת שָׂדֶה רָעָה פִּדְיוֹן הֶקְדֵּשָׁן שָׁוֶה — בֵּית כֹּר שְׂעוֹרִים בַּחֲמִשִּׁים שְׁקָלִים — כָּךְ גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב, וְהוּא שֶׁבָּא לְגָאֳלָהּ בִּתְחִלַּת הַיּוֹבֵל. וְאִם בָּא לְגָאֳלָהּ בְאֶמְצָעוֹ, נוֹתֵן לְפִי הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן סֶלַע וּפֻנְדְּיוֹן לְשָׁנָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ הֶקְדֵּשׁ אֶלָּא לְמִנְיַן שְׁנוֹת הַיּוֹבֵל, שֶׁאִם נִגְאֲלָה הֲרֵי טוֹב, וְאִם לָאו הַגִּזְבָּר מוֹכְרָהּ בַּדָּמִים הַלָּלוּ לְאַחֵר, וְעוֹמֶדֶת בְּיַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ עַד הַיּוֹבֵל כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַשָּׂדוֹת הַמְּכוּרוֹת, וּכְשֶׁהִיא יוֹצְאָה מִיָּדוֹ חוֹזֶרֶת לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ מִשְׁמָר שֶׁהַיּוֹבֵל פּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ, וּמִתְחַלֶּקֶת בֵּינֵיהֶם, זֶהוּ הַמִּשְׁפָּט הָאָמוּר בְּמַקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֶה, וְעַכְשָׁו אֲפָרְשֶׁנּוּ עַל סֵדֶר הַמִּקְרָאוֹת:
17Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended], it shall remain at [its full] valuation.   יזאִם־מִשְּׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֑הוּ כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֖ יָקֽוּם:
Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended]: If, as soon as the Jubilee year has ended, he immediately consecrates [his property i.e., within that first year of the next Shemittah and Jubilee cycle], and then he comes to redeem it immediately [i.e., before that first year has ended].   אִם־מִשְּׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַקְדִּישׁ וגו': אִם מִשֶּׁעָבְרָה שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל מִיָּד הִקְדִּישָׁהּ, וּבָא זֶה לְגָאֳלָהּ מִיָּד.
it shall remain at [its full] valuation: i.e., like this aforementioned (in verse 16) valuation, it shall be, [namely,] he must give fifty silver shekels [for the size of field stated]. — [see Arachin 24b]   כְּעֶרְכְּךָ יָקֽוּם: כָּעֵרֶךְ הַזֶּה הָאָמוּר יִהְיֶה — חֲמִשִּׁים כֶּסֶף יִתֵּן:
18But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years until the [next] Jubilee year, and it shall be deducted from the valuation.   יחוְאִם־אַחַ֣ר הַיֹּבֵל֘ יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֒הוּ֒ וְחִשַּׁב־ל֨וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־הַכֶּ֗סֶף עַל־פִּ֤י הַשָּׁנִים֙ הַנּ֣וֹתָרֹ֔ת עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנִגְרַ֖ע מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, [the kohen should calculate the money for him….: [And not only in this case, but] likewise, if [the original owner] had consecrated the property immediately after the Jubilee ended, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer, and this one comes to redeem it after [this first year following] the Jubilee -   וְאִם־אַחַר הַיֹּבֵל יַקְדִּישׁ: וְכֵן אִם הִקְדִּישָׁהּ מִשְּׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְנִשְׁתַּהָת בְּיַד גִּזְבָּר, וּבָא זֶה לְגָאֳלָהּ אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל.
the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years [until the (next) Jubilee year]: according to the rate. How? [Scripture] has stated the fixed value [of redemption for a field whose size is that stated in our verse,] for forty-nine years as fifty [silver] shekels, i.e., one shekel for each of the [49] years and an extra shekel [paid over] all the [49] years. Now, a shekel is equivalent to 48 pundyons . Thus, one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for each year, except that one pundyon is missing for all of them [i.e., if we figure fifty shekels, we have only 49 shekels and 48 pundyons , which is less than a sela and a pundyon per year, but the redeemer is required to pay one extra pundyon per a 49-year period, for] our Rabbis taught (Bech. 50a) that, the [extra] pundyon is a surcharge for [currency exchange of] small coins [i.e., if someone comes to purchase a silver shekel with pundyons , he will be charged 49 of them, the extra pundyon being a surcharge for attaining the more significant single shekel coin rather than many small coins. This surcharge, then, is passed on to the one who wishes to redeem the field. Hence, at an annual rate of one shekel and one pundyon, the redeemer is actually paying one forty-ninth of a pundyon currency exchange surcharge every year]. And therefore, someone who comes to redeem [a field], must pay one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for every year left until the next Jubilee year.   וְחִשַּׁב־לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף עַל־פִּי הַשָּׁנִים הַנּוֹתָרֹת: כְּפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן; כֵּיצַד? הֲרֵי קָצַב דָּמֶיהָ שֶׁל אַרְבָּעִים וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנָה חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל, הֲרֵי שֶׁקֶל לְכָל שָׁנָה וְשֶׁקֶל יָתֵר עַל כֻּלָּן, וְהַשֶּׁקֶל אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנָה פֻנְדְּיוֹן, הֲרֵי סֶלַע וּפֻנְדְּיוֹן לְשָׁנָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁחָסֵר פֻּנְדְּיוֹן אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן, וְאָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁאוֹתוֹ פֻּנְדְּיוֹן קַלְבּוֹן לִפְרוֹטְרוֹט, וְהַבָּא לִגְאֹל, יִתֵּן סֶלַע וּפֻנְדְּיוֹן לְכָל שָׁנָה לַשָּׁנִים הַנּוֹתָרוֹת עַד שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל (עי' ספרא; ערכין כ"ד):
thereby deducting from the [full] valuation [amount]: the number of years from the [preceding] Jubilee year until the redemption year.   וְנִגְרַע מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ: מִנְיַן הַשָּׁנִים שֶׁמִּשְּׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל עַד שְׁנַת הַפִּדְיוֹן:
19If the one who consecrated it redeems the field, he shall add to it a fifth of the valuation money, and it shall be his.   יטוְאִם־גָּאֹ֤ל יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה הַמַּקְדִּ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִשִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְקָ֥ם לֽוֹ:
If the [one who consecrated it] redeems the field: The person who consecrated it must add a fifth to this set amount. — [see Rashi on preceding verse; Mizrachi]   וְאִם־גָּאֹל יִגְאַל: הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אוֹתוֹ, יוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ עַל הַקִּצְבָּה הַזֹּאת:
20But if he does not redeem the field, and if he has sold the field to someone else it may no longer be redeemed.   כוְאִם־לֹ֤א יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְאִם־מָכַ֥ר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ אַחֵ֑ר לֹֽא־יִגָּאֵ֖ל עֽוֹד:
But if he does not redeem the field: [i.e., if] the one who consecrated [the field does not redeem it].   וְאִם־לֹא יִגְאַל אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה: הַמַּקְדִּישׁ:
and if… has sold: [i.e., if] the treasurer (Arachin 25b) has sold   וְאִם־מָכַר: הַגִּזְבָּר:
the field to someone else-it may no longer be redeemed: to revert to the possession of the one who consecrated it [i.e., the original owner, come Jubilee]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה לְאִישׁ אַחֵר לֹא יִגְאַל עֽוֹד: לָשׁוּב בְּיַד הַמַּקְדִּישׁ:
21But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee, it shall be holy to the Lord like a field devoted; his inherited property shall belong to the kohen.   כאוְהָיָ֨ה הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה בְּצֵאת֣וֹ בַיֹּבֵ֗ל קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה כִּשְׂדֵ֣ה הַחֵ֑רֶם לַכֹּהֵ֖ן תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee: the possession of the one who had purchased it from the treasurer, just like all fields that leave the possession of their purchasers, come Jubilee.   וְהָיָה הַשָּׂדֶה בְּצֵאתוֹ בַיֹּבֵל: מִיַּד הַלּוֹקְחוֹ מִן הַגִּזְבָּר, כְּדֶרֶךְ שְׁאָר שָׂדוֹת הַיּוֹצְאוֹת מִיַּד לוֹקְחֵיהֶם בַּיּוֹבֵל:
holy to the Lord: This does not mean that it reverts to the treasurer as sacred property designated for maintenance of the Holy Temple. Rather, it is “like a field devoted” which is given to the kohanim, as it is said, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you” (Num. 18:14). This too shall be divided in Jubilee among the kohanim of the watch at that time, namely, when Yom Kippur of that Jubilee occurs. — [Arachin 28b]   קֹדֶשׁ לה': לֹא שֶׁיָּשׁוּב לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת, לְיַד הַגִּזְבָּר, אֶלָּא כשדה החרם הַנָּתוּן לַכֹּהֲנִים — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כָּל חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה" (במדבר י"ח) — אַף זוֹ תִּתְחַלֵּק לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ מִשְׁמָר שֶׁיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁל יוֹבֵל פּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ (ערכין כ"ח):
22And if he consecrates to the Lord a field that he had acquired, that is not part of his inherited property,   כבוְאִם֙ אֶת־שְׂדֵ֣ה מִקְנָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֕ר לֹ֖א מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֑וֹ יַקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And if [he consecrates…] a field that he had acquired…: There is a difference between an acquired field (שְׂדֵה מִקְנֶה) and a field that is part of inherited property (שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה), namely, that the acquired field is not apportioned among the kohanim in the Jubilee because [the acquirer] can consecrate the field only until Jubilee, for in the Jubilee, the field is destined to leave his possession and revert to the original owner [from whom he acquired it]. Therefore, if he [the original owner (Panim Yafoth; Malbim)] comes to redeem [his property,] he must redeem it with that same fixed rate of valuation for a field that was part of an inherited property. [Should the one who consecrated it redeem it, according to the Sages, he redeems it according to its market value.] But if he does not redeem it, and the treasurer sells it to someone else, or if he does redeem it [according to Tos., Arachin 26b, the reading in Rashi is: If no one redeemed it, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer] in the Jubilee year the field reverts to the one from whom the one who consecrated it bought it, [i.e., the original owner of the field]. Now, lest you say that [the expression] לַאֲשֶׁר קָנֵהוּ מֵאִתּוֹ (in verse 24 below) [refers to] the one from whom this acquirer most recently acquired the field, namely, the treasurer [and that our verse is thus stating here that come Jubilee, the field “reverts” to the treasurer]. Therefore, it was necessary to state (verse 24),“namely, the one whose inherited land it was,” i.e., inherited from his ancestors-referring, therefore, to the original owner who had sold [the field] to the one who consecrated it. — [Arachin 26b]   וְאִם אֶת־שְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ וגו': חִלּוּק יֵשׁ בֵּין שְׂדֵה מִקְנָה לִשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה, שֶׁשְּׂדֵה מִקְנָה לֹא תִתְחַלֵּק לַכֹּהֲנִים בַּיּוֹבֵל, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַקְדִּישָׁהּ אֶלָּא עַד הַיּוֹבֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי בַיּוֹבֵל הָיְתָה עֲתִידָה לָצֵאת מִיָּדוֹ וְלָשׁוּב לַבְּעָלִים, לְפִיכָךְ אִם בָּא לְגָאֳלָהּ, יִגְאַל בַּדָּמִים הַלָּלוּ הַקְּצוּבִים לִשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה; וְאִם לֹא יִגְאַל, וְיִמְכְּרֶנָּה גִּזְבָּר לְאַחֵר, אוֹ אִם יִגְאַל הוּא בשנת היובל ישוב השדה לאשר קנהו מאתו — אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ, וּפֶן תֹּאמַר "לַאֲשֶׁר קָנָהוּ" הַלּוֹקֵחַ הַזֶּה הָאַחֲרוֹן מֵאִתּוֹ, וְזֶהוּ הַגִּזְבָּר, לְכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר לאשר לו אחזת הארץ — מִירֻשַּׁת אָבוֹת, וְזֶהוּ בְּעָלִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁמְּכָרוּהָ לַמַּקְדִּישׁ (ערכין כ"ו):
23the kohen shall calculate for him the amount of the valuation until the Jubilee year, and he shall give the valuation on that day, holy to the Lord.   כגוְחִשַּׁב־ל֣וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן אֵ֚ת מִכְסַ֣ת הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֔ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנָתַ֤ן אֶת־הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
24In the Jubilee year, the field shall return to the one from whom he bought it namely, the one whose inherited land it was.   כדבִּשְׁנַ֤ת הַיּוֹבֵל֙ יָשׁ֣וּב הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר קָנָ֖הוּ מֵֽאִתּ֑וֹ לַֽאֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אֲחֻזַּ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
25Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel, whereby one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs.   כהוְכָ֨ל־עֶרְכְּךָ֔ יִֽהְיֶ֖ה בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֥ים גֵּרָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֥ה הַשָּֽׁקֶל:
Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel: i.e., every valuation regarding which shekels are written, will be made according to the holy shekel.   וְכָל־עֶרְכְּךָ יִֽהְיֶה בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ: כָּל עֶרְכְּךָ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ שְׁקָלִים, יִהְיֶה בְשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs: Twenty ma’ahs. This was how it was originally. However, in later times, they “added a sixth” [i.e., instead of a dinar being worth five ma’ahs (or gerahs), it became worth six ma’ahs (or gerahs)]. And indeed, our Rabbis taught: “A dinar is comprised of six ma’ahs of silver, and [since a shekel is worth four dinars,] there are twenty-four ma’ahs to one sela (i.e., shekel)” [as opposed to twenty ma’ahs in the shekel of the Torah]. — [Bech. 50a]   עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה: עֶשְׂרִים מָעוֹת, כָּךְ הָיוּ מִתְּחִלָּה, וּלְאַחַר מִכָּאן הוֹסִיפוּ שְׁתוּת, וְאָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֵׁשׁ מָעָה כֶּסֶף דִּינָר, עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע מָעוֹת לְסֶלַע (עי' בכורות נ'):
26However, a firstborn animal that must be [sacrificed as] a firstborn to the Lord no man may consecrate it; whether it be an ox or sheep, it belongs to the Lord.   כואַךְ־בְּכ֞וֹר אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְבֻכַּ֤ר לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה לֹֽא־יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ אִם־שׁ֣וֹר אִם־שֶׂ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הֽוּא:
no man may consecrate it: for the purpose of any other sacrifice, because it does not belong to him [but from its birth, a firstborn animal is designated as holy, to be given to the kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:107]   לֹֽא־יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ אֹתוֹ: לְשֵׁם קָרְבָּן אַחֵר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ (עי' ערכין כ"ט):
27Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal, he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation, and he shall add its fifth to it, and if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold for the valuation [price].   כזוְאִ֨ם בַּבְּהֵמָ֤ה הַטְּמֵאָה֙ וּפָדָ֣ה בְעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽשִׁת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל וְנִמְכַּ֥ר בְּעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal: [lit., “And if it is with an unclean animal….”] This verse does not refer back to firstborn animals [discussed in the preceding verse], for it cannot state of a firstborn unclean animal that “he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation” [for the only unclean animal to which the law of the firstborn applies is a donkey (see Exod. 13: 12-13)]; and this [verse] cannot refer to a donkey, because the firstborn of a donkey can be redeemed only with a lamb (see Exod. 13:13), which becomes a gift to the kohen and is not given to the Sanctuary [as does the valuation money in our verse]. Rather, our verse here is referring back to consecration [of one’s possessions to the Temple], for Scripture above (verses 11-13) was speaking about the redemption of a clean animal that had been [consecrated and subsequently] blemished (see Rashi there), and here, our verse is speaking about one who consecrates an unclean animal for maintenance of the Temple. — [Men. 101a]   וְאִם בַּבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה וגו': אֵין הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה מוּסָב עַל הַבְּכוֹר, שֶׁאֵין לוֹמַר בִּבְכוֹר בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה וּפָדָה בְּעֶרְכְּךָ, וַחֲמוֹר אֵין זֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין פִּדְיוֹן פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר אֶלָּא טָלֶה, וְהוּא מַתָּנָה לַכֹּהֵן, וְאֵינוֹ לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ, אֶלָּא הַכָּתוּב מוּסָב עַל הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ, שֶׁהַכָּתוּב שֶׁל מַעְלָה דִּבֵּר בְּפִדְיוֹן בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁהֻמְּמָה, וְכָאן דִּבֵּר בְּמַקְדִּישׁ בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת:
he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation: According to how much the kohen will assess its value.   וּפָדָה בְעֶרְכֶּךָ: כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁיַּעֲרִיכֶנָּה הַכֹּהֵן:
and if it is not redeemed: By the owner,   וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל: עַל יְדֵי בְעָלִים:
it shall be sold for the valuation [price]: to others. — [Torath Kohanim 27: 108]   וְנִמְכַּר בְעֶרְכֶּךָ: לַאֲחֵרִים:
28However, anything that a man devotes to the Lord from any of his property whether a person, an animal, or part of his inherited field shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed, [for] all devoted things are holy of holies to the Lord.   כחאַ֣ךְ כָּל־חֵ֡רֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַֽחֲרִם֩ אִ֨ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֜ה מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֗וֹ מֵֽאָדָ֤ם וּבְהֵמָה֙ וּמִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֔וֹ לֹ֥א יִמָּכֵ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִגָּאֵ֑ל כָּל־חֵ֕רֶם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁ֥ים ה֖וּא לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
However, anything that a man devotes…: Our Rabbis are in dispute regarding this matter [of devoted property]: Some say that unqualified vows of devoted property [i.e., he says, “This is hereby devoted (חֵרֶם),” and does not specify,] go [automatically] to Sanctuary moneys [designated for maintenance of the Temple. Now, according to this ruling,] what then is the meaning of, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you”? (Num. 18:14). This refers to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim, whereby someone says explicitly: “This is (חֵרֶם) devoted for the kohen .” But some [Rabbis] say that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim . — [Arachin 28b]   אַךְ כָּל־חֵרֶם וגו': נֶחְלְקוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בַּדָּבָר, יֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים סְתָם חֲרָמִים לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ, וּמָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם כָּל חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה? בְּחֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים, שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זֶה חֵרֶם לַכֹּהֵן; וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאָמְרוּ, סְתָם חֲרָמִים לַכֹּהֵן (עי' ספרא; ערכין כ"ח):
shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed: But, it must be given to the kohen . [For] according to those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim (see preceding Rashi), they explain this verse as referring to unqualified vows of devoted property, while those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to [Sanctuary moneys designated for] maintenance of the Temple, explain this verse as referring to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim. For all agree that devoted property specifically designated to kohanim does not have any redemption, until it falls into the possession of the kohen [and the property then becomes completely non-consecrated and can even be sold by the kohen (Sifthei Chachamim)]. Devoted property to the One on High [i.e., specifically designated to the maintenance of the Holy Temple, on the other hand], may be redeemed [at its market value even before it reaches the Temple treasury, and its redemption moneys go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, and the property itself then becomes non-consecrated]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Arachin 29a]   לֹא יִמָּכֵר וְלֹא יִגָּאֵל: אֶלָּא יִנָּתֵן לַכֹּהֵן: לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר סְתָם חֲרָמִים לַכֹּהֲנִים, מְפֹרָשׁ מִקְרָא זֶה בִּסְתָם חֲרָמִים, וְהָאוֹמֵר סְתָם חֲרָמִים לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, מְפָרֵשׁ מִקְרָא זֶה בְּחֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים — שֶׁהַכֹּל מוֹדִים שֶׁחֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים אֵין לָהֶם פִּדְיוֹן עַד שֶׁיָּבֹאוּ לְיַד כֹּהֵן וְחֶרְמֵי גָּבוֹהַּ נִפְדִּים:
all devoted things are holy of holies: Those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, bring this verse as proof [to their position]. However, those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go to the kohanim, explain the phrase here, “all devoted things are holy of holies (קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים),” to mean that the act of devoting items to the kohanim can take effect upon [animal sacrifices with the degree of] “holy of holies” [indicated by the use of the double expression here, קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים] and [moreover, even the single expression itself here, קֹדֶשׁ, indicates that this act can take effect upon sacrifices with a degree] of lesser holiness. Thus, [if someone undertakes to bring a sacrifice, allocates which animal he is to sacrifice and then subsequently devotes that animal to the kohanim,] he must give [the relevant money (see below)] to the kohen [and then sacrifices the animal for the offering he had undertaken], just as we have learnt in Tractate Arachin (28b): If [he made] a vow (נֶדֶר) [to bring a sacrifice, i.e., he said, “I take upon myself (to bring an animal as such-and-such a sacrifice)” (see Rashi on Lev. 22: 18)-in this case, if an animal he had then allocated becomes lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, for his vow was to bring a sacrifice and was not limited to that particular animal. Therefore, in the case of a devoted vow (נֶדֶר),] he must give [to the kohen, money worth] the full value [of the animal, for it is still considered fully his when he devoted it to the kohen]. And if [he committed himself in the form of] a donation (נְדָבָה) [saying, “This particular animal is to be brought as such-and-such a sacrifice” (see Rashi on Lev. 22:18)-in this case, if the animal he had allocated becomes lost or blemished, he need not replace it, for his undertaking was limited only to that particular animal, and therefore the animal is no longer considered his. Therefore, in the case of a devoted donation (נְדָבָה) ,] he need give only [the monetary value of] the “benefit” for the [animal which means: Since in case the animal is lost or dies, he would not be required to bring another one in replacement, then once he has set the animal aside for the purpose of that particular sacrifice, he is considered to have already fulfilled his duty, and so, his actual sacrificing it becomes simply a gift to God, as it were. Enjoying this gesture of presenting a gift to God is the “benefit” he has from that animal and which is also the extent of his monetary ownership. This “benefit” is valued as follows: Someone else, who was not obligated to bring this sacrifice, is asked how much he would pay to have this animal sacrificed in his name as a gift to God. The amount that this person states is the amount that the one devoting must give to the kohen , and then he must bring the animal as a sacrifice, as per his undertaking to bring a donation]. — [Mishnah Arachin 8:6-7 and see Rashi on Talmud Arachin 28b]   כָּל־חֵרֶם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁים הוּא: הָאוֹמֵר סְתָם חֲרָמִים לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, מֵבִיא רְאָיָה מִכָּאן, וְהָאוֹמֵר סְתָם חֲרָמִים לַכֹּהֲנִים, מְפָרֵשׁ "כָּל חֵרֶם קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא" לְלַמֵּד שֶׁחֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים חָלִים עַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים וְעַל קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, וְנוֹתֵן לַכֹּהֵן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְמַסֶּכֶת עֲרָכִין (דף כ"ח), אִם נֵדֶר, נוֹתֵן דְּמֵיהֶן, וְאִם נְדָבָה, נוֹתֵן אֶת טוֹבָתָהּ:
[Anything that a man devotes… from any of his property -] whether it be a person: For example, if he devotes his non-Jewish male or female servants [for they are considered his property]. — [Arachin 28a]   מֵֽאָדָם: כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֶחֱרִים עֲבָדָיו וְשִׁפְחוֹתָיו הַכְּנַעֲנִים:
29Any devoting of a person who has been devoted, need not be redeemed [for] he is to be put to death.   כטכָּל־חֵ֗רֶם אֲשֶׁ֧ר יָֽחֳרַ֛ם מִן־הָֽאָדָ֖ם לֹ֣א יִפָּדֶ֑ה מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת:
Any devoting… who has been devoted: [This verse refers to] someone who [has been sentenced to death, and, as he] is going out to be executed, another person declares, “I hereby make a personal commitment [to pay] his valuation!” his words have no validity. — [Arachin 6b]   כָּל־חֵרֶם אֲשֶׁר יָֽחֳרַם וגו': הַיּוֹצֵא לֵהָרֵג וְאָמַר אֶחָד עֶרְכּוֹ עָלַי, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם (ספרא; ערכין ו'):
[And why not? Because] he is to be put to death: i.e., he is on his way to be executed, and therefore, he “cannot be redeemed”-he has no market value [as a slave] or any valuation.   מוֹת יוּמָֽת: הֲרֵי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִפָּדֶה — אֵין לוֹ לֹא דָמִים וְלֹא עֵרֶךְ:
30Any tithe of the Land, whether it be from the seed of the land or the fruit of the tree it is the Lord's. It is holy to the Lord.   לוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֨ר הָאָ֜רֶץ מִזֶּ֤רַע הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ מִפְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה ה֑וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
Any tithe of the Land: Scripture is speaking about the Second Tithe. — [Torath Kohanim 27:112]   וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ: בְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר:
the seed of the land: [Regarding the Second Tithe, Scripture says, “the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil” (Deut. 14:23 and see Rashi there). Thus, here, “the seed of the land” refers to] grain [and]   מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ: דָּגָן:
the fruit of the tree: [refers to] wine and oil.   מִפְּרִי הָעֵץ: תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר:
It is the Lord’s: [The Second Tithe does not belong to God in the sense that one is forbidden to have benefit from it, for indeed it is eaten in Jerusalem by the one who brings it (Sifthei Chachamim) Rather,] God has acquired this [Second Tithe], and it is from His very Table, as it were, that He invites you to come up and eat it in Jerusalem, as it is said, “And you shall eat before the Lord, your God, [in the place which He will choose to establish His Name therein;] the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil…” (Deut. 14: 23). - [Kid. 53a]   לה' הוּא: קְנָאוֹ הַשֵּׁם. וּמִשֻּׁלְחָנוֹ צִוָּה לְךָ לַעֲלוֹת וְלֶאֱכֹל בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י"ד), וְאָכַלְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְגוֹ' (עי' קידושין נ"ד):
31And if a man redeems some of his tithe, he shall add its fifth to it.   לאוְאִם־גָּאֹ֥ל יִגְאַ֛ל אִ֖ישׁ מִמַּֽעַשְׂר֑וֹ חֲמִֽשִׁית֖וֹ יֹסֵ֥ף עָלָֽיו:
[redeem] some of his tithe [… he shall add its fifth]: ] [“of his tithe,”] but not, of someone else’s tithe. Thus, one who redeems his friend’s tithe, does not add a fifth [to its value]. — [Kid. 24a] And what is [the purpose of] its redemption? In order to permit its being eaten anywhere [outside Jerusalem]. And [instead] he must bring the money [of its redemption] up to Jerusalem and eat [food there, bought with that money], as it is stated, “[And if… the place is too distant from you…] Then you will turn it into money [… and… go to the place which… God will choose. And you will turn that money into whatever your soul desires… and you will eat there before… God]” (Deut. 14:24-26).   מִמַּֽעַשְׂרוֹ: וְלֹא מִמַּעְשַׂר חֲבֵרוֹ — הַפּוֹדֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אֵין מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ, וּמַה הִיא גְאֻלָּתוֹ? יִפְדֶנּוּ כְּדֵי לְהַתִּירוֹ בַאֲכִילָה בְכָל מָקוֹם, וְהַמָּעוֹת יַעֲלֶה וְיֹאכַל בִירוּשָׁלַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י"ד), וְנָתַתָּה בַּכָּסֶף וְגוֹ' (עי' קידושין כ"ד):
32Any tithe of cattle or flock of all that pass under the rod, the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.   לבוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֤ר בָּקָר֙ וָצֹ֔אן כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑בֶט הָֽעֲשִׂירִ֕י יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
of all that pass under the rod: When one comes to tithe them, he lets them out [of the pen] through the gate, one by one, and he strikes [every] tenth animal with a rod that has been painted with vermillion (red dye), so that it is identifiable as the tithe. So he must do with every year’s lambs and calves, [but with no other animals, as Scripture states, “Any tithe of cattle or flock”]. — [Bech. 58b]   תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט: כְּשֶׁבָּא לְעַשְּׂרָן, מוֹצִיאָן בַּפֶּתַח זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וְהָעֲשִֹירִי מַכֶּה בְּשֵׁבֶט צְבוּעָה בְסִקְרָא, לִהְיוֹת נִכָּר שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשֵׂר, כֵּן עוֹשֶׂה לִטְלָאִים וְלַעֲגָלִים שֶׁל כָּל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה (בכו' נ"ח):
[the tenth] shall be holy: that its blood and sacrificial portions be offered upon the altar, while its meat is eaten by the owner [with nothing given to the kohanim], because it is not enumerated with other [items categorized as] “gifts to the kehunah,” nor do we find that its meat must be given to kohanim.   יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּדֶשׁ: לִקְרַב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ דָּמוֹ וְאֵמוּרָיו, וְהַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לַבְּעָלִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִמְנָה עִם שְׁאָר מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָה, וְלֹא מָצִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא נָתוּן בְּשָׂרוֹ לַכֹּהֲנִים:
33He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one, nor shall he offer a substitute for it. And if he does replace it, then [both] that one and its replacement are holy; it cannot be redeemed.   לגלֹ֧א יְבַקֵּ֛ר בֵּֽין־ט֥וֹב לָרַ֖ע וְלֹ֣א יְמִירֶ֑נּוּ וְאִם־הָמֵ֣ר יְמִירֶ֔נּוּ וְהָֽיָה־ה֧וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֛וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵֽל:
He shall not inspect [a tithed animal]…: Since [Scripture] says, “[there will you bring…] the choice of your vows [which you will vow to the Lord]” (Deut. 12:11), one might think that he should select and take out the best [animal for the tithe]. Scripture, therefore, says, “He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one”-i.e., whether [the tenth animal] is unblemished or blemished, [since it is the tenth,] holiness has come upon it [exclusively]. This does not mean that a blemished animal can be sacrificed, but that he should eat it according to the law of tithes and that it must not be shorn or used for labor. — [Bech. 14b, 31b]   לֹא יְבַקֵּר וגו': לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְכֹל מִבְחַר נִדְרֵיכֶם" (דברים י"ב), יָכוֹל יְהֵא בוֹרֵר וּמוֹצִיא אֶת הַיָּפֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "לֹא יְבַקֵּר בֵּין טוֹב לָרַע" — בֵּין תָּם בֵּין בַּעַל מוּם חָלָה עָלָיו קְדֻשָּׁה — וְלֹא שֶׁיִּקְרַב בַּעַל מוּם, אֶלָּא יֵאָכֵל בְּתוֹרַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְאָסוּר לִגָּזֵז וְלֵעָבֵד (עי' בכורות י"ד):
34These are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to [tell] the children of Israel on Mount Sinai.   לדאֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֖ר סִינָֽי: