Deuteronomy Chapter 21

22If a man commits a sin for which he is sentenced to death, and he is put to death, you shall [then] hang him on a pole.   כבוְכִי־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה בְאִ֗ישׁ חֵ֛טְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֖וֶת וְהוּמָ֑ת וְתָלִ֥יתָ אֹת֖וֹ עַל־עֵֽץ:
If a man commits a sin for which he is sentenced to death: The juxtaposition of these passages [i.e., this one and that of the wayward and rebellious son] teaches [us] that if his father and mother spare him, he will eventually lead an evil life style and commit [grave] sins for which he will be sentenced to death by the court. — [Tanchuma 1]   וכי יהיה באיש חטא משפט מות: סמיכות הפרשיות מגיד, שאם חסים עליו אביו ואמו, סוף שיצא לתרבות רעה ויעבור עבירות ויתחייב מיתה בבית דין:
you shall [then] hang him on a pole: Our Rabbis said: All who are stoned [by the court] must [afterwards] be hanged, for the verse (23) says, “a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God.” [Thus, we find that the sin of blasphemy is connected with hanging,] and a blasphemer is punished by stoning. [Consequently, our Rabbis taught that all those stoned must be hanged.]- [San. 45b]   ותלית אותו על עץ: רבותינו אמרו, כל הנסקלין, נתלין, שנאמר (פסוק כג) כי קללת אלהים תלוי. והמברך ה', בסקילה:
23But you shall not leave his body on the pole overnight. Rather, you shall bury him on that [same] day, for a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God, and you shall not defile your land, which the Lord, your God, is giving you as an inheritance.   כגלֹֽא־תָלִ֨ין נִבְלָת֜וֹ עַל־הָעֵ֗ץ כִּֽי־קָב֤וֹר תִּקְבְּרֶ֨נּוּ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כִּֽי־קִלְלַ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים תָּל֑וּי וְלֹ֤א תְטַמֵּא֙ אֶת־אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַֽחֲלָֽה:
For a hanging [human corpse] is a blasphemy of God: Heb. קִלְלַת אלֹהִים. This is a degradation of the [Divine] King in Whose image Man is created, and the Israelites are God’s children. This is comparable to two identical twin brothers. One [of them] became king, while the other was arrested for robbery and hanged. Whoever saw him [the second brother, suspended on the gallows], would say, “The king is hanging!” [Therefore, the king ordered, and they removed him (Reggio ed.).] - [Sanh. 46b] Wherever [the term] קְלָלָה appears in Scripture, it means treating lightly (הָקֵל) and degrading. For example, “[And behold, you have with you Shimei the son of Gera…] and he cursed me with a severe curse (וְהוּא קִלְלַנִי קְלָלָה נִמְרֶצֶת)” (I Kings 2:8). - [See II Sam. 16:5-13]   כי קללת אלהים תלוי: זלזולו של מלך הוא, שאדם עשוי בדמות דיוקנו וישראל הם בניו. משל לשני אחים תאומים שהיו דומין זה לזה, אחד נעשה מלך, ואחד נתפס ללסטיות ונתלה, כל הרואה אותו אומר המלך תלוי. כל קללה שבמקרא לשון הקל וזלזול, כמו (מלכים א' ב, ח) והוא קללני קללה נמרצת:

Deuteronomy Chapter 22

1You shall not see your brother's ox or sheep straying, and ignore them. [Rather,] you shall return them to your brother.   אלֹֽא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־שׁ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ֙ נִדָּחִ֔ים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָשֵׁ֥ב תְּשִׁיבֵ֖ם לְאָחִֽיךָ:
and ignore them: [I.e.,] by covering one’s eyes, pretending not to see it.   והתעלמת: כובש עין כאלו אינו רואהו:
You shall not see… and ignore them: Heb. לֹא-תִרְאֶה וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ [lit., “You shall not see them… but rather, you shall ignore them!” What it really means is:] You shall not see them and ignore them [i.e., ignore your brother’s animals straying]; that is the simple meaning of the verse. Our Rabbis, however, explain that [although the verse clearly means that one must not ignore them, nevertheless, the verse is alluding to] situations when one is, in fact, permitted to ignore them [for example, if he is a kohen , and the animals have wandered into a cemetery, where kohanim may not enter, or if he is an honored sage, and it it is beneath his dignity to lead animals or carry packages in public places-he may “ignore” them, and he is not obligated to return them to his brother]. — [Sifrei 22:45, B.M. 30a]   לא תראה, והתעלמת: לא תראה אותו שתתעלם ממנו, זהו פשוטו. ורבותינו אמרו פעמים שאתה מתעלם וכו':
2But if your brother is not near you, or if you do not know him, you shall bring it into your house, and it shall be with you until your brother seeks it out, whereupon you shall return it to him.   בוְאִם־לֹ֨א קָר֥וֹב אָחִ֛יךָ אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְלֹ֣א יְדַעְתּ֑וֹ וַֽאֲסַפְתּוֹ֙ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ בֵּיתֶ֔ךָ וְהָיָ֣ה עִמְּךָ֗ עַ֣ד דְּר֤שׁ אָחִ֨יךָ֙ אֹת֔וֹ וַֽהֲשֵֽׁבֹת֖וֹ לֽוֹ:
[And it shall be with you] until your brother seeks it out: Would you imagine that one should return it to him before he asks for it? Rather, [the meaning is that you must keep the animal] until you investigate him, [verifying] that he is not a swindler [by demanding that he produce identifying signs]. - [B. M. 27b, Sifrei 22:47]   עד דרש אחיך: וכי תעלה על דעתך שיתנהו לו קודם שידרשהו, אלא דרשהו שלא יהא רמאי:
whereupon you shall return it to him: That there shall be something left in it to return, that it should not consume its [whole] value in your house, so you should claim it from him [from the owner]. From here, [the Rabbis] said: Any animal that works and eats, should work and eat [the proceeds of its work]; and [any animal] that does not work, yet still eats, should be sold [by the finder, and the money restored to the owner]. — [B.M. 28b]   והשבתו לו: שתהא בו השבה, שלא יאכל בביתך כדי דמיו ותתבעם ממנו. מכאן אמרו, כל דבר שעושה ואוכל יעשה ויאכל, ושאינו עושה ואוכל, ימכר:
3So shall you do with his donkey, and so shall you do with his garment, and so shall you do with any lost article of your brother which he has lost and you have found. You shall not ignore [it].   גוְכֵ֧ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה לַֽחֲמֹר֗וֹ וְכֵ֣ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֘ לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ֒ וְכֵ֨ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֜ה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַ֥ת אָחִ֛יךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַ֥ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ וּמְצָאתָ֑הּ לֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לְהִתְעַלֵּֽם:
You shall not ignore [it]: You must not cover your eyes, pretending not to see it.   לא תוכל להתעלם: לכבוש עינך כאלו אינך רואה אותו:
4You shall not see your brother's donkey or his ox fallen [under its load] on the road, and ignore them. [Rather,] you shall pick up [the load] with him.   דלֹֽא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־חֲמ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ שׁוֹרוֹ֙ נֹֽפְלִ֣ים בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָקֵ֥ם תָּקִ֖ים עִמּֽוֹ:
You shall pick up [the load]: This is [the obligation of] טְעִינָה, “loading,” [i.e.,] to load up a burden that has fallen off it [the animal, as opposed to פְּרִיקָה, “unloading” a burden too heavy for the animal, delineated in Exod. 23:5]. — [B.M. 32a]   הקם תקים: זו טעינה. להטעין משאוי שנפל מעליו:
[You shall pick up (the load)] with him: [I.e.,] with the owner. However, if the owner walks away, sits down, and says, “Since the commandment is incumbent upon you, if you want to load, [go ahead and] load!” you are exempt. — [B.M. 32a]   עמו: עם בעליו, אבל אם הלך וישב לו, ואמר לו הואיל ועליך מצוה אם רצית לטעון טעון, פטור:
5A man's attire shall not be on a woman, nor may a man wear a woman's garment because whoever does these [things] is an abomination to the Lord, your God.   הלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה כְלִי־גֶ֨בֶר֙ עַל־אִשָּׁ֔ה וְלֹֽא־יִלְבַּ֥שׁ גֶּ֖בֶר שִׂמְלַ֣ת אִשָּׁ֑ה כִּ֧י תֽוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶי֖ךָ כָּל־עֹ֥שֵׂה אֵֽלֶּה:
A man’s attire shall not be on a woman: making her appear like a man, thereby enabling her to go among men, for this can only be for the [purpose of] adultery. — [Nazir 59a]   לא יהיה כלי גבר על אשה: שתהא דומה לאיש כדי שתלך בין האנשים, שאין זו אלא לשם ניאוף:
nor may a man wear a woman’s garment: to go and abide among women. Another explanation: [In addition to not wearing a woman’s garment,] a man must also not remove his pubic hair or the hair of his armpits [for this is a practice exclusive to women]. — [Nazir 59a]   ולא ילבש גבר שמלת אשה: לילך ולישב בין הנשים. דבר אחר שלא ישיר שער הערוה ושער של בית השחי:
because… is an abomination: The Torah forbids only [the wearing of] clothes that would lead to abomination [i.e., immoral and illicit behavior]. — [Nazir 59a]   כי תועבת: לא אסרה תורה אלא לבוש המביא לידי תועבה:
6If a bird's nest chances before you on the road, on any tree, or on the ground, and [it contains] fledglings or eggs, if the mother is sitting upon the fledglings or upon the eggs, you shall not take the mother upon the young.   וכִּ֣י יִקָּרֵ֣א קַן־צִפּ֣וֹר | לְפָנֶ֡יךָ בַּדֶּ֜רֶךְ בְּכָל־עֵ֣ץ | א֣וֹ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֶפְרֹחִים֙ א֣וֹ בֵיצִ֔ים וְהָאֵ֤ם רֹבֶ֨צֶת֙ עַל־הָֽאֶפְרֹחִ֔ים א֖וֹ עַל־הַבֵּיצִ֑ים לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח הָאֵ֖ם עַל־הַבָּנִֽים:
If a bird’s nest chances before you: This excludes [a bird nest that is] ready at hand. - [Chul. 139a, Sifrei 22:55]   כי יקרא: פרט למזומן:
you shall not take the mother: while she is on her young, [whereas if she is only hovering overhead, you may take her from upon her young]. - [Chul. 140b]   לא תקח האם: בעודה על בניה:
7You shall send away the mother, and [then] you may take the young for yourself, in order that it should be good for you, and you should lengthen your days.   זשַׁלֵּ֤חַ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָאֵ֔ם וְאֶת־הַבָּנִ֖ים תִּקַּח־לָ֑ךְ לְמַ֨עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וְהַֽאֲרַכְתָּ֖ יָמִֽים:
in order that it should be good for you, [and you should lengthen your days]: If in the case of a commandment easy [to fulfill, like this one] for which there is no monetary expense, Scripture says, “[Do this] in order that it should be good for you, and that you should lengthen your days,” then how much greater is the reward for [the fulfillment of] commandments that are more difficult to observe [or for which there is a monetary expense]. — [Sifrei 22:64, Chul. 142a]   למען ייטב לך: אם מצוה קלה שאין בה חסרון כיס, אמרה תורה למען ייטב לך והארכת ימים, קל וחומר למתן שכרן של מצות חמורות: