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Torah Reading for Ki Tavo

Parshat Ki Tavo
Shabbat, 21 Elul, 5782
17 September, 2022
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Complete: (Deuteronomy 26:1 - 29:8; Isaiah 60:1-22)
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First Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 26

1And it will be, when you come into the land which the Lord, your God, gives you for an inheritance, and you possess it and settle in it,   אוְהָיָה֙ כִּֽי־תָב֣וֹא אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַֽחֲלָ֑ה וִֽירִשְׁתָּ֖הּ וְיָשַׁ֥בְתָּ בָּֽהּ:
And it will be, when you come… and you possess it and settle in it: This [verse, which is immediately followed by the commandment of bringing the firstfruits,] teaches us that they were not obligated [to bring] “firstfruits” until they conquered the Land and divided it. - [Kid. 37b]   והיה כי תבוא וירשתה וישבת בה: מגיד שלא נתחייבו בבכורים עד שכבשו את הארץ וחלקוה:
2that you shall take of the first of all the fruit of the ground, which you will bring from your land, which the Lord, your God, is giving you. And you shall put [them] into a basket and go to the place which the Lord, your God, will choose to have His Name dwell there.   בוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֞ מֵֽרֵאשִׁ֣ית | כָּל־פְּרִ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר תָּבִ֧יא מֵֽאַרְצְךָ֛ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָ֖ךְ וְשַׂמְתָּ֣ בַטֶּ֑נֶא וְהָֽלַכְתָּ֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִבְחַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לְשַׁכֵּ֥ן שְׁמ֖וֹ שָֽׁם:
of the first: but not all the first, because not all fruits are subject to [the mitzvah of] “firstfruits”-only the seven species [for which the land of Israel is noted]. Here, in our verse, it says the word אֶרֶץ, “land,” and there [in the verse describing the praise of Eretz Israel], it says, “A land (אֶרֶץ) of wheat and barley, vines and figs and pomegranates, a land of oil-producing olives and honey” (Deut. 8:8). Just as the earlier verse (Deut. 8:8) is referring to the seven species through which Eretz Israel is praised, here too, [the verse is dealing with] the praise of the Land. [Rashi proceeds to explain two expressions in Deut. 8:8, which are relevant to the mitzvah of firstfruits, in light of the connection taught by our Rabbis above:] “Oil-producing olives” [refers to] “אֲגוּרִי olives,” [see Sifrei 26:2, meaning superior quality] olives that retain their oil, keeping it gathered (אָגוּר) [as it were] inside it. [Hence, it is the superior fruits which must be brought here]. — [Ber. 39a] [And in the same verse (Deut. 8:8):] “honey”-that is the honey of dates. — [Sifrei 26:2]   מראשית: ולא כל ראשית, שאין כל הפירות חייבין בבכורים אלא שבעת המינין בלבד. נאמר כאן ארץ, ונאמר להלן (לעיל ח, ח) ארץ חטה ושעורה וגו', מה להלן משבעת המינים שנשתבחה בהם ארץ ישראל, אף כאן שבח ארץ ישראל שהן שבעה מינין זית שמן זית אגורי ששמנו אגור בתוכו ודבש הוא דבש תמרים:
of the first [of all the fruit]: [What is the process of taking these fruits?] A man goes down into his field and sees a fig that has ripened. He winds a reed around it for a sign and declares: “This is the firstfruit (בִּכּוּרִים).” - [Mishnah Bikkurim 3:1]   מראשית: אדם יורד לתוך שדהו ורואה תאנה שבכרה כורך עליה גמי לסימן ואומר הרי זו בכורים:
3And you shall come to the kohen who will be [serving] in those days, and say to him, "I declare this day to the Lord, your God, that I have come to the land which the Lord swore to our forefathers to give us."   גוּבָאתָ֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִֽהְיֶ֖ה בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֑ם וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו הִגַּ֤דְתִּי הַיּוֹם֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ כִּי־בָ֨אתִי֙ אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֧ע יְהֹוָ֛ה לַֽאֲבֹתֵ֖ינוּ לָ֥תֶת לָֽנוּ:
who will be [serving] in those days: You have only the kohen in your days, whatever he is [and although he may not be as wise or holy as those of previous generations, you are obliged to address him with the respect due to his office as an agent of God]. — [Sifrei 26:3]   אשר יהיה בימים ההם: אין לך אלא כהן שבימיך, כמו שהוא:
and say to him: that you are not ungrateful [for all that God has done for you].   ואמרת אליו: שאינך כפוי טובה:
I declare this day: [The expression, “this day,” teaches us that the one who brings the firstfruits must make this declaration] once a year, and not twice [even though he may return with more firstfruits later that same year]. — [Sifrei 26:3]   הגדתי היום: פעם אחת בשנה ולא שתי פעמים:
4And the kohen will take the basket from your hand, laying it before the altar of the Lord, your God.   דוְלָקַ֧ח הַכֹּהֵ֛ן הַטֶּ֖נֶא מִיָּדֶ֑ךָ וְהִ֨נִּיח֔וֹ לִפְנֵ֕י מִזְבַּ֖ח יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
And the kohen shall take the basket from your hand: in order to wave it. [How so?] The kohen places his hand under [the basket, beneath the level of] the owner’s hand [which is grasping the basket at the top, by its rim] (Sukk. 47b), and [in this position,] waves [the basket together with its owner].   ולקח הכהן הטנא מידך: להניף אותו. כהן מניח ידו תחת יד הבעלים ומניף:
5And you shall call out and say before the Lord, your God, "An Aramean [sought to] destroy my forefather, and he went down to Egypt and sojourned there with a small number of people, and there, he became a great, mighty, and numerous nation.   הוְעָנִ֨יתָ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֜ לִפְנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ אֲרַמִּי֙ אֹבֵ֣ד אָבִ֔י וַיֵּ֣רֶד מִצְרַ֔יְמָה וַיָּ֥גָר שָׁ֖ם בִּמְתֵ֣י מְעָ֑ט וַֽיְהִי־שָׁ֕ם לְג֥וֹי גָּד֖וֹל עָצ֥וּם וָרָֽב:
And you shall call out: Heb. וְעָנִית [Usually meaning to “respond.” However, in this context, this word] denotes the raising of the voice. — [Sotah 32b]   וענית: לשון הרמת קול:
An Aramean [sought to] destroy my forefather: [The declarer] mentions [here] the kind deeds of the Omnipresent [by stating]: “An Aramean [sought to] destroy my forefather.” That is, Laban, when he pursued Jacob, sought to uproot [i.e., annihilate] all [the Jews], and since he intended to do so, the Omnipresent considered it as though he had actually done it (Sifrei 26:5), for [regarding] the pagan nations of the world, the Holy One, Blessed is He, considers the [mere] intention [of an evil deed] as [being equivalent to] the actual perpetration [of the deed itself]. — [Yerushalmi Pe’ah 1:1 at end]   ארמי אבד אבי: מזכיר חסדי המקום ארמי אובד אבי, לבן בקש לעקור את הכל, כשרדף אחר יעקב. ובשביל שחשב לעשות, חשב לו המקום כאלו עשה, שאומות העולם חושב להם הקב"ה מחשבה [רעה] כמעשה:
who then went down to Egypt: And [apart from Laban,] still others came upon us to annihilate us, for after this, Jacob went down to Egypt [“and the Egyptians treated us cruelly…”].   וירד מצרימה: ועוד אחרים באו עלינו לכלותנו, שאחרי זאת ירד יעקב למצרים:
with a small number of people: [Namely,] seventy persons. — [Sifrei 26: 5; see Gen. 46:27]   במתי מעט: בשבעים נפש:
6And the Egyptians treated us cruelly and afflicted us, and they imposed hard labor upon us.   ווַיָּרֵ֧עוּ אֹתָ֛נוּ הַמִּצְרִ֖ים וַיְעַנּ֑וּנוּ וַיִּתְּנ֥וּ עָלֵ֖ינוּ עֲבֹדָ֥ה קָשָֽׁה:
7So we cried out to the Lord, God of our fathers, and the Lord heard our voice and saw our affliction, our toil, and our oppression.   זוַנִּצְעַ֕ק אֶל־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתֵ֑ינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־קֹלֵ֔נוּ וַיַּ֧רְא אֶת־עָנְיֵ֛נוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵ֖נוּ וְאֶת־לַֽחֲצֵֽנוּ:
8And the Lord brought us out from Egypt with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm, with great awe, and with signs and wonders.   חוַיּֽוֹצִאֵ֤נוּ יְהֹוָה֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם בְּיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙ וּבִזְרֹ֣עַ נְטוּיָ֔ה וּבְמֹרָ֖א גָּדֹ֑ל וּבְאֹת֖וֹת וּבְמֹֽפְתִֽים:
9And He brought us to this place, and He gave us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey.   טוַיְבִאֵ֖נוּ אֶל־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וַיִּתֶּן־לָ֨נוּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ:
to this place: meaning the Temple. — [Sifrei 26:9] [The expression הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶה must refer specifically to the Temple and not to the Land of Israel in general, because the following clause:]   אל המקום הזה: זה בית המקדש:
and He gave us this land: [is to be understood] literally.   ויתן לנו את הארץ: כמשמעו:
10And now, behold, I have brought the first of the fruit of the ground which you, O Lord, have given to me." Then, you shall lay it before the Lord, your God, and prostrate yourself before the Lord, your God.   יוְעַתָּ֗ה הִנֵּ֤ה הֵבֵ֨אתִי֙ אֶת־רֵאשִׁית֙ פְּרִ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥תָּה לִּ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְהִנַּחְתּ֗וֹ לִפְנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוִ֔יתָ לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
Then, you shall lay: [The repetition of the expressions וְהִנִּיחוֹ (verse 4) and here, וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ] teaches us [that there were two procedures involving laying the hands on the basket and waving it, namely] that [the owner] takes [the basket] after the kohen has [completed] waving it; [the owner subsequently] grasps it in his hand during his declaration, and then repeats the waving procedure.   והנחתו: מגיד שנוטלו אחר הנחת הכהן ואוחזו בידו כשהוא קורא, וחוזר ומניף:
11Then, you shall rejoice with all the good that the Lord, your God, has granted you and your household you, the Levite, and the stranger who is among you.   יאוְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֣ בְכָל־הַטּ֗וֹב אֲשֶׁ֧ר נָֽתַן־לְךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ וּלְבֵיתֶ֑ךָ אַתָּה֙ וְהַלֵּוִ֔י וְהַגֵּ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
And you shall rejoice with all the good: From here, [our Rabbis] said that the firstfruits declaration is recited only at the time of “rejoicing,” namely, from Shavuoth until Sukkoth, for [then] a person gathers in his grain, fruit, wine and oil [over which he rejoices]. However, from Sukkoth and onwards, he must bring [his firstfruits to the Temple], but he does not recite the declaration. - [Pes. 36b]   ושמחת בכל הטוב: מכאן אמרו אין קורין מקרא בכורים אלא בזמן שמחה מעצרת ועד החג, שאדם מלקט תבואתו ופירותיו ויינו ושמנו, אבל מהחג ואילך מביא ואינו קורא:
you, the Levite: [From here, we learn that] the Levite is also obligated in [the mitzvah of bringing] firstfruits if they planted [trees] within their [forty-eight] cities. [Outside of these cities, they had no land.]   אתה והלוי: אף הלוי חייב בבכורים אם נטעו בתוך עריהם:
and the stranger who is among you: [I.e., the proselyte.] He brings [his firstfruits], but he does not recite the declaration, since he cannot say “to our fathers” [in the introduction to the declaration (verse 3): “I have come to the land which the Lord swore to our forefathers to give us”]. — [Mishnah Bikkurim 1:4]   והגר אשר בקרבך: (שם מכות יט) מביא ואינו קורא, שאינו יכול לומר לאבותינו:

Second Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 26

12When you have finished tithing all the tithes of your produce in the third year, the year of the tithe, you shall give [them] to the Levite, the stranger, the orphan, and the widow, so that they can eat to satiety in your cities.   יבכִּ֣י תְכַלֶּ֞ה לַ֠עְשֵׂ֠ר אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂ֧ר תְּבוּאָֽתְךָ֛ בַּשָּׁנָ֥ה הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֖ת שְׁנַ֣ת הַמַּֽעֲשֵׂ֑ר וְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה לַלֵּוִ֗י לַגֵּר֙ לַיָּת֣וֹם וְלָֽאַלְמָנָ֔ה וְאָֽכְל֥וּ בִשְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ וְשָׂבֵֽעוּ:
When you have finished tithing all the tithes of your produce in the third year: When you have finished separating the tithes of the third year [of the seven-year shemittah cycle]. It fixes a time for the removal [of the tithes from the house] and for the [accompanying] confession [regarding their proper disposal] on the Eve of Passover [for the removal, and for the confession, in the afternoon of the last day of Passover] of the fourth year, as it is said, “At the end of (מִקֵּץ) three years, you shall take out [all the tithe of your crop] (Deut. 14:28), and later on, Scripture also uses this expression: ”At the end of (מִקֵּץ) seven years“ (Deut. 31:10), referring to the mitzvah of הַקְהֵל [assembling all the people in the Temple courtyard, to hear the king read the book of Deuteronomy]. Just as there, the mitzvah was to be performed on a Festival, here too [in the case of removing the tithes and reciting the confession, the mitzvah must be performed] on a Festival. But one could suggest that just as there [in the case of הַקְהֵל, the mitzvah was performed] on the Festival of Sukkoth, here too, [the mitzvah must be performed] on the Festival of Sukkoth. Therefore, Scripture states here: ”When have you finished taking all the tithes in the third year"- [this refers to] a festival on which all tithes have been completely taken: this is Passover [not Sukkoth], because many trees have their fruits picked after Sukkoth [but not after Passover]. Consequently, the separating of tithes of the third year’s produce will conclude on Passover of [the following year, namely] the fourth year. And anyone who has delayed [in distributing] his tithes is ordered by Scripture to remove [any remaining tithes] from the house [on Passover of the fourth year of the shemittah cycle]. — [Sifrei 26:12]   כי תכלה לעשר את כל מעשר תבואתך בשנה השלישית: כשתגמור להפריש מעשרות של שנה השלישית, קבע זמן הביעור והוידוי בערב הפסח של שנה הרביעית, שנאמר (דברים יד, כח) מקצה שלש שנים תוציא וגו'. נאמר כאן מקץ, ונאמר להלן (שם לא י) מקץ שבע שנים, לענין הקהל מה להלן רגל אף כאן רגל, אי מה להלן חג הסוכות אף כאן חג הסוכות, תלמוד לומר כי תכלה לעשר, מעשרות של שנה השלישית רגל שהמעשרות כלין בו, וזהו פסח, שהרבה אילנות יש שנלקטין אחר הסוכות, נמצאו מעשרות של שלישית כלין בפסח של רביעית, וכל מי ששהה מעשרותיו הצריכו הכתוב לבערו מן הבית:
the year of the tithe: [The third year of each shemittah cycle is called “the year of the tithe” because] it differs from its preceding two years insofar as it is a year in which only one of the tithes separated in the two preceding years is separated. During the first and second years of the shemittah cycle, the tithes separated are: a) מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן, “the first tithe,” as the verse says, “[Speak to the Levites, and say to them,] When you take from the children of Israel the tithe…” (Num. 18:26) [referring to “the first tithe,”] and b) מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, “the second tithe,” as the verse says, “And you shall eat before the Lord, your God… the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil…” (Deut. 14:23) [which is a reference to “the second tithe”]. Thus, we have two tithes [being separated during the first two years of the shemittah cycle]. Now Scripture comes and teaches us that in the third year, only one of these two tithes is separated. And which one is that? It is “the first tithe.” [“The second tithe is not separated during the third year.”] Instead of “the second tithe,” one must give “the tithe for the poor,” for it says here in our verse “you shall give [them] to the Levite” what belongs to him, namely “the first tithe” ; [then our verse continues:] “the stranger, the orphan, and the widow”-this is “the tithe for the poor.” - [Sifrei 26:12; R.H. 12b]   שנת המעשר: שנה שאין נוהג בה אלא מעשר אחד משני מעשרות שנהגו בשתי שנים שלפניה, ששנה ראשונה של שמיטה נוהג בה מעשר ראשון, כמו שנאמר (במדבר יח כו) כי תקחו מאת בני ישראל את המעשר, ומעשר שני, שנאמר (דברים יד כג) ואכלת לפני ה' אלהיך מעשר דגנך תירושך ויצהרך, הרי שני מעשרות, ובא ולמדך כאן בשנה השלישית שאין נוהג מאותן שני מעשרות אלא האחד ואיזה, זה מעשר ראשון. ותחת מעשר שני תן מעשר עני שנאמר כאן ונתת ללוי. את אשר לו הרי מעשר ראשון. לגר ליתום ולאלמנה זה מעשר עני:
so that they can eat to satiety: Give them enough to satisfy them. Based on this, [our Rabbis] stated: One may not give the poor in the granary less than one-half a kav of wheat [or one kav of barley. [A kav represents the volume of twenty-four eggs]. — [Sifrei 26:12, Pe’ah 8:5]   ואכלו בשעריך ושבעו: תן להם כדי שבען מכאן אמרו אין פוחתין לעני בגורן פחות מחצי קב חטים וכו':
13Then you shall say before the Lord, your God, "I have removed the holy [portion] from the house, and I have also given it to the Levite, the stranger, the orphan, and the widow, according to all Your commandment that You commanded me; I have not transgressed Your commandments, nor have I forgotten [them].   יגוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֡ לִפְנֵי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ בִּעַ֧רְתִּי הַקֹּ֣דֶשׁ מִן־הַבַּ֗יִת וְגַ֨ם נְתַתִּ֤יו לַלֵּוִי֙ וְלַגֵּר֙ לַיָּת֣וֹם וְלָֽאַלְמָנָ֔ה כְּכָל־מִצְוָֽתְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתָ֑נִי לֹֽא־עָבַ֥רְתִּי מִמִּצְו‍ֹתֶ֖יךָ וְלֹ֥א שָׁכָֽחְתִּי:
Then you shall say before the Lord, your God: Confess [i.e., declare] that you have given your tithes [as required]. — [Sifrei 26:13]   ואמרת לפני ה' אלהיך: התודה שנתת מעשרותיך:
I have removed the holy [portions] from the house: This refers to: a) “the second tithe,” and b) נֶטַע רְבָעִי, the fruit yielded by a tree in its fourth year of growth [both of which are termed קֹדֶשׁ, holy (portions)], they must be brought up to Jerusalem and eaten there in purity. [Accordingly,] the verse here teaches us that if one has delayed bringing these tithes up to Jerusalem for two years, he must take them up now [in the third year].   בערתי הקדש מן הבית: זה מעשר שני ונטע רבעי, ולמדך שאם שהה מעשרותיו של שתי שנים ולא העלם לירושלים, שצריך להעלותם עכשיו:
and I have also given it to the Levite: This refers to “the first tithe.” - [ibid.] [The seemingly superfluous word “also”] comes to include terumah, [the part given to the kohen] and the firstfruits [which are also given to the kohen. Since Kohanim stem from the tribe of Levi, they are referred to here as Levites]. — [Yerushalmi Ma’aser Sheni 5:5]   וגם נתתיו ללוי: זה מעשר ראשון. וגם לרבות תרומה ובכורים:
the stranger, the orphan and the widow: This refers to “the tithe for the poor.” - [Sifrei 26:13]   ולגר ליתום ולאלמנה: זה מעשר עני:
according to all Your commandment: I have given them [the tithes] in their proper sequence (ibid). I did not give terumah before the firstfruits; I did not give tithes before terumah; I did not give the second tithe before the first tithe. For terumah is termed רֵאשִׁית, “the first one,” because it is the first portion to be separated when the produce has become [matured] “grain,” and it is written [regarding the separation of tithes]: מְלֵאָתְךָ וְדִמְעֲךָ לֹא תְאַחֵר (Exod. 22:28), which means that one must not change the order [set out in Scripture for separating tithes]. - [Mechilta , Exod. 22:28]   ככל מצותך: נתתים כסדרן ולא הקדמתי תרומה לבכורים, ולא מעשר לתרומה ולא שני לראשון, שהתרומה קרויה ראשית, שהיא ראשונה משנעשה דגן, וכתיב (שמות כב כח) מלאתך ודמעך לא תאחר, לא תשנה את הסדר:
I have not transgressed Your commandments: I did not separate tithes from one species [of produce to fulfill the obligation of tithe-separation due] from another species [of produce], and I did not separate tithes from the new crop [of the year to fulfill the obligation of tithe-separation due] from the old crop. — [Sifrei, Ma’aser Sheni 5:11]   לא עברתי ממצותיך: לא הפרשתי ממין על שאינו מינו ומן החדש על הישן:
nor have I forgotten: to bless You [on the performance of the mitzvah] of separating tithes. — [ibid.]   ולא שכחתי: מלברך על הפרשת מעשרות:
14I did not eat any of it [second tithe] while in my mourning, nor did I consume any of it while unclean; neither did I use any of it for the dead. I obeyed the Lord, my God; I did according to all that You commanded me.   ידלֹֽא־אָכַ֨לְתִּי בְאֹנִ֜י מִמֶּ֗נּוּ וְלֹֽא־בִעַ֤רְתִּי מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ בְּטָמֵ֔א וְלֹֽא־נָתַ֥תִּי מִמֶּ֖נּוּ לְמֵ֑ת שָׁמַ֗עְתִּי בְּקוֹל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֔י עָשִׂ֕יתִי כְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּיתָֽנִי:
I did not eat any of it [second tithe] while in my mourning: From here [our Rabbis derive the ruling that the second tithe] is forbidden to [be eaten by] an אוֹנָן [close relative of a deceased on the day of death]. — [Sifrei 26:14]   לא אכלתי באני ממנו: מכאן שאסור לאונן:
nor did I consume any of it while unclean: Whether I was unclean and it was clean, or I was clean it was unclean. But where [in the Torah] is one warned against this? [The warning is alluded to in the verse: (Deut. 12:17),] “You shall not eat in your cities [the tithe…].” This refers to eating in a state of uncleanness, as it is said in reference to פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָשִׁים, [animals dedicated as sacrifices, which subsequently became blemished and consequently unfit for that purpose (see Deut. 15: 21-22) the Torah says,] “You may eat it within your cities, the unclean and the clean person together…” (Deut. 15:22). This [the second tithe], however, you shall not eat in the manner of “eating in the cities,” mentioned elsewhere. - [Yev. 73b]   ולא בערתי ממנו בטמא: בין שאני טמא והוא טהור, בין שאני טהור והוא טמא. והיכן הוזהר על כך (לעיל יב יז) לא תוכל לאכול בשעריך, זו אכילת טומאה, כמו שנאמר בפסולי המקודשים (לעיל טו כב) בשעריך תאכלנו הטמא והטהור וגו', אבל זה לא תוכל לאכול דרך אכילת שעריך האמור במקום אחר:
neither have I used any of it for the dead: [using its value in money] to make for him a coffin or shrouds. — [Sifrei, Ma’aser Sheni 5:12]   ולא נתתי ממנו למת: לעשות לו ארון ותכריכין:
I obeyed the Lord, my God: [in that] I have brought [it] to the Temple. - [Sifrei , Ma’aser Sheni 5:12] [In fact, the second tithe was not brought to the Temple, but eaten in Jerusalem. If a person redeemed it, however, he was to bring the redemption money to Jerusalem and purchase food to be eaten in Jerusalem. Although all types of food could be purchased, it was customary to purchase animals and sacrifice them as peace offerings. In this respect, the tithe would be brought into the Temple (Malbim).]   שמעתי בקול ה' אלהי: הביאותיו לבית הבחירה:
I have done according to all that You have commanded me: I have myself rejoiced and caused others to rejoice through it. — [Sifrei, Ma’aser Sheni 5:12]   עשיתי ככל אשר צויתני: שמחתי ושימחתי בו:
15Look down from Your holy dwelling, from the heavens, and bless Your people Israel, and the ground which You have given to us, as You swore to our forefathers a land flowing with milk and honey.   טוהַשְׁקִ֩יפָה֩ מִמְּע֨וֹן קָדְשְׁךָ֜ מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם וּבָרֵ֤ךְ אֶת־עַמְּךָ֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֵת֙ הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תָּה לָ֑נוּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר נִשְׁבַּ֨עְתָּ֙ לַֽאֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ:
Look down from Your holy dwelling: We have fulfilled what You have decreed upon us. Now You do what is incumbent upon You to do (Sifrei , Ma’aser Sheni 5:13), for You said, “If you follow My statutes… then I shall give [you] your rains in their [proper] time….” (Lev. 26:3-4).   השקיפה ממעון קדשך: עשינו מה שגזרת עלינו, עשה אתה מה שעליך לעשות, שאמרת (ויקרא כו, ג) אם בחקתי תלכו ונתתי גשמיכם בעתם:
which You have given us, as You swore to our forefathers: to give to us, and You have [also] kept [the promise You made to our ancestors who left Egypt, that You would give us] “a land flowing with milk and honey.”   אשר נתתה לנו כאשר נשבעת לאבתינו: לתת לנו וקיימת ארץ זבת חלב ודבש:

Third Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 26

16This day, the Lord, your God, is commanding you to fulfill these statutes and ordinances, and you will observe and fulfill them with all your heart and with all your soul.   טזהַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ מְצַוְּךָ֧ לַֽעֲשׂ֛וֹת אֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֑ים וְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֤ וְעָשִׂ֨יתָ֙ אוֹתָ֔ם בְּכָל־לְבָֽבְךָ֖ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ:
This day, the Lord your God is commanding you: Every day, you shall regard the commandments as if they are brand new, as though you are just today being commanded regarding them!- [Tanchuma 1]   היום הזה ה' אלהיך מצוך: בכל יום יהיו בעיניך חדשים, כאלו בו ביום נצטוית עליהם:
You will observe and fulfill them: A heavenly voice is blessing you: “You have brought the firstfruits today- [so] will you merit to bring them next year!”   ושמרת ועשית אותם: בת קול מברכתו הבאת בכורים היום, תשנה לשנה הבאה:
17You have selected the Lord this day, to be your God, and to walk in His ways, and to observe His statutes, His commandments and His ordinances, and to obey Him.   יזאֶת־יְהֹוָ֥ה הֶֽאֱמַ֖רְתָּ הַיּ֑וֹם לִֽהְיוֹת֩ לְךָ֨ לֵֽאלֹהִ֜ים וְלָלֶ֣כֶת בִּדְרָכָ֗יו וְלִשְׁמֹ֨ר חֻקָּ֧יו וּמִצְו‍ֹתָ֛יו וּמִשְׁפָּטָ֖יו וְלִשְׁמֹ֥עַ בְּקֹלֽוֹ:
You have selected… has selected you: Heb. הֶאֱמַרְתָּ… הֶאמִירְךָ. We do not find any equivalent expression in the Scriptures [which might give us a clue to the meaning of these words]. However, it appears to me that [the expression הֶאֱמִיר] denotes separation and distinction. [Thus, here, the meaning is as follows:] From all the pagan deities, you have set apart the Lord for yourself, to be your God, and He separated you to Him from all the peoples on earth to be His treasured people. [Notwithstanding,] I did find a similar expression [to הֶאֱמִיר], which denotes “glory,” as in the verse “[How long will] all workers of violence praise themselves (יִתְאַמְּרוּ)?” (Ps. 94:4).   האמרת: והאמירך (פסוק יח) אין להם עד מוכיח במקרא ולי נראה שהוא לשון הפרשה והבדלה הבדלתי לך מאלהי הנכר להיות לך לאלהים, והוא הפרישך אליו מעמי הארץ להיות לו לעם סגולה ומצאתי להם עד והוא לשון תפארת כמו יתאמרו כל פועלי און (תהלים צ"ד, ד):
18And the Lord has selected you this day to be His treasured people, as He spoke to you, and so that you shall observe all His commandments,   יחוַֽיהֹוָ֞ה הֶֽאֱמִֽירְךָ֣ הַיּ֗וֹם לִֽהְי֥וֹת לוֹ֙ לְעַ֣ם סְגֻלָּ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּר־לָ֑ךְ וְלִשְׁמֹ֖ר כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתָֽיו:
as He spoke to you: When He said]: “And [out of all the nations,] you shall be to Me a treasure” (Exod. 19:5). - [Mechilta 12:78]   כאשר דבר לך: והייתם לי סגולה (שמות יט, ה):
19and to make you supreme, above all the nations that He made, [so that you will have] praise, a [distinguished] name and glory; and so that you will be a holy people to the Lord, your God, as He spoke.   יטוּלְתִתְּךָ֣ עֶלְי֗וֹן עַ֤ל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה לִתְהִלָּ֖ה וּלְשֵׁ֣ם וּלְתִפְאָ֑רֶת וְלִֽהְיֹֽתְךָ֧ עַם־קָד֛שׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֵּֽר:
And so that you will be a holy people… as He spoke: [When He said]: “And you shall be holy to Me” (Lev. 20:26). - [Mechilta 12:78]   ולהיתך עם קדוש וגו' כאשר דבר: והייתם לי קדושים (ויקרא כ, כו):

Fourth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 27

1And Moses and the elders of Israel commanded the people, saying, Observe all of the commandment that I command you this day.   אוַיְצַ֤ו משֶׁה֙ וְזִקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶת־הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר שָׁמֹר֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם:
Observe all of the commandment: Heb. שָׁמֹר [The word שָׁמֹר here denotes] continuous action [that is to say: “You must observe this commandment always”]. Gardant in Old French.   שמור את כל המצוה: לשון הווה גרדנ"ט בלע"ז (בעאבאכטענד):
2And it will be, on the day that you cross the Jordan to the land the Lord, your God, is giving you, that you shall set up for yourself huge stones, and plaster them with lime.   בוְהָיָ֗ה בַּיּוֹם֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּֽעַבְר֣וּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן֒ אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֣ן לָ֑ךְ וַֽהֲקֵמֹתָ֤ לְךָ֙ אֲבָנִ֣ים גְּדֹל֔וֹת וְשַׂדְתָּ֥ אֹתָ֖ם בַּשִּֽׂיד:
you shall set up for yourself: in the Jordan, and after this, you shall take out other [stones] from there, and out of this [second set of stones], build an altar on Mount Ebal. Consequently, we find that there were three places [at which constructions] of stones [were set up]: a) Twelve [stones were put together] in the Jordan, b) the same [number of stones set up] at Gilgal [i.e., the Israelites’ first stop in the land of Israel,] and c) the same [number of stones set up] at Mount Ebal. The above is taught in Tractate Sotah (35b) [where the Talmud, citing Chapter 4 of Joshua, proves the above].   והקמות לך: בירדן ואחר כך תוציא משם אחרות ותבנה מהן מזבח בהר עיבל נמצאת אתה אומר ג' מיני אבנים היו שנים עשר בירדן וכנגדן בגלגל וכנגדן בהר עיבל כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (ל"ה):
3When you cross, you shall write upon them all the words of this Torah, in order that you may come to the land which the Lord, your God, is giving you, a land flowing with milk and honey, as the Lord, God of your forefathers, has spoken to you.   גוְכָֽתַבְתָּ֣ עֲלֵיהֶ֗ן אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֛י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בְּעָבְרֶ֑ךָ לְמַ֡עַן אֲשֶׁר֩ תָּבֹ֨א אֶל־הָאָ֜רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֣יךָ | נֹתֵ֣ן לְךָ֗ אֶ֣רֶץ זָבַ֤ת חָלָב֙ וּדְבַ֔שׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֶּ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־אֲבֹתֶ֖יךָ לָֽךְ:
4And it will be, when you cross the Jordan, that you shall set up these stones, [regarding] which I command you this day on Mount Ebal, and you shall plaster them with lime.   דוְהָיָה֘ בְּעָבְרְכֶ֣ם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן֒ תָּקִ֜ימוּ אֶת־הָֽאֲבָנִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֜י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֛ם הַיּ֖וֹם בְּהַ֣ר עֵיבָ֑ל וְשַׂדְתָּ֥ אוֹתָ֖ם בַּשִּֽׂיד:
5And there, you shall build an altar to the Lord, your God, an altar of stones. You shall not wield any iron upon them.   הוּבָנִ֤יתָ שָּׁם֙ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ מִזְבַּ֣ח אֲבָנִ֔ים לֹֽא־תָנִ֥יף עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם בַּרְזֶֽל:
6You shall build the altar of the Lord, your God, out of whole stones. And on it, you shall offer up burnt offerings to the Lord, your God.   ואֲבָנִ֤ים שְׁלֵמוֹת֙ תִּבְנֶ֔ה אֶת־מִזְבַּ֖ח יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְהַֽעֲלִ֤יתָ עָלָיו֙ עוֹלֹ֔ת לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
7And you shall slaughter peace offerings, and you shall eat there, and you shall rejoice before the Lord, your God.   זוְזָֽבַחְתָּ֥ שְׁלָמִ֖ים וְאָכַ֣לְתָּ שָּׁ֑ם וְשָׂ֣מַחְתָּ֔ לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
8You shall write upon the stones all the words of this Torah, very clearly.   חוְכָתַבְתָּ֣ עַל־הָֽאֲבָנִ֗ים אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֛י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בַּאֵ֥ר הֵיטֵֽב:
very clearly: in seventy languages. — [Sotah 32a]   באר היטב: בשבעים לשון:
9Moses and the Levitic priests spoke to all Israel, saying, "Pay attention and listen, O Israel! This day, you have become a people to the Lord, your God.   טוַיְדַבֵּ֤ר משֶׁה֙ וְהַכֹּֽהֲנִ֣ים הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר הַסְכֵּ֤ת | וּשְׁמַע֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ נִֽהְיֵ֣יתָ לְעָ֔ם לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
Pay attention: [To be understood] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: [meaning, “Listen!” or “Pay attention!”].   הסכת: כתרגומו:
This day, you have become a people [to the Lord, your God]: Every single day, it should seem to you as though you are today entering into a covenant with Him. — [see Ber. 63b]   היום הזה נהיית לעם: בכל יום יהיו בעיניך כאילו היום באת עמו בברית:
10You shall therefore obey the Lord, your God, and fulfill His commandments and His statutes, which I command you this day.   יוְשָׁ֣מַעְתָּ֔ בְּק֖וֹל יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְעָשִׂ֤יתָ אֶת־מִצְו‍ֹתָו֙ וְאֶת־חֻקָּ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּֽוֹם:

Fifth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 27

11And Moses commanded the people on that day, saying,   יאוַיְצַ֤ו משֶׁה֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא לֵאמֹֽר:
12When you cross the Jordan, the following shall stand upon Mount Gerizim to bless the people: Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Joseph, and Benjamin.   יבאֵ֠לֶּה יַֽעַמְד֞וּ לְבָרֵ֤ךְ אֶת־הָעָם֙ עַל־הַ֣ר גְּרִזִּ֔ים בְּעָבְרְכֶ֖ם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן שִׁמְעוֹן֙ וְלֵוִ֣י וִֽיהוּדָ֔ה וְיִשָּׂשכָ֖ר וְיוֹסֵ֥ף וּבִנְיָמִֽן:
to bless the people: As it is found in Tractate Sotah (32a): Six tribes ascended to the top of Mount Gerizim and [the other] six to the top of Mount Ebal; the kohanim, the Levites and the [holy] ark stood below in the middle. The Levites turned their faces towards Mount Gerizim and began with the blessing: “Blessed be the man who does not make a graven or molten image…,” and these [the tribes on Mount Gerizim] and these [the tribes on Mount Ebal] answered “Amen!” Then [the Levites] turned their faces towards Mount Ebal and began with the curse, saying: “Cursed be the man who makes any graven [or molten] image…,” and these [the tribes on Mount Gerizim] and these [the tribes on Mount Ebal] responded “Amen!” The Levites then turned their faces once again towards Mount Gerizim, and said: “Blessed be he who does not degrade his father and mother,” [and the tribes on Mount Gerizim and those on Mount Ebal responded “Amen!” The Levites] would then turn their faces once again towards Mount Ebal, and say: “Cursed be he who degrades his father and mother,” [and the tribes on Mount Gerizim and those on Mount Ebal responded “Amen!”]. Thus [it would continue] in this manner for all of them [the blessings and curses] until [the very last curse, namely (verse 26)]:“Cursed be the one who does not uphold [the words of this Torah].”   לברך את העם: כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (לב א) ששה שבטים עלו לראש הר גריזים, וששה לראש הר עיבל והכהנים והלוים והארון למטה באמצע הפכו לוים פניהם כלפי הר גריזים ופתחו בברכה ברוך האיש אשר לא יעשה פסל ומסכה וגו' ואלו ואלו עונין אמן. חזרו והפכו פניהם כלפי הר עיבל ופתחו בקללה ואומרים, (פסוק טו) ארור האיש אשר יעשה פסל וגו' וכן כולם עד (פסוק כו) ארור אשר לא יקים:
13And the following shall stand upon Mount Ebal for the curse: Reuben, Gad, Asher, Zebulun, Dan, and Naftali.   יגוְאֵ֛לֶּה יַֽעַמְד֥וּ עַל־הַקְּלָלָ֖ה בְּהַ֣ר עֵיבָ֑ל רְאוּבֵן֙ גָּ֣ד וְאָשֵׁ֔ר וּזְבוּלֻ֖ן דָּ֥ן וְנַפְתָּלִֽי:
14The Levites shall speak up, saying to every individual of Israel, in a loud voice:   ידוְעָנ֣וּ הַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם וְאָֽמְר֛וּ אֶל־כָּל־אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל ק֥וֹל רָֽם:
15"Cursed be the man who makes any graven or molten image an abomination to the Lord, the handiwork of a craftsman and sets it up in secret! And all the people shall respond, saying, 'Amen!'   טואָר֣וּר הָאִ֡ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַֽעֲשֶׂה֩ פֶ֨סֶל וּמַסֵּכָ֜ה תּֽוֹעֲבַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֗ה מַֽעֲשֵׂ֛ה יְדֵ֥י חָרָ֖שׁ וְשָׂ֣ם בַּסָּ֑תֶר וְעָנ֧וּ כָל־הָעָ֛ם וְאָֽמְר֖וּ אָמֵֽן:
16Cursed be he who degrades his father and mother. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   טזאָר֕וּר מַקְלֶ֥ה אָבִ֖יו וְאִמּ֑וֹ וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
who degrades his father: Heb. מַקְלֶה אָבִיו [The word מַקְלֶה means:] to treat cheaply [i.e., with disrespect]. It is similar to the verse, “וְנִקְלָה אָחִיךָ, your brother will be degraded” (Deut. 25:3).   מקלה אביו: מזלזל לשון ונקלה אחיך (לעיל כ"ה, ג):
17Cursed be he who moves back his neighbor's landmark. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   יזאָר֕וּר מַסִּ֖יג גְּב֣וּל רֵעֵ֑הוּ וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
who moves back his neighbor’s landmark: Heb. מַסִּיג גְּבוּל, moving it back and stealing the land. [The term מַסִּיג] is an expression similar to, “has turned backwards (וְהֻסַּג אָחוֹר)” (Isa. 59:14).   מסיג גבול: מחזירו לאחוריו וגונב את הקרקע לשון והוסג אחור (ישעיה נט, יד):
18Cursed be he who misguides a blind person on the way. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   יחאָר֕וּר מַשְׁגֶּ֥ה עִוֵּ֖ר בַּדָּ֑רֶךְ וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
who misguides a blind person: One [figuratively] blind regarding some matter [i.e., ignorant or inexperienced], and [knowingly] giving him bad advice.   משגה עור: הסומא בדבר ומשיאו עצה רעה:
19Cursed be he who perverts the judgment of the stranger, the orphan, or the widow. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   יטאָר֗וּר מַטֶּ֛ה מִשְׁפַּ֥ט גֵּֽר־יָת֖וֹם וְאַלְמָנָ֑ה וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
20Cursed be he who lies with his father's wife, thus uncovering the corner of his father's garment. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   כאָר֗וּר שֹׁכֵב֙ עִם־אֵ֣שֶׁת אָבִ֔יו כִּ֥י גִלָּ֖ה כְּנַ֣ף אָבִ֑יו וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
21Cursed be he who lies with any animal. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   כאאָר֕וּר שֹׁכֵ֖ב עִם־כָּל־בְּהֵמָ֑ה וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
22Cursed be he who lies with his sister, his father's daughter or his mother's daughter. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   כבאָר֗וּר שֹׁכֵב֙ עִם־אֲחֹת֔וֹ בַּת־אָבִ֖יו א֣וֹ בַת־אִמּ֑וֹ וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
23Cursed be he who lies with his mother in law. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   כגאָר֕וּר שֹׁכֵ֖ב עִם־חֹֽתַנְתּ֑וֹ וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
24Cursed be he who strikes his fellow in secret. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   כדאָר֕וּר מַכֵּ֥ה רֵעֵ֖הוּ בַּסָּ֑תֶר וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
who strikes his fellow in secret: [Scripture] is speaking of [someone who causes harm to his fellow Jew through] slander (Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer 53). I saw in the Yesod of Rabbi Moshe Hadarshan that there are eleven curses here, corresponding to eleven tribes. [Each of eleven tribes was blessed by Moses before he passed away. Here, we learn that every tribe had an allusionary curse attached to it, as if in admonishment: “If you do God’s will, you will be granted the blessing, but if not, then there is a curse attached.”] But in allusion to [the tribe of] Simeon, [Moses] did not write “Cursed be he…,” for [Moses] did not intend to bless [the tribe of] Simeon [individually] prior to his passing, when he blessed the other tribes. Therefore, [Moses] did not wish to curse them [either. Moses did not deem the tribe of Simeon deserving of a direct blessing before he passed away, on account of the shocking incident at Shittim which involved the leader of the tribe of Simeon having illicit relations with a Midianite princess. See Num. 25:1-15].   מכה רעהו בסתר: על לשון הרע הוא אומר. ראיתי ביסודו של רבי משה הדרשן י"א ארורים יש כאן כנגד י"א שבטים וכנגד שמעון לא כתב ארור לפי שלא היה בלבו לברכו לפני מותו כשברך שאר השבטים לכך לא רצה לקללו:
25Cursed be he who takes a bribe to put an innocent person to death. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   כהאָרוּר֙ לֹקֵ֣חַ שֹׁ֔חַד לְהַכּ֥וֹת נֶ֖פֶשׁ דַּ֣ם נָקִ֑י וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
26Cursed be he who does not uphold the words of this Torah, to fulfill them. And all the people shall say, 'Amen!'   כואָר֗וּר אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־יָקִ֛ים אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י הַתּוֹרָֽה־הַזֹּ֖את לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת אוֹתָ֑ם וְאָמַ֥ר כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אָמֵֽן:
who does not uphold [the words of this Torah]: Here [in this curse,] Moses included the entire Torah, and they accepted it upon themselves with a curse and an oath. — [see Shevuoth 36a]   אשר לא יקים: כאן כלל את כל התורה כולה וקבלוה עליהם באלה ובשבועה:

Deuteronomy Chapter 28

1And it will be if you obey the Lord, your God, to observe to fulfill all His commandments which I command you this day, the Lord, your God, will place you supreme above all the nations of the earth.   אוְהָיָ֗ה אִם־שָׁמ֤וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע֙ בְּקוֹל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמֹ֤ר לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּ֑וֹם וּנְתָ֨נְךָ֜ יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ עֶלְי֔וֹן עַ֖ל כָּל־גּוֹיֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ:
2And all these blessings will come upon you and cleave to you, if you obey the Lord, your God.   בוּבָ֧אוּ עָלֶ֛יךָ כָּל־הַבְּרָכ֥וֹת הָאֵ֖לֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגֻ֑ךָ כִּ֣י תִשְׁמַ֔ע בְּק֖וֹל יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
3You shall be blessed in the city, and you shall be blessed in the field.   גבָּר֥וּךְ אַתָּ֖ה בָּעִ֑יר וּבָר֥וּךְ אַתָּ֖ה בַּשָּׂדֶֽה:
4Blessed will be the fruit of your womb, the fruit of your soil, the fruit of your livestock, the offspring of your cattle, and the flocks of your sheep.   דבָּר֧וּךְ פְּרִֽי־בִטְנְךָ֛ וּפְרִ֥י אַדְמָֽתְךָ֖ וּפְרִ֣י בְהֶמְתֶּ֑ךָ שְׁגַ֥ר אֲלָפֶ֖יךָ וְעַשְׁתְּר֥וֹת צֹאנֶֽךָ:
the offspring of your cattle: Heb. שְׁגַר אֲלָפֶיךָ‏, the young which are born from your cattle, [that is,] which the animal sends forth (מְשַׁגֶּרֶת) from its womb.   שגר אלפיך: ולדות בקרך שהבהמה משגרת ממעיה:
and the flocks of your sheep: Heb. וְעַשְׁתְּרוֹת צֹאנֶךָ [This expression is to be understood] as it is rendered by the Targum [Onkelos]: “וְעֶדְרֵי עָנָךְ, and the flocks of your sheep.” Our Rabbis, however, said: Why are [sheep] עַשְׁתְּרוֹת? Because they enrich (מַעֲשִׁירוֹת) their owners (Chul. 84b) and maintain them, as עַשְׁתְּרוֹת, which are strong rocks.   ועשתרות צאנך: כתרגומו. ורבותינו אמרו למה נקרא שמם עשתרות שמעשירות את בעליהן ומחזיקות אותם כעשתרות הללו שהן סלעים חזקים:
5Blessed will be your basket and your kneading bowl.   הבָּר֥וּךְ טַנְאֲךָ֖ וּמִשְׁאַרְתֶּֽךָ:
Blessed will be your basket: Your fruits. Another explanation of טַנְאֲךָ: liquids which you strain through baskets [used as strainers].   ברוך טנאך: פירותיך. דבר אחר טנאך דבר לח שאתה מסנן בסלים:
and your kneading bowl: Heb. וּמִשְׁאַרְתֶּךָ. Something dry, which remains (נִשְׁאָר) in the receptacle and does not flow through. [This interpretation follows the latter interpretation in the above Rashi. According to the former interpretation, this means simply “your kneading bowl.”   ומשארתך: דבר יבש שנשאר בכלי ואינו זב:
6You shall be blessed when you come, and you shall be blessed when you depart.   ובָּר֥וּךְ אַתָּ֖ה בְּבֹאֶ֑ךָ וּבָר֥וּךְ אַתָּ֖ה בְּצֵאתֶֽךָ:
Blessed will you be when you come, and blessed will you be when you depart: May your departure from the world be as free of sin as was your entry into the world. — [B.M. 107a]   ברוך אתה בבאך וברוך אתה בצאתך: שתהא יציאתך מן העולם בלא חטא כביאתך לעולם:

Sixth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 28

7The Lord will cause your enemies who rise up against you, to be beaten before you; they will come out against you in one direction, but they will flee from you in seven directions.   זיִתֵּ֨ן יְהֹוָ֤ה אֶת־אֹֽיְבֶ֨יךָ֙ הַקָּמִ֣ים עָלֶ֔יךָ נִגָּפִ֖ים לְפָנֶ֑יךָ בְּדֶ֤רֶךְ אֶחָד֙ יֵֽצְא֣וּ אֵלֶ֔יךָ וּבְשִׁבְעָ֥ה דְרָכִ֖ים יָנ֥וּסוּ לְפָנֶֽיךָ:
but they will flee from you in seven directions: Such is the way of those who flee out of fear: they scatter in all directions.   ובשבעה דרכים ינוסו לפניך: כן דרך הנבהלים לברוח מתפזרין לכל צד:
8The Lord will order the blessing to be with you in your granaries, and in every one of your endeavors, and He will bless you in the land which the Lord, your God, is giving you.   חיְצַ֨ו יְהֹוָ֤ה אִתְּךָ֙ אֶת־הַבְּרָכָ֔ה בַּֽאֲסָמֶ֕יךָ וּבְכֹ֖ל מִשְׁלַ֣ח יָדֶ֑ךָ וּבֵ֣רַכְךָ֔ בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ:
9The Lord will establish you as His holy people as He swore to you, if you observe the commandments of the Lord, your God, and walk in His ways.   טיְקִֽימְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֥ה לוֹ֙ לְעַ֣ם קָד֔וֹשׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר נִשְׁבַּע־לָ֑ךְ כִּ֣י תִשְׁמֹ֗ר אֶת־מִצְו‍ֹת֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְהָֽלַכְתָּ֖ בִּדְרָכָֽיו:
10Then all the peoples of the earth will see that the name of the Lord is called upon you, and they will fear you.   יוְרָאוּ֙ כָּל־עַמֵּ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ כִּ֛י שֵׁ֥ם יְהֹוָ֖ה נִקְרָ֣א עָלֶ֑יךָ וְיָֽרְא֖וּ מִמֶּֽךָּ:
11And the Lord will grant you good surplus in the fruit of your womb, in the fruit of your livestock, and in the fruit of your soil, on the land which the Lord swore to your forefathers, to give you.   יאוְהוֹתִֽרְךָ֤ יְהֹוָה֙ לְטוֹבָ֔ה בִּפְרִ֧י בִטְנְךָ֛ וּבִפְרִ֥י בְהֶמְתְּךָ֖ וּבִפְרִ֣י אַדְמָתֶ֑ךָ עַ֚ל הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֧ע יְהֹוָ֛ה לַֽאֲבֹתֶ֖יךָ לָ֥תֶת לָֽךְ:
12The Lord will open up for you His good treasury, the heaven, to give your land its rain in its [right] time, and to bless everything you do. And you will lend many nations, but you will not [need to] borrow.   יביִפְתַּ֣ח יְהֹוָ֣ה | לְ֠ךָ֠ אֶת־אֽוֹצָר֨וֹ הַטּ֜וֹב אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם לָתֵ֤ת מְטַר־אַרְצְךָ֙ בְּעִתּ֔וֹ וּלְבָרֵ֕ךְ אֵ֖ת כָּל־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדֶ֑ךָ וְהִלְוִ֨יתָ֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים וְאַתָּ֖ה לֹ֥א תִלְוֶֽה:
13And the Lord will set you at the head, and not at the tail, and you will be only at the top, and you will not be at the bottom, if you obey the commandments of the Lord, your God, which I am commanding you this day, to observe to fulfill [them].   יגוּנְתָֽנְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֤ה לְרֹאשׁ֙ וְלֹ֣א לְזָנָ֔ב וְהָיִ֨יתָ֙ רַ֣ק לְמַ֔עְלָה וְלֹ֥א תִֽהְיֶ֖ה לְמָ֑טָּה כִּֽי־תִשְׁמַ֞ע אֶל־מִצְוֹ֣ת | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ הַיּ֖וֹם לִשְׁמֹ֥ר וְלַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
14And you shall not turn right or left from all of the words I am commanding you this day, to follow other deities to worship them.   ידוְלֹ֣א תָס֗וּר מִכָּל־הַדְּבָרִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֜י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֛ם הַיּ֖וֹם יָמִ֣ין וּשְׂמֹ֑אול לָלֶ֗כֶת אַֽחֲרֵ֛י אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים לְעָבְדָֽם:
15And it will be, if you do not obey the Lord, your God, to observe to fulfill all His commandments and statutes which I am commanding you this day, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you.   טווְהָיָ֗ה אִם־לֹ֤א תִשְׁמַע֙ בְּקוֹל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמֹ֤ר לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתָ֣יו וְחֻקֹּתָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּ֑וֹם וּבָ֧אוּ עָלֶ֛יךָ כָּל־הַקְּלָל֥וֹת הָאֵ֖לֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגֽוּךָ:
16You shall be cursed in the city, and you shall be cursed in the field.   טזאָר֥וּר אַתָּ֖ה בָּעִ֑יר וְאָר֥וּר אַתָּ֖ה בַּשָּׂדֶֽה:
17Cursed will be your [food] basket and your kneading bowl.   יזאָר֥וּר טַנְאֲךָ֖ וּמִשְׁאַרְתֶּֽךָ:
18Cursed will be the fruit of your womb, the fruit of your soil, the fruit of your livestock, those born from your cattle and the flock of your sheep.   יחאָר֥וּר פְּרִֽי־בִטְנְךָ֖ וּפְרִ֣י אַדְמָתֶ֑ךָ שְׁגַ֥ר אֲלָפֶ֖יךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹ֥ת צֹאנֶֽךָ:
19You shall be cursed when you come, and you shall be cursed when you depart.   יטאָר֥וּר אַתָּ֖ה בְּבֹאֶ֑ךָ וְאָר֥וּר אַתָּ֖ה בְּצֵאתֶֽךָ:
20The Lord will send the curse of shortages, confusion, and turmoil upon you, in every one of your endeavors which you undertake, until it destroys you and until you quickly vanish, because of your evil deeds in forsaking Me.   כיְשַׁלַּ֣ח יְהֹוָ֣ה | בְּ֠ךָ֠ אֶת־הַמְּאֵרָ֤ה אֶת־הַמְּהוּמָה֙ וְאֶת־הַמִּגְעֶ֔רֶת בְּכָל־מִשְׁלַ֥ח יָֽדְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֑ה עַ֣ד הִשָּֽׁמֶדְךָ֤ וְעַד־אֲבָדְךָ֙ מַהֵ֔ר מִפְּנֵ֛י רֹ֥עַ מַֽעֲלָלֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֲזַבְתָּֽנִי:
the curse of shortages: Heb. הַמְּאֵרָה, “shortage,” similar to “צָרַעַת מַמְאֶרֶת,” “a lesion which causes loss [to the person stricken with it]” (Lev.13:51).   המארה: חסרון כמו צרעת ממארת (ויקרא יג, נב):
confusion: Heb. הַמְּהוּמָה [Rendered by Onkelos as שִׁגוּשַׁיָא, meaning] confusion, the sound of panic.   המהומה: שגוש קול בהלות:
21The Lord will make pestilence cleave to you, until it has exterminated you from upon the land, to which you are coming, to possess it.   כאיַדְבֵּ֧ק יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּךָ֖ אֶת־הַדָּ֑בֶר עַ֚ד כַּלֹּת֣וֹ אֹֽתְךָ֔ מֵעַל֙ הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
22The Lord will strike you with consumption, fever, illnesses with burning fevers, a disease which causes unquenchable thirst, with the sword, with blast, and with yellowing, and they will pursue you until you perish.   כביַכְּכָ֣ה יְ֠הֹוָ֠ה בַּשַּׁחֶ֨פֶת וּבַקַּדַּ֜חַת וּבַדַּלֶּ֗קֶת וּבַֽחַרְחֻר֙ וּבַחֶ֔רֶב וּבַשִּׁדָּפ֖וֹן וּבַיֵּֽרָק֑וֹן וּרְדָפ֖וּךָ עַ֥ד אָבְדֶֽךָ:
consumption: Heb. בַּשַּׁחֶפֶת, [a disease] whereby one’s flesh wastes away and swells.   בשחפת: שבשרו נשחף ונפוח:
fever: Heb. וּבַקַּדַּחַת, as in the expression “For a fire burns (קָדְחָה) in My nose” (Deut. 32:22). [In this context, the term refers to] the feverish “fire” of the sick, malevei in Old French, which means intense heat.   ובקדחת: לשון כי אש קדחה באפי (דברים לב, כב) והיא אש של חולים מלויי"ד בלע"ז (פיעבערהימצע) שהיא חמה מאד:
illnesses with burning fevers: Heb. וּבַדַּלֶּקֶת. A feverish heat, more intense than קַדַּחַת. [All] these [terms listed in these verses, refer to] various types of diseases.   ובדלקת: חמה יותר מקדחת ומיני חלאים הם:
a disease which causes unquenchable thirst: Heb. וּבַחַרְחֻר. This is a disease which heats up inside the body, causing him [the patient] to suffer continuous thirst for water, esardement in Old French, parching fever, as in the expressions: “and my bones dried out (חָרָה) from the heat” (Job. 30:30), and “The bellows is heated (נִחַר) from the fire” (Jer. 6:29).   ובחרחר: חולי המחממו תוך הגוף וצמא תמיד למים ובלע"ז אישרדימינ"ט (התיבשות) לשון ועצמי חרה מני חרב (איוב ל, ל) נחר מפוח מאש (ירמי' ו, כט):
and with the sword: He will bring [hostile] armies upon you.   ובחרב: יביא עליך גייסות:
with blast, and with yellowing: Diseases of the grain in the field.   שדפון וירקון: מכות תבואה שבשדות:
blast: Heb. שִׁדָּפוֹן, an easterly wind, hasled in Old French, [meaning that the east wind causes the grain to be blasted].   שדפון: רוח קדים אשלי"דה בלע"ז (זאננפערבראננט):
yellowing: Heb. יֵרָקוֹן, drought, whereby the surface of the grain pales and turns yellow, chaume (?) in Old French.   ירקון: יובש ופני התבואה מכסיפין ונהפכין לירקון קמ"א בלע"ז (געלב):
until you perish: Heb. עַד אָבְדֶךָ. [This phrase could be misconstrued to mean: “until you become lost” by God and found by others. Therefore, Rashi cites] the Targum [which] renders the phrase as: עַד דְתֵיבָד, “until you perish,” meaning, “you will perish, of your own accord.”   עד אבדך: תרגום עד דתיביד כלומר עד אבוד אותך שתכלה מאליך:
23And your skies above you will be [like] copper, and the earth below you [like] iron.   כגוְהָי֥וּ שָׁמֶ֛יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־רֹֽאשְׁךָ֖ נְח֑שֶׁת וְהָאָ֥רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־תַּחְתֶּ֖יךָ בַּרְזֶֽל:
And your skies above you will be [like] copper: These curses [proclaimed here at Mount Ebal] were pronounced by Moses himself [albeit through divine inspiration], whereas those [curses] made at Mount Sinai (Lev. 26:14-39) Moses pronounced from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed is He (Meg. 31b). This is demonstrated by the verses themselves: The verse there says, “But if you will not listen to Me ” (Lev. 26:14), and, “And if you regard Me as coincidence” (26:21), [all referring to God in the first person]. Here, however, the verse says, “obey the Lord, your God ” (verse 15),“ The Lord will make… ” (verse 21), and “ The Lord will strike you” (verse 22) [all referring to God in the third person, demonstrating that Moses is speaking]. Moses made his curses milder [than those at Mount Sinai], for he expressed them in the singular form [as if spoken to an individual]. Furthermore, in this curse [in our verse here], Moses made his milder [than the corresponding curse at Mount Sinai by God], for in the first curses [in Lev.], God said, “[And I shall make] your skies like iron, and your earth like copper” (Lev. 26:19), [meaning that] that the skies will not sweat [i.e., be moist], just as iron does not sweat; consequently, there will be drought in the world. But the earth will sweat, just as copper sweats, thereby causing its fruits to rot. Here, however, Scripture says, “Your skies…copper, and your earth…iron.” [This means] that the skies will sweat [i.e., be moist], and thus, even though they will not pour down rain, there will not be a consuming drought in the world. Also, [this means that] the earth will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat; thus, the fruits will not rot (Torath Kohanim 26:28). [Although the curse here contains these milder elements as explained,] it is, nevertheless, a curse, for whether it [the earth] is like copper or whether it is like iron, it will not produce fruit. And similarly, the skies [whether they become like copper or iron] will not pour down rain.   והיו שמיך אשר על ראשך נחשת: קללות הללו משה מפי עצמו אמרן ושבהר סיני מפי הקב"ה אמרן כמשמען ושם נאמר (ויקרא כו, יד) ואם לא תשמעו לי, ואם תלכו עמי קרי (ויקרא כו, כא) וכן הוא אומר (פסוק טו) בקול ה' אלהיך (פסוק כא) ידבק ה' בך, יככה ה' (פסוק כב) הקיל משה בקללותיו לאמרן בלשון יחיד וגם כן בקללה זו הקל שבראשונות הוא אומר את שמיכם כברזל את ארצכם כנחושה, (ויקרא כו, יט) שלא יהיו השמים מזיעין כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע, ומתוך כך יהא חורב בעולם והארץ תהא מזיעה כדרך שהנחשת מזיע, והיא מרקבת פירותיה, וכאן הוא אומר שמיך נחשת וארצך ברזל, שיהיו שמים מזיעין אף על פי שלא יריקו מטר מכל מקום לא יהיה חורב של אבדון בעולם, והארץ לא תהא מזיעה כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע, ואין הפירות מרקיבין. ומכל מקום קללה היא, בין שהיא כנחשת בין שהיא כברזל, לא תוציא פירות, וכן השמים לא יריקו מטר:
24The Lord will turn the rain of your land into powder and dust, raining down upon you from the heavens until you are destroyed.   כדיִתֵּ֧ן יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־מְטַ֥ר אַרְצְךָ֖ אָבָ֣ק וְעָפָ֑ר מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֨יִם֙ יֵרֵ֣ד עָלֶ֔יךָ עַ֖ד הִשָּֽׁמְדָֽךְ:
[The Lord will turn] the rain of your land into powder and dust: [How do these two opposites coincide, rain and dust? The Talmud answers] (Ta’anith 3b): “[The text is referring to] a wind which follows the rain.” Rain will fall, but insufficiently; moreover, there will not even be enough rain to cause the dust to settle. Then, a wind will come and raise the dust and cover the vegetation [sprouting] from the seeds, which are still moist from the water. [The dust] will adhere to them, forming [a layer of] mud, [which] will dry up [on the vegetation], causing it to rot. [This, then, is the meaning of the curse: “The Lord will turn the rain of your land into powder and dust.”]   מטר ארצך אבק ועפר: זיקא דבתר מטרא, מטר יורד ולא כל צרכו ואין בו כדי להרביץ את העפר, והרוח באה ומעלה את האבק ומכסה את עשב הזרעים שהן לחים מן המים ונדבק בהם ונעשה טיט ומתיבש ומרקיבין:
25The Lord will cause you to be broken before your enemy: you will come out against them in one direction, but you will flee from them in seven directions. And you will become a terrifying [example] to all the kingdoms on earth.   כהיִתֶּנְךָ֨ יְהֹוָ֣ה | נִגָּף֘ לִפְנֵ֣י אֹֽיְבֶ֒יךָ֒ בְּדֶ֤רֶךְ אֶחָד֙ תֵּצֵ֣א אֵלָ֔יו וּבְשִׁבְעָ֥ה דְרָכִ֖ים תָּנ֣וּס לְפָנָ֑יו וְהָיִ֣יתָ לְזַֽעֲוָ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל מַמְלְכ֥וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ:
a terrifying [example]: [an example of] fear (אֵימָה) and trembling (זִיעַ) . [This means that] anyone who hears about your plagues, will “tremble in fear (יָזוּעוּ),” saying: “Woe to us! Let this not befall us, in the way in which it has befallen these [people]!”   לזעוה: לאימה ולזיע, שיזועו כל שומעי מכותיך ממך ויאמרו אוי לנו שלא יבוא עלינו כדרך שבא על אלו:
26Your corpse will be food for all birds of the heaven and for the beasts of the earth, and no one will frighten them [away].   כווְהָֽיְתָ֤ה נִבְלָֽתְךָ֙ לְמַֽאֲכָ֔ל לְכָל־ע֥וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וּלְבֶֽהֱמַ֣ת הָאָ֑רֶץ וְאֵ֖ין מַֽחֲרִֽיד:
27The Lord will strike you with the boils of Egypt, with hemorrhoids, with oozing sores, and with dry lesions, from which you will be unable to be cured.   כזיַכְּכָ֨ה יְהֹוָ֜ה בִּשְׁחִ֤ין מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ וּבַטְחֹרִ֔ים (כתיב ובעפלים) וּבַגָּרָ֖ב וּבֶחָ֑רֶס אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־תוּכַ֖ל לְהֵֽרָפֵֽא:
The boils of Egypt: This was a very severe [lesion]: it was moist on the inside and dry on the outside, as taught in tractate Bech. (41a).   בשחין מצרים: רע היה מאד, לח מבחוץ ויבש מבפנים, כדאיתא בבכורות (מא א):
oozing sores: [This means] wet boils.   גרב: שחין לח:
dry lesions: [This means] boils dry as shards.   חרס: שחין יבש כחרס:
28The Lord will strike you with insanity, with blindness, and with bewilderment.   כחיַכְּכָ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּשִׁגָּע֖וֹן וּבְעִוָּר֑וֹן וּבְתִמְה֖וֹן לֵבָֽב:
and with bewilderment: Heb. וּבְתִמְהוֹן לֵבָב, lit. “clogging of the heart,” estordison in Old French.   ובתמהון לבב: אוטם הלב אשטורדישו"ן בלע"ז [תדהמה]:
29You will grope at midday, as the blind man gropes in the dark, and you will be unsuccessful in your ways. You will be only oppressed and robbed all the days, and no one will save [you].   כטוְהָיִ֜יתָ מְמַשֵּׁ֣שׁ בַּצָּֽהֳרַ֗יִם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יְמַשֵּׁ֤שׁ הָֽעִוֵּר֙ בָּֽאֲפֵלָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א תַצְלִ֖יחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶ֑יךָ וְהָיִ֜יתָ אַ֣ךְ עָשׁ֧וּק וְגָז֛וּל כָּל־הַיָּמִ֖ים וְאֵ֥ין מוֹשִֽׁיעַ:
oppressed: Heb. עָשׁוּק, you will experience controversy regarding everything you do.   עשוק: בכל מעשיך יהיה ערעור:
30You will betroth a woman, but another man will lie with her. You will build a house, but you will not live in it. You will plant a vineyard, but you will not redeem it[s fruits].   לאִשָּׁ֣ה תְאָרֵ֗שׂ וְאִ֤ישׁ אַחֵר֙ יִשְׁכָּבֶ֔נָּה (כתיב ישגלנה) בַּ֥יִת תִּבְנֶ֖ה וְלֹֽא־תֵשֵׁ֣ב בּ֑וֹ כֶּ֥רֶם תִּטַּ֖ע וְלֹ֥א תְחַלְּלֶֽנּוּ:
will lie with her: Heb. יִשְׁגָּלֶנָּה. [This word stems] from the root שֵׁגָל, meaning a פִּלֶגֶשׁ [which refers to a wife without a Jewish marriage contract, i.e., a concubine. Nevertheless,] Scripture euphemizes the term [by having it read as יִשְׁכָּבֶנָּה instead], thus [giving it] a more delicate implication. This is [like] a modification made by scribes. — [see Meg.. 25b; and compare Rashi on Gen. 18:22]   ישגלנה: לשון שגל, פלגש, והכתוב כנהו לשבח ישכבנה ותקון סופרים הוא זה:
redeem it[s fruits]: Heb. תְחַלְלֶנּוּ [This is referring to the fruits of a tree, which must not be used for the first three years of the tree’s life. Then, the fruits of the fourth year take on holy status and are taken to Jerusalem to be eaten. If it is too difficult to take them to Jerusalem, they are redeemed with money, which is, in turn, taken to Jerusalem, where food is purchased for it. Here, then, the curse means that the person will plant his vineyard, but will not live to redeem it] in the fourth year to eat its fruits.   תחללנו: בשנה הרביעית לאכול פריו:
31Your ox will be slaughtered before your eyes, but you will not eat from it. Your donkey will be snatched right in front of you, and it will not return to you. Your flock will be given over to your enemies, and you will have no savior.   לאשֽׁוֹרְךָ֞ טָב֣וּחַ לְעֵינֶ֗יךָ וְלֹ֣א תֹאכַל֘ מִמֶּ֒נּוּ֒ חֲמֹֽרְךָ֙ גָּז֣וּל מִלְּפָנֶ֔יךָ וְלֹ֥א יָשׁ֖וּב לָ֑ךְ צֹֽאנְךָ֙ נְתֻנ֣וֹת לְאֹֽיְבֶ֔יךָ וְאֵ֥ין לְךָ֖ מוֹשִֽׁיעַ:
32Your sons and daughters will be given over to another people, and your eyes will see [this] and long for them all day long, but you will be powerless.   לבבָּנֶ֨יךָ וּבְנֹתֶ֜יךָ נְתֻנִ֨ים לְעַ֤ם אַחֵר֙ וְעֵינֶ֣יךָ רֹא֔וֹת וְכָל֥וֹת אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם כָּל־הַיּ֑וֹם וְאֵ֥ין לְאֵ֖ל יָדֶֽךָ:
and long for them: Heb. וְכָלוֹת אֲלֵיהֶם. [Meaning: Your eyes] will longingly look out for the return [of your children], but they will not return. The expression כִּלְיוֹן עֵינַיִם refers to a hope which never materializes.   וכלות אליהם: מצפות אליהם שישובו ואינם שבים. כל תוחלת שאינה באה קרויה כליון עינים:
33A people unknown to you will eat up the fruit of your soil and [the result of] all your toil. You will be only wronged and crushed all the days.   לגפְּרִ֤י אַדְמָֽתְךָ֙ וְכָל־יְגִ֣יעֲךָ֔ יֹאכַ֥ל עַ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־יָדָ֑עְתָּ וְהָיִ֗יתָ רַ֛ק עָשׁ֥וּק וְרָצ֖וּץ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
34You will go insane from the vision before your eyes that you will behold.   לדוְהָיִ֖יתָ מְשֻׁגָּ֑ע מִמַּרְאֵ֥ה עֵינֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְאֶֽה:
35The Lord will strike you on the knees and on the legs with a terrible skin eruption from which you will be unable to be cured; [it will eventually cover you] from the sole of your foot to the top of your head.   להיַכְּכָ֨ה יְהֹוָ֜ה בִּשְׁחִ֣ין רָ֗ע עַל־הַבִּרְכַּ֨יִם֙ וְעַל־הַשֹּׁקַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־תוּכַ֖ל לְהֵֽרָפֵ֑א מִכַּ֥ף רַגְלְךָ֖ וְעַ֥ד קָדְקֳדֶֽךָ:
36The Lord will lead you and your king whom you will have established over you, to a nation unknown to you or your fathers; and there, you will serve other deities [made] of wood and stone.   לויוֹלֵ֨ךְ יְהֹוָ֜ה אֹֽתְךָ֗ וְאֶת־מַלְכְּךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תָּקִ֣ים עָלֶ֔יךָ אֶל־גּ֕וֹי אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יָדַ֖עְתָּ אַתָּ֣ה וַֽאֲבֹתֶ֑יךָ וְעָבַ֥דְתָּ שָּׁ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים עֵ֥ץ וָאָֽבֶן:
37And you will become an [object of] astonishment, an example, and a topic of discussion, among all the peoples to whom the Lord will lead you.   לזוְהָיִ֣יתָ לְשַׁמָּ֔ה לְמָשָׁ֖ל וְלִשְׁנִינָ֑ה בְּכֹל֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־יְנַֽהֶגְךָ֥ יְהֹוָ֖ה שָֽׁמָּה:
an object of astonishment: Heb. לְשַׁמָּה. [This word is] similar to תִּמָּהוֹן [meaning, astonishment], estordison in Old French. [Thus, the meaning here is:] whoever sees you will be astonished about you.   לשמה: אשטורדישו"ן [תדהמה] כל הרואה אותך ישום עליך:
an example: When some terrible trouble befalls a person, [people] will say: “This is like the trouble that happened to so-and-so.”   למשל: כשתבא מכה רעה על אדם, יאמרו זו דומה למכת פלוני:
and a topic of discussion: Heb. וְלִשְׁנִינָה. An expression similar to “And you will teach them (וְשִׁנַּנְתֶּם)” (Deut. 6:7) [… and speak of them. That is, people] will speak about you. The Targum [Onkelos] renders this [word] in the same way, [namely:] וּלְשׁוֹעִי, [which is similar to] וְאֶשְׁתָּעִי, [meaning to talk].   ולשנינה: לשון ושננתם (לעיל ו, ז) ידברו בך, וכן תרגומו ולשועי, לשון ספור, ואשתעי:
38You will take much seed out to the field, yet you will gather in little, for the locusts will finish it.   לחזֶ֥רַע רַ֖ב תּוֹצִ֣יא הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה וּמְעַ֣ט תֶּֽאֱסֹ֔ף כִּ֥י יַחְסְלֶ֖נּוּ הָֽאַרְבֶּֽה:
will finish it: Heb. יַחְסְלֶנּוּ-means, the locusts will consume it. And because [the word חסל means to consume], the locust is also called חָסִיל (see e.g., Joel 1:4), for it consumes everything in its path. [Yerushalmi Taanit 3:6.]   יחסלנו: יכלנו, ועל שם כך נקרא חסיל, שמכלה את הכל:
39You will plant vineyards and work [them], but you will neither drink of [their] wine, or gather [the grapes], because the worms will devour them.   לטכְּרָמִ֥ים תִּטַּ֖ע וְעָבָ֑דְתָּ וְיַ֤יִן לֹֽא־תִשְׁתֶּה֙ וְלֹ֣א תֶֽאֱגֹ֔ר כִּ֥י תֹֽאכְלֶ֖נּוּ הַתֹּלָֽעַת:
40You will have olive trees throughout all your boundaries, but you will not anoint with [their] oil, because your olive trees will drop off.   מזֵיתִ֛ים יִֽהְי֥וּ לְךָ֖ בְּכָל־גְּבוּלֶ֑ךָ וְשֶׁ֨מֶן֙ לֹ֣א תָס֔וּךְ כִּ֥י יִשַּׁ֖ל זֵיתֶֽךָ:
will drop off: [Meaning, the olive tree] will shed its fruit. This is similar to the verb, “and the iron flew off [or slipped off] (וְנָשַׁל)” (Deut. 19:5).   כי ישל: ישיר פירותיו, לשון (לעיל יט, ה) ונשל הברזל:
41You will bear sons and daughters, but you will not have them, because they will go into captivity.   מאבָּנִ֥ים וּבָנ֖וֹת תּוֹלִ֑יד וְלֹא־יִֽהְי֣וּ לָ֔ךְ כִּ֥י יֵֽלְכ֖וּ בַּשֶּֽׁבִי:
42All your trees and all the fruit of your soil the cicada will make destitute.   מבכָּל־עֵֽצְךָ֖ וּפְרִ֣י אַדְמָתֶ֑ךָ יְיָרֵ֖שׁ הַצְּלָצַֽל:
the cicada will make destitute: [The word יְיָרֵשׁ stems from the word רָשׁ, which means destitute or devoid. Thus, the verse here means that] the locusts will cause the tree to be devoid of fruit. [Therefore,]   יירש הצלצל: יעשנו הארבה רש מן הפרי:
will make destitute: Heb. יְיָרֵשׁ [has the meaning of] יַעֲנִי, “making it destitute.”   יירש: יעני:
the cicada: Heb. הַצְּלָצַל, a [particular] species of locust [which makes a loud sound (צְלִיל)]. Now, [the word יְיָרֵשׁ] must not be understood as denoting יְרוּשָׁה, “inheritance,” for in that case, the Scripture would have written: יִירַשׁ [i.e., with a different vocalization. Similarly,] it should not be understood to mean הוֹרָשָׁה,“driving out” for in that case, Scripture would have written: יוֹרִישׁ. [Rather, the word means “to make destitute, devoid,” as explained above.]   צלצל: מין ארבה. ואי אפשר לפרש יירש לשון ירושה, שאם כן היה לו לכתוב ירש, ולא לשון הורשה וגירושין, שאם כן היה לכתוב יוריש:
43The stranger who is among you will arise above you, higher and higher, while you will descend lower and lower.   מגהַגֵּר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּקִרְבְּךָ֔ יַֽעֲלֶ֥ה עָלֶ֖יךָ מַ֣עְלָה מָּ֑עְלָה וְאַתָּ֥ה תֵרֵ֖ד מַ֥טָּה מָּֽטָּה:
44He will lend to you, but you will not lend to him. He will be at the head, while you will be at the tail.   מדה֣וּא יַלְוְךָ֔ וְאַתָּ֖ה לֹ֣א תַלְוֶ֑נּוּ ה֚וּא יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לְרֹ֔אשׁ וְאַתָּ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לְזָנָֽב:
45All these curses will befall you, pursuing you and overtaking you to destroy you because you did not obey the Lord, your God, to observe His commandments and statutes which He commanded you.   מהוּבָ֨אוּ עָלֶ֜יךָ כָּל־הַקְּלָל֣וֹת הָאֵ֗לֶּה וּרְדָפ֨וּךָ֙ וְהִשִּׂיג֔וּךָ עַ֖ד הִשָּֽׁמְדָ֑ךְ כִּי־לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֗עְתָּ בְּקוֹל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמֹ֛ר מִצְו‍ֹתָ֥יו וְחֻקֹּתָ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽךְ:
46And they will be as a sign and a wonder, upon you and your offspring, forever,   מווְהָי֣וּ בְךָ֔ לְא֖וֹת וּלְמוֹפֵ֑ת וּבְזַרְעֲךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
47because you did not serve the Lord, your God, with happiness and with gladness of heart, when [you had an] abundance of everything.   מזתַּ֗חַת אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־עָבַ֨דְתָּ֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּשִׂמְחָ֖ה וּבְט֣וּב לֵבָ֑ב מֵרֹ֖ב כֹּֽל:
when [you had an] abundance of everything: when you still had all good things.   מרב כל: בעוד שהיה לך כל טוב:
48Therefore, you will serve your enemies, whom the Lord will send against you, [when you are] in famine, thirst, destitution, and lacking everything, and he will place an iron yoke upon your neck, until he has destroyed you.   מחוְעָֽבַדְתָּ֣ אֶת־אֹֽיְבֶ֗יךָ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְשַׁלְּחֶ֤נּוּ יְהֹוָה֙ בָּ֔ךְ בְּרָעָ֧ב וּבְצָמָ֛א וּבְעֵירֹ֖ם וּבְחֹ֣סֶר כֹּ֑ל וְנָתַ֞ן עֹ֤ל בַּרְזֶל֙ עַל־צַוָּארֶ֔ךָ עַ֥ד הִשְׁמִיד֖וֹ אֹתָֽךְ:
49The Lord will bring upon you a nation from afar, from the end of the earth, as the eagle swoops down, a nation whose language you will not understand,   מטיִשָּׂ֣א יְהֹוָה֩ עָלֶ֨יךָ גּ֤וֹי מֵֽרָחֹק֙ מִקְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יִדְאֶ֖ה הַנָּ֑שֶׁר גּ֕וֹי אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־תִשְׁמַ֖ע לְשֹׁנֽוֹ:
as the eagle swoops down: i.e., suddenly and successfully. The horses [of this enemy nation] will run swiftly.   כאשר ידאה הנשר: פתאום ודרך מצלחת ויקלו סוסיו:
whose language you will not understand: Heb. תִּשְׁמַע. [Literally, “You will not hear his language,” i.e.,] you will not recognize its language. [We find a similar expression in Scripture:] “you understand (תִּשְׁמַע) a dream, to interpret it” (Gen. 41:15). Also,“[but they did not know] that Joseph understood (שֹׁמֵע)” (Gen. 42:23), entendre in Old French, to understand.   לא תשמע לשונו: לא תכיר לשונו, וכן (בראשית מא, טו) תשמע חלום לפתור אותו. וכן (שם מב, כג) כי שומע יוסף אינטינדר"י בלע"ז [להבין]:
50a brazen nation, which will not respect the elderly, nor show favor to the young.   נגּ֖וֹי עַ֣ז פָּנִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־יִשָּׂ֤א פָנִים֙ לְזָקֵ֔ן וְנַ֖עַר לֹ֥א יָחֹֽן:
51They will devour the fruit of your livestock and the fruit of your soil, to destroy you. They will not leave over anything for you of the grain, wine, oil, offspring of your cattle or flocks of your sheep, until they annihilate you.   נאוְאָכַ֠ל פְּרִ֨י בְהֶמְתְּךָ֥ וּפְרִֽי־אַדְמָֽתְךָ֘ עַ֣ד הִשָּֽׁמְדָךְ֒ אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־יַשְׁאִ֜יר לְךָ֗ דָּגָן֙ תִּיר֣וֹשׁ וְיִצְהָ֔ר שְׁגַ֥ר אֲלָפֶ֖יךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹ֣ת צֹאנֶ֑ךָ עַ֥ד הַֽאֲבִיד֖וֹ אֹתָֽךְ:
52And they will besiege you in all your cities, until your high and fortified walls in which you trust come down, throughout all your land. And they will besiege you in all your cities throughout all your land, which the Lord, your God, has given you.   נבוְהֵצַ֨ר לְךָ֜ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶ֗יךָ עַ֣ד רֶ֤דֶת חֹֽמֹתֶ֨יךָ֙ הַגְּבֹהֹ֣ת וְהַבְּצֻר֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֛ה בֹּטֵ֥חַ בָּהֵ֖ן בְּכָל־אַרְצֶ֑ךָ וְהֵצַ֤ר לְךָ֙ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ בְּכָ֨ל־אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֛ן יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לָֽךְ:
until your… walls come down: [The רֶדֶת here is [an expression of רִדּוּי וְכִבּוּשׁ] subjugation and conquest.   עד רדת חמתיך: לשון רדוי וכבוש:
53And during the siege and the desperation which your enemies will bring upon you, you will eat the fruit of your womb, the flesh of your sons and daughters, whom the Lord, your God, gave you.   נגוְאָֽכַלְתָּ֣ פְרִֽי־בִטְנְךָ֗ בְּשַׂ֤ר בָּנֶ֨יךָ֙ וּבְנֹתֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽתַן־לְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ בְּמָצוֹר֙ וּבְמָצ֔וֹק אֲשֶׁר־יָצִ֥יק לְךָ֖ אֹֽיְבֶֽךָ:
And during the siege and desperation… you will eat the fruit of your womb, the flesh of your sons: Because [the enemies] will besiege the city, and there will be caused desperation, the distress of famine.   ואכלת פרי בטנך בשר בניך וגו' במצור: מחמת שיהיו צרין על העיר ויהיה שם מצוק עקת רעבון:
54The most tender and delicate man among you, will begrudge his own brother and the wife of his embrace and the rest of his children, whom he will leave over,   נדהָאִישׁ֙ הָרַ֣ךְ בְּךָ֔ וְהֶֽעָנֹ֖ג מְאֹ֑ד תֵּרַ֨ע עֵינ֤וֹ בְאָחִיו֙ וּבְאֵ֣שֶׁת חֵיק֔וֹ וּבְיֶ֥תֶר בָּנָ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוֹתִֽיר:
The most tender and delicate man among you: This is referring to the same person, who is both tender and delicate. These terms denote a pampered existence. [The fact] that these two expressions refer to the same person is proved [by their use together], when it says, “מֵהִתְעַנֵּג וּמֵרֹךְ, because of delicateness and tenderness” (verse 56) [referring to the same person. And here, the verse tells us that] although he is so pampered and he [normally] cannot tolerate anything repugnant, the flesh of his sons and daughters will seem sweet to him as a result of his [intense] hunger. And it will reach a stage where he will begrudge his remaining children, by denying any of them the flesh of his sons, their brothers, which he is eating. Another explanation of הָרַךְ בְּךָ: The merciful and tenderhearted will become cruel because of the intense hunger, and they will not give the flesh of their slaughtered children to their remaining children.   הרך בך והענג: הוא הרך הוא הענוג, לשון פינוק. ומהתענג ומרך מוכיח עליהם ששניהם אחד, אף על פי שהוא מפונק ודעתו קצה בדבר מאוס, ימתק לו לרעבונו בשר בניו ובנותיו עד כי תרע עינו בבניו הנותרים מתת לאחד מהם מבשר בניו אחיהם אשר יאכל. דבר אחר הרך בך הרחמני ורך הלבב, מרוב רעבנותם, יתאכזרו ולא יתנו מבשר בניהם השחוטים לבניהם הנותרים:
55of giving any one of them of the flesh of his children that he is eating, because not a thing will remain for him in the siege and in the desperation which your enemies will bring upon you, in all your cities.   נהמִתֵּ֣ת | לְאַחַ֣ד מֵהֶ֗ם מִבְּשַׂ֤ר בָּנָיו֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֹאכֵ֔ל מִבְּלִ֥י הִשְׁאִֽיר־ל֖וֹ כֹּ֑ל בְּמָצוֹר֙ וּבְמָצ֔וֹק אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָצִ֥יק לְךָ֛ אֹֽיִבְךָ֖ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
56The most tender and delicate woman among you, who would not venture to set her foot upon the ground, because of delicateness and tenderness, will begrudge the husband of her embrace and her own son and daughter,   נוהָֽרַכָּ֨ה בְךָ֜ וְהָֽעֲנֻגָּ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־נִסְּתָ֤ה כַף־רַגְלָהּ֙ הַצֵּ֣ג עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ מֵֽהִתְעַנֵּ֖ג וּמֵרֹ֑ךְ תֵּרַ֤ע עֵינָהּ֙ בְּאִ֣ישׁ חֵיקָ֔הּ וּבִבְנָ֖הּ וּבְבִתָּֽהּ:
will begrudge the husband of her embrace and her own son and daughter: [referring to her] grown-up [children].   תרע עינה באיש חיקה ובבנה ובבתה: הגדולים:
57and the infants who emerge from between her legs, and her own children whom she will bear, for she will eat them in secret, in destitution, in the siege and the desperation which your enemies will inflict upon you, in your cities.   נזוּבְשִׁלְיָתָ֞הּ הַיּוֹצֵ֣ת | מִבֵּ֣ין רַגְלֶ֗יהָ וּבְבָנֶ֨יהָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּלֵ֔ד כִּי־תֹֽאכְלֵ֥ם בְּחֹֽסֶר־כֹּ֖ל בַּסָּ֑תֶר בְּמָצוֹר֙ וּבְמָצ֔וֹק אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָצִ֥יק לְךָ֛ אֹֽיִבְךָ֖ בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
and the infants who emerge from between her legs: i.e. the small children, she will begrudge all of them [the elder and the younger children] when she eats one by denying those beside her any of the flesh.   ובשליתה: בניה הקטנים בכולן תהא עינה צרה כשתאכל את האחד מליתן לאשר אצלה מן הבשר:
58If you do not observe to fulfill all the words of this Torah, which are written in this scroll, to fear this glorious and awesome name, the Lord, your God,   נחאִם־לֹ֨א תִשְׁמֹ֜ר לַֽעֲשׂ֗וֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי֙ הַתּוֹרָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את הַכְּתֻבִ֖ים בַּסֵּ֣פֶר הַזֶּ֑ה לְ֠יִרְאָ֠ה אֶת־הַשֵּׁ֞ם הַנִּכְבַּ֤ד וְהַנּוֹרָא֙ הַזֶּ֔ה אֵ֖ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
59Then the Lord [will bring upon] you and your offspring uniquely [horrible] plagues, terrible and unyielding plagues, and evil and unyielding sicknesses.   נטוְהִפְלָ֤א יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־מַכֹּ֣תְךָ֔ וְאֵ֖ת מַכּ֣וֹת זַרְעֶ֑ךָ מַכּ֤וֹת גְּדֹלֹת֙ וְנֶ֣אֱמָנ֔וֹת וָֽחֳלָיִ֥ם רָעִ֖ים וְנֶֽאֱמָנִֽים:
Then the Lord will bring upon you… plagues: [The Lord will bring upon you plagues which are more] remarkable and different from any other plagues.   והפלא ה' את מכתך: מופלאות ומובדלות משאר מכות:
unyielding: [Literally, “faithful.” I.e., these plagues will “faithfully”] chastise you in order to fulfill their mission.   ונאמנות: ליסרך לקיים שליחותן:
60And He will bring back upon you all the diseases of Egypt which you dreaded, and they will cling to you.   סוְהֵשִׁ֣יב בְּךָ֗ אֵ֚ת כָּל־מַדְוֵ֣ה מִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָגֹ֖רְתָּ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם וְדָֽבְק֖וּ בָּֽךְ:
which you dreaded: [You dreaded] those diseases [not that you dreaded Egypt]. When Israel saw the extraordinary plagues that befell Egypt, they were afraid of them, i.e., they were afraid that these plagues would befall them too. You should know, [that the Israelites dreaded the plagues of Egypt,] because it is written, “If you hearken…, all the sickness that I have visited upon Egypt, I will not visit upon you” (Exod. 15:26) [implying that if you do not hearken, I will place them upon you! Since Israel feared those plagues, God used them as a threat, because] one can instill fear into a person only through something he fears.   אשר יגרת מפניהם: מפני המכות כשהיו ישראל רואים מכות משונות הבאות על מצרים היו יראים מהם שלא יבואו גם עליהם, תדע שכן כתיב (שמות טו כו) אם שמוע וגו' כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך, אין מיראין את האדם אלא בדבר שהוא יגור ממנו:
61Also, the Lord will bring upon you every disease and plague which is not written in this Torah scroll, to destroy you.   סאגַּ֤ם כָּל־חֳלִי֙ וְכָל־מַכָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א כָת֔וּב בְּסֵ֖פֶר הַתּוֹרָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את יַעְלֵ֤ם יְהֹוָה֙ עָלֶ֔יךָ עַ֖ד הִשָּֽׁמְדָֽךְ:
will bring upon you: Heb. יַעְלֵם. [This term is] an expression of עִלִיּה, going up.   יעלם: לשון עלייה:
62And you will remain few in number, whereas you were once as numerous as the stars of the heavens because you did not obey the Lord, your God.   סבוְנִשְׁאַרְתֶּם֙ בִּמְתֵ֣י מְעָ֔ט תַּ֚חַת אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֱיִיתֶ֔ם כְּכֽוֹכְבֵ֥י הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם לָרֹ֑ב כִּי־לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֔עְתָּ בְּק֖וֹל יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
And you will remain few in number: Instead of being numerous [“as the stars of the stars of the heaven”], you will be few [in number].   ונשארתם במתי מעט תחת וגו': מועטין חלף מרובין:
63And it will be, just as the Lord rejoiced over you to do good for you and to increase you, so will the Lord cause to rejoice over you to annihilate you and to destroy you. And you will be uprooted from the land which you enter therein, to possess it.   סגוְהָיָ֠ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֨שׂ יְהֹוָ֜ה עֲלֵיכֶ֗ם לְהֵיטִ֣יב אֶתְכֶם֘ וּלְהַרְבּ֣וֹת אֶתְכֶם֒ כֵּ֣ן יָשִׂ֤ישׂ יְהֹוָה֙ עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם לְהַֽאֲבִ֥יד אֶתְכֶ֖ם וּלְהַשְׁמִ֣יד אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְנִסַּחְתֶּם֙ מֵעַ֣ל הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
So will the Lord cause to rejoice: [I.e., “so will He make] your enemies [rejoice] over you, to annihilate you.” [But the Holy One, Blessed is He, Himself, does not rejoice. From here, we learn that the Holy One, Blessed is He, does not rejoice over the downfall of the wicked, for in our verse it does not say יָשׂוּשׂ [in the simple conjugation], “rejoice,” but rather יָשִׂישׂ in the causative conjugation, “cause to rejoice.” I.e., God will make others rejoice over your downfall, because you acted wickedly, while He Himself will not personally rejoice over your downfall. Nevertheless, when it comes to bestowing good upon the righteous, God Himself rejoices, as it is said: “just as the Lord rejoiced (שָׂשׂ) over you [to do good for you,” where the verb שָׂשׂ is in the simple conjugation, for God Himself rejoices here]]. — [Meg. 10b]   כן ישיש ה': את אויביכם עליכם להאביד וגו':
and you will be uprooted: Heb. וְנִסַּחְתֶּם, an expression of uprooting. Similar to this is the verse, “The Lord will uproot (יִסַּח) the house of the arrogant” (Prov. 15:25).   ונסחתם: לשון עקירה וכן (משלי טו, כה) בית גאים יסח ה':
64And the Lord will scatter you among all the nations, from one end of the earth to the other, and there you will serve other deities unknown to you or your forefathers, [deities of] wood and stone.   סדוֶֽהֱפִֽיצְךָ֤ יְהֹוָה֙ בְּכָל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים מִקְצֵ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ וְעָבַ֨דְתָּ שָּׁ֜ם אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־יָדַ֛עְתָּ אַתָּ֥ה וַֽאֲבֹתֶ֖יךָ עֵ֥ץ וָאָֽבֶן:
and there you will serve other deities: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: [and there you will serve nations that worship idols. Thus, the verse is] not referring to actual idolatry, but rather paying customs and head taxes to idolatrous priests.   ועבדת שם אלהים אחרים: כתרגומו, לא עבודת אלהות ממש, אלא מעלים מס וגולגליות לכומרי עבודה זרה:
65And among those nations, you will not be calm, nor will your foot find rest. There, the Lord will give you a trembling heart, dashed hopes, and a depressed soul.   סהוּבַגּוֹיִ֤ם הָהֵם֙ לֹ֣א תַרְגִּ֔יעַ וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה מָנ֖וֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלֶ֑ךָ וְנָתַן֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה לְךָ֥ שָׁם֙ לֵ֣ב רַגָּ֔ז וְכִלְי֥וֹן עֵינַ֖יִם וְדַֽאֲב֥וֹן נָֽפֶשׁ:
you will not be calm: Heb. לֹא תַרְגִּיעַ, [meaning, as Onkelos renders:] “You will not rest.” Similar to this is the verse, “and this is the rest (הַמַּרְגֵּעָה)” (Isa. 28:12).   לא תרגיע: לא תנוח, כמו (ישעיה כח, יב) וזאת המרגעה:
a trembling heart: Heb. לֵב רַגָּז, a trembling heart, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: דָחֵיל, “fearful, trembling,” similar to “Gehinnom from beneath quaked (רָגְזָה) for you” (Isa. 14:9), “Peoples heard; they trembled (יִרְגָּזוּן)” (Exod. 15:14), and “The foundations of heaven trembled (יִרְגָּזוּ)” (II Sam. 22:8).   לב רגז: לב חרד, כתרגומו דחל, כמו (שם יד ט) שאול מתחת רגזה לך, (שמות טו, יד) שמעו עמים ירגזון, (שמואל ב' כב, ח) מוסדות השמים ירגזו:
dashed hopes: [I.e.,] hoping for a salvation, but it never comes.   וכליון עינים: מצפה לישועה ולא תבא:
66And your life will hang in suspense before you. You will be in fear night and day, and you will not believe in your life.   סווְהָי֣וּ חַיֶּ֔יךָ תְּלֻאִ֥ים לְךָ֖ מִנֶּ֑גֶד וּפָֽחַדְתָּ֙ לַ֣יְלָה וְיוֹמָ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תַֽאֲמִ֖ין בְּחַיֶּֽיךָ:
Your life will hang in suspense: Heb. תְּלֻאִים, [meaning that they hang in suspense] because of uncertainty. Any doubt is denoted by the term תָּלוּי, “suspended.” [Here, the doubt is that you will constantly think:] “Perhaps I will die today by the sword that is befalling us.” Our Rabbis explain this verse as referring to one who purchases produce from the marketplace. [I.e., he relies directly on the marketplace for his sustenance, with the risk that if one time there is no produce in the market, he will not have provisions. Thus, his life “hangs in suspense.”]   חייך תלואים לך: על הספק, כל ספק קרוי תלוי, שמא אמות היום בחרב הבאה עלינו. ורבותינו דרשו זה הלוקח תבואה מן השוק:
and you will not believe in your life: This refers to one who relies on the shopkeeper [for his sustenance. This curse, therefore, represents a level of trust far worse than the one who relies upon the marketplace. A person can take provisions from the marketplace to last a long time, but one who relies upon the middleman is at further risk of not receiving sustenance]. — [see Men. 103b]   ולא תאמין בחייך: זה הסומך על הפלטר:
67In the morning, you will say, "If only it were evening! " and in the evening, you will say, "If only it were morning!" because of the fear in your heart which you will experience and because of the sights that you will behold.   סזבַּבֹּ֤קֶר תֹּאמַר֙ מִֽי־יִתֵּ֣ן עֶ֔רֶב וּבָעֶ֥רֶב תֹּאמַ֖ר מִֽי־יִתֵּ֣ן בֹּ֑קֶר מִפַּ֤חַד לְבָֽבְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּפְחָ֔ד וּמִמַּרְאֵ֥ה עֵינֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְאֶֽה:
In the morning, you will say, “If only it were evening!”: [I.e.,] if it were only yesterday evening! [The trouble will be worse in the morning, so that you will yearn for the previous evening]. — [Sotah 49a]   בבקר תאמר מי יתן ערב: ויהיה הערב של אמש:
and in the evening, you will say, “If only it were morning!”: [I.e.,] if it were only morning of that day! Thus, the troubles will always progressively intensify; each hour, the curse will be more severe than the preceding one. — [ibid.]   ובערב תאמר מי יתן בקר: של שחרית, שהצרות מתחזקות תמיד וכל שעה מרובה קללתה משלפניה:
68And the Lord will bring you back to Egypt in ships, through the way about which I had said to you, You will never see it again. And there, you will seek to be sold to your enemies for slaves and handmaids, but there will be no buyer.   סחוֶֽהֱשִֽׁיבְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֥ה | מִצְרַ֘יִם֘ בָּֽאֳנִיּוֹת֒ בַּדֶּ֨רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֣רְתִּי לְךָ֔ לֹֽא־תֹסִ֥יף ע֖וֹד לִרְאֹתָ֑הּ וְהִתְמַכַּרְתֶּ֨ם שָׁ֧ם לְאֹֽיְבֶ֛יךָ לַֽעֲבָדִ֥ים וְלִשְׁפָח֖וֹת וְאֵ֥ין קֹנֶֽה:
in ships: In ships of captivity.   באניות: בספינות בשביה:
And there, you will seek to be sold to your enemies: You will wish to be sold to them as slaves and handmaids.   והתמכרתם שם לאיביך: אתם מבקשים להיות נמכרים להם לעבדים ולשפחות:
but there will be no buyer: Because they will decree death and destruction upon you.   ואין קנה: כי יגזרו עליך הרג וכליון:
and you will seek to be sold: Heb. וְהִתְמַכַּרְתֶּם, in Old French epor vandrez vos. [That is, the verb is in the reflexive conjugation. Accordingly,] it is incorrect to explain וְהִתְמַכַּרְתֶּם [as if in the passive conjugation, i.e.,] as וְנִמְכַּרְתֶּם, “and you will be sold”-sold by others-because the verse continues: “but there will be no buyer.” [Thus how could they be “sold by others” if there is“no buyer”?]   והתמכרתם: בלע"ז איפורוונדרי"ץ וו"ש [ותמכרו עצמכם] ולא יתכן לפרש והתמכרתם לשון ונמכרתם על ידי מוכרים אחרים, מפני שנאמר אחריו ואין קונה:
69These are the words of the covenant, which the Lord commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covenant which he made with them in Horeb.   סטאֵ֩לֶּה֩ דִבְרֵ֨י הַבְּרִ֜ית אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֣ה אֶת־משֶׁ֗ה לִכְרֹ֛ת אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מוֹאָ֑ב מִלְּבַ֣ד הַבְּרִ֔ית אֲשֶׁר־כָּרַ֥ת אִתָּ֖ם בְּחֹרֵֽב:
to make with the Children of Israel: that they should accept the Torah upon themselves with a curse and an oath.   לכרת את בני ישראל: שיקבלו עליהם את התורה באלה ובשבועה:
besides the covenant: [Namely,] the curses [which appear] in Lev. (26: 14-39), which were proclaimed at [Mount] Sinai.   מלבד הברית: קללות שבתורת כהנים שנאמרו בסיני:

Seventh Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 29

1And Moses called all of Israel and said to them, "You have seen all that the Lord did before your very eyes in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, to all his servants, and to all his land;   אוַיִּקְרָ֥א משֶׁ֛ה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אַתֶּ֣ם רְאִיתֶ֗ם אֵ֣ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר֩ עָשָׂ֨ה יְהֹוָ֤ה לְעֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לְפַרְעֹ֥ה וּלְכָל־עֲבָדָ֖יו וּלְכָל־אַרְצֽוֹ:
2the great trials which your very eyes beheld and those great signs and wonders.   בהַמַּסּוֹת֙ הַגְּדֹלֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר רָא֖וּ עֵינֶ֑יךָ הָֽאֹתֹ֧ת וְהַמֹּֽפְתִ֛ים הַגְּדֹלִ֖ים הָהֵֽם:
3Yet until this day, the Lord has not given you a heart to know, eyes to see and ears to hear.   גוְלֹֽא־נָתַן֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה לָכֶ֥ם לֵב֙ לָדַ֔עַת וְעֵינַ֥יִם לִרְא֖וֹת וְאָזְנַ֣יִם לִשְׁמֹ֑עַ עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
Yet…the Lord did not give you a heart to know: [I.e.,] to recognize the kind acts of the Holy One, Blessed is He, and [therefore] to cleave to Him.   ולא נתן ה' לכם לב לדעת: להכיר את חסדי הקב"ה ולידבק בו:
until this day: I heard that on the very day that Moses gave the Torah scroll to the sons of Levi-as the verse says, “And he gave it to the kohanim, the sons of Levi” (Deut. 31:9)-all Israel came before Moses and said to him: “Moses, our Teacher! We also stood at [Mount] Sinai and accepted the Torah, and it was [also] given to us! Why, then, are you giving the members of your tribe control over it, so that some day in the future they may claim, 'It was not given to you-it was given only to us!’” Moses rejoiced over this matter and it was on account of this, that he said to them, “This day, you have become a people [to the Lord your God]” (Deut. 27:9). [This meant:] “It is today that I understand that you cleave to the Omnipresent and desire Him.”   עד היום הזה: שמעתי שאותו היום שנתן משה ספר התורה לבני לוי, כמו שכתוב (לקמן לא, ט) ויתנה אל הכהנים בני לוי באו כל ישראל לפני משה ואמרו לו משה רבינו אף אנו עמדנו בסיני וקבלנו את התורה ונתנה לנו, ומה אתה משליט את בני שבטך עליה, ויאמרו לנו יום מחר לא לכם נתנה, לנו נתנה. ושמח משה על הדבר, ועל זאת אמר להם היום הזה נהיית לעם וגו' (לעיל כז, ט), היום הזה הבנתי שאתם דבקים וחפצים במקום:
4I led you through the desert for forty years [during which time] your garments did not wear out from upon you, nor did your shoes wear out from upon your feet.   דוָֽאוֹלֵ֥ךְ אֶתְכֶ֛ם אַרְבָּעִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר לֹֽא־בָל֤וּ שַׂלְמֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ מֵֽעֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וְנַֽעַלְךָ֥ לֹא־בָֽלְתָ֖ה מֵעַ֥ל רַגְלֶֽךָ:
5You neither ate bread, nor drank new wine or old wine, in order that you would know that I am the Lord, your God.   הלֶ֚חֶם לֹ֣א אֲכַלְתֶּ֔ם וְיַ֥יִן וְשֵׁכָ֖ר לֹ֣א שְׁתִיתֶ֑ם לְמַ֨עַן֙ תֵּֽדְע֔וּ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
6And then you arrived at this place. And Sihon, the king of Heshbon, and Og, the king of Bashan, came out towards us in battle, and we smote them.   ווַתָּבֹ֖אוּ אֶל־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וַיֵּצֵ֣א סִיחֹ֣ן מֶֽלֶךְ־חֶ֠שְׁבּ֠וֹן וְע֨וֹג מֶֽלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁ֧ן לִקְרָאתֵ֛נוּ לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה וַנַּכֵּֽם:
And then you arrived at this place: Now you see yourselves in greatness and in honor; [but] do not rebel against the Omnipresent nor let your hearts become haughty; rather, “Observe the words of this covenant” (verse 8). Another explanation of “Yet… the Lord did not give you a heart to know” (verse 3): No one can fathom neither the depths of his teacher’s mind nor the wisdom of his studies before forty years. Hence, the Omnipresent was not strict with you until this day; but from now on [since today marks forty years for the people of Israel], He will be strict with you; and therefore: “Observe the words of this covenant…” (verse 8).   ותבאו אל המקום הזה: עתה אתם רואים עצמכם בגדולה וכבוד אל תבעטו במקום ואל ירום לבבכם, ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת. דבר אחר ולא נתן ה' לכם לב לדעת, שאין אדם עומד על סוף דעתו של רבו וחכמת משנתו עד ארבעים שנה ולפיכך לא הקפיד עליכם המקום עד היום הזה, אבל מכאן ואילך יקפיד ולפיכך (פסוק ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת וגו':
7And we took their land, and we gave it as an inheritance to the Reubenites, the Gadites, and to the half tribe of Manasseh.   זוַנִּקַּח֙ אֶת־אַרְצָ֔ם וַנִּתְּנָ֣הּ לְנַֽחֲלָ֔ה לָרֽאוּבֵנִ֖י וְלַגָּדִ֑י וְלַֽחֲצִ֖י שֵׁ֥בֶט הַֽמְנַשִּֽׁי:
8And you shall observe the words of this covenant and fulfill them, in order that you will succeed in all that you do.   חוּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֗ם אֶת־דִּבְרֵי֙ הַבְּרִ֣ית הַזֹּ֔את וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם לְמַ֣עַן תַּשְׂכִּ֔ילוּ אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּן:

Maftir Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 29

6And then you arrived at this place. And Sihon, the king of Heshbon, and Og, the king of Bashan, came out towards us in battle, and we smote them.   ווַתָּבֹ֖אוּ אֶל־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה וַיֵּצֵ֣א סִיחֹ֣ן מֶֽלֶךְ־חֶ֠שְׁבּ֠וֹן וְע֨וֹג מֶֽלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁ֧ן לִקְרָאתֵ֛נוּ לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה וַנַּכֵּֽם:
And then you arrived at this place: Now you see yourselves in greatness and in honor; [but] do not rebel against the Omnipresent nor let your hearts become haughty; rather, “Observe the words of this covenant” (verse 8). Another explanation of “Yet… the Lord did not give you a heart to know” (verse 3): No one can fathom neither the depths of his teacher’s mind nor the wisdom of his studies before forty years. Hence, the Omnipresent was not strict with you until this day; but from now on [since today marks forty years for the people of Israel], He will be strict with you; and therefore: “Observe the words of this covenant…” (verse 8).   ותבאו אל המקום הזה: עתה אתם רואים עצמכם בגדולה וכבוד אל תבעטו במקום ואל ירום לבבכם, ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת. דבר אחר ולא נתן ה' לכם לב לדעת, שאין אדם עומד על סוף דעתו של רבו וחכמת משנתו עד ארבעים שנה ולפיכך לא הקפיד עליכם המקום עד היום הזה, אבל מכאן ואילך יקפיד ולפיכך (פסוק ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת וגו':
7And we took their land, and we gave it as an inheritance to the Reubenites, the Gadites, and to the half tribe of Manasseh.   זוַנִּקַּח֙ אֶת־אַרְצָ֔ם וַנִּתְּנָ֣הּ לְנַֽחֲלָ֔ה לָרֽאוּבֵנִ֖י וְלַגָּדִ֑י וְלַֽחֲצִ֖י שֵׁ֥בֶט הַֽמְנַשִּֽׁי:
8And you shall observe the words of this covenant and fulfill them, in order that you will succeed in all that you do.   חוּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֗ם אֶת־דִּבְרֵי֙ הַבְּרִ֣ית הַזֹּ֔את וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם לְמַ֣עַן תַּשְׂכִּ֔ילוּ אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּן:


Isaiah Chapter 60

1Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has shone upon you.   אק֥וּמִי א֖וֹרִי כִּֽי־בָ֣א אוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּכְב֥וֹד יְהֹוָ֖ה עָלַ֥יִךְ זָרָֽח:
2For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and a gross darkness the kingdoms, and the Lord shall shine upon you, and His glory shall appear over you.   בכִּֽי־הִנֵּ֚ה הַחֹ֙שֶׁךְ֙ יְכַסֶּה־אֶ֔רֶץ וַֽעֲרָפֶ֖ל לְאֻמִּ֑ים וְעָלַ֙יִךְ֙ יִזְרַ֣ח יְהֹוָ֔ה וּכְבוֹד֖וֹ עָלַ֥יִךְ יֵֽרָאֶֽה:
3And nations shall go by your light and kings by the brilliance of your shine.   גוְהָֽלְכ֥וּ גוֹיִ֖ם לְאוֹרֵ֑ךְ וּמְלָכִ֖ים לְנֹ֥גַהּ זַרְחֵֽךְ:
4Lift up your eyes all around and see, they all have gathered, they have come to you; your sons shall come from afar, and your daughters shall be raised on [their] side.   דשְׂאִי־סָבִ֚יב עֵינַ֙יִךְ֙ וּרְאִ֔י כֻּלָּ֖ם נִקְבְּצ֣וּ בָֽאוּ־לָ֑ךְ בָּנַ֙יִךְ֙ מֵרָח֣וֹק יָבֹ֔אוּ וּבְנֹתַ֖יִךְ עַל־צַ֥ד תֵּֽאָמַֽנָה:
shall be raised on [their] side: [Jonathan renders:] on the flanks, the flanks of the kings, they will be raised.  
5Then you shall see and be radiant, and your heart shall be startled and become enlarged, for the abundance of the west shall be turned over to you, the wealth of the nations that will come to you.   האָ֚ז תִּרְאִי֙ וְנָהַ֔רְתְּ וּפָחַ֥ד וְרָחַ֖ב לְבָבֵ֑ךְ כִּֽי־יֵֽהָפֵ֚ךְ עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ הֲמ֣וֹן יָ֔ם חֵ֥יל גּוֹיִ֖ם יָבֹ֥אוּ לָֽךְ:
Then you shall see and be radiant: Heb. וְנָהַרְתָּ, from נְהוֹרָה, [Aramaic for light,] then you shall see and be radiant [from Jonathan].  
and your heart shall be startled and become enlarged: And your heart shall wonder and become enlarged.  
for the abundance of the west shall be turned over to you: for the abundance of the west shall be turned over to you [after Jonathan].  
the wealth of the nations: The possessions of the nations [after Jonathan].  
6A multitude of camels shall cover you, the young camels of Midian and Ephah, all of them shall come from Sheba; gold and frankincense they shall carry, and the praises of the Lord they shall report.   ושִֽׁפְעַ֨ת גְּמַלִּ֜ים תְּכַסֵּ֗ךְ בִּכְרֵ֚י מִדְיָן֙ וְעֵיפָ֔ה כֻּלָּ֖ם מִשְּׁבָ֣א יָבֹ֑אוּ זָהָ֚ב וּלְבוֹנָה֙ יִשָּׂ֔אוּ וּתְהִלּ֥וֹת יְהֹוָ֖ה יְבַשֵּֽׂרוּ:
A multitude: Heb. שִׁפְעַת, A multiplicity.  
the young camels of Midian: Heb. בִּכְרֵי. [Jonathan renders:] הוֹגְנֵי. They are young camels. Comp. (Jer. 2: 23) “a swift young camel (בִּכְרָה).”  
and Ephah: They, too, are of the sons of Midian. Comp. (Gen. 25:4) “Ephah and Epher.”  
7All the sheep of Kedar shall be gathered to you, the rams of Nebaioth shall serve you; they shall be offered up with acceptance upon My altar, and I will glorify My glorious house.   זכָּל־צֹ֚אן קֵדָר֙ יִקָּ֣בְצוּ לָ֔ךְ אֵילֵ֥י נְבָי֖וֹת יְשָֽׁרֲת֑וּנֶךְ יַֽעֲל֚וּ עַל־רָצוֹן֙ מִזְבְּחִ֔י וּבֵ֥ית תִּפְאַרְתִּ֖י אֲפָאֵֽר:
the rams of Nebaioth: Heb. אֵילֵי, rams of Nebaioth [after Jonathan].  
8Who are these that fly like a cloud and like doves to their cotes?   חמִי־אֵ֖לֶּה כָּעָ֣ב תְּעוּפֶ֑ינָה וְכַיּוֹנִ֖ים אֶל־אֲרֻבֹּֽתֵיהֶֽם:
9For the isles will hope for Me, and the ships of Tarshish [as] in the beginning, to bring your sons from afar, their silver and their gold with them, in the name of the Lord your God and for the Holy One of Israel, for He has glorified you.   טכִּי־לִ֣י | אִיִּ֣ים יְקַוּ֗וּ וָֽאֳנִיּ֚וֹת תַּרְשִׁישׁ֙ בָּרִ֣אשֹׁנָ֔ה לְהָבִ֚יא בָנַ֙יִךְ֙ מֵֽרָח֔וֹק כַּסְפָּ֥ם וּזְהָבָ֖ם אִתָּ֑ם לְשֵׁם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהַ֔יִךְ וְלִקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כִּ֥י פֵֽאֲרָֽךְ:
as in the beginning: Like ‘as in the beginning,’ meaning in the days of Solomon, like the matter that is stated (I Kings 10:22): “For the king had at sea ships of Tarshish, etc.; once in three years, the ships of Tarshish would come, etc.” Tarshish is the name of the sea.  
in the name of the Lord your God: that is called upon you, for they will hear a report of Him and the name of His might, and come.  
for He has glorified you: He has given you glory.  
10And foreigners shall build your walls, and their kings shall serve you, for in My wrath I struck you, and in My grace have I had mercy on you.   יוּבָנ֚וּ בְנֵֽי־נֵכָר֙ חֹ֣מֹתַ֔יִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶ֖ם יְשָֽׁרְת֑וּנֶךְ כִּ֚י בְקִצְפִּי֙ הִכִּיתִ֔יךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִ֖י רִֽחַמְתִּֽיךְ:
and in my grace: Because I favored you; in old French, en mon apayemant.  
11And they shall open your gates always; day and night they shall not be closed, to bring to you the wealth of the nations and their kings in procession.   יאוּפִתְּח֨וּ שְׁעָרַ֧יִךְ תָּמִ֛יד יוֹמָ֥ם וָלַ֖יְלָה לֹ֣א יִסָּגֵ֑רוּ לְהָבִ֚יא אֵלַ֙יִךְ֙ חֵ֣יל גּוֹיִ֔ם וּמַלְכֵיהֶ֖ם נְהוּגִֽים:
And they shall open your gates always: Heb. וּפִתְּחוּ. This is an expression of opening in the strong conjugation (פִּעֵל), since their opening is a perpetual opening, a constant opening. Just as שַׁבֵּר is an expression of breaking, so is פִּתְּחוּ an expression of opening. Tresoverts in O.F.  
12For the nation and the kingdom that shall not serve you shall perish, and the nations shall be destroyed.   יבכִּֽי־הַגּ֧וֹי וְהַמַּמְלָכָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יַֽעַבְד֖וּךְ יֹאבֵ֑דוּ וְהַגּוֹיִ֖ם חָרֹ֥ב יֶֽחֱרָֽבוּ:
13The glory of the Lebanon shall come to you, box trees, firs, and cypresses together, to glorify the place of My sanctuary, and the place of My feet I will honor.   יגכְּב֚וֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן֙ אֵלַ֣יִךְ יָב֔וֹא בְּר֛וֹשׁ תִּדְהָ֥ר וּתְאַשּׁ֖וּר יַחְדָּ֑ו לְפָאֵר֙ מְק֣וֹם מִקְדָּשִׁ֔י וּמְק֥וֹם רַגְלַ֖י אֲכַבֵּֽד:
box trees, firs, and cypresses: Species of trees of the forest of Lebanon.  
14And the children of your oppressors shall go to you bent over, and those who despised you shall prostrate themselves at the soles of your feet, and they shall call you 'the city of the Lord, Zion of the Holy One of Israel.'   ידוְהָֽלְכ֨וּ אֵלַ֚יִךְ שְׁח֙וֹחַ֙ בְּנֵ֣י מְעַנַּ֔יִךְ וְהִֽשְׁתַּֽחֲו֛וּ עַל־כַּפּ֥וֹת רַגְלַ֖יִךְ כָּל־מְנַֽאֲצָ֑יִךְ וְקָ֚רְאוּ לָךְ֙ עִ֣יר יְהֹוָ֔ה צִיּ֖וֹן קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Zion of the Holy One of Israel: [Lit. Zion the Holy One of Israel. Jonathan renders:] Zion desired by the Holy One of Israel, Zion of the Holy One of Israel.  
15Instead of your being forsaken and hated without a passerby, I will make you an everlasting pride, the joy of every generation.   טותַּ֧חַת הֱיוֹתֵ֛ךְ עֲזוּבָ֥ה וּשְׂנוּאָ֖ה וְאֵ֣ין עוֹבֵ֑ר וְשַׂמְתִּיךְ֙ לִגְא֣וֹן עוֹלָ֔ם מְשׂ֖וֹשׂ דּ֥וֹר וָדֽוֹר:
16And you shall suck the milk of nations and the breast of kings you shall suck, and you shall know that I am the Lord, your Savior, and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.   טזוְיָֽנַקְתְּ֙ חֲלֵ֣ב גּוֹיִ֔ם וְשֹׁ֥ד מְלָכִ֖ים תִּינָ֑קִי וְיָדַ֗עַתְּ כִּ֣י אֲנִ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ מֽוֹשִׁיעֵ֔ךְ וְגֹֽאֲלֵ֖ךְ אֲבִ֥יר יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
and the breast of kings: Heb. וְשֹׁד, an expression of breasts (שָׁדַיִם) and ‘you shall suck’ proves it.  
17Instead of the copper I will bring gold, and instead of the iron I will bring silver, and instead of the wood, copper, and instead of the stones, iron, and I will make your officers peace and your rulers righteousness.   יזתַּ֣חַת הַנְּחֹ֜שֶׁת אָבִ֣יא זָהָ֗ב וְתַ֚חַת הַבַּרְזֶל֙ אָ֣בִיא כֶ֔סֶף וְתַ֚חַת הָֽעֵצִים֙ נְחֹ֔שֶׁת וְתַ֥חַת הָֽאֲבָנִ֖ים בַּרְזֶ֑ל וְשַׂמְתִּ֚י פְקֻדָּתֵךְ֙ שָׁל֔וֹם וְנֹגְשַׂ֖יִךְ צְדָקָֽה:
Instead of the copper: that they took from you.  
and I will make your officers peace: [Jonathan renders:] And I will make your officers peace and your rulers with righteousness. פְקֻדָּתֵ Your appointed officers. Our Rabbis stated: The officers who came upon you in your exile and the rulers who pressed you will be counted for you as peace and charity (Baba Bathra 9a). [That is, the money they have exacted from you will be counted as charity.]  
18Violence shall no longer be heard in your land, neither robbery nor destruction within your borders, and you shall call salvation your walls and your gates praise.   יחלֹֽא־יִשָּׁמַ֨ע ע֚וֹד חָמָס֙ בְּאַרְצֵ֔ךְ שֹׁ֥ד וָשֶׁ֖בֶר בִּגְבוּלָ֑יִךְ וְקָרָ֚את יְשׁוּעָה֙ חֽוֹמֹתַ֔יִךְ וּשְׁעָרַ֖יִךְ תְּהִלָּֽה:
19You shall no longer have the sun for light by day, and for brightness, the moon shall not give you light, but the Lord shall be to you for an everlasting light, and your God for your glory.   יטלֹֽא־יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֨ךְ ע֚וֹד הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ לְא֣וֹר יוֹמָ֔ם וּלְנֹ֕גַהּ הַיָּרֵ֖חַ לֹֽא־יָאִ֣יר לָ֑ךְ וְהָיָה־לָ֚ךְ יְהֹוָה֙ לְא֣וֹר עוֹלָ֔ם וֵֽאלֹהַ֖יִךְ לְתִפְאַרְתֵּֽךְ:
You shall no longer have: You shall not require the light of the sun.  
20Your sun shall no longer set, neither shall your moon be gathered in, for the Lord shall be to you for an everlasting light, and the days of your mourning shall be completed.   כלֹֽא־יָב֥וֹא עוֹד֙ שִׁמְשֵׁ֔ךְ וִֽירֵחֵ֖ךְ לֹ֣א יֵֽאָסֵ֑ף כִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה יִֽהְיֶה־לָּךְ֙ לְא֣וֹר עוֹלָ֔ם וְשָֽׁלְמ֖וּ יְמֵ֥י אֶבְלֵֽךְ:
neither… be gathered in: Heb. יֵאָסֵף, an expression similar to (Joel 2:10) “gathered in (אָסְפוּ) their brightness.” Gathered in their light.  
21And your people, all of them righteous, shall inherit the land forever, a scion of My planting, the work of My hands in which I will glory.   כאוְעַמֵּךְ֙ כֻּלָּ֣ם צַדִּיקִ֔ים לְעוֹלָ֖ם יִ֣ירְשׁוּ אָ֑רֶץ נֵ֧צֶר מַטָּעַ֛י (כתיב מַטָּעַ֛ו) מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדַ֖י לְהִתְפָּאֵֽר:
in which I will glory: That I will glory with them. Pourvanter in French.  
22The smallest shall become a thousand and the least a mighty nation; I am the Lord, in its time I will hasten it.   כבהַקָּטֹן֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָאֶ֔לֶף וְהַצָּעִ֖יר לְג֣וֹי עָצ֑וּם אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּעִתָּ֥הּ אֲחִישֶֽׁנָּה:
in its time I will hasten it: If they are worthy, I will hasten it; if they are not worthy, it will be in its time.  
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