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Torah Reading for Shoftim

Parshat Shoftim
Shabbat, 7 Elul, 5782
3 September, 2022
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Complete: (Deuteronomy 16:18 - 21:9; Isaiah 51:12 - 52:12)
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First Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 16

18You shall set up judges and law enforcement officials for yourself in all your cities that the Lord, your God, is giving you, for your tribes, and they shall judge the people [with] righteous judgment.   יחשֹֽׁפְטִ֣ים וְשֹֽׁטְרִ֗ים תִּתֶּן־לְךָ֙ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ לִשְׁבָטֶ֑יךָ וְשָֽׁפְט֥וּ אֶת־הָעָ֖ם מִשְׁפַּט־צֶֽדֶק:
Judges and law-enforcement officials: Heb. שֹׁפְטִים וְשֹׁטְרִים. שֹׁפְטִים are judges who decide the verdict, and שֹׁטְרִים are those who chastise the people in compliance with their order, (who strike and bind [not found in early editions]) with rods and straps, until he [the guilty party] accepts the judge’s verdict.   שופטים ושוטרים: שופטים, דיינים הפוסקים את הדין. ושוטרים, הרודין את העם אחר מצותם. שמכין וכופתין במקל וברצועה עד שיקבל עליו את דין השופט:
in all your cities: Heb. בְּכָל-שְׁעָרֶיךָ‏, in every city.   בכל שעריך: בכל עיר ועיר:
for your tribes: [This phrase] refers back to “You shall set up… for yourself.” Thus, the understanding of the verse is “You shall set up judges and law-enforcement officials for yourself, for your tribes, in all your cities that the Lord, your God, is giving you.”   לשבטיך: מוסב על תתן לך. שופטים ושוטרים תתן לך לשבטיך בכל שעריך אשר ה' אלהיך נותן לך:
for your tribes: This teaches us that judges must be appointed for every tribe, and for every city. — [Sifrei, San. 16b]   לשבטיך: מלמד שמושיבין דיינין לכל שבט ושבט ובכל עיר ועיר:
and they shall judge the people [with] righteous judgment: Appoint judges who are expert and righteous so that they will judge justly. — [from Sifrei]   ושפטו את העם וגו': מנה דיינין מומחים וצדיקים לשפוט צדק:
19You shall not pervert justice; you shall not show favoritism, and you shall not take a bribe, for bribery blinds the eyes of the wise and perverts just words.   יטלֹֽא־תַטֶּ֣ה מִשְׁפָּ֔ט לֹ֥א תַכִּ֖יר פָּנִ֑ים וְלֹֽא־תִקַּ֣ח שֹׁ֔חַד כִּ֣י הַשֹּׁ֗חַד יְעַוֵּר֙ עֵינֵ֣י חֲכָמִ֔ים וִֽיסַלֵּ֖ף דִּבְרֵ֥י צַדִּיקִֽם:
You shall not pervert justice: [This is to be understood] according to its apparent meaning.   לא תטה משפט: כמשמעו:
you shall not show favoritism: Even during the statement of pleas [by the litigants]. This is an admonition addressed to the judge, that he should not be lenient with one litigant and harsh with the other, [e.g., ordering] one to stand [while allowing] the other to sit, because as soon as one notices that the judge is showing more respect toward his opponent, he cannot plead his case any longer [because he thinks that it will be of no use].   לא תכיר פנים: אף בשעת הטענות. אזהרה לדיין שלא יהא רך לזה וקשה לזה, אחד עומד ואחד יושב. לפי שכשרואה שהדיין מכבד את חבירו מסתתמין טענותיו:
and you shall not take a bribe: Even [if you intend] to judge justly - [from Sifrei].   ולא תקח שחד: אפילו לשפוט צדק:
for bribery blinds: As soon as he [the judge] accepts a bribe from him [a litigant], it is impossible for him not to be favorably disposed towards him, to decide the judgment in his favor.   כי השחד יעור: משקבל שחד ממנו אי אפשר שלא יטה את לבו אצלו להפוך בזכותו:
just words: Heb. דִּבְרי צַדִּיקִים, just words, true judgments.   דברי צדיקים: דברים המצודקים, משפטי אמת:
20Justice, justice shall you pursue, that you may live and possess the land the Lord, your God, is giving you.   כצֶ֥דֶק צֶ֖דֶק תִּרְדֹּ֑ף לְמַ֤עַן תִּֽחְיֶה֙ וְיָֽרַשְׁתָּ֣ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ:
Justice, justice shall you pursue: Seek out a good court. (Sifrei; San. 32b)   צדק צדק תרדוף: הלך אחר בית דין יפה:
that you may live, and you possess [the land]: The appointment of fitting judges is sufficient merit to keep Israel alive and settled in their land. — [from Sifrei]   למען תחיה וירשת: כדאי הוא מנוי הדיינין הכשרים להחיות את ישראל ולהושיבן על אדמתן:
21You shall not plant for yourself an asherah, [or] any tree, near the altar of the Lord, your God, which you shall make for yourself.   כאלֹֽא־תִטַּ֥ע לְךָ֛ אֲשֵׁרָ֖ה כָּל־עֵ֑ץ אֵ֗צֶל מִזְבַּ֛ח יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ:
You shall not plant for yourself an asherah: [This admonition is] to make one liable [to punishment] from the time of planting it, and even though he did not worship it, he transgresses a prohibition for its planting. — [from Sifrei]   לא תטע לך אשרה: לחייבו עליה משעת נטיעתה ואפילו לא עבדה עובר בלא תעשה על נטיעתה:
You shall not plant…any tree, near the altar of the Lord your God: This is a prohibition addressed to one who plants a tree or builds a house on the Temple Mount. — [Sifrei]   לא תטע לך אשרה כל עץ אצל מזבח ה' אלהיך: אזהרה לנוטע אילן ולבונה בית בהר הבית:
22And you shall not set up for yourself a monument, which the Lord, your God hates.   כבוְלֹֽא־תָקִ֥ים לְךָ֖ מַצֵּבָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׂנֵ֖א יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
And you shall not set up for yourself any monument: A monument of one stone, to sacrifice on it even to Heaven.   ולא תקים לך מצבה: מצבת אבן אחת, להקריב עליה אפילו לשמים:
which [the Lord your God] hates: God has commanded you to make an altar of stones and an altar of earth. This, however, He hates, because this was a [religious] statute of the Canaanites, and although it was dear to Him in the days of the Patriarchs, now He hates it, since these [people] made it a statute for idolatry. (See Sifrei)   אשר שנא: מזבח אבנים ומזבח אדמה צוה לעשות, ואת זו שנא כי חק היתה לכנענים. ואף על פי שהיתה אהובה לו בימי האבות עכשיו שנאה, מאחר שעשאוה אלו חק לעבודה זרה:

Deuteronomy Chapter 17

1You shall not sacrifice to the Lord, your God, an ox or a sheep that has in it a blemish or any bad thing, for that is an abomination to the Lord, your God.   אלֹֽא־תִזְבַּח֩ לַֽיהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ שׁ֣וֹר וָשֶׂ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בוֹ֙ מ֔וּם כֹּ֖ל דָּבָ֣ר רָ֑ע כִּ֧י תֽוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ הֽוּא:
You shall not sacrifice… or any bad thing: Heb. דָּבָר רַע. This is an admonition to one who would make sacrifices disqualified (פִּגּוּל) through an evil [improper] utterance דִּבּוּר רַע. And from this [expression] our Rabbis derived other explanations as well, as they appear in [the tractate] Shechitath Kodashim [early name for Zevachim]. — [Zev. 36]   לא תזבח וגו' כל דבר רע: אזהרה למפגל בקדשים על ידי דבור רע. ועוד נדרשו בו שאר דרשות בשחיטת קדשים:
2If there will be found among you, within one of your cities which the Lord, your God is giving you, a man or woman who does evil in the eyes of the Lord, your God, to transgress His covenant,   בכִּֽי־יִמָּצֵ֤א בְקִרְבְּךָ֙ בְּאַחַ֣ד שְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֣ן לָ֑ךְ אִ֣ישׁ אֽוֹ־אִשָּׁ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַֽעֲשֶׂ֧ה אֶת־הָרַ֛ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה־אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לַֽעֲבֹ֥ר בְּרִיתֽוֹ:
to transgress His covenant: which He made with you, namely, not to worship idols.   לעבור בריתו: אשר כרת אתכם שלא לעבוד עבודה זרה:
3and who will go and worship other gods and prostrate himself before them, or to the sun, the moon, or any of the host of the heavens, which I have not commanded;   גוַיֵּ֗לֶךְ וַיַּֽעֲבֹד֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וַיִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ לָהֶ֑ם וְלַשֶּׁ֣מֶשׁ | א֣וֹ לַיָּרֵ֗חַ א֛וֹ לְכָל־צְבָ֥א הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־צִוִּֽיתִי:
which I have not commanded: to worship them. — [Meg. 9b]   אשר לא צויתי: לעבדם:
4and it will be told to you, and you will hear it, and investigate thoroughly, and behold, the matter coincides; this abomination has been perpetrated in Israel.   דוְהֻגַּד־לְךָ֖ וְשָׁמָ֑עְתָּ וְדָֽרַשְׁתָּ֣ הֵיטֵ֔ב וְהִנֵּ֤ה אֱמֶת֙ נָכ֣וֹן הַדָּבָ֔ר נֶֽעֶשְׂתָ֛ה הַתּֽוֹעֵבָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
[the matter] coincides: Heb. נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר, the testimony coincides. [I.e., the testimony of one witness coincides with that of the other.]   נכון: מכוון העדות:
5Then you shall bring out that man or that woman who has committed this evil thing, to your cities, the man or the woman, and you shall pelt them with stones, and they shall die.   הוְהֽוֹצֵאתָ֣ אֶת־הָאִ֣ישׁ הַה֡וּא אוֹ֩ אֶת־הָֽאִשָּׁ֨ה הַהִ֜וא אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָ֠שׂ֠וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֨ר הָרַ֤ע הַזֶּה֙ אֶל־שְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ אֶת־הָאִ֕ישׁ א֖וֹ אֶת־הָֽאִשָּׁ֑ה וּסְקַלְתָּ֥ם בָּֽאֲבָנִ֖ים וָמֵֽתוּ:
Then you shall bring out that man… to your cities: Heb. אֶל-שְׁעָרֶיךָ‏. One who translates אֶל-שְׁעָרֶיךָ‏ as לִתְרַע בֵּית דִינָךְ, “to the gate of your court,” is mistaken, for we have learned the following: when the verse [here] says אֶל-שְׁעָרֶיךָ‏, this refers to the city where [the accused] worshipped idols. Or does it refer to the gates [of the court] where he was judged [since the courts were located at the gates]? [In answer to this,] the verse here says שְׁעָרֶיךָ, and above (verse 2), it says שְׁעָרֶיךָ. Just as שְׁעָרֶיךָ mentioned there [clearly] refers to the city where he worshipped [idols] [and not to the gates of a court], so too, the word שְׁעָרֶיךָ mentioned here refers to the city where he worshipped [idols]. Thus the correct version of the Targum is לְקִרְוָיךְ, to your cities.   והוצאת את האיש ההוא אל שעריך וגו': המתרגם אל שעריך, לתרע בית דינך, טועה, שכן שנינו אל שעריך זה שער שעבד בו, או אינו אלא שער שנדון בו, נאמר שעריך למטה ונאמר שעריך למעלה (פסוק ב) מה שעריך האמור למעלה שער שעבד בו אף שעריך האמור למטה שער שעבד בו. ותרגומו לקרויך:
6By the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall the one liable to death be put to death; he shall not be put to death by the mouth of one witness.   ועַל־פִּ֣י | שְׁנַ֣יִם עֵדִ֗ים א֛וֹ שְׁלשָׁ֥ה עֵדִ֖ים יוּמַ֣ת הַמֵּ֑ת לֹ֣א יוּמַ֔ת עַל־פִּ֖י עֵ֥ד אֶחָֽד:
two witnesses, or three: But if testimony can be executed through two witnesses, why then does Scripture specify “or three”? [It does so] to draw a comparison between [testimony of] three to that of two; just as two witnesses are considered one unit, so too, are three witnesses considered one unit, and they are not subject to the laws of “plotting witnesses” עֵדִים זוֹמְמִין, unless all of them are proven to be “plotting witnesses.” - [Mak. 5b] (See Deut. 19:16-21.)   שנים [עדים] או שלשה: אם מתקיימת עדות בשנים למה פרט לך בשלשה, להקיש שלשה לשנים, מה שנים עדות אחת, אף שלשה עדות אחת, ואין נעשין זוממין עד שיזומו כולם:
7The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people, and you shall abolish evil from among you.   זיַ֣ד הָֽעֵדִ֞ים תִּֽהְיֶה־בּ֤וֹ בָרִֽאשֹׁנָה֙ לַֽהֲמִית֔וֹ וְיַ֥ד כָּל־הָעָ֖ם בָּאַֽחֲרֹנָ֑ה וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
8If a matter eludes you in judgment, between blood and blood, between judgment and judgment, or between lesion and lesion, words of dispute in your cities, then you shall rise and go up to the place the Lord, your God, chooses.   חכִּ֣י יִפָּלֵא֩ מִמְּךָ֨ דָבָ֜ר לַמִּשְׁפָּ֗ט בֵּֽין־דָּ֨ם | לְדָ֜ם בֵּֽין־דִּ֣ין לְדִ֗ין וּבֵ֥ין נֶ֨גַע֙ לָנֶ֔גַע דִּבְרֵ֥י רִיבֹ֖ת בִּשְׁעָרֶ֑יךָ וְקַמְתָּ֣ וְעָלִ֔יתָ אֶל־הַ֨מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְחַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בּֽוֹ:
If a matter eludes you [in judgment]: Heb. כִּי יִפָּלֵא. [The term] הַפְלְאָה always denotes detachment and separation; [here it means] that the matter is detached and hidden from you.   כי יפלא: כל הפלאה לשון הבדלה ופרישה, שהדבר נבדל ומכוסה ממך:
between blood and blood: Between ritually unclean blood [of menstruation], and ritually clean blood. — [Niddah 19a] (See Rashi on Lev. 12:1-5.)   בין דם לדם: בין דם טמא לדם טהור:
between judgment and judgment: Between a judgment of innocent and a judgment of guilty.   בין דין לדין: בין דין זכאי לדין חייב:
between lesion and lesion: Between a ritually unclean lesion, and a ritually clean lesion.   בין נגע לנגע: בין נגע טמא לנגע טהור:
words of dispute: whereby the Sages of the city [the judges] differ in their opinion on the matter, one declaring it impure, the other pure, one ruling guilty, the other innocent.   דברי ריבות: שיהו חכמי העיר חולקים בדבר, זה מטמא וזה מטהר זה מחייב וזה מזכה:
then you shall rise and go up: [This] teaches [us] that the Temple [the seat of the Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court] was on a higher elevation than all other places. — [Sifrei ; San. 87a]   וקמת ועלית: מלמד שבית המקדש גבוה מכל המקומות:
9And you shall come to the Levitic kohanim and to the judge who will be in those days, and you shall inquire, and they will tell you the words of judgment.   טוּבָאתָ֗ אֶל־הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם וְאֶל־הַ֨שֹּׁפֵ֔ט אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִֽהְיֶ֖ה בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֑ם וְדָֽרַשְׁתָּ֙ וְהִגִּ֣ידוּ לְךָ֔ אֵ֖ת דְּבַ֥ר הַמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
[And you shall come to] the Levitic kohanim: i.e., the kohanim, who are descended from the tribe of Levi.   הכהנים הלוים: הכהנים שיצאו משבט לוי:
and to the judge who will be in those days: Although this judge may not be [of the same stature] as other judges who preceded him, you must listen to him, for you have only the judge [who lives] in your time. — [R.H. 25b]   ואל השופט אשר יהיה בימים ההם: ואפילו אינו כשאר שופטים שהיו לפניו אתה צריך לשמוע לו. אין לך אלא שופט שבימיך:
10And you shall do according to the word they tell you, from the place the Lord will choose, and you shall observe to do according to all they instruct you.   יוְעָשִׂ֗יתָ עַל־פִּ֤י הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַגִּ֣ידוּ לְךָ֔ מִן־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַה֔וּא אֲשֶׁ֖ר יִבְחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה וְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֣ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת כְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוֹרֽוּךָ:
11According to the law they instruct you and according to the judgment they say to you, you shall do; you shall not divert from the word they tell you, either right or left.   יאעַל־פִּ֨י הַתּוֹרָ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר יוֹר֗וּךָ וְעַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּ֛ט אֲשֶׁר־יֹֽאמְר֥וּ לְךָ֖ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֑ה לֹ֣א תָס֗וּר מִן־הַדָּבָ֛ר אֲשֶׁר־יַגִּ֥ידוּ לְךָ֖ יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹֽאל:
either right or left,: Even if this judge tells you that right is left, and that left is right. How much more so, if he tells you that right is right, and left is left!- [Sifrei]   ימין ושמאל: אפילו אומר לך על ימין שהוא שמאל ועל שמאל שהוא ימין, וכל שכן שאומר לך על ימין ימין ועל שמאל שמאל:
12And the man who acts intentionally, not obeying the kohen who stands there to serve the Lord, your God, or to the judge that man shall die, and you shall abolish evil from Israel.   יבוְהָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה בְזָד֗וֹן לְבִלְתִּ֨י שְׁמֹ֤עַ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן֙ הָֽעֹמֵ֞ד לְשָׁ֤רֶת שָׁם֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ א֖וֹ אֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵ֑ט וּמֵת֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הַה֔וּא וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵֽל:
13And all the people shall listen and fear, and they shall no longer act wantonly.   יגוְכָל־הָעָ֖ם יִשְׁמְע֣וּ וְיִרָ֑אוּ וְלֹ֥א יְזִיד֖וּן עֽוֹד:
And all the people shall listen: From here we derive [the ruling] that they postpone his execution [i.e., of the זְקַן מַמְרֵא, the rebellious sage] until the Festival [when all Israel appears in Jerusalem], and they execute him on the Festival. — [San. 89a]   וכל העם ישמעו: מכאן שממתינין לו עד הרגל וממיתין אותו ברגל:

Second Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 17

14When you come to the land the Lord, your God, is giving you, and you possess it and live therein, and you say, "I will set a king over myself, like all the nations around me,"   ידכִּֽי־תָבֹ֣א אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ נֹתֵ֣ן לָ֔ךְ וִֽירִשְׁתָּ֖הּ וְיָשַׁ֣בְתָּה בָּ֑הּ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֗ אָשִׂ֤ימָה עָלַי֙ מֶ֔לֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר סְבִֽיבֹתָֽי:
15you shall set a king over you, one whom the Lord, your God, chooses; from among your brothers, you shall set a king over yourself; you shall not appoint a foreigner over yourself, one who is not your brother.   טושׂ֣וֹם תָּשִׂ֤ים עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ מֶ֔לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְחַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בּ֑וֹ מִקֶּ֣רֶב אַחֶ֗יךָ תָּשִׂ֤ים עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ מֶ֔לֶךְ לֹ֣א תוּכַ֗ל לָתֵ֤ת עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ אִ֣ישׁ נָכְרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־אָחִ֖יךָ הֽוּא:
16Only, he may not acquire many horses for himself, so that he will not bring the people back to Egypt in order to acquire many horses, for the Lord said to you, "You shall not return that way any more."   טזרַק֘ לֹֽא־יַרְבֶּה־לּ֣וֹ סוּסִים֒ וְלֹֽא־יָשִׁ֤יב אֶת־הָעָם֙ מִצְרַ֔יְמָה לְמַ֖עַן הַרְבּ֣וֹת ס֑וּס וַֽיהֹוָה֙ אָמַ֣ר לָכֶ֔ם לֹ֣א תֹֽסִפ֗וּן לָשׁ֛וּב בַּדֶּ֥רֶךְ הַזֶּ֖ה עֽוֹד:
he may not acquire many horses for himself: But, only what he needs for his chariots, “so that he will not cause the people to return to Egypt” [to purchase the horses], because horses come from there, as it is said of Solomon (I Kings 10: 29), “And a chariot that went up and left Egypt sold for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for one hundred fifty.” - [San. 21b]   לא ירבה לו סוסים: אלא כדי מרכבתו, שלא ישיב את העם מצרימה, שהסוסים באים משם. כמה שנאמר בשלמה, ותעלה ותצא מרכבה ממצרים בשש מאות כסף וסוס בחמשים ומאה (מלכים א' י כט):
17And he shall not take many wives for himself, and his heart must not turn away, and he shall not acquire much silver and gold for himself.   יזוְלֹ֤א יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ֙ נָשִׁ֔ים וְלֹ֥א יָס֖וּר לְבָב֑וֹ וְכֶ֣סֶף וְזָהָ֔ב לֹ֥א יַרְבֶּה־לּ֖וֹ מְאֹֽד:
And he shall not take many wives for himself: Only eighteen, for we find that David had six wives, and it was told to him [by Nathan the prophet] (II Sam. 12:8):“and if this is too little, I would add for you like them and like them” [totaling eighteen]. — [San. 21a and Sifrei]   ולא ירבה לו נשים: אלא שמונה עשרה, שמצינו שהיו לו לדוד שש נשים, ונאמר לו ואם מעט ואוסיפה לך כהנה וכהנה (שמואל ב' יב ח):
and he shall not acquire much silver and gold for himself: However, he may have what is required to provide for his troops. — [San. 21b]   וכסף וזהב לא ירבה לו מאד: אלא כדי ליתן לאכסניא [לאפסניא]:
18And it will be, when he sits upon his royal throne, that he shall write for himself two copies of this Torah on a scroll from [that Torah which is] before the Levitic kohanim.   יחוְהָיָ֣ה כְשִׁבְתּ֔וֹ עַ֖ל כִּסֵּ֣א מַמְלַכְתּ֑וֹ וְכָ֨תַב ל֜וֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵ֨ה הַתּוֹרָ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ עַל־סֵ֔פֶר מִלִּפְנֵ֖י הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֥ים הַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
And it will be, when he sits [upon his royal throne]: If he does this, he merits that his kingdom will remain established. — [Sifrei]   והיה כשבתו: אם עשה כן כדאי הוא שתתקיים מלכותו:
two copies of this Torah-: Heb. מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה i.e., two Torah scrolls, one that is placed in his treasury, and the other that comes and goes with him (San. 21b). [I.e., a small scroll, which the king carries with him. Thus the Talmud derives מִשְׁנֵה from שְׁנַיִם, two.] Onkelos, however, renders פַּתְשֶׁגֶן, copy. He interprets [the word] מִשְׁנֵה in the sense of repeating and uttering. [I.e., one copy of the Torah, which the scribe would write while uttering the words before he writes them, deriving מִשְׁנֵה from שִׁנּוּן, studying .]   את משנה התורה: שתי ספרי תורה. אחת שהיא מונחת בבית גנזיו ואחת שנכנסת ויוצאת עמו. ואונקלוס תרגם פתשגן, פתר משנה לשון שנון ודבור:
19And it shall be with him, and he shall read it all the days of his life, so that he may learn to fear the Lord, his God, to keep all the words of this Torah and these statutes, to perform them,   יטוְהָֽיְתָ֣ה עִמּ֔וֹ וְקָ֥רָא ב֖וֹ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חַיָּ֑יו לְמַ֣עַן יִלְמַ֗ד לְיִרְאָה֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֔יו לִ֠שְׁמֹ֠ר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֞י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּ֛את וְאֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה לַֽעֲשׂתָֽם:
the words of [this] Torah: [This is to be understood] according to its apparent meaning [namely a commandment written in the Torah].   דברי התורה: כמשמעו:
20so that his heart will not be haughty over his brothers, and so that he will not turn away from the commandment, either to the right or to the left, in order that he may prolong [his] days in his kingdom, he and his sons, among Israel.   כלְבִלְתִּ֤י רֽוּם־לְבָבוֹ֙ מֵֽאֶחָ֔יו וּלְבִלְתִּ֛י ס֥וּר מִן־הַמִּצְוָ֖ה יָמִ֣ין וּשְׂמֹ֑אול לְמַ֩עַן֩ יַֽאֲרִ֨יךְ יָמִ֧ים עַל־מַמְלַכְתּ֛וֹ ה֥וּא וּבָנָ֖יו בְּקֶ֥רֶב יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and so that he will not turn away from the commandment: Not even from a minor commandment of a prophet.   ולבלתי סור מן המצוה: אפילו מצוה קלה של נביא:
in order that he may prolong [his] days [in his kingdom]: From this positive statement, one may understand the negative inference [i.e., if he does not fulfill the commandments, his kingdom will not endure]. And so we find in the case of Saul, that Samuel said to him, “Seven days shall you wait until I come to you to offer up burnt-offerings” (I Sam. 10:8), and it is stated, “And he waited seven days” (I Sam. 13:8), but Saul did not keep his promise and neglected to wait the entire [last] day. He had not quite finished sacrificing the burnt-offering, when Samuel arrived and said to him (I Sam 13:13-14),“You have acted foolishly; you have not kept [the commandment of the Lord your God, which He commanded you…] so now your kingdom will not continue” (I Sam 13:13-14). Thus we learn, that for [transgressing] a minor commandment of a prophet, he was punished.   למען יאריך ימים: מכלל הן אתה שומע לאו. וכן מצינו בשאול שאמר לו שמואל שבעת ימים תוחל עד בואי אליך (שמואל א' י, ח) להעלות עולות וכתיב ויוחל שבעת ימים (שמואל א' יג, ח) ולא שמר הבטחתו לשמור כל היום, ולא הספיק להעלות העולה עד שבא שמואל ואמר לו נסכלת לא שמרת וגו' ועתה ממלכתך לא תקום (שם יג ז - יד). הא למדת, שבשביל מצוה קלה של נביא נענש:
he and his sons: [This] tells [us] that if his son is worthy of becoming king, he is given preference over any [other] person. — [Hor. 11b]   הוא ובניו: מגיד שאם בנו הגון למלכות הוא קודם לכל אדם:

Third Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 18

1The Levitic kohanim, the entire tribe of Levi, shall have no portion or inheritance with Israel; the Lord's fire offerings and His inheritance they shall eat.   אלֹא־יִֽ֠הְיֶ֠ה לַכֹּֽהֲנִ֨ים הַֽלְוִיִּ֜ם כָּל־שֵׁ֧בֶט לֵוִ֛י חֵ֥לֶק וְנַֽחֲלָ֖ה עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אִשֵּׁ֧י יְהֹוָ֛ה וְנַֽחֲלָת֖וֹ יֹֽאכֵלֽוּן:
the entire tribe of Levi: whether whole-bodied or blemished. — [Sifrei]   כל שבט לוי: בין תמימין בין בעלי מומין:
no portion: i.e., in the spoils.   חלק: בביזה:
or inheritance: in the land. — [Sifrei]   ונחלה: בארץ:
the Lord’s fire-offerings: The holy sacrifices of the Temple. (Other editions: The holiest sacrifices.)   אשי ה': קדשי המקדש [קדשי קדשים]:
and His portion: These are the holy things of the boundaries, [i.e. those eaten throughout the entire land, namely,] the terumoth and the tithes, but he shall have no absolute inheritance among his brothers. In Sifrei [18:41], our Rabbis expound as follows:   ונחלתו: אלו קדשי הגבול תרומות ומעשרות. אבל נחלה גמורה לא יהיה לו בקרב אחיו. ובספרי דרשו,
2But he shall have no inheritance among his brothers; the Lord is his inheritance, as He spoke to him.   בוְנַֽחֲלָ֥ה לֹא־יִֽהְיֶה־לּ֖וֹ בְּקֶ֣רֶב אֶחָ֑יו יְהֹוָה֙ ה֣וּא נַֽחֲלָת֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּר־לֽוֹ:
But he shall have no inheritance: This refers to the “inheritance of the remainder.”   ונחלה לא יהיה לו : זו נחלת שאר:
among his brothers: this refers to the “inheritance of the five.” I do not know what this means. It appears to me, however, that across the Jordan and onwards is called “the land of the five nations,” and that of Sihon and Og is called “the land of the two nations,” namely, the Amorites and the Canaanites. Now the expression, “inheritance of the remainder,” is meant to include the [remaining three nations of the ten whose land God promised to Abraham, namely] the Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites (Gen. 15:19). The Sifrei in the section dealing with the [priestly] gifts specified for Aaron expounds this in a similar fashion, on the verse (Deut. 10:9), “Therefore, Levi has no portion or inheritance,” to admonish [the Levite to take no portion in] the inheritance of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites. It has since been found in the words of Rabbi Kalonymus that the proper version of this passage in Sifrei reads as follows:   בקרב אחיו: זו נחלת חמשה. ואיני יודע מה היא. ונראה לי שארץ כנען שמעבר הירדן ואילך נקראת ארץ חמשה עממין, ושל סיחון ועוג, שני עממין אמורי וכנעני. ונחלת שאר לרבות קיני וקנזי וקדמוני. וכן דורש בפרשת מתנות שנאמרו לאהרן על כן לא היה ללוי וגו' (דברים י, ט) להזהיר על קיני וקנזי וקדמוני. שוב נמצא בדברי רבי קלונימוס הכי גרסינן בספרי
And he will have no inheritance: This refers to the “inheritance of the five.”   ונחלה לא יהיה לו: אלו נחלת חמשה
among his brothers: This refers to the “inheritance of the seven.” [Rashi now explains this version of the Sifrei:] [The first reference is to] the inheritance of five [of the twelve] tribes [of Israel]. [The second, is to] the inheritance of [the remaining] seven tribes [of Israel]. Now Moses and Joshua apportioned inheritance only to five tribes: Moses, to Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh; Joshua, to Judah, Ephraim, and [the other] half of the tribe of Manasseh. The remaining seven tribes took their inheritance by themselves after Joshua’s demise. Thus, because of this [distinction between these five former tribes and the seven latter ones], the Sifrei mentions five and seven separately.   בקרב אחיו: אלו נחלת שבעה. נחלת חמשה שבטים ונחלת שבעה שבטים. ומתוך שמשה ויהושע לא חלקו נחלה אלא לחמשה שבטים בלבד, שכן משה הנחיל לראובן וגד וחצי שבט מנשה, ויהושע הנחיל ליהודה ואפרים ולחצי שבט מנשה, ושבעה האחרים נטלו מאליהן אחרי מות יהושע, מתוך כך הזכיר חמשה לבד ושבעה לבד:
as He spoke to him: i.e., to Aaron [saying], “You shall not inherit in their land… I am your portion [and your inheritance, among the children of Israel].”- [Num. 18:20]   כאשר דבר לו: [לאהרן] בארצם לא תנחל וגו' אני חלקך (במדבר יח כ):
3And this shall be the kohanim's due from the people, from those who perform a slaughter, be it an ox or a sheep, he shall give the kohen the foreleg, the jaws, and the maw.   גוְזֶ֡ה יִֽהְיֶה֩ מִשְׁפַּ֨ט הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֜ים מֵאֵ֣ת הָעָ֗ם מֵאֵ֛ת זֹֽבְחֵ֥י הַזֶּ֖בַח אִם־שׁ֣וֹר אִם־שֶׂ֑ה וְנָתַן֙ לַכֹּהֵ֔ן הַזְּרֹ֥עַ וְהַלְּחָיַ֖יִם וְהַקֵּבָֽה:
from the people: But not from the kohanim [i.e., a kohen is exempt from these dues]. — [Sifrei , Chul. 132b]   מאת העם: ולא מאת הכהנים:
be it an ox or a sheep: But not [from the category of] beast (חַיָּה) .   אם שור אם שה: פרט לחיה:
the foreleg: from the carpus to the shoulder blade, called espaldun, espalde, or espaleron in Old French. — [Chul. 134b]   הזרוע: מן הפרק של ארכובה עד כף של יד שקורין אשפלדו"ן [עצם השכם]:
the jaws: together with the tongue. Those who interpret the symbolism of Biblical verses say, the זְרוֹעַ [which is, in effect, the “hand” of the animal, became the due of the kohanim, as a reward] for the “hand” [which Phinehas, the kohen, raised against the sinners], as it is said, “and he took a spear in his hand” (Num. 25:7); the jaws [as a reward] for the prayer [he offered], as it is said, “Then Phinehas stood and prayed” (Ps. 106:30); and the maw (הַקֵּבָה) , as a reward [for his action against the sinning woman], as it said, “[And he stabbed both of them, the man of Israel] and the woman in her stomach (קֵבָתָהּ)” (Num. 25:8). - [Chul. 134b].   הלחיים: עם הלשון. דורשי רשומות היו אומרים, זרוע, תחת יד, שנאמר ויקח רומח בידו (במדבר כה ז). לחיים, תחת תפלה, שנאמר ויעמוד פינחס ויפלל (תהלים קו ל). והקבה, תחת האשה אל קבתה (במדבר כה ח):
4The first of your grain, your wine, and your oil, and the first of the fleece of your sheep, you shall give him.   דרֵאשִׁ֨ית דְּגָֽנְךָ֜ תִּירֽשְׁךָ֣ וְיִצְהָרֶ֗ךָ וְרֵאשִׁ֛ית גֵּ֥ז צֹֽאנְךָ֖ תִּתֶּן־לֽוֹ:
The first of your grain: This refers to terumah; and although the verse does not state a required amount, our Rabbis set an amount for it [ranging from a sixtieth to a fortieth of the total produce as follows]: A generous [person] gives one fortieth of the crop, a miserly [person] one sixtieth, and [a person of] average generosity one fiftieth. They base [this ruling] that one should not give less than one sixtieth on what is said, “[This is the offering that you shall set apart: a sixth of an ephah from a homer of wheat,] and you shall separate a sixth of an ephah from a homer of barley” (Ezek. 45:13). [Since an ephah is equivalent to three se’ah,] a sixth of an ephah is equivalent to half a se’ah. [Now the “homer” mentioned in the verse is the same as a kor.] When you give [one sixth of an ephah from a homer, which we now know to be] one half of a se’ah for a kor, this amounts to one sixtieth because a kor is thirty se’ah. — [Yerushalmi, Terumoth 4:3]   ראשית דגנך: זו תרומה, ולא פירש בה שיעור, אבל רבותינו נתנו בה שיעור, עין יפה אחד מארבעים, עין רעה אחד מששים, בינונית אחד מחמשים. וסמכו על המקרא שלא לפחות מאחד מששים, שנאמר וששיתם האיפה מחומר השעורים (יחזקאל מה יג) ששית האיפה, חצי סאה. כשאתה נותן חצי סאה לכור, הרי אחד מששים, שהכור שלשים סאין:
and the first of the fleece of your sheep: When you shear your sheep each year, give the first of it [the wool] to the kohen. And [although the verse] does not mention a required amount, our Rabbis set an amount, namely, one sixtieth. And how many sheep [are the minimum to] be liable to the law of “the first of the fleece?” At least five sheep, as it is said, “[Then Abigail… took…] and five prepared (עֲשׂוּיוֹת) sheep” (I Sam. 25:18). [The עֲשׂוּיוֹת here, is interpreted as meaning that five sheep compel their owner and say to you, as it were, “Get up and fulfill the commandment of 'the first of the fleece.’”] Rabbi Akiva says: [that the minimum number of sheep liable to this commandment is derived from our verse here]: The phrase רֵאשִׁית גֵז denotes two sheep; צֹאנְךָ [an additional two, making] four, and תִּתֶּן-לוֹ denotes one more, which is a total of five sheep. - [Chul. 135a, 137a; Sifrei]   וראשית גז צאנך: כשאתה גוזז צאנך בכל שנה תן ממנה ראשית לכהן. ולא פירש בה שיעור. ורבותינו נתנו בה שיעור אחד מששים. וכמה צאן חייבות בראשית הגז, חמש רחלות, שנאמר וחמש צאן עשויות (שמואל א' כה, יח). רבי עקיבא אומר ראשית גז שתים, גז צאנך ארבע, תתן לו הרי חמש:
5For the Lord, your God, has chosen him out of all your tribes, to stand and serve in the name of the Lord, he and his sons, all the days.   הכִּ֣י ב֗וֹ בָּחַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִכָּל־שְׁבָטֶ֑יךָ לַֽעֲמֹ֨ד לְשָׁרֵ֧ת בְּשֵֽׁם־יְהֹוָ֛ה ה֥וּא וּבָנָ֖יו כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
to stand and serve: From here we learn that [the Temple] service is performed only when standing. — [Sifrei , Sotah 38a]   לעמוד לשרת: מכאן שאין שירות אלא מעומד:

Fourth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 18

6And if a Levite comes from one of your cities out of all Israel where he sojourns, he may come whenever his soul desires, to the place the Lord will choose,   ווְכִֽי־יָבֹ֨א הַלֵּוִ֜י מֵֽאַחַ֤ד שְׁעָרֶ֨יךָ֙ מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־ה֖וּא גָּ֣ר שָׁ֑ם וּבָא֙ בְּכָל־אַוַּ֣ת נַפְשׁ֔וֹ אֶל־הַמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
And if the Levite comes: One might think that Scripture is referring to an actual Levite [i.e., not a kohen]. Therefore it says, “And he may serve” (verse 7). And since Levites are not fit to serve in the whole service, we see that this verse is not referring to them [but rather to kohanim]. — [Sifrei]   וכי יבא הלוי: יכול בבן לוי ודאי הכתוב מדבר, תלמוד לומר ושרת, יצאו לוים שאין ראוין לשירות:
he may come whenever his soul desires…:   ובא בכל אות נפשו וגו' :
7and he may serve in the name of the Lord, his God, just like all his Levite brothers, who stand there before the Lord.   זוְשֵׁרֵ֕ת בְּשֵׁ֖ם יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יו כְּכָל־אֶחָיו֙ הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם הָעֹֽמְדִ֥ים שָׁ֖ם לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
and he may serve: [This] teaches [us] that a kohen may come and offer his own freewill and obligatory sacrifices even when it is not his shift. — B. K. 109b] Another explanation: It further teaches concerning kohanim who come to the Temple [as pilgrims] on the Festivals, that they may offer [together with those of the shift] and perform the services connected with the sacrifices that are brought because of the Festival-for instance, the “additional offerings” of the Festivaleven though it is not their shift. — [Sifrei, Sukk. 55b]   ושרת: למד על הכהן שבא ומקריב קרבנות נדבתו או חובתו ואפילו במשמר שאינו שלו. דבר אחר עוד למד על הכהנים הבאים לרגל שמקריבין במשמר ועובדין בקרבנות הבאות מחמת הרגל, כגון מוספי הרגל, ואף על פי שאין המשמר שלהם:
8They shall eat equal portions, except what was sold by the forefathers.   חחֵ֥לֶק כְּחֵ֖לֶק יֹאכֵ֑לוּ לְבַ֥ד מִמְכָּרָ֖יו עַל־הָֽאָבֽוֹת:
They shall eat equal portions: This teaches that they [the kohanim present as pilgrims on the Festivals] receive a portion of the hides [of the Festival burnt-offerings] and the flesh of the he-goats of sin-offerings [of the Festival]. Now one might think that [these kohanim may participate] also in sacrifices which are brought unrelated to the Festival, such as the תָּמִיד, the daily burnt-offerings, מוּסְפֵי שַׁבָּת, additional offerings of the Sabbath [on which a Festival may coincide] and sacrificial vows and donations. Therefore, it says:   חלק כחלק יאכלו: מלמד שחולקין בעורות ובבשר שעירי חטאות. יכול אף בדברים הבאים שלא מחמת הרגל, כגון תמידין ומוספי שבת ונדרים ונדבות, תלמוד לומר:
except what was sold by the forefathers: Except what his ancestors sold [to one another] in the days of David and Samuel when the system of shifts was established, trading with each other thus, “You take your week, and I will take my week.” - [Sifrei ; Sukk. 56a]   לבד ממכריו על האבות: חוץ ממה שמכרו האבות בימי דוד ושמואל, שנקבעו המשמרות ומכרו זה לזה טול אתה שבתך ואני אטול שבתי
9When you have come to the land the Lord, your God, is giving you, you shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations.   טכִּ֤י אַתָּה֙ בָּ֣א אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֣ן לָ֑ךְ לֹֽא־תִלְמַ֣ד לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת כְּתֽוֹעֲבֹ֖ת הַגּוֹיִ֥ם הָהֵֽם:
you shall not learn to do [like the abominations of those nations]: But you may learn [their practices] to understand [them] and to teach [them], i.e. to understand how degenerate their actions are, and to teach your children, “Do not do such and such, because this is a heathen custom!” - [Sifrei ; San. 68a]   לא תלמד לעשות: אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות, כלומר להבין מעשיהם כמה הם מקולקלים, ולהורות לבניך לא תעשה כך וכך, שזה הוא חוק הגוים:
10There shall not be found among you anyone who passes his son or daughter through fire, a soothsayer, a diviner of [auspicious] times, one who interprets omens, or a sorcerer,   ילֹֽא־יִמָּצֵ֣א בְךָ֔ מַֽעֲבִ֥יר בְּנֽוֹ־וּבִתּ֖וֹ בָּאֵ֑שׁ קֹסֵ֣ם קְסָמִ֔ים מְעוֹנֵ֥ן וּמְנַחֵ֖שׁ וּמְכַשֵּֽׁף:
who passes his son or daughter through fire: This was the Molech worship. They made two bonfires on either side and passed the child between them both. — [San. 64b]   מעביר בנו ובתו באש: היא עבודת המולך. עושה מדורות אש מכאן ומכאן ומעבירו בין שתיהם:
a soothsayer: What is a soothsayer? One who takes his rod in his hand and says [as though to consult it], “Shall I go, or shall I not go?” Similarly, it says (Hos. 4:12), “My people takes counsel of his piece of wood, and his rod declares to him.” - [Sifrei]   קוסם קסמים: איזהו קוסם, האוחז את מקלו ואומר אם אלך אם לא אלך. וכן הוא אומר, עמי בעצו ישאל ומקלו יגיד לו (הושע ד, יב):
a diviner of [auspicious] times: Heb. מְעוֹנֵן. Rabbi Akiva says: These are people who determine the times (עוֹנוֹת), saying, “Such-and-such a time is good to begin [a venture].” The Sages say, however, that this refers to those who“catch the eyes (עֵינַיִם)” [i.e., they deceive by creating optical illusions].   מעונן: רבי עקיבא אומר אלו נותני עונות, שאומרים עונה פלונית יפה להתחיל. וחכמים אומרים אלו אוחזי העינים:
one who interprets omens: [e.g.,] bread falling from his mouth, a deer crossing his path, or his stick falling from his hand. — [Sifrei, San. 65b]   מנחש: פתו נפלה מפיו, צבי הפסיקו בדרך, מקלו נפל מידו:
11or a charmer, a pithom sorcerer, a yido'a sorcerer, or a necromancer.   יאוְחֹבֵ֖ר חָ֑בֶר וְשֹׁאֵ֥ל אוֹב֙ וְיִדְּעֹנִ֔י וְדֹרֵ֖שׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִֽים:
or a charmer: One who collects snakes, scorpions or other creatures into one place.   וחובר חבר: שמצרף נחשים או עקרבים או שאר חיות למקום אחד:
a pithom sorcerer: This is a type of sorcery called pithom. The sorcerer raises the [spirit of the] dead, and it speaks from his [the sorcerer’s] armpit.   ושאל אוב: זה מכשפות ששמו פיתום ומדבר משחיו ומעלה את המת בבית השחי שלו:
a yido’a sorcerer: Here the sorcerer inserts a bone of the animal called yido’a into his mouth, and the bone speaks by means of sorcery. — [Sifrei , San. 65a]   וידעני: מכניס עצם חיה ששמה ידוע, לתוך פיו, ומדבר העצם על ידי מכשפות:
or a necromancer: As, for example, one who raises [the dead spirit] upon his membrum, or one who consults a skull. — [Sifrei , see San. 65b]   ודורש אל המתים: כגון המעלה בזכורו והנשאל בגלגולת:
12For whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord, and because of these abominations, the Lord, your God is driving them out from before you.   יבכִּי־תֽוֹעֲבַ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה כָּל־עֹ֣שֵׂה אֵ֑לֶּה וּבִגְלַל֙ הַתּֽוֹעֵבֹ֣ת הָאֵ֔לֶּה יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶי֔ךָ מוֹרִ֥ישׁ אוֹתָ֖ם מִפָּנֶֽיךָ:
[For] whoever does these [things] [is an abomination to the Lord]: It does not say, “one who does all these things,” but, “whoever does these things,” even one of them. — [Sifrei , Mak. 24a]   כל עושה אלה: עושה כל אלה לא נאמר אלא כל עושה אלה, אפילו אחת מהן:
13Be wholehearted with the Lord, your God.   יגתָּמִ֣ים תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה עִ֖ם יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
Be wholehearted with the Lord, your God: Conduct yourself with Him with simplicity and depend on Him, and do not inquire of the future; rather, accept whatever happens to you with [unadulterated] simplicity and then, you will be with Him and to His portion. — [Sifrei]   תמים תהיה עם ה' אלהיך: התהלך עמו בתמימות ותצפה לו ולא תחקור אחר העתידות, אלא כל מה שיבא עליך קבל בתמימות ואז תהיה עמו ולחלקו:

Fifth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 18

14For these nations, which you are to possess, hearken to diviners of [auspicious] times and soothsayers, but as for you, the Lord, your God, has not given you [things] like these.   ידכִּ֣י | הַגּוֹיִ֣ם הָאֵ֗לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ יוֹרֵ֣שׁ אוֹתָ֔ם אֶל־מְעֹֽנְנִ֥ים וְאֶל־קֹֽסְמִ֖ים יִשְׁמָ֑עוּ וְאַתָּ֕ה לֹ֣א כֵ֔ן נָ֥תַן לְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
[But…] the Lord your God has not given you: to hearken to diviners of auspicious times and soothsayers, for He caused His Divine Presence to rest upon the prophets and upon the Urim and Tummim. — [Targum Jonathan]   לא כן נתן לך ה' אלהיך: לשמוע אל מעוננים ואל קוסמים שהרי השרה שכינה על הנביאים ואורים ותומים:
15A prophet from among you, from your brothers, like me, the Lord, your God will set up for you; you shall hearken to him.   טונָבִ֨יא מִקִּרְבְּךָ֤ מֵֽאַחֶ֨יךָ֙ כָּמֹ֔נִי יָקִ֥ים לְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ אֵלָ֖יו תִּשְׁמָעֽוּן:
[A prophet] from among you, from your brothers, like me: This means: Just as I am among you, from your brothers, so will He set up for you [another prophet] in my stead, and so on, from prophet to prophet.   מקרבך מאחיך כמוני: כמו שאני מקרבך מאחיך יקים לך תחתי, וכן מנביא לנביא:
16According to all that you asked of the Lord, your God, in Horeb, on the day of the assembly, saying, "Let me not continue to hear the voice of the Lord, my God, and let me no longer see this great fire, so that I will not die."   טזכְּכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁאַ֜לְתָּ מֵעִ֨ם יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ בְּחֹרֵ֔ב בְּי֥וֹם הַקָּהָ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹ֣א אֹסֵ֗ף לִשְׁמֹ֨עַ֙ אֶת־קוֹל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֔י וְאֶת־הָאֵ֨שׁ הַגְּדֹלָ֥ה הַזֹּ֛את לֹֽא־אֶרְאֶ֥ה ע֖וֹד וְלֹ֥א אָמֽוּת:
17And the Lord said to me, "They have done well in what they have spoken.   יזוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלָ֑י הֵיטִ֖יבוּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֵּֽרוּ:
18I will set up a prophet for them from among their brothers like you, and I will put My words into his mouth, and he will speak to them all that I command him.   יחנָבִ֨יא אָקִ֥ים לָהֶ֛ם מִקֶּ֥רֶב אֲחֵיהֶ֖ם כָּמ֑וֹךָ וְנָֽתַתִּ֤י דְבָרַי֙ בְּפִ֔יו וְדִבֶּ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲצַוֶּֽנּוּ:
19And it will be, that whoever does not hearken to My words that he speaks in My name, I will exact [it] of him.   יטוְהָיָ֗ה הָאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יִשְׁמַע֙ אֶל־דְּבָרַ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְדַבֵּ֖ר בִּשְׁמִ֑י אָֽנֹכִ֖י אֶדְר֥שׁ מֵֽעִמּֽוֹ:
20But the prophet who intentionally speaks a word in My name, which I did not command him to speak, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die.   כאַ֣ךְ הַנָּבִ֡יא אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָזִיד֩ לְדַבֵּ֨ר דָּבָ֜ר בִּשְׁמִ֗י אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־צִוִּיתִיו֙ לְדַבֵּ֔ר וַֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר יְדַבֵּ֔ר בְּשֵׁ֖ם אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים וּמֵ֖ת הַנָּבִ֥יא הַהֽוּא:
which I did not command him to speak: But which I commanded his fellow prophet [to speak].   אשר לא צויתיו לדבר: אבל צויתיו לחבירו:
or who speaks in the name of other gods: Even though his words coincide with the halachah [Jewish law], forbidding what is forbidden or permitting what is permissible. — [San. 89a]   ואשר ידבר בשם אלהים אחרים: אפילו כיון את ההלכה, לאסור את האסור ולהתיר את המותר:
[That prophet] shall die: By strangulation. Three [sinful prophets] are executed by man [i.e., by the court]: One who prophesies what he has not heard, one who prophesies what was not told to him but was told to his fellow [prophet], and one who prophesies in the name of a pagan deity. However, one who suppresses his prophecy [i.e., does not announce it], or one who transgresses the words of a prophet, or a prophet who transgresses his own words [of prophecy]-their death is by the hands of Heaven, for it is said (verse 19), “I shall exact [it] from him.” - [San. 89a]   ומת: בחנק. שלשה מיתתן בידי אדם, המתנבא מה שלא שמע ומה שלא נאמר לו ונאמר לחבירו, והמתנבא בשם עבודה זרה. אבל הכובש את נבואתו והעובר על דברי נביא והעובר על דברי עצמו מיתתן בידי שמים, שנאמר (פסוק יט) אנכי אדרוש מעמו:
21Now if you say to yourself, "How will we know the word that the Lord did not speak?"   כאוְכִ֥י תֹאמַ֖ר בִּלְבָבֶ֑ךָ אֵיכָה֙ נֵדַ֣ע אֶת־הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־דִבְּר֖וֹ יְהֹוָֽה:
Now if you say to yourself, [“How will we know the word the Lord did not speak?”]?: [This verse alludes to a future time when Israel will want to know which prophet is speaking the word of God. It means:] You are destined to say this when Hananiah, the son of Azzur [a false prophet], came and prophesied, “Behold the vessels of the house of the Lord will be returned from Babylon now hastily” (Jer. 27:16), and Jeremiah stood and cried (Jer. 27:19-22), “concerning the pillars, concerning the sea,… and concerning the remainder of the vessels…” which had not been exiled, ‘they shall be brought to Babylon’ "together with the exile of Zedekiah. — [Sifrei]   וכי תאמר בלבבך: עתידין אתם לומר, כשיבא חנניא בן עזור ומתנבא הנה כלי בית ה' מושבים מבבלה עתה מהרה (ירמיה כז, טז) וירמיהו עומד וצווח על העמודים ועל הים ועל יתר הכלים שלא גלו עם יכניה, בבלה יובאו (שם כז, כב) עם גלות צדקיהו:
22If the prophet speaks in the name of the Lord, and the thing does not occur and does not come about, that is the thing the Lord did not speak. The prophet has spoken it wantonly; you shall not be afraid of him.   כבאֲשֶׁר֩ יְדַבֵּ֨ר הַנָּבִ֜יא בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהֹוָ֗ה וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ וְלֹ֣א יָבֹ֔א ה֣וּא הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־דִבְּר֖וֹ יְהֹוָ֑ה בְּזָדוֹן֙ דִּבְּר֣וֹ הַנָּבִ֔יא לֹ֥א תָג֖וּר מִמֶּֽנּוּ:
If the prophet speaks [in the Name of the Lord]: And says, “This thing is destined to happen to you,” and you see [afterwards] that it does not come about, “that is the thing the Lord did not speak” ; so execute him. But you might say, “This applies to one who prophesies regarding the future. However, suppose one comes and says ‘Do such and such a thing, and I am telling you this by the command of the Holy One, blessed is He,’ [how do we know whether he is speaking the truth? Regarding such a case,] they were already commanded that if someone comes to make you stray from any of the commandments, ”Do not hearken to him“ (Deut. 13:4), unless you are certain that he is a perfectly righteous person, e.g., Elijah on Mount Carmel, who sacrificed on a high place when high places were forbidden, [but did so] in order to control Israel [against idolatry]. Everything must be done according to the needs of the time, and the need for preventive measures to protect against breaches [in the religion]. Therefore [with respect to this authentic prophet], it is stated,”hearken to him" (verse 15). - [San. 89a]   אשר ידבר הנביא: ויאמר דבר זה עתיד לבוא עליכם, ותראו שלא יבא, הוא הדבר אשר לא דברו ה' והרוג אותו. ואם תאמר זו במתנבא על העתידות, הרי שבא ואמר עשו כך וכך ומפי הקב"ה אני אומר, כבר נצטוו שאם בא להדיחך מאחת מכל המצות לא תשמע לו, אלא אם כן מומחה הוא לך שהוא צדיק גמור, כגון אליהו בהר הכרמל שהקריב בבמה בשעת איסור הבמות כדי לגדור את ישראל. הכל לפי צורך השעה וסייג הפרצה, לכך נאמר אליו תשמעון:
you shall not be afraid of him: I.e., do not restrain yourselves from advocating his guilt, and do not fear that you will be punished for this [when your advocating leads to his death]. — [Sifrei]   לא תגור ממנו: לא תמנע עצמך מללמד עליו חובה ולא תירא ליענש עליו:

Deuteronomy Chapter 19

1When the Lord, your God, cuts off the nations, whose land the Lord, your God, is giving you, and you inherit them, and dwell in their cities and in their houses,   אכִּֽי־יַכְרִ֞ית יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ אֶת־אַרְצָ֑ם וִֽירִשְׁתָּ֕ם וְיָֽשַׁבְתָּ֥ בְעָֽרֵיהֶ֖ם וּבְבָֽתֵּיהֶֽם:
2you shall separate three cities for yourself in the midst of your land, which the Lord, your God, is giving you to possess.   בשָׁל֥וֹשׁ עָרִ֖ים תַּבְדִּ֣יל לָ֑ךְ בְּת֣וֹךְ אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
3Prepare the road for yourself and divide into three parts the boundary of your land, which the Lord, your God, is giving you as an inheritance, and it will be for every killer to flee there.   גתָּכִ֣ין לְךָ֘ הַדֶּ֒רֶךְ֒ וְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ֙ אֶת־גְּב֣וּל אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַנְחִֽילְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְהָיָ֕ה לָנ֥וּס שָׁ֖מָּה כָּל־רֹצֵֽחַ:
Prepare for yourself the way: “Refuge! Refuge!” was inscribed at each crossroads [directing the way to the nearest refuge city]. — [Mak . 10b]   תכין לך הדרך: מקלט מקלט היה כתוב על פרשת דרכים:
and divide into three parts the boundary of your land: so that [the distance] from the beginning of the border to the first refuge city should be the same as the distance from this first city to the second, and so from the second to the third and from the third to the opposite border of Israel. — [Mak. 9b]   ושלשת את גבול ארצך: שיהא מתחלת הגבול עד העיר הראשונה של עיר מקלט, כשיעור מהלך שיש ממנה עד השניה. וכן משניה, לשלישית. וכן מן השלישית, עד הגבול השני של ארץ ישראל:
4And this is the case of the killer who will flee there, so that he may live: Whoever strikes his fellow [to death] unintentionally, whom he did not hate in times past.   דוְזֶה֙ דְּבַ֣ר הָֽרֹצֵ֔חַ אֲשֶׁר־יָנ֥וּס שָׁ֖מָּה וָחָ֑י אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַכֶּ֤ה אֶת־רֵעֵ֨הוּ֙ בִּבְלִי־דַ֔עַת וְה֛וּא לֹֽא־שׂנֵ֥א ל֖וֹ מִתְּמֹ֥ל שִׁלְשֹֽׁם:
5As when a man goes with his fellow into the forest to chop wood, and his hand swings the ax to cut down the tree, and the iron flies off the handle, and it reaches his fellow, and he dies he shall flee to one of these cities, and live.   הוַֽאֲשֶׁר֩ יָבֹ֨א אֶת־רֵעֵ֥הוּ בַיַּ֘עַר֘ לַחְטֹ֣ב עֵצִים֒ וְנִדְּחָ֨ה יָד֤וֹ בַגַּרְזֶן֙ לִכְרֹ֣ת הָעֵ֔ץ וְנָשַׁ֤ל הַבַּרְזֶל֙ מִן־הָעֵ֔ץ וּמָצָ֥א אֶת־רֵעֵ֖הוּ וָמֵ֑ת ה֗וּא יָנ֛וּס אֶל־אַחַ֥ת הֶֽעָרִֽים־הָאֵ֖לֶּה וָחָֽי:
And his hand swings [the ax]: when he was about to let the ax fall on the tree. The Targum renders this as וְתִתְמְרֵיג יְדֵּיּהּ meaning, וְנִשְׁמְטָה יָדוֹ his hand swayed while letting the stroke of the ax fall upon the tree. [Similarly,] the words הַבָּקָר כִּי שָׁמְטוּ (II Sam. 6:6), are rendered in Targum Jonathan as: אֲרֵי מַרְגוּהִי תּוֹרַיָּא “for the oxen swayed.”   ונדחה ידו: כשבא להפיל הגרזן על העץ, ותרגומו ותתמריג ידיה, לשון ונשמטה ידו להפיל מכת הגרזן על העץ. כי שמטו הבקר (שמואל ב' ו ו) תרגם יונתן ארי מרגוהי תוריא:
and the iron flies off the handle: Heb. וְנָשַׁל הַבַּרְזֶל מִן-הָעֵץ. Some of our Rabbis say that this means that the iron head [of the ax] slipped off its handle, while others say, the ax chipped a splinter of wood off the tree which was being chopped, and it ricocheted, killing [the victim]. — [Mak. 7b]   ונשל הברזל מן העץ: יש מרבותינו אומרים נשמט הברזל מקתו, ויש מהם אומרים שישל הברזל חתיכה מן העץ המתבקע, והיא נתזה והרגה:
6Lest the avenger of the blood pursue the killer, while his heart is hot, and overtake him, because the way is long, and he strikes him to death, whereas he was not deserving of death, for he had not hated him in times past.   ופֶּן־יִרְדֹּף֩ גֹּאֵ֨ל הַדָּ֜ם אַֽחֲרֵ֣י הָֽרֹצֵ֗חַ כִּ֣י יֵחַם֘ לְבָבוֹ֒ וְהִשִּׂיג֛וֹ כִּֽי־יִרְבֶּ֥ה הַדֶּ֖רֶךְ וְהִכָּ֣הוּ נָ֑פֶשׁ וְלוֹ֙ אֵ֣ין מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֔וֶת כִּ֠י לֹ֣א שׂנֵ֥א ה֛וּא ל֖וֹ מִתְּמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֽׁוֹם:
Lest the avenger of the blood pursue [the killer]: This is why I am telling you prepare a way for yourself, and [to prepare] many refuge cities.   פן ירדוף גואל הדם: לכך אני אומר להכין לך דרך, וערי מקלט רבים:
7Therefore, I command you, saying, "You shall separate for yourself three cities."   זעַל־כֵּ֛ן אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ לֵאמֹ֑ר שָׁל֥שׁ עָרִ֖ים תַּבְדִּ֥יל לָֽךְ:
8And when the Lord, your God, expands your boundary, as He swore to your forefathers, and He gives you all the land of which He spoke to give to your forefathers;   חוְאִם־יַרְחִ֞יב יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ אֶת־גְּבֻ֣לְךָ֔ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לַֽאֲבֹתֶ֑יךָ וְנָ֤תַן לְךָ֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֶּ֖ר לָתֵ֥ת לַֽאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ:
And when [the Lord your God] expands [your boundary]: As He swore to give you the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites.   ואם ירחיב: כאשר נשבע לתת לך ארץ קיני וקנזי וקדמוני:
9if you will keep all this commandment to perform it, which I command you this day, to love the Lord, your God, and to walk in His ways all the days, you shall add three more cities for yourself, in addition to these three,   טכִּֽי־תִשְׁמֹר֩ אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֨ה הַזֹּ֜את לַֽעֲשׂתָ֗הּ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֣י מְצַוְּךָ֘ הַיּוֹם֒ לְאַֽהֲבָ֞ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ וְלָלֶ֥כֶת בִּדְרָכָ֖יו כָּל־הַיָּמִ֑ים וְיָֽסַפְתָּ֙ לְךָ֥ עוֹד֙ שָׁל֣שׁ עָרִ֔ים עַ֖ל הַשָּׁל֥שׁ הָאֵֽלֶּה:
you shall add three more [cities] for yourself: Thus, [altogether you will have] nine: The three on the other side of the Jordan, the three in the land of Canaan, and three more in the future [when God will expand your boundary]. — [Sifrei]   ויספת לך עוד שלש: הרי תשע. שלש שבעבר הירדן ושלש שבארץ כנען ושלש לעתיד לבא:
10so that innocent blood will not be shed in the midst of your land which the Lord, your God, gives you for an inheritance which would deem you guilty of [having shed this] blood.   יוְלֹ֤א יִשָּׁפֵךְ֙ דַּ֣ם נָקִ֔י בְּקֶ֣רֶב אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַֽחֲלָ֑ה וְהָיָ֥ה עָלֶ֖יךָ דָּמִֽים:
11But if a man hates his fellow, lies in wait for him, rises up against him, and strikes him mortally, and he flees to one of these cities,   יאוְכִי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה אִישׁ֙ שׂנֵ֣א לְרֵעֵ֔הוּ וְאָ֤רַב לוֹ֙ וְקָ֣ם עָלָ֔יו וְהִכָּ֥הוּ נֶ֖פֶשׁ וָמֵ֑ת וְנָ֕ס אֶל־אַחַ֖ת הֶֽעָרִ֥ים הָאֵֽל:
But if a man hates his fellow [and lies in wait for him…]: Through this man’s hatred of his fellow, he comes to “lie in wait for him.” From here our Rabbis derived the maxim: If a man transgresses a minor commandment, he will ultimately transgress a major commandment. [Here,] since he transgressed the command: “You shall not hate your brother in your heart” (Lev. 19:17), he ultimately came to shed blood. This is why it says here, “But if a man hates his fellow,” for it should have written only: “But if a man rises up and lies in wait for his fellow and strikes him mortally.” - [Sifrei]   וכי יהיה איש שונא לרעהו: על ידי שנאתו הוא בא לידי וארב לו. מכאן אמרו עבר אדם על מצוה קלה סופו לעבור על מצוה חמורה. לפי שעבר על לא תשנא, סופו לבא לידי שפיכות דמים. לכך נאמר כי יהיה איש שונא לרעהו וגו', שהיה לו לכתוב וכי יקום איש וארב לרעהו והכהו נפש:
12the elders of his city shall send and take him from there and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of the blood, that he may die.   יבוְשָֽׁלְחוּ֙ זִקְנֵ֣י עִיר֔וֹ וְלָֽקְח֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ מִשָּׁ֑ם וְנָֽתְנ֣וּ אֹת֗וֹ בְּיַ֛ד גֹּאֵ֥ל הַדָּ֖ם וָמֵֽת:
13And you shall not pity him, but you shall abolish [the shedding of] the blood of the innocent from Israel, and it will be good for you.   יגלֹֽא־תָח֥וֹס עֵֽינְךָ֖ עָלָ֑יו וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֧ דַם־הַנָּקִ֛י מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְט֥וֹב לָֽךְ:
And you shall not pity him: I.e., you should not say, “The first [person] has already been killed; why should we kill this one too and cause two Israelites to be killed?” - [Sifrei]   לא תחוס עינך: שלא תאמר הראשון כבר נהרג, למה אנו הורגים את זה ונמצאו שני ישראלים הרוגים:

Sixth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 19

14You shall not pull back your neighbor's landmark, which the earlier ones have set as borders in your inheritance, which you will inherit in the land that the Lord, your God gives you, to possess.   ידלֹ֤א תַסִּיג֙ גְּב֣וּל רֵֽעֲךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר גָּֽבְל֖וּ רִֽאשֹׁנִ֑ים בְּנַֽחֲלָֽתְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּנְחַ֔ל בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
You shall not pull back [your neighbor’s] landmark: Heb. לֹא תַסּיג, an expression similar to, “they shall turn back (נָסֹגוּ אָחוֹר)” (Isa. 42:17). [Here therefore, it means] that he moves the boundary-mark of the land backwards into his neighbor’s field, thereby enlarging his own [property]. But has it not already been stated, “You shall not rob” (Lev. 19:13)? Why then, is it stated here: “You shall not pull back [the landmark]?” [The answer is that this verse] teaches that the person who removes his neighbor’s boundary mark transgresses two negative commandments, “You shall not rob (לֹא תִגְזֹל)” and “You shall not pull back [the landmark]” (לֹא תַסִּיג). Now I might think that [this applies] outside Eretz Israel as well. Therefore it says, “in your inheritance, which you will inherit [in the land],” [indicating that] in [only] Eretz Israel one transgresses two negative commandments, whereas outside Eretz Israel, one transgresses only the commandment of “you shall not rob.” - [Sifrei]   לא תסיג גבול: לשון נסוגו אחור (ישעיה מב יז), שמחזיר סימן חלוקת הקרקע לאחור לתוך שדה חבירו למען הרחיב את שלו. והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא יט, יג) לא תגזול, מה תלמוד לומר לא תסיג, למד על העוקר תחום חבירו שעובר בשני לאוין. יכול אף בחוצה לארץ, תלמוד לומר בנחלתך אשר תנחל וגו', בארץ ישראל עובר בשני לאוין, בחוצה לארץ אינו עובר אלא משום לא תגזול:
15One witness shall not rise up against any person for any iniquity or for any sin, regarding any sin that he will sin. By the mouth of two witnesses, or by the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be confirmed.   טולֹֽא־יָקוּם֩ עֵ֨ד אֶחָ֜ד בְּאִ֗ישׁ לְכָל־עָו‍ֹן֙ וּלְכָל־חַטָּ֔את בְּכָל־חֵ֖טְא אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶֽחֱטָ֑א עַל־פִּ֣י | שְׁנֵ֣י עֵדִ֗ים א֛וֹ עַל־פִּ֥י שְׁלשָֽׁה־עֵדִ֖ים יָק֥וּם דָּבָֽר:
One witness [shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity]: This verse establishes a general principle [i.e., from here it is derived] that wherever the term “witness” (עֵד) appears in the Torah, it means two [witnesses], unless the Torah specifies [that] one witness is meant. — [San. 30a]   עד אחד: זה בנה אב כל עד שבתורה שנים, אלא אם כן פרט לך בו אחד:
for any iniquity, or for any sin: where his testimony would lead to the accused being punished, either with corporal punishment or with or monetary punishment. However, one [witness] may rise up to [compel his fellow to take] an oath, as follows: If one says to his fellow, “Give me the maneh [100 zuzim] that I lent you,” and his fellow replies, “I have nothing of yours,” and one witness testifies for him [the plaintiff] that he [the defendant] owes him [the money], [the defendant] is required to swear [that he did not borrow any money]. — [Shev. 40a]   לכל עון ולכל חטאת: להיות חבירו נענש על עדותו, לא עונש גוף ולא עונש ממון, אבל קם הוא לשבועה. אמר לחבירו תן לי מנה שהלויתיך אמר לו אין לך בידי כלום ועד אחד מעיד שיש לו, חייב להשבע לו:
By the mouth of two witnesses [… the matter will be established]: [The expression, “by the mouth” means here that only the direct, verbal testimony suffices,] but they should not write their testimony in a letter and send it to the court, or have an interpreter stand between the witnesses and the judges. - [Sifrei]   על פי שני עדים: ולא שיכתבו עדותם באגרת וישלחו לבית דין, ולא שיעמוד תורגמן בין העדים ובין הדיינים:
16If a false witness rises up against a man, to bear perverted testimony against him,   טזכִּֽי־יָק֥וּם עֵֽד־חָמָ֖ס בְּאִ֑ישׁ לַֽעֲנ֥וֹת בּ֖וֹ סָרָֽה:
to bear perverted testimony against him: Heb. סָרָה [That is, he testifies about] a thing which is not so, that this witness is removed (הוּסַר) from the whole testimony [meaning that he could not possibly have been a witness,] such as if [a second set of witnesses] said [to the first set of witnesses], “But weren’t you with us on that day in such and such a place [and not with the defendant, as you claim to have been]?” - [Mak. 5a]   לענות בו סרה: דבר שאינו, שהוסר העד הזה מכל העדות הזאת, כגון, שאמרו להם והלא עמנו הייתם אותו היום במקום פלוני:
17Then the two men between whom the controversy exists shall stand before the Lord, before the kohanim and the judges who will be in those days.   יזוְעָֽמְד֧וּ שְׁנֵי־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־לָהֶ֥ם הָרִ֖יב לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה לִפְנֵ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ וְהַשֹּׁ֣פְטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִֽהְי֖וּ בַּיָּמִ֥ים הָהֵֽם:
Then the two men… shall stand: The text is referring to the witnesses, and it teaches us that there is no testimony by women. It also teaches us that witnesses must submit their testimony while standing. — [Shev. 30a]   ועמדו שני האנשים: בעדים הכתוב מדבר, ולמד שאין עדות בנשים, ולמד שצריכין להעיד עדותן מעומד:
between whom the controversy exists: These are the litigants.   אשר להם הריב: אלו בעלי הדין:
before the Lord: It should seem to them as though they are standing before the Omnipresent, as it says: “in the midst of the judges He will judge” (Ps. 82: 1). - [San. 6b]   לפני ה': יהי דומה להם כאילו עומדין לפני המקום, שנאמר בקרב אלהים ישפוט (תהלים פב, א):
who will be in those days: [Now could one stand in front of those who are not in his day? Rather, it means that] Jephthah [one of the less important judges] in his generation, is [to be considered] as Samuel [the greatest judge] in his generation; you must treat him with respect.   אשר יהיו בימים ההם: יפתח בדורו כשמואל בדורו, צריך אתה לנהוג בו כבוד:
18And the judges shall inquire thoroughly, and behold, the witness is a false witness; he has testified falsely against his brother;   יחוְדָֽרְשׁ֥וּ הַשֹּֽׁפְטִ֖ים הֵיטֵ֑ב וְהִנֵּ֤ה עֵֽד־שֶׁ֨קֶר֙ הָעֵ֔ד שֶׁ֖קֶר עָנָ֥ה בְאָחִֽיו:
And the judges shall inquire thoroughly: By means of the testimony of [the new set of witnesses] who rebut them, that they investigate and examine those who come to prove that they [the first pair] are עֵדִים זוֹמְמִין, “plotting witnesses,” by diligent inquiry and examination.   ודרשו השופטים היטב: על פי המזימין אותם, שבודקים וחוקרים את הבאים להזימם בדרישה ובחקירה:
and behold, the witness is a false witness: Wherever עֵד, witness, is written, Scripture is speaking of two [witnesses]. — [San. 30a]   והנה עד שקר: כל מקום שנאמר עד, בשנים הכתוב מדבר:
19then you shall do to him as he plotted to do to his brother, and you shall [thus] abolish evil from among you.   יטוַֽעֲשִׂ֣יתֶם ל֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר זָמַ֖ם לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת לְאָחִ֑יו וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
as he plotted: But not as he did. From here [our Rabbis] said that if the first set of witnesses [before being proven false,] already killed the defendant [by their testimony], they are not to be put to death. — [Mak. 5b]   כאשר זמם: ולא כאשר עשה. מכאן אמרו, הרגו אין נהרגין:
to do to his brother: Why does Scripture state, “to his brother?” To teach, that in the case of witnesses who conspired against a married daughter of a kohen [by accusing her of adultery], that they are not executed with burning [the form of execution to which she would have been subjected], but rather, by strangulation, the form of execution of the adulterer. For it says [regarding such a woman] “she shall be burnt with fire” (Lev. 21:9) -“she,” but not her paramour [who is dispatched by strangulation]; therefore it says here, “to his brother”-“as he plotted to do to his brother,” but not as he plotted to do to his sister. With other crimes, however, Scripture regards women equally with men, and conspiring witnesses against a woman are executed in the same way as those who conspired against a man. For instance, if they testified that a women killed a person, or that she desecrated the Sabbath [and they are revealed to be false witnesses before she is executed], then they are executed in the form that they intended for her, for Scripture does not exclude his sister [by stating “brother”] except in a case where one may carry out the punishment of the conspiring witnesses by the form of execution of the adulterer [as opposed to the adulteress]. — [Sifrei and San. 90a]   לעשות לאחיו: מה תלמוד לומר לאחיו, למד על זוממי בת כהן נשואה שאינן בשריפה, אלא כמיתת הבועל שהוא בחנק, שנאמר היא באש תשרף (ויקרא כא, ט) היא ולא בועלה. לכך נאמר כאן לאחיו, כאשר זמם לעשות לאחיו, ולא כאשר זמם לעשות לאחותו. אבל בכל שאר מיתות השוה הכתוב אשה לאיש, וזוממי אשה נהרגין כזוממי איש. כגון שהעידוה שהרגה את הנפש, שחללה את השבת, נהרגין במיתתה. שלא מיעט כאן אחותו אלא במקום שיש לקיים בהן הזמה במיתת הבועל:
20And those who remain shall listen and fear, and they shall no longer continue to commit any such evil thing among you.   כוְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֖ים יִשְׁמְע֣וּ וְיִרָ֑אוּ וְלֹֽא־יֹסִ֨פוּ לַֽעֲשׂ֜וֹת ע֗וֹד כַּדָּבָ֥ר הָרָ֛ע הַזֶּ֖ה בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
shall listen and fear: From here, [we derive the law] that a public announcement is required: “So-and-so and so-and-so are to be executed because they were proven by the court to be plotting witnesses.” - [San. 89a] [Note that Rashi on Mak. 5a and San. 89a writes that the proclamation is made after the perpetrators have been executed.]   ישמעו ויראו: מכאן שצריכין הכרזה, איש פלוני ופלוני נהרגין על שהוזמו בבית דין:
21You shall not have pity: life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.   כאוְלֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶ֑ךָ נֶ֣פֶשׁ בְּנֶ֗פֶשׁ עַ֤יִן בְּעַ֨יִן֙ שֵׁ֣ן בְּשֵׁ֔ן יָ֥ד בְּיָ֖ד רֶ֥גֶל בְּרָֽגֶל:
Eye for eye: i.e., financial compensation; and similarly, “tooth for tooth, etc.” - [Sifrei, B.K. 87a]   עין בעין: ממון, וכן שן בשן וגו':

Deuteronomy Chapter 20

1When you go out to war against your enemies, and you see horse and chariot, a people more numerous than you, you shall not be afraid of them, for the Lord, your God is with you Who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.   אכִּֽי־תֵצֵ֨א לַמִּלְחָמָ֜ה עַל־אֹֽיְבֶ֗ךָ וְרָאִ֜יתָ ס֤וּס וָרֶ֨כֶב֙ עַ֚ם רַ֣ב מִמְּךָ֔ לֹ֥א תִירָ֖א מֵהֶ֑ם כִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ הַמַּֽעַלְךָ֖ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
When you go out to war: Scripture juxtaposes the departure for war alongside this [“eye for eye etc.”] to teach us that a person with a missing limb does not go out to war. - [Sifrei] Another explanation: It teaches that if you execute righteous judgment, you can be sure that when you depart for war you will be victorious. Similarly, David says, “I performed justice and righteousness; do not leave me to my oppressors” (Ps. 119: 121). - [Tanchuma]   כי תצא למלחמה: סמך הכתוב יציאת מלחמה לכאן, לומר לך, שאין מחוסר אבר יוצא למלחמה. דבר אחר לומר לך, אם עשית משפט צדק אתה מובטח שאם תצא למלחמה אתה נוצח. וכן דוד הוא אומר (תהלים קיט, קכא) עשיתי משפט וצדק בל תניחני לעושקי:
against your enemies: Let them be in your eyes as enemies; have no pity on them, for they will have no pity upon you.   על איבך: יהיו בעיניך כאויבים, אל תרחם עליהם כי לא ירחמו עליך:
horse and chariot: In My eyes, they are all like one horse. Similarly, it says, “and you shall strike Midian as one man.” (Jud. 6:16) And similarly, it says, “When Pharaoh’s horse… came [into the sea]” (Exod. 15:19). - [Sifrei]   סוס ורכב: בעיני כולם כסוס אחד, וכן הוא אומר (שופטים ו, טז) והכית את מדין כאיש אחד. וכן הוא אומר (שמות טו, יט) כי בא סוס פרעה:
a people more numerous than you: In your eyes, they are numerous, but in My eyes, they are not numerous. — [Sifrei]   עם רב ממך: בעיניך הוא רב, אבל בעיני אינו רב:
2And it will be, when you approach the battle, that the kohen shall come near, and speak to the people.   בוְהָיָ֕ה כְּקָֽרָבְכֶ֖ם אֶל־הַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וְנִגַּ֥שׁ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְדִבֶּ֥ר אֶל־הָעָֽם:
when you approach the battle: When you are on the point of leaving the border.   כקרבכם אל המלחמה: סמוך לצאתכם מן הספר מגבול ארצכם:
that the kohen shall come near: This refers to the kohen anointed for this purpose, and he is called “the one anointed for war.”   ונגש הכהן: המשוח לכך. והוא הנקרא משוח מלחמה:
and speak to the people: in the Holy Tongue. — [Sotah 42a]   ודבר אל העם: בלשון הקדש:
3And he shall say to them, "Hear, O Israel, today you are approaching the battle against your enemies. Let your hearts not be faint; you shall not be afraid, and you shall not be alarmed, and you shall not be terrified because of them.   גוְאָמַ֤ר אֲלֵהֶם֙ שְׁמַ֣ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אַתֶּ֨ם קְרֵבִ֥ים הַיּ֛וֹם לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה עַל־אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם אַל־יֵרַ֣ךְ לְבַבְכֶ֗ם אַל־תִּֽירְא֧וּ וְאַל־תַּחְפְּז֛וּ וְאַל־תַּֽעַרְצ֖וּ מִפְּנֵיהֶֽם:
“Hear, O Israel”: Even if you have no merit other than the reading of the Shema, you are worthy that He [God] save you. — [Sotah 42b]   שמע ישראל: אפילו אין בכם זכות אלא קריאת שמע בלבד, כדאי אתם שיושיע אתכם:
against your enemies: These are not your brothers, for if you fall into their hands, they will not have pity on you; this is not like the war of Judah with Israel, of which the verse states, “And the men, who were mentioned by name, rose up and took hold of the captives, and, and clothed all their nakedness from the spoils, and they dressed them and shod them, and fed them and gave them to drink, and anointed them, and led them on donkeys, every feeble one, and they brought them to Jericho, the city of the palms, beside their brothers, and they returned to Samaria” (II Chron. 28:15). You, however, are going against your enemies; therefore strengthen yourselves for battle. — [Sifrei ; Sotah 42a]   על איביכם: אין אלו אחיכם, שאם תפלו בידם אינם מרחמים עליכם, אין זו כמלחמת יהודה עם ישראל, שנאמר (דה"י ב' כח טו) ויקומו האנשים אשר נקבו בשמות ויחזיקו בשביה, וכל מערומיהם הלבישו מן השלל וילבישום וינעילום ויאכילום וישקום ויסוכום וינהלום בחמורים לכל כושל, ויביאום ירחו עיר התמרים אצל אחיהם, וישובו שומרון, אלא על אויביכם אתם הולכים, לפיכך התחזקו למלחמה:
Let your hearts not be faint; you shall not be afraid, you shall not be alarmed, and you shall not be terrified: Four warnings, corresponding to four practices in which the kings of the nations engage [during battle]: They hold their shields close together to strike them against one another, thereby producing a loud noise to alarm those confronting them, so that they should flee; they stamp [the ground heavily] with their horses and make them neigh, sounding the beating of their horses’ hoofs, and they shout loudly and blow horns and [other] kinds of noisy instruments.   אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו ואל תחפזו ואל תערצו: ארבע אזהרות כנגד ארבעה דברים שמלכי האומות עושים. מגיפים בתריסיהם כדי להקישן זה לזה כדי להשמיע קול שיחפזו אלו שכנגדם וינוסו, ורומסים בסוסיהם ומצהילין אותם להשמיע קול שעטת פרסות סוסיהם, וצווחין בקולם ותוקעין בשופרות ומיני משמיעי קול:
Let your hearts not be faint: Because of the neighing of the horses;   אל ירך לבבכם: מצהלות סוסים:
you shall not be afraid: of the noise made by the fastening of the shields;   אל תיראו: מהגפת התריסין:
and you shall not be alarmed: At the sounds of the horns;   ואל תחפזו: מקול הקרנות:
and you shall not be terrified: By the noise of the shouting. — [Sifrei ; Sotah 42a]   ואל תערצו: מקול הצווחה:
4For the Lord, your God, is the One Who goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you.   דכִּ֚י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם הַֽהֹלֵ֖ךְ עִמָּכֶ֑ם לְהִלָּחֵ֥ם לָכֶ֛ם עִם־אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֖ם לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אֶתְכֶֽם:
For the Lord, your God…: They are coming with the victory of flesh and blood, whereas you approach with the victory of the Omnipresent. The Philistines came with the victory of Goliath-What was his end? He fell, and they fell with him.   כי ה' אלהיכם וגו': הם באים בנצחונו של בשר ודם ואתם באים בנצחונו של מקום. פלשתים באו בנצחונו של גלית, מה היה סופו, נפל ונפלו עמו:
Who goes with you: This refers to the camp of the ark. — [Sotah 42a]   ההלך עמכם: זה מחנה הארון:
5And the officers shall speak to the people, saying, What man is there who has built a new house and has not [yet] inaugurated it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man inaugurate it.   הוְדִבְּר֣וּ הַשֹּֽׁטְרִים֘ אֶל־הָעָ֣ם לֵאמֹר֒ מִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּנָ֤ה בַֽיִת־חָדָשׁ֙ וְלֹ֣א חֲנָכ֔וֹ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יַחְנְכֶֽנּוּ:
[What man is there who has built a new house] and has not [yet] inaugurated it: i.e., has not yet lived in it. The term חִנּוּךְ denotes beginning.   ולא חנכו: לא דר בו. חנוך לשון התחלה:
[Lest he die in the war,] and another man inaugurate it: This would be a source of great grief.   ואיש אחר יחנכנו: ודבר של עגמת נפש הוא זה:
6And what man is there who has planted a vineyard, and has not [yet] redeemed it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man redeem it.   ווּמִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָטַ֥ע כֶּ֨רֶם֙ וְלֹ֣א חִלְּל֔וֹ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יְחַלְּלֶֽנּוּ:
[And what man is there that has planted a vineyard,] and has not [yet] redeemed it: Heb. וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ. He has not redeemed the vineyard in the fourth year [of its growth], for the fruits [of the fourth year] have to be eaten in Jerusalem or redeemed [by exchanging them] for money, and to eat [food purchased with] the money in Jerusalem.   ולא חללו: לא פדאו בשנה הרביעית, שהפירות טעונין לאכלן בירושלים או לחללן בדמים ולאכול הדמים בירושלים:
7And what man is there who has betrothed a woman and has not [yet] taken her? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man take her."   זוּמִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵרַ֤שׂ אִשָּׁה֙ וְלֹ֣א לְקָחָ֔הּ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יִקָּחֶֽנָּה:
lest he die in the war: He should return lest he die, for if he does not obey the kohen, he deserves to die. — [Sifrei]   פן ימות במלחמה: ישוב פן ימות, שאם לא ישמע לדברי הכהן כדאי הוא שימות:
8And the officers shall continue to speak to the people and say, "What man is there who is fearful and fainthearted? Let him go and return to his house, that he should not cause the heart of his brothers to melt, as his heart."   חוְיָֽסְפ֣וּ הַשֹּֽׁטְרִים֘ לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־הָעָם֒ וְאָֽמְר֗וּ מִֽי־הָאִ֤ישׁ הַיָּרֵא֙ וְרַ֣ךְ הַלֵּבָ֔ב יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ וְלֹ֥א יִמַּ֛ס אֶת־לְבַ֥ב אֶחָ֖יו כִּלְבָבֽוֹ:
And the officers shall continue: Why does it say here: “shall continue” [lit. shall add]? They add this [statement] to the words of the kohen, for the kohen speaks and announces aloud to the people from “Hear, O Israel” (verse 3) until “to save you,” (end of verse 4) while “What man is there” (verse 5), and the second and third one [with the same beginning (verses 6 and 7)], the kohen speaks, and an officer announces aloud [to the people]. This verse, however, an officer speaks, and an officer announces aloud. - [Sotah 43a] According to several incunabula editions of Rashi, “a kohen announces aloud.” [See Yosef Hallel.]   ויספו השוטרים: למה נאמר כאן ויספו, מוסיפין זה על דברי הכהן, שהכהן מדבר ומשמיע מן (פסוק ג - ד) שמע ישראל עד להושיע אתכם, ומי האיש ושני ושלישי כהן מדבר ושוטר משמיע, וזה שוטר מדבר ושוטר משמיע:
[What man is there] who is fearful and fainthearted: Rabbi Akiva says: [This verse is to be understood] according to its apparent meaning, that he cannot stand in the closed ranks of battle and look upon a drawn sword. Rabbi Jose the Galilean says that [it means] one who is afraid of his sins [that they will cause him to fall in war, as he is unworthy], and therefore, the Torah gives him the excuse of attributing his return home because of a house, a vineyard, or a wife, to cover up for those who return because of their sins, so that people should not understand that they are sinners. [Consequently,] one who sees this person returning would say, “Perhaps he has built a house, or planted a vineyard, or betrothed a woman.” - [Sotah 44a]   הירא ורך הלבב: רבי עקיבא אומר כמשמעו, שאינו יכול לעמוד בקשרי המלחמה ולראות חרב שלופה. רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר הירא מעבירות שבידו, ולכך תלתה לו תורה לחזור על בית וכרם ואשה לכסות על החוזרים בשביל עבירות שבידם, שלא יבינו שהם בעלי עבירה, והרואהו חוזר אומר שמא בנה בית או נטע כרם או ארש אשה:
9And it shall be, that when the officials finish speaking to the people, they shall appoint officers of the legions at the edges of the people.   טוְהָיָ֛ה כְּכַלֹּ֥ת הַשֹּֽׁטְרִ֖ים לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־הָעָ֑ם וּפָֽקְד֛וּ שָׂרֵ֥י צְבָא֖וֹת בְּרֹ֥אשׁ הָעָֽם:
[They shall appoint] officers of the legions: This means that they place (זַקָּפִין) guards in front of them and behind them, with iron arrows in their hands, and if anybody attempted to retreat, the guard had the authority to strike his legs. זַקָּפִין are people who stand at the edge of the battle array to pick up (לִזְקֹף) the fallen and to encourage them with words: “Return to the battle and do not flee, for flight is the beginning of defeat.” - [Sifrei , Sotah 44a]   שרי צבאות: שמעמידין זקפין, מלפניהם ומלאחריהם וכשילין של ברזל בידיהם וכל מי שרוצה לחזור הרשות בידו לקפח את שוקיו. זקפין, בני אדם עומדים בקצה המערכה לזקוף את הנופלים ולחזקם בדברים שובו אל המלחמה ולא תנוסו, שתחלת נפילה ניסה:

Seventh Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 20

10When you approach a city to wage war against it, you shall propose peace to it.   יכִּֽי־תִקְרַ֣ב אֶל־עִ֔יר לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם עָלֶ֑יהָ וְקָרָ֥אתָ אֵלֶ֖יהָ לְשָׁלֽוֹם:
When you approach a city [to wage war against it]: Scripture is speaking of an optional war, as is explicit in the context of this section (verse 15), “Thus you will do to all the cities which are very far away [from you]….” - [Sifrei]   כי תקרב אל עיר: במלחמת הרשות הכתוב מדבר, כמו שמפורש בענין (פסוק טו) כן תעשה לכל הערים הרחוקות וגו':
11And it will be, if it responds to you with peace, and it opens up to you, then it will be, [that] all the people found therein shall become tributary to you, and they shall serve you.   יאוְהָיָה֙ אִם־שָׁל֣וֹם תַּֽעַנְךָ֔ וּפָֽתְחָ֖ה לָ֑ךְ וְהָיָ֞ה כָּל־הָעָ֣ם הַנִּמְצָא־בָ֗הּ יִֽהְי֥וּ לְךָ֛ לָמַ֖ס וַֽעֲבָדֽוּךָ:
all the people found therein [shall become tributary]: Even if you find in it people of the seven nations, whom you have been commanded to exterminate, you are permitted to spare their lives. — [Sifrei]   כל העם הנמצא בה: אפילו אתה מוצא בה משבעה אומות שנצטוית להחרימם, אתה רשאי לקיימם:
tributary [to you], and they shall serve you: [You shall fight them] until they accept upon themselves both tribute and bondage. — [Sifrei]   למס ועבדוך: עד שיקבלו עליהם מסים ושעבוד:
12But if it does not make peace with you, and it wages war against you, you shall besiege it,   יבוְאִם־לֹ֤א תַשְׁלִים֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ וְעָֽשְׂתָ֥ה עִמְּךָ֖ מִלְחָמָ֑ה וְצַרְתָּ֖ עָלֶֽיהָ:
But if it does make no peace with you, and it wages war against you: Scripture is informing you that if it does not make peace with you, then, if you let it be and go away, [this city] will ultimately wage war against you.   ואם לא תשלים עמך ועשתה עמך מלחמה: הכתוב מבשרך שאם לא תשלים עמך סופה להלחם בך אם תניחנה ותלך:
you shall besiege it: Even to starve it out, and cause them to [die of] thirst and to kill [the inhabitants of the city] through diseases. — [Sifrei]   וצרת עליה: אף להרעיבה ולהצמיאה ולהמיתה מיתת תחלואים:
13and the Lord, your God, will deliver it into your hands, and you shall strike all its males with the edge of the sword.   יגוּנְתָנָ֛הּ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ וְהִכִּיתָ֥ אֶת־כָּל־זְכוּרָ֖הּ לְפִי־חָֽרֶב:
and the Lord your God will deliver it into your hands: If you have done all that is stated in this section, the Lord will ultimately deliver it into your hands. — [Sifrei]   ונתנה ה' אלהיך בידך: אם עשית כל האמור בענין, סוף שה' נותנה בידך:
14However, the women, the children, and the livestock, and all that is in the city, all its spoils you shall take for yourself, and you shall eat the spoils of your enemies, which the Lord, your God, has given you.   ידרַ֣ק הַ֠נָּשִׁ֠ים וְהַטַּ֨ף וְהַבְּהֵמָ֜ה וְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בָעִ֛יר כָּל־שְׁלָלָ֖הּ תָּבֹ֣ז לָ֑ךְ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֙ אֶת־שְׁלַ֣ל אֹֽיְבֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֛ן יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לָֽךְ:
And the children [… you shall take for yourself]: Even the male children. But, how then, am I to explain “and you shall strike all its males”? (verse 13) It refers to adult males. — [Sifrei]   והטף: אף טף של זכרים. ומה אני מקיים (פסוק יג) והכית את כל זכורה, בגדולים:
15Thus you shall do to all the cities that are very far from you, which are not of the cities of these nations.   טוכֵּ֤ן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה֙ לְכָל־הֶ֣עָרִ֔ים הָֽרְחֹקֹ֥ת מִמְּךָ֖ מְאֹ֑ד אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־מֵֽעָרֵ֥י הַגּוֹיִֽם־הָאֵ֖לֶּה הֵֽנָּה:
16However, of these peoples' cities, which the Lord, your God, gives you as an inheritance, you shall not allow any soul to live.   טזרַ֗ק מֵֽעָרֵ֤י הָֽעַמִּים֙ הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְ֖ךָ נַֽחֲלָ֑ה לֹ֥א תְחַיֶּ֖ה כָּל־נְשָׁמָֽה:
17Rather, you shall utterly destroy them: The Hittites, and the Amorites, the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, the Hivvites, and the Jebusites, as the Lord, your God, has commanded you.   יזכִּי־הַֽחֲרֵ֣ם תַּֽחֲרִימֵ֗ם הַֽחִתִּ֤י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ הַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֣י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י הַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִ֑י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
as [the Lord your God] has commanded you: [This is] to include the Girgashites [the seventh nation, not mentioned here, but you were commanded to destroy them]. — [Sifrei]   כאשר צוך: לרבות את הגרגשי:
18So that they should not teach you to act according to all their abominations that they have done for their gods, whereby you would sin against the Lord, your God.   יחלְמַ֗עַן אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־יְלַמְּד֤וּ אֶתְכֶם֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת כְּכֹל֙ תּֽוֹעֲבֹתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשׂ֖וּ לֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם וַֽחֲטָאתֶ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
so that they will not teach you to do [like all] their abominations]: But if they repent and wish to convert, you are allowed to accept them. — [Sifrei]   למען אשר לא ילמדו: הא אם עשו תשובה ומתגיירים, אתה רשאי לקבלם:
19When you besiege a city for many days to wage war against it to capture it, you shall not destroy its trees by wielding an ax against them, for you may eat from them, but you shall not cut them down. Is the tree of the field a man, to go into the siege before you?   יטכִּֽי־תָצ֣וּר אֶל־עִיר֩ יָמִ֨ים רַבִּ֜ים לְהִלָּחֵ֧ם עָלֶ֣יהָ לְתָפְשָׂ֗הּ לֹֽא־תַשְׁחִ֤ית אֶת־עֵצָהּ֙ לִנְדֹּ֤חַ עָלָיו֙ גַּרְזֶ֔ן כִּ֚י מִמֶּ֣נּוּ תֹאכֵ֔ל וְאֹת֖וֹ לֹ֣א תִכְרֹ֑ת כִּ֤י הָֽאָדָם֙ עֵ֣ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לָבֹ֥א מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ בַּמָּצֽוֹר:
[When you besiege a city for many] days: The word “days” implies two days. [But when it says]   ימים: שנים:
many: [this means] three [days]. From here our Rabbis derived [the ruling that] the siege of a heathen city may not be initiated less than three days before the Sabbath (Sifrei , Shab. 19a), and this verse teaches us that the offer of peace (verse 10) must be repeated for two or three days. Similarly, it says: “that David dwelt in Ziklag for two days” (II Sam. 1:1). Scripture is speaking here of an optional war. — [Sifrei]   רבים: שלשה. מכאן אמרו אין צרין על עיירות של נכרים פחות משלשה ימים קודם לשבת. ולמד שפותח בשלום שנים או שלשה ימים. וכן הוא אומר (שמואל ב' א, א) וישב דוד בצקלג ימים שנים, ובמלחמת הרשות הכתוב מדבר:
Is the tree of the field a man, [to go into the siege before you]?: The word כִּי here means “perhaps:” Is the tree of the field perhaps a man who is to go into the siege by you, that it should be punished by the suffering of hunger and thirst like the people of the city? Why should you destroy it?   כי האדם עץ השדה: הרי כי משמש בלשון דלמא. שמא האדם עץ השדה להכנס בתוך המצור מפניך להתייסר ביסורי רעב וצמא כאנשי העיר למה תשחיתנו:
20However, a tree you know is not a food tree, you may destroy and cut down, and you shall build bulwarks against the city that makes war with you, until its submission.   כרַ֞ק עֵ֣ץ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּדַ֗ע כִּ֣י לֹא־עֵ֤ץ מַֽאֲכָל֙ ה֔וּא אֹת֥וֹ תַשְׁחִ֖ית וְכָרָ֑תָּ וּבָנִ֣יתָ מָצ֗וֹר עַל־הָעִיר֙ אֲשֶׁר־הִוא֙ עֹשָׂ֧ה עִמְּךָ֛ מִלְחָמָ֖ה עַ֥ד רִדְתָּֽהּ:
until its submission: Heb. רִדְתָּהּ, an expression of רִדּוּי, subjugation, [meaning] that it becomes submissive to you.   עד רדתה: לשון רדוי, שתהא כפופה לך:

Deuteronomy Chapter 21

1If a slain person be found in the land which the Lord, your God is giving you to possess, lying in the field, [and] it is not known who slew him,   אכִּֽי־יִמָּצֵ֣א חָלָ֗ל בַּֽאֲדָמָה֙ אֲשֶׁר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ נֹתֵ֤ן לְךָ֙ לְרִשְׁתָּ֔הּ נֹפֵ֖ל בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה לֹ֥א נוֹדַ֖ע מִ֥י הִכָּֽהוּ:
2then your elders and judges shall go forth, and they shall measure to the cities around the corpse.   בוְיָֽצְא֥וּ זְקֵנֶ֖יךָ וְשֹֽׁפְטֶ֑יךָ וּמָֽדְדוּ֙ אֶל־הֶ֣עָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר סְבִיבֹ֥ת הֶֽחָלָֽל:
then your elders… shall go out: the distinguished ones of your elders, [namely] the Great Sanhedrin. — [Sotah 44]   ויצאו זקניך: מיוחדים שבזקניך, אלו סנהדרי גדולה:
and they shall measure: from the place where the corpse lies.   ומדדו: ממקום שהחלל שוכב:
to the cities around the corpse: in every direction, in order to ascertain which is the nearest.   אל הערים אשר סביבות החלל: לכל צד לידע איזו קרובה:
3And it will be, [that from] the city closer to the corpse, the elders of that city shall take a calf with which work has never been done, [and] that has never drawn a yoke,   גוְהָיָ֣ה הָעִ֔יר הַקְּרֹבָ֖ה אֶל־הֶֽחָלָ֑ל וְלָֽקְח֡וּ זִקְנֵי֩ הָעִ֨יר הַהִ֜וא עֶגְלַ֣ת בָּקָ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־עֻבַּד֙ בָּ֔הּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־מָֽשְׁכָ֖ה בְּעֹֽל:
4and the elders of that city shall bring the calf down to a rugged valley, which was neither tilled nor sown, and there in the valley, they shall decapitate the calf.   דוְהוֹרִ֡דוּ זִקְנֵי֩ הָעִ֨יר הַהִ֤וא אֶת־הָֽעֶגְלָה֙ אֶל־נַ֣חַל אֵיתָ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יֵֽעָבֵ֥ד בּ֖וֹ וְלֹ֥א יִזָּרֵ֑עַ וְעָֽרְפוּ־שָׁ֥ם אֶת־הָֽעֶגְלָ֖ה בַּנָּֽחַל:
to a rugged valley: Heb. אֵיתָן, hard, [a valley] that was never tilled.   אל נחל איתן: קשה שלא נעבד:
shall decapitate: He breaks its neck with a hatchet [i.e., from the back]. The Holy One, blessed be He, says: Let the calf which is in its first year and has, therefore, produced no fruits, come and be decapitated at a place [the valley that was not tilled] which has not produced fruits, in order to atone for the murder of this man, whom they [the murderers] did not allow to produce fruit [i.e., to perform mitzvoth]. — [Sotah 46a]   וערפו: קוצץ ערפה בקופיץ. אמר הקב"ה תבא עגלה בת שנתה שלא עשתה פירות ותערף במקום שאינו עושה פירות, לכפר על הריגתו של זה שלא הניחוהו לעשות פירות:
5And the kohanim, the sons of Levi, shall approach, for the Lord, your God, has chosen them to serve Him and to bless in the Name of the Lord, and by their mouth shall every controversy and every lesion be [judged].   הוְנִגְּשׁ֣וּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֘ בְּנֵ֣י לֵוִי֒ כִּ֣י בָ֗ם בָּחַ֞ר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ לְשָׁ֣רְת֔וֹ וּלְבָרֵ֖ךְ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהֹוָ֑ה וְעַל־פִּיהֶ֥ם יִֽהְיֶ֖ה כָּל־רִ֥יב וְכָל־נָֽגַע:
6And all the elders of that city, who are the nearest to the corpse, shall wash their hands over the calf that was decapitated in the valley;   ווְכֹ֗ל זִקְנֵי֙ הָעִ֣יר הַהִ֔וא הַקְּרֹבִ֖ים אֶל־הֶֽחָלָ֑ל יִרְחֲצוּ֙ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֔ם עַל־הָֽעֶגְלָ֖ה הָֽעֲרוּפָ֥ה בַנָּֽחַל:
7And they shall announce and say, "Our hands did not shed this blood, nor did our eyes see [this crime]."   זוְעָנ֖וּ וְאָֽמְר֑וּ יָדֵ֗ינוּ לֹ֤א שָֽׁפְכוּ֙ (כתיב שפכה֙) אֶת־הַדָּ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְעֵינֵ֖ינוּ לֹ֥א רָאֽוּ:
Our hands did not shed [this blood]: But would it enter one’s mind that the elders of the court are murderers? Rather, [they declare:] We [ourselves] did not see him and let him depart without food or escort [which would have indirectly caused his death, leaving this man to the elements and to robbers]. — [Sifrei ; Sotah 45a] The kohanim then say:   ידינו לא שפכה: וכי עלתה על לב שזקני בית דין שופכי דמים הם, אלא לא ראינוהו ופטרנוהו בלא מזונות ובלא לויה. והכהנים אומרים כפר לעמך ישראל:
8"Atone for Your people Israel, whom You have redeemed, O Lord, and lay not [the guilt of] innocent blood among your people Israel." And [so] the blood shall be atoned for them.   חכַּפֵּר֩ לְעַמְּךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל אֲשֶׁר־פָּדִ֨יתָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן֙ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֔י בְּקֶ֖רֶב עַמְּךָ֣ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְנִכַּפֵּ֥ר לָהֶ֖ם הַדָּֽם:
Atone for Your people Israel,… And [so] the blood will be atoned for them: Scripture informs them that from the time they complete all this, their sin is atoned. — [Sifrei]   ונכפר להם הדם: הכתוב מבשרם שמשעשו כן יכופר להם העון:
9And you shall abolish the [shedding of] innocent blood from among you, for you shall do what is proper in the eyes of the Lord.   טוְאַתָּ֗ה תְּבַעֵ֛ר הַדָּ֥ם הַנָּקִ֖י מִקִּרְבֶּ֑ךָ כִּי־תַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה הַיָּשָׁ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
and you shall abolish: This tells [us] that if the murderer is found after the calf is decapitated, the murderer must be executed, and that is “what is proper in the eyes of the Lord.” - [Sotah 47b, Keth. 37b]   ואתה תבער: מגיד שאם נמצא ההורג אחר שנתערפה העגלה הרי זה יהרג, והוא הישר בעיני ה':

Maftir Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 21

7And they shall announce and say, "Our hands did not shed this blood, nor did our eyes see [this crime]."   זוְעָנ֖וּ וְאָֽמְר֑וּ יָדֵ֗ינוּ לֹ֤א שָֽׁפְכוּ֙ (כתיב שפכה֙) אֶת־הַדָּ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְעֵינֵ֖ינוּ לֹ֥א רָאֽוּ:
Our hands did not shed [this blood]: But would it enter one’s mind that the elders of the court are murderers? Rather, [they declare:] We [ourselves] did not see him and let him depart without food or escort [which would have indirectly caused his death, leaving this man to the elements and to robbers]. — [Sifrei ; Sotah 45a] The kohanim then say:   ידינו לא שפכה: וכי עלתה על לב שזקני בית דין שופכי דמים הם, אלא לא ראינוהו ופטרנוהו בלא מזונות ובלא לויה. והכהנים אומרים כפר לעמך ישראל:
8"Atone for Your people Israel, whom You have redeemed, O Lord, and lay not [the guilt of] innocent blood among your people Israel." And [so] the blood shall be atoned for them.   חכַּפֵּר֩ לְעַמְּךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל אֲשֶׁר־פָּדִ֨יתָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן֙ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֔י בְּקֶ֖רֶב עַמְּךָ֣ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְנִכַּפֵּ֥ר לָהֶ֖ם הַדָּֽם:
Atone for Your people Israel,… And [so] the blood will be atoned for them: Scripture informs them that from the time they complete all this, their sin is atoned. — [Sifrei]   ונכפר להם הדם: הכתוב מבשרם שמשעשו כן יכופר להם העון:
9And you shall abolish the [shedding of] innocent blood from among you, for you shall do what is proper in the eyes of the Lord.   טוְאַתָּ֗ה תְּבַעֵ֛ר הַדָּ֥ם הַנָּקִ֖י מִקִּרְבֶּ֑ךָ כִּי־תַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה הַיָּשָׁ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
and you shall abolish: This tells [us] that if the murderer is found after the calf is decapitated, the murderer must be executed, and that is “what is proper in the eyes of the Lord.” - [Sotah 47b, Keth. 37b]   ואתה תבער: מגיד שאם נמצא ההורג אחר שנתערפה העגלה הרי זה יהרג, והוא הישר בעיני ה':


Isaiah Chapter 51

12I, yea I am He Who consoles you; who are you that you fear man who will die and the son of man, who shall be made [as] grass?   יבאָֽנֹכִ֧י אָֽנֹכִ֛י ה֖וּא מְנַֽחֶמְכֶ֑ם מִי־אַ֚תְּ וַתִּֽירְאִי֙ מֵֽאֱנ֣וֹשׁ יָמ֔וּת וּמִבֶּן־אָדָ֖ם חָצִ֥יר יִנָּתֵֽן:
who are you: the daughter of the righteous like you and full of merits, why should you fear man, whose end is to die?  
13And you forgot the Lord your Maker, Who spread out the heavens and founded the earth, and you fear constantly the whole day because of the wrath of the oppressor when he prepared to destroy. Now where is the wrath of the oppressor?   יגוַתִּשְׁכַּ֞ח יְהֹוָ֣ה עֹשֶׂ֗ךָ נוֹטֶ֣ה שָׁמַיִם֘ וְיֹסֵ֣ד אָרֶץ֒ וַתְּפַחֵ֨ד תָּמִ֜יד כָּל־הַיּ֗וֹם מִפְּנֵי֙ חֲמַ֣ת הַמֵּצִ֔יק כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר כּוֹנֵ֖ן לְהַשְׁחִ֑ית וְאַיֵּ֖ה חֲמַ֥ת הַמֵּצִֽיק:
And you forgot the Lord your Maker: and you did not rely on Him.  
the oppressor: The rulers of the heathens (the nations of the world [Parshandatha, K’li Paz]) who subjugate you.  
when he prepared: Prepared himself.  
Now where is the wrath of the oppressor: Tomorrow comes and he is not here.  
14What must be poured out hastened to be opened, and he shall not die of destruction, and his bread shall not be wanting.   ידמִהַ֥ר צֹעֶ֖ה לְהִפָּתֵ֑חַ וְלֹֽא־יָמ֣וּת לַשַּׁ֔חַת וְלֹ֥א יֶחְסַ֖ר לַחְמֽוֹ:
What must be poured out hastened to be opened: Heb. מִהַר צֹעֶה לְהִפָּתֵחַ. Even if his stools are hard, and he must be opened by walking in order to move the bowels in order that he not die by destruction, and once he hastens to open up, he requires much food, for, if his bread is lacking, even he will die. צֹעֶה An expression of a thing prepared to be poured, as he says concerning Moab, whom the prophet compared to wine (Jer. 48:11): “Who rests on his dregs and was not poured from vessel to vessel.” And he says there (v. 12), “And I will send pourers (צֹעִים) upon him and they shall pour him out (וְצֵעֻהוּ), and they shall empty his vessels.” [This is an illustration of the weakness of man. Consequently, there is no need to fear him.] Another explanation is: מִהַר צֹעֶה That enemy who oppresses you, who is now with girded loins, girded with strength, shall hasten to be opened up and to become weak. צֹעֶה Girded. Comp. (infra 63: 1) “Girded (צֹעֶה) with the greatness of His strength.”  
and he shall not die: i.e., the one delivered into his hand [shall not die] of destruction. But the first interpretation is a Midrash Aggadah in Pesikta Rabbathi (34:5).  
15I am the Lord your God, Who wrinkles the sea and its waves stir; the Lord of Hosts is His name.   טווְאָֽנֹכִי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ רֹגַ֣ע הַיָּ֔ם וַיֶּֽהֱמ֖וּ גַּלָּ֑יו יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ:
Who wrinkles the sea: Heb. רֹגַע, an expression similar to (Job 7:5) “My skin was wrinkled (רָגַע).” Froncir in O.F. [froncer in Modern French, to wrinkle, gather, pucker].  
to plant the heavens: to preserve the people about whom it was said that they shall be as many as the stars of the heavens [from Jonathan].  
and to found the earth: And to found the congregation about whom it is said that they shall be as many as the dust of the earth [from Jonathan].  
16And I placed My words into your mouth, and with the shadow of My hand I covered you, to plant the heavens and to found the earth and to say to Zion [that] you are My people.   טזוָֽאָשִׂ֚ים דְּבָרַי֙ בְּפִ֔יךָ וּבְצֵ֥ל יָדִ֖י כִּסִּיתִ֑יךָ לִנְטֹ֚עַ שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְלִיסֹ֣ד אָ֔רֶץ וְלֵאמֹ֥ר לְצִיּ֖וֹן עַמִּי־אָֽתָּה:
17Awaken, awaken, arise, Jerusalem, for you have drunk from the hand of the Lord the cup of His wrath; the dregs of the cup of weakness you have drained.   יזהִתְעֽוֹרְרִ֣י הִֽתְעֽוֹרְרִ֗י קוּמִי יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁתִ֛ית מִיַּ֥ד יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־כּ֣וֹס חֲמָת֑וֹ אֶת־קֻבַּ֜עַת כּ֧וֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָ֛ה שָׁתִ֖ית מָצִֽית:
dregs: Heb. קֻבַּעַת. Jonathan renders: פַּיְלֵי, which is the name of a cup [phiala in Latin]. But it appears to me that קֻבַּעַת, these are the dregs fixed (קְבוּעִים) to the bottom of the vessel, and the word מָצִית, “you have drained,” indicates it, as it is said (Ps. 75:9): “… shall drain (יִמְצוּ) its dregs.”  
weakness: Heb. תַּרְעֵלָה. That is a drink that clogs and weakens the strength of a person, like one bound, tied, and enwrapped. Comp. (Nahum 2:4) “And the cypress trees were enwrapped (הָרְעָלוּ).” Also (supra 3:19), “And the bracelets and the veils (רְעָלוֹת) ,” which is an expression of enwrapping, and in Tractate Shabbath (6:6): “Median women (sic) may go out veiled (רְעוּלוֹת),” a kind of beautiful veil in which to enwrap oneself. תַּרְעֵלָה is entoumissant in O.F., (stiffening, weakening, paralyzing).  
you have drained: Heb. מָצִית, egoutter in French, [to drain, exhaust].  
18She has no guide out of all the sons she bore, and she has no one who takes her by the hand out of all the sons she raised.   יחאֵ֚ין־מְנַהֵ֣ל לָ֔הּ מִכָּל־בָּנִ֖ים יָלָ֑דָה וְאֵ֚ין מַֽחֲזִיק֙ בְּיָדָ֔הּ מִכָּל־בָּנִ֖ים גִּדֵּֽלָה:
19These two things have befallen you; who will lament for you? Plunder and destruction, and famine and sword. [With] whom will I console you?   יטשְׁתַּ֚יִם הֵ֙נָּה֙ קֹֽרְאֹתַ֔יִךְ מִ֖י יָנ֣וּד לָ֑ךְ הַשֹּׁ֧ד וְהַשֶּׁ֛בֶר וְהָֽרָעָ֥ב וְהַחֶ֖רֶב מִ֥י אֲנַֽחֲמֵֽךְ:
These two things have befallen you: Twofold calamities, two by two.  
[With] whom will I console you?: Whom will I bring to you to console you and to say that also that certain nation suffered in the same manner as you?  
20Your sons have fainted, they lie at the entrance of all streets like a wild ox in a net, full of the wrath of the Lord, the rebuke of your God.   כבָּנַ֜יִךְ עֻלְּפ֥וּ שָֽׁכְב֛וּ בְּרֹ֥אשׁ כָּל־חוּצ֖וֹת כְּת֣וֹא מִכְמָ֑ר הַֽמְלֵאִ֥ים חֲמַת־יְהֹוָ֖ה גַּֽעֲרַ֥ת אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
fainted: Heb. עֻלְּפוּ. An expression of faintness. Comp. (Amos 8:13) “The… virgins shall faint (תִּתְעַלַּפְנָה) from thirst.” Pasmer in O.F., (pamer in Modern French).  
like a wild ox in a net: Abandoned like this wild ox that falls into a net. Comp. (Deut. 14:5) “And the wild ox (וּתְאוֹ) and the giraffe.”  
21Therefore, hearken now to this, you poor one, and who is drunk but not from wine.   כאלָכֵ֛ן שִׁמְעִי־נָ֥א זֹ֖את עֲנִיָּ֑ה וּשְׁכֻרַ֖ת וְלֹ֥א מִיָּֽיִן:
and who is drunk but not from wine: Drunk from something else other than wine.  
22So said your Master, the Lord, and your God Who shall judge His people, "Behold, I took from you the cup of weakness; the dregs of the cup of My wrath-you shall no longer continue to drink it.   כבכֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר אֲדֹנַ֣יִךְ יְהֹוָ֗ה וֵֽאלֹהַ֙יִךְ֙ יָרִ֣יב עַמּ֔וֹ הִנֵּ֥ה לָקַ֛חְתִּי מִיָּדֵ֖ךְ אֶת־כּ֣וֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָ֑ה אֶת־קֻבַּ֙עַת֙ כּ֣וֹס חֲמָתִ֔י לֹֽא־תוֹסִ֥יפִי לִשְׁתּוֹתָ֖הּ עֽוֹד:
Who shall judge His people: Who shall judge the case of His people.  
23And I will place it into the hand of those who cause you to wander, who said to your soul, 'Bend down and let us cross,' and you made your body like the earth and like the street for those who cross."   כגוְשַׂמְתִּ֙יהָ֙ בְּיַד־מוֹגַ֔יִךְ אֲשֶׁר־אָֽמְר֥וּ לְנַפְשֵׁ֖ךְ שְׁחִ֣י וְנַֽעֲבֹ֑רָה וַתָּשִׂ֚ימִי כָאָ֙רֶץ֙ גֵּוֵ֔ךְ וְכַח֖וּץ לַעֹֽבְרִֽים:
those who cause you to wander: Heb. מוֹגַיִ. Those who cause you to wander and those who cause you to move. Comp. (I Sam. 14:16) “And the multitude was wandering (נָמוֹג),” krosler in O.F.  
Bend down and let us cross: on your back.  

Isaiah Chapter 52

1Awaken, awaken, put on your strength, O Zion; put on the garments of your beauty, Jerusalem the Holy City, for no longer shall the uncircumcised or the unclean continue to enter you.   אעוּרִ֥י עוּרִ֛י לִבְשִׁ֥י עֻזֵּ֖ךְ צִיּ֑וֹן לִבְשִׁ֣י | בִּגְדֵ֣י תִפְאַרְתֵּ֗ךְ יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ עִ֣יר הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ כִּ֣י לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֛יף יָבֹֽא־בָ֥ךְ ע֖וֹד עָרֵ֥ל וְטָמֵֽא:
2Shake yourselves from the dust, arise, sit down, O Jerusalem; free yourself of the bands of your neck, O captive daughter of Zion.   בהִתְנַֽעֲרִ֧י מֵֽעָפָ֛ר ק֥וּמִי שְׁבִ֖י יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הִֽתְפַּתְּחִי֙ (כתיב הִֽתְפַּתְּחִו֙) מוֹסְרֵ֣י צַוָּארֵ֔ךְ שְׁבִיָּ֖ה בַּת־צִיּֽוֹן:
Shake yourself: Heb. הִתְנַעֲרִי, escourre in O.F., to shake strongly, like one who shakes out a garment.  
arise: from the ground, from the decree (supra 3:26), “She shall sit on the ground.”  
sit down: on a throne.  
free yourself: Untie yourself [from Jonathan].  
bands of: Heb. מוֹסְרֵי, cringatro umbriah in O.F., [strap].  
captive: Heb. שְׁבִיָה, like שְׁבוּיָה, captive.  
3For so said the Lord, "You were sold for nought, and you shall not be redeemed for money."   גכִּי־כֹה֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה חִנָּ֖ם נִמְכַּרְתֶּ֑ם וְלֹ֥א בְכֶ֖סֶף תִּגָּאֵֽלוּ:
You were sold for nought: Because of worthless matters, i.e., the evil inclination, which affords you no reward.  
and you shall not be redeemed for money: but with repentance.  
4For so said the Lord God, "My people first went down to Egypt to sojourn there, but Assyria oppressed them for nothing."   דכִּ֣י כֹ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה מִצְרַ֛יִם יָֽרַד־עַמִּ֥י בָרִֽאשֹׁנָ֖ה לָג֣וּר שָׁ֑ם וְאַשּׁ֖וּר בְּאֶ֥פֶס עֲשָׁקֽוֹ:
My people first went down to Egypt: The Egyptians had somewhat of a debt upon them, for they served for them as their hosts and sustained them, but Assyria oppressed them for nothing and without cause.  
5"And now, what have I here," says the Lord, "that My people has been taken for nothing. His rulers boast," says the Lord, "and constantly all day My name is blasphemed.   הוְעַתָּ֚ה מַה־לִּי־פֹה֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּֽי־לֻקַּ֥ח עַמִּ֖י חִנָּ֑ם מֹֽשְׁלָ֚יו (כתיב מֹֽשְׁלָ֚ו) יְהֵילִ֙ילוּ֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְתָמִ֥יד כָּל־הַיּ֖וֹם שְׁמִ֥י מִנֹּאָֽץ:
And now, what have I here: Why do I stay and detain My children here?  
boast: Heb. יְהֵילִילוּ, Boast saying, “Our hand was powerful.”  
is blasphemed: Blasphemes itself, and this is an instance similar to (Num 7:89) “And he heard the voice speaking to him.”  
6Therefore, My people shall know My name; therefore, on that day, for I am He Who speaks, here I am."   ולָכֵ֛ן יֵדַ֥ע עַמִּ֖י שְׁמִ֑י לָכֵן֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כִּֽי־אֲנִי־ה֥וּא הַֽמְדַבֵּ֖ר הִנֵּֽנִי:
My people shall know: When I redeem them, they will recognize that My name is master, monarch, and ruler, as is its apparent meaning.  
therefore, on that day: The day of their redemption, they will understand that I am He Who speaks, and behold, I have fulfilled the prophecy.  
7How beautiful are the feet of the herald on the mountains, announcing peace, heralding good tidings, announcing salvation, saying to Zion, "Your God has manifested His kingdom."   זמַה־נָּאו֨וּ עַל־הֶֽהָרִ֜ים רַגְלֵ֣י מְבַשֵּׂ֗ר מַשְׁמִ֧יעַ שָׁל֛וֹם מְבַשֵּׂ֥ר ט֖וֹב מַשְׁמִ֣יעַ יְשׁוּעָ֑ה אֹמֵ֥ר לְצִיּ֖וֹן מָלַ֥ךְ אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
8The voice of your watchmen- they raised a voice, together they shall sing, for eye to eye they shall see when the Lord returns to Zion.   חק֥וֹל צֹפַ֛יִךְ נָ֥שְׂאוּ ק֖וֹל יַחְדָּ֣ו יְרַנֵּ֑נוּ כִּ֣י עַ֚יִן בְּעַ֙יִן֙ יִרְא֔וּ בְּשׁ֥וּב יְהֹוָ֖ה צִיּֽוֹן:
The voice of your watchmen: The watchmen who are stationed on the walls and the towers to report and to see (to see and to report [Parshandatha]) who comes to the city.  
9Burst out in song, sing together, O ruins of Jerusalem, for the Lord has consoled His people; He has redeemed Jerusalem.   טפִּצְח֚וּ רַנְּנוּ֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו חָרְב֖וֹת יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם כִּֽי־נִחַ֚ם יְהֹוָה֙ עַמּ֔וֹ גָּאַ֖ל יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
10The Lord has revealed His holy arm before the eyes of all the nations, and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.   יחָשַׂ֚ף יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־זְר֣וֹעַ קָדְשׁ֔וֹ לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וְרָאוּ֙ כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָ֔רֶץ אֵ֖ת יְשׁוּעַ֥ת אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ:
has revealed: Heb. חָשַׂף, has revealed.  
11Turn away, turn away, get out of there, touch no unclean one; get out of its midst, purify yourselves, you who bear the Lord's vessels.   יאס֚וּרוּ ס֙וּרוּ֙ צְא֣וּ מִשָּׁ֔ם טָמֵ֖א אַל־תִּגָּ֑עוּ צְא֣וּ מִתּוֹכָ֔הּ הִבָּ֕רוּ נֹֽשְׂאֵ֖י כְּלֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
touch no unclean one: They shall be abominable to you to touch them.  
get out of its midst: Out of the midst of the exile, for all these last consolations refer only to the last exile.  
purify yourselves: Heb. הִבָּרוּ, purify yourselves.  
you who bear the Lord’s vessels: You, the priests and the Levites, who carried the vessels of the Holy One, blessed be He, in the desert [from here is proof of the resurrection of the dead].  
12For not with haste shall you go forth and not in a flurry of flight shall you go, for the Lord goes before you, and your rear guard is the God of Israel.   יבכִּ֣י לֹ֚א בְחִפָּזוֹן֙ תֵּצֵ֔אוּ וּבִמְנוּסָ֖ה לֹ֣א תֵלֵכ֑וּן כִּֽי־הֹלֵ֚ךְ לִפְנֵיכֶם֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וּמְאַסִּפְכֶ֖ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
for… goes before you: Two things at the end of this verse explain two things in its beginning, [viz.] For not with haste shall you go forth. What is the reason? For the Lord goes before you to lead you on the way, and one whose agent advances before him to lead him on the way his departure is not in haste. And not in the flurry of flight shall you go, for your rear guard is the God of Israel. He will follow you to guard you from any pursuer. Comp. (Num. 10:25) “And the division of the camp of Dan shall travel, the rear guard of all the camps.” Whoever goes after the camp is called מְאַסֵּף, the rear guard, because he waits for the stragglers and the stumblers. Similarly, Scripture states in Joshua (6:13): “And the rear guard was going after the Ark.”  
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