Torah Reading for Va'etchanan

Parshat Va'etchanan
Shabbat, 11 Av, 5783
29 July, 2023
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Complete: (Deuteronomy 3:23 - 7:11; Isaiah 40:1-26)
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First Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 3

23I entreated the Lord at that time, saying,   כגוָֽאֶתְחַנַּ֖ן אֶל־יְהֹוָ֑ה בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖וא לֵאמֹֽר:
I entreated: Heb. וָאֶתְחַנַּן [The word] חִנּוּן [and its derivatives] in all cases is an expression signifying [requesting] a free gift. Even though the righteous may base a request on the merit of their good deeds, they request only a free gift of the Omnipresent. Because God had said to him [Moses], “and I will favor (וְחַנֹּתִי) when I wish to favor (אָחֹן)” (Exod. 33:19), he [Moses], he spoke to Him [God], using the expression וָאֶתְחַנַּן. Another explanation: This (חִנּוּן) is one of ten terms which denote prayer (Sifrei).   ואתחנן: אין חנון בכל מקום אלא לשון מתנת חנם. אף על פי שיש להם לצדיקים לתלות במעשיהם הטובים, אין מבקשים מאת המקום אלא מתנת חנם. לפי שאמר לו (שמות לג יט) וחנותי את אשר אחון, אמר לו בלשון ואתחנן. דבר אחר זה אחד מעשרה לשונות שנקראת תפלה, כדאיתא בספרי:
at that time: After I had conquered the land of Sihon and Og, I thought that perhaps the vow [which God had made, that I should not enter the land] was nullified, [since the land I entered was part of the land of Canaan].   בעת ההיא: לאחר שכבשתי ארץ סיחון ועוג דמיתי שמא הותר הנדר:
saying: This is one of three occasions in which Moses said before the Omnipresent, “I will not let You go until You let me know whether or not You will grant my request” (Sifrei).   לאמר: זה אחד משלש מקומות שאמר משה לפני המקום איני מניחך עד שתודיעני אם תעשה שאלתי אם לאו:
24"O Lord God, You have begun to show Your servant Your greatness and Your strong hand, for who is [like] God in heaven or on earth who can do as Your deeds and Your might?   כדאֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֗ה אַתָּ֤ה הַֽחִלּ֨וֹתָ֙ לְהַרְא֣וֹת אֶת־עַבְדְּךָ֔ אֶ֨ת־גָּדְלְךָ֔ וְאֶת־יָֽדְךָ֖ הַֽחֲזָקָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר מִי־אֵל֙ בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם וּבָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה כְמַֽעֲשֶׂ֖יךָ וְכִגְבֽוּרֹתֶֽךָ:
O Lord God: O You Who are merciful (ה׳) in judgment (אלהים) .   ה' אלהים: רחום בדין:
You have begun to show Your servant: An opening for standing and offering prayer even though the decree has been fixed. He [Moses] said to Him: “I learned [this] from You. You said to me, 'And now leave Me alone’” (Exod. 32: 10). Was I holding You? However, You said this to open the door [as it were and to teach me] that it depended upon me [i.e., my choice whether] to pray for them [or to leave You alone]. So do I think to act now (Sifrei).   אתה החלות להראות את עבדך: פתח להיות עומד ומתפלל, אף על פי שנגזרה גזירה. אמר לו ממך למדתי, שאמרת לי (שמות לב י) ועתה הניחה לי, וכי תופס הייתי בך, אלא לפתוח פתח, שבי תלוי להתפלל עליהם, כמו כן הייתי סבור לעשות עכשיו:
Your greatness: This is the attribute of Your goodness. Similarly, it states: “And now, pray, let the strength of my Lord be great” (Num. 14:17-18).   את גדלך: זו מדת טובך וכן הוא אומר (במדבר יד יז) ועתה יגדל נא כח ה':
Your… hand: This is Your right hand which is extended to [accept the repentance of] all who come into the world.   ואת ידך: זו ימינך, שהיא פשוטה לכל באי עולם:
strong [hand]: [The hand is called strong] because by Your mercy, You forcibly subdue the attribute of strict judgment. (Sifrei on Number 27:12)   החזקה: שאתה כובש ברחמים את מדת הדין החזקה:
For who is [like] God [… who can do as Your deeds]: You cannot be compared to a king of flesh and blood who has advisors and associates who restrain him when he wishes to act with kindness and to forego his regulations. You, however, have no one to prevent you from forgiving me and annulling Your decree. The simple meaning of the verse is: You have begun to show Your servant the battle of Sihon and Og, as it is written: “Behold, I have begun to deliver [Sihon and his land] before you” (2:31). Show me [also] the war of the thirty-one kings [of Canaan]. [See Josh. 12:7-24.]   אשר מי אל וגו': אינך דומה למלך בשר ודם, שיש לו יועצין וסנקתדרין הממחין בידו כשרוצה לעשות חסד ולעבור על מדותיו, אתה אין מי ימחה בידך אם תמחול לי נתבטל גזירתך. ולפי פשוטו אתה החלות להראות את עבדך מלחמת סיחון ועוג, כדכתיב (דברים ב לא) ראה החלותי תת לפניך, הראני מלחמת שלושים ואחד מלכים:
25Pray let me cross over and see the good land that is on the other side of the Jordan, this good mountain and the Lebanon."   כהאֶעְבְּרָה־נָּ֗א וְאֶרְאֶה֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן הָהָ֥ר הַטּ֛וֹב הַזֶּ֖ה וְהַלְּבָנֹֽן:
Pray let me cross over: Heb. אֶעְבְּרָה נָא. [The word] נָא is nothing but an expression of request.   אעברה נא: אין נא אלא לשון בקשה:
this good mountain: This is Jerusalem.   ההר הטוב הזה: זו ירושלים:
and the Lebanon: This is the Temple (Sifrei).   והלבנון: זה בית המקדש:
26But the Lord was angry with me because of you, and He did not listen to me, and the Lord said to me, "It is enough for you; speak to Me no more regarding this matter.   כווַיִּתְעַבֵּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֥ה בִּי֙ לְמַ֣עַנְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖ע אֵלָ֑י וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֵלַי֙ רַב־לָ֔ךְ אַל־תּ֗וֹסֶף דַּבֵּ֥ר אֵלַ֛י ע֖וֹד בַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה:
But the Lord was angry: Heb. וַיִּתְעַבֵּר ה׳ [The hithpa’el conjugation denotes that] He became filled with wrath (Sifrei).   ויתעבר ה': נתמלא חמה:
because of you: You caused it for me. Similarly, it states:“They provoked [God] by the waters of Meribah, and Moses suffered because of them” (Ps. 106:32).   למענכם: בשבילכם, אתם גרמתם לי. וכן הוא אומר (תהלים קו לב) ויקציפו על מי מריבה וירע למשה בעבורם:
It is enough for you: Heb. רַב-לָךְ [interpreted as: “you have a master רַב.” I.e., pray no more], so that people should not say, “How hard is the Master, and how obstinate and pressing is the disciple!” (Sotah 13b) Another explanation of רַב-לָךְ [explained as “you have much”]: More than this is reserved for you: Much is the goodness that is kept for you. (Sifrei)   רב לך: שלא יאמרו הרב כמה קשה והתלמיד כמה סרבן ומפציר. דבר אחר רב לך הרבה מזה שמור לך, רב טוב הצפון לך:
27Go up to the top of the hill and lift up your eyes westward and northward and southward and eastward and see with your eyes, for you shall not cross this Jordan.   כזעֲלֵ֣ה | רֹ֣אשׁ הַפִּסְגָּ֗ה וְשָׂ֥א עֵינֶ֛יךָ יָ֧מָּה וְצָפֹ֛נָה וְתֵימָ֥נָה וּמִזְרָ֖חָה וּרְאֵ֣ה בְעֵינֶ֑יךָ כִּי־לֹ֥א תַֽעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֥ן הַזֶּֽה:
and see with your eyes: You requested of Me “Let me… see the good land” (verse 25). I am showing you all of it, as it says: “And the Lord showed him all the Land” (Deut. 34:1).   וראה בעיניך: בקשת ממני (פסוק כה) ואראה את הארץ הטובה, אני מראה לך את כולה שנאמר (דברים לד, א) ויראהו ה' את כל הארץ:
28But command Joshua and strengthen him and encourage him, for he will cross over before this people, and he will make them inherit the land which you will see.   כחוְצַ֥ו אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ וְחַזְּקֵ֣הוּ וְאַמְּצֵ֑הוּ כִּי־ה֣וּא יַֽעֲבֹ֗ר לִפְנֵי֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְהוּא֙ יַנְחִ֣יל אוֹתָ֔ם אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְאֶֽה:
But command Joshua: regarding the bother, the burdens and the quarrels [inherent in leadership].   וצו את יהושע: על הטרחות ועל המשאות ועל הריבות:
and strengthen him and encourage him: with your words, so that he will not be discouraged, saying, “Just as my teacher was punished, so will I be punished because of them.” I assure him [says God] that he will cross over [before this people] and he will make [them] inherit [the land]. (cf. Sifrei)   וחזקהו ואמצהו: בדבריך, שלא ירך לבו לומר כשם שנענש רבי עליהם כך סופי ליענש עליהם, מבטיחו אני כי הוא יעבור והוא ינחיל:
for he will cross: If he crosses before them, they will inherit the land, and if not, they will not inherit [it]. So, indeed, we find that when Joshua sent some of the people against Ai and he remained behind, “the men of Ai smote of them” (Josh. 7:5). And when he fell on his face, God said to him, קוּם-לָךְ: written קֻם [without a “vav”, so that it may be read קָם], i.e., it is you standing in your place and sending My children out to war [that brought about this defeat]. Why do you fall on your face? Did I not tell this to your master, Moses, “If he [Joshua] crosses, they will cross, but if not, they will not cross”? (Sifrei)   כי הוא יעבור: אם יעבור לפניהם ינחלו, ואם לאו לא ינחלו. וכן אתה מוצא כששלח מן העם אל העי והוא ישב (יהושע ז ה) ויכו מהם אנשי העי וגו' (שם ז, י), וכיון שנפל על פניו אמר לו קום לך. קם לך כתיב, אתה הוא העומד במקומך ומשלח את בני למלחמה, למה זה אתה נופל על פניך, לא כך אמרתי למשה רבך אם הוא עובר עוברין, ואם לאו אין עוברין:
29And we abided in the valley opposite Beth Peor.   כטוַנֵּ֣שֶׁב בַּגָּ֔יְא מ֖וּל בֵּ֥ית פְּעֽוֹר:
And we abided in the valley: [opposite Beth Peor]-and you attached yourselves to idol worship. Nevertheless, “And now, O Israel, hearken to the statutes” (4:1), and you will be forgiven for everything. But I was not privileged to be forgiven (Sifrei).   ונשב בגיא וגו': ונצמדתם לעבודה זרה ואף על פי כן (דברים ד, א) ועתה ישראל שמע אל החקים והכל מחול לך ואני לא זכיתי לימחל לי:

Deuteronomy Chapter 4

1And now, O Israel, hearken to the statutes and to the judgments which I teach you to do, in order that you may live, and go in and possess the land which the Lord, God of your forefathers, is giving you.   אוְעַתָּ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שְׁמַ֤ע אֶל־הַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְאֶל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י מְלַמֵּ֥ד אֶתְכֶ֖ם לַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת לְמַ֣עַן תִּֽחְי֗וּ וּבָאתֶם֙ וִֽירִשְׁתֶּ֣ם אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶֽם:
2Do not add to the word which I command you, nor diminish from it, to observe the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you.   בלֹ֣א תֹסִ֗פוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אָֽנֹכִי֙ מְצַוֶּ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תִגְרְע֖וּ מִמֶּ֑נּוּ לִשְׁמֹ֗ר אֶת־מִצְו‍ֹת֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶֽם:
Do not add: for instance, by inserting five sections into the tefillin [instead of four], by using five species for the [commandment of] lulav [on Succoth] instead of four], or by attaching five fringes [instead of four]. And so too, וְלֹא תִגְרְעוּ nor diminish [from it i.e., three instead of four].   לא תספו: כגון חמש פרשיות בתפילין חמשת מינין בלולב וחמש ציציות, וכן ולא תגרעו:
3Your eyes have seen what the Lord did at Baal Peor, for every man who went after Baal Peor, the Lord your God has exterminated from your midst.   געֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ הָֽרֹא֔וֹת אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּבַ֣עַל פְּע֑וֹר כִּ֣י כָל־הָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָלַךְ֙ אַֽחֲרֵ֣י בַֽעַל־פְּע֔וֹר הִשְׁמִיד֛וֹ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
4But you who cleave to the Lord your God are alive, all of you, this day.   דוְאַתֶּם֙ הַדְּבֵקִ֔ים בַּֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם חַיִּ֥ים כֻּלְּכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם:

Second Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 4

5Behold, I have taught you statutes and ordinances, as the Lord, my God, commanded me, to do so in the midst of the land to which you are coming to possess.   הרְאֵ֣ה | לִמַּ֣דְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֗ם חֻקִּים֙ וּמִשְׁפָּטִ֔ים כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוַּ֖נִי יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑י לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת כֵּ֔ן בְּקֶ֣רֶב הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֛ם בָּאִ֥ים שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
6And you shall keep [them] and do [them], for that is your wisdom and your understanding in the eyes of the peoples, who will hear all these statutes and say, "Only this great nation is a wise and understanding people. "   ווּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֘ וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶם֒ כִּ֣י הִ֤וא חָכְמַתְכֶם֙ וּבִ֣ינַתְכֶ֔ם לְעֵינֵ֖י הָֽעַמִּ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשְׁמְע֗וּן אֵ֚ת כָּל־הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וְאָֽמְר֗וּ רַ֚ק עַם־חָכָ֣ם וְנָב֔וֹן הַגּ֥וֹי הַגָּד֖וֹל הַזֶּֽה:
And you shall keep [them]: This refers to study.   ושמרתם: זו משנה:
and do [them]: [To be interpreted] according to its apparent meaning.   ועשיתם: כמשמעו:
for that is your wisdom and your understanding [in the eyes of the peoples]: Through this you will be considered wise and understanding in the eyes of the peoples.   כי הוא חכמתכם ובינתכם וגו': בזאת תחשבו חכמים ונבונים לעיני העמים:
7For what great nation is there that has God so near to it, as the Lord our God is at all times that we call upon Him?   זכִּ֚י מִי־ג֣וֹי גָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁר־ל֥וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים קְרֹבִ֣ים אֵלָ֑יו כַּֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ בְּכָל־קָרְאֵ֖נוּ אֵלָֽיו:
8And which great nation is it that has just statutes and ordinances, as this entire Torah, which I set before you this day?   חוּמִי֙ גּ֣וֹי גָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁר־ל֛וֹ חֻקִּ֥ים וּמִשְׁפָּטִ֖ים צַדִּיקִ֑ם כְּכֹל֙ הַתּוֹרָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י נֹתֵ֥ן לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם:
just statutes and ordinances: צַדִּיקִם means worthy and acceptable ones.   חקים ומשפטים צדיקם: הגונים ומקובלים:
9But beware and watch yourself very well, lest you forget the things that your eyes saw, and lest these things depart from your heart, all the days of your life, and you shall make them known to your children and to your children's children,   טרַ֡ק הִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֩ וּשְׁמֹ֨ר נַפְשְׁךָ֜ מְאֹ֗ד פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּ֨ח אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֜ים אֲשֶׁר־רָא֣וּ עֵינֶ֗יךָ וּפֶן־יָס֨וּרוּ֙ מִלְּבָ֣בְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י חַיֶּ֑יךָ וְהֽוֹדַעְתָּ֥ם לְבָנֶ֖יךָ וְלִבְנֵ֥י בָנֶֽיךָ:
But beware…lest you forget the things: Only then, when you do not forget them, and will [therefore] do them in their proper manner, will you be considered wise and understanding, but if you distort them because of forgetfulness, you will be considered fools.   רק השמר לך וגו' פן תשכח את הדברים: אז כשלא תשכחו אותם ותעשום על אמתתם תחשבו חכמים ונבונים ואם תעוותו אותם מתוך שכחה תחשבו שוטים:
10the day you stood before the Lord your God at Horeb, when the Lord said to me, "Assemble the people for Me, and I will let them hear My words, that they may learn to fear Me all the days that they live on the earth, and that they may teach their children.   יי֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָמַ֜דְתָּ לִפְנֵ֨י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֘יךָ֘ בְּחֹרֵב֒ בֶּֽאֱמֹ֨ר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י הַקְהֶל־לִי֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וְאַשְׁמִעֵ֖ם אֶת־דְּבָרָ֑י אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִלְמְד֜וּן לְיִרְאָ֣ה אֹתִ֗י כָּל־הַיָּמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵ֤ם חַיִּים֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֖ם יְלַמֵּדֽוּן:
the day you stood: This refers back to the preceding verse :“which your eyes saw” [on] the day that you stood at Horeb, where you saw the thunder and the torches.   יום אשר עמדת: מוסב על מקרא שלמעלה ממנו אשר ראו עיניך, יום אשר עמדת בחורב אשר ראיתם את הקולות ואת הלפידים:
that they may learn: Heb. יִלְמְדוּן The Targum [Onkelos] renders: יֵלְפוּן, they may learn for themselves.   ילמדון: ילפון לעצמם:
that they may teach: Heb. יְלַמֵּדוּן the Targum [Onkelos] renders: יְאַלְפוּן, that they may teach others.   ילמדון: יאלפון לאחרים:
11And you approached and stood at the foot of the mountain, and the mountain burned with fire up to the midst of the heavens, with darkness, a cloud, and opaque darkness.   יאוַתִּקְרְב֥וּן וַתַּֽעַמְד֖וּן תַּ֣חַת הָהָ֑ר וְהָהָ֗ר בֹּעֵ֤ר בָּאֵשׁ֙ עַד־לֵ֣ב הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם ח֖שֶׁךְ עָנָ֥ן וַֽעֲרָפֶֽל:
12The Lord spoke to you out of the midst of the fire; you heard the sound of the words, but saw no image, just a voice.   יבוַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם מִתּ֣וֹךְ הָאֵ֑שׁ ק֤וֹל דְּבָרִים֙ אַתֶּ֣ם שֹֽׁמְעִ֔ים וּתְמוּנָ֛ה אֵֽינְכֶ֥ם רֹאִ֖ים זֽוּלָתִ֥י קֽוֹל:
13And He told you His covenant, which He commanded you to do, the Ten Commandments, and He inscribed them on two stone tablets.   יגוַיַּגֵּ֨ד לָכֶ֜ם אֶת־בְּרִית֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת עֲשֶׂ֖רֶת הַדְּבָרִ֑ים וַיִּכְתְּבֵ֔ם עַל־שְׁנֵ֖י לֻח֥וֹת אֲבָנִֽים:
14And the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and ordinances, so that you should do them in the land to which you are crossing, to possess.   ידוְאֹתִ֗י צִוָּ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔וא לְלַמֵּ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֔ם חֻקִּ֖ים וּמִשְׁפָּטִ֑ים לַֽעֲשֽׂתְכֶ֣ם אֹתָ֔ם בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֛ם עֹֽבְרִ֥ים שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
And the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you: the Oral Law.   ואתי צוה ה' בעת ההוא ללמד אתכם: תורה שבעל פה:
15And you shall watch yourselves very well, for you did not see any image on the day that the Lord spoke to you at Horeb from the midst of the fire.   טווְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּ֥ם מְאֹ֖ד לְנַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י לֹ֤א רְאִיתֶם֙ כָּל־תְּמוּנָ֔ה בְּי֗וֹם דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֲלֵיכֶ֛ם בְּחֹרֵ֖ב מִתּ֥וֹךְ הָאֵֽשׁ:
16Lest you become corrupt and make for yourselves a graven image, the representation of any form, the likeness of male or female,   טזפֶּ֨ן־תַּשְׁחִת֔וּן וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֥ם לָכֶ֛ם פֶּ֖סֶל תְּמוּנַ֣ת כָּל־סָ֑מֶל תַּבְנִ֥ית זָכָ֖ר א֥וֹ נְקֵבָֽה:
form: Heb. סָמֶל, meaning “form.”   סמל: צורה:
17the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged bird that flies in the heaven,   יזתַּבְנִ֕ית כָּל־בְּהֵמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּאָ֑רֶץ תַּבְנִית֙ כָּל־צִפּ֣וֹר כָּנָ֔ף אֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּע֖וּף בַּשָּׁמָֽיִם:
18the likeness of anything that crawls on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the waters, beneath the earth.   יחתַּבְנִ֕ית כָּל־רֹמֵ֖שׂ בַּֽאֲדָמָ֑ה תַּבְנִ֛ית כָּל־דָּגָ֥ה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּ֖יִם מִתַּ֥חַת לָאָֽרֶץ:
19And lest you lift up your eyes to heaven, and see the sun, and the moon, and the stars, all the host of heaven, which the Lord your God assigned to all peoples under the entire heaven, and be drawn away to prostrate yourselves before them and worship them.   יטוּפֶן־תִּשָּׂ֨א עֵינֶ֜יךָ הַשָּׁמַ֗יְמָה וְ֠רָאִ֠יתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁ֨מֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵ֜חַ וְאֶת־הַכּֽוֹכָבִ֗ים כֹּ֚ל צְבָ֣א הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ֛ וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוִ֥יתָ לָהֶ֖ם וַֽעֲבַדְתָּ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָלַ֜ק יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ אֹתָ֔ם לְכֹל֙ הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים תַּ֖חַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
And lest you lift up your eyes: to gaze at this thing and to set your heart to stray after them.   ופן תשא עיניך: להסתכל בדבר ולתת לב לשוב לטעות אחריהם:
which the Lord… assigned: to illuminate for them [all peoples]. (Meg. 9b) Another explanation: Which God assigned to them as deities; He did not prevent them from erring after them; rather, He caused them to slip, [i.e., to err], with their futile speculations, in order to drive them out of the world. Similarly, it says: “He [God] smoothed the way for him in his eyes to find his iniquity to hate [him]” (Ps. 36:3) (Avodah Zarah 55a).   אשר חלק וגו' לכל העמים: להאיר להם. דבר אחר לאלוהות. לא מנען מלטעות אחריהם, אלא החליקם בדברי הבליהם לטרדם מן העולם. וכן הוא אומר (תהלים לו ג) כי החליק אליו בעיניו למצוא עונו לשנוא:
20But the Lord took you and brought you out of the iron crucible, out of Egypt, to be a people of His possession, as of this day.   כוְאֶתְכֶם֙ לָקַ֣ח יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיּוֹצִ֥א אֶתְכֶ֛ם מִכּ֥וּר הַבַּרְזֶ֖ל מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם לִֽהְי֥וֹת ל֛וֹ לְעַ֥ם נַֽחֲלָ֖ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
out of the iron crucible: Heb. מִכּוּר. A כּוּר is a vessel in which gold is refined.   מכור: הוא כלי שמזקקים בו את הזהב:
21And the Lord was angry with me because of you, and He swore that I would not cross the Jordan and that I would not come into the good land the Lord, your God, is giving you as an inheritance.   כאוַֽיהֹוָ֥ה הִתְאַנַּף־בִּ֖י עַל־דִּבְרֵיכֶ֑ם וַיִּשָּׁבַ֗ע לְבִלְתִּ֤י עָבְרִי֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וּלְבִלְתִּי־בֹא֙ אֶל־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַֽחֲלָֽה:
was angry: Heb. הִתְאַנַּף, [The hithpa’el conjugation denotes that] He became filled with wrath.   התאנף: נתמלא רוגז:
because of you: Heb. עַל-דִּבְרֵיכֶם, because of you, on your account.   על דבריכם: על אודותיכם על עסקיכם:
22For I will die in this land; I will not cross the Jordan. You, however, will cross, and you will possess this good land.   כבכִּ֣י אָֽנֹכִ֥י מֵת֙ בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את אֵינֶ֥נִּי עֹבֵ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן וְאַתֶּם֙ עֹ֣בְרִ֔ים וִֽירִשְׁתֶּ֕ם אֶת־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת:
For I will die… I will not cross: Since he was to die, how could he cross? But rather he meant: even my bones will not cross (Sifrei on Numbers 27:12).   כי אנכי מת וגו' אינני עובר: מאחר שמת מהיכן יעבור, אלא אף עצמותי אינם עוברין:
23Beware, lest you forget the covenant of the Lord your God, which He made with you, and make for yourselves a graven image, the likeness of anything, which the Lord your God has forbidden you.   כגהִשָּֽׁמְר֣וּ לָכֶ֗ם פֶּן־תִּשְׁכְּחוּ֙ אֶת־בְּרִ֤ית יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּרַ֖ת עִמָּכֶ֑ם וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֨ם לָכֶ֥ם פֶּ֨סֶל֙ תְּמ֣וּנַת כֹּ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
the likeness of anything: Heb. תְּמוּנַת כֹּל, the likeness of anything.   תמונת כל: תמונת כל דבר:
which the Lord… commanded you: Which He commanded you not to make.   אשר צוך ה': אשר צוך עליו שלא לעשות:
24For the Lord your God is a consuming fire, a zealous God.   כדכִּ֚י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֵ֥שׁ אֹֽכְלָ֖ה ה֑וּא אֵ֖ל קַנָּֽא:
a zealous God: Zealous to wreak vengeance, in Old French, anprenemant, zealous anger. He burns in His anger to exact retribution from idol worshippers.   אל קנא: מקנא לנקום אנפרנמנ"ט בלע"ז [חמה] מתחרה על רוגזו להפרע מעובדי עבודה זרה:
25When you beget children and children's children, and you will be long established in the land, and you become corrupt and make a graven image, the likeness of anything, and do evil in the eyes of the Lord your God, to provoke Him to anger,   כהכִּֽי־תוֹלִ֤יד בָּנִים֙ וּבְנֵ֣י בָנִ֔ים וְנֽוֹשַׁנְתֶּ֖ם בָּאָ֑רֶץ וְהִשְׁחַתֶּ֗ם וַֽעֲשִׂ֤יתֶם פֶּ֨סֶל֙ תְּמ֣וּנַת כֹּ֔ל וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֥ם הָרַ֛ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה־אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְהַכְעִיסֽוֹ:
and you will be long established: Heb. וְנוֹשַׁנְתֶּם. He hinted to them that they would be exiled from it at the end of 852 years, the gematria, numerical value, of the word וְנוֹשַׁנְתֶּם, but He exiled them earlier, at the end of 850 years. He did this two years earlier than the numerical value of וְנוֹשַׁנְתֶּם in order that the prophecy about them should not be fulfilled “that you shall utterly perish.”(verse 26) This is the meaning of what is said: “And the Lord ‘hastened’ with the evil and brought it upon us, for the Lord our God is charitable (צַדִּיק)” (Dan. 9:14). He was charitable with us for He hastened to bring it [the exile] two years before its time (San. 38a; Gittin 88a).   ונושנתם: רמז להם שיגלו ממנה לסוף שמונה מאות וחמשים ושתים שנה, כמנין ונושנתם. והוא הקדים והגלם לסוף שמונה מאות וחמשים והקדים שתי שנים לונושנתם, כדי שלא יתקיים בהם (פסוק כו) כי אבד תאבדון וזהו שנאמר (דניאל ט יד) וישקוד ה' על הרעה ויביאה עלינו כי צדיק ה' אלהינו, צדקה עשה עמנו שמהר להביאה שתי שנים לפני זמנה:
26I call as witness against you this very day the heaven and the earth, that you will speedily and utterly perish from the land to which you cross the Jordan, to possess; you will not prolong your days upon it, but will be utterly destroyed.   כוהַֽעִידֹ֩תִי֩ בָכֶ֨ם הַיּ֜וֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם וְאֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ כִּֽי־אָבֹ֣ד תֹּאבֵדוּן֘ מַהֵר֒ מֵעַ֣ל הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתֶּ֜ם עֹֽבְרִ֧ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֛ן שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּ֑הּ לֹא־תַֽאֲרִיכֻ֤ן יָמִים֙ עָלֶ֔יהָ כִּ֥י הִשָּׁמֵ֖ד תִּשָּֽׁמֵדֽוּן:
I call as witness against you [… heaven and earth]: I hereby summon them to be witnesses that I have warned you.   העידותי בכם: הנני מזמינם להיות עדים שהתריתי בכם:
27And the Lord will scatter you among the peoples, and you will remain few in number among the nations to where the Lord will lead you.   כזוְהֵפִ֧יץ יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם בָּֽעַמִּ֑ים וְנִשְׁאַרְתֶּם֙ מְתֵ֣י מִסְפָּ֔ר בַּגּוֹיִ֕ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְנַהֵ֧ג יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם שָֽׁמָּה:
28And there you will worship gods, man's handiwork, wood and stone, which neither see, hear, eat, nor smell.   כחוַֽעֲבַדְתֶּם־שָׁ֣ם אֱלֹהִ֔ים מַֽעֲשֵׂ֖ה יְדֵ֣י אָדָ֑ם עֵ֣ץ וָאֶ֔בֶן אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יִרְאוּן֙ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמְע֔וּן וְלֹ֥א יֹֽאכְל֖וּן וְלֹ֥א יְרִיחֻֽן:
And there you will worship gods: As the Targum [Onkelos] explains: Since you serve those who worship them [idols], it is as though you [yourselves] serve them [i.e., the idols].   ועבדתם שם אלהים: כתרגומו. משאתם עובדים לעובדיהם כאלו אתם עובדים להם:
29And from there you will seek the Lord your God, and you will find Him, if you seek Him with all your heart and with all your soul.   כטוּבִקַּשְׁתֶּ֥ם מִשָּׁ֛ם אֶת־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ וּמָצָ֑אתָ כִּ֣י תִדְרְשֶׁ֔נּוּ בְּכָל־לְבָֽבְךָ֖ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ:
30When you are distressed, and all these things happen upon you in the end of days, then you will return to the Lord your God and obey Him.   לבַּצַּ֣ר לְךָ֔ וּמְצָא֕וּךָ כֹּ֖ל הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה בְּאַֽחֲרִית֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וְשַׁבְתָּ֙ עַד־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְשָֽׁמַעְתָּ֖ בְּקֹלֽוֹ:
31For the Lord your God is a merciful God; He will not let you loose or destroy you; neither will He forget the covenant of your fathers, which He swore to them.   לאכִּ֣י אֵ֤ל רַחוּם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א יַרְפְּךָ֖ וְלֹ֣א יַשְׁחִיתֶ֑ךָ וְלֹ֤א יִשְׁכַּח֙ אֶת־בְּרִ֣ית אֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לָהֶֽם:
He will not let you loose: He will not let go of you with His hands. The expression לֹא יַרְפְּךָ means that He will not cause something, i.e., He will not cause you looseness. He will not separate you from [being] near Him. Similarly, “I held him fast, and I would not let him loose (אַרְפֶּנּוּ)” (Song of Songs 3:4), which is not vocalized אֲרַפֶּנּוּ [which would mean to heal]. The term רִפְיוֹן “letting slack” always adopts the hif’il [causative conjugation, that is, causing someone else רִפְיוֹן] or the hithpa’el [reflexive conjugation, that is, causing oneself רִפְיוֹן]. For example: (II Kings 4:2), הַרְפֵּה לָהּ, let her be, means literally “give her looseness [i.e., an example of causing to others]”; (Deut. 9:14) הֶרֶף מִמֶּנִּי, let Me be, means literally “Make yourself loose from me [i.e., an example of causing looseness to oneself].”   לא ירפך: מלהחזיק בך בידיו. ולשון לא ירפך לשון לא יפעיל הוא, לא יתן לך רפיון, לא יפריש אותך מאצלו. וכן אחזתיו ולא ארפנו (שה"ש ג ד), שלא ננקד ארפנו. כל לשון רפיון מוסב על לשון מפעיל ומתפעל, כמו (מלכים ב' ד כז) הרפה לה, תן לה רפיון (דברים ט, יד) הרף ממני, התרפה ממני:
32For ask now regarding the early days that were before you, since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from one end of the heavens to the other end of the heavens, whether there was anything like this great thing, or was the likes of it heard?   לבכִּ֣י שְׁאַל־נָא֩ לְיָמִ֨ים רִֽאשֹׁנִ֜ים אֲשֶׁר־הָי֣וּ לְפָנֶ֗יךָ לְמִן־הַיּוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁר֩ בָּרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | אָדָם֙ עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּלְמִקְצֵ֥ה הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְעַד־קְצֵ֣ה הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם הֲנִֽהְיָ֗ה כַּדָּבָ֤ר הַגָּדוֹל֙ הַזֶּ֔ה א֖וֹ הֲנִשְׁמַ֥ע כָּמֹֽהוּ:
regarding the early days: Heb. לְיָמִים רִאשׁוֹנִים [the“lammed” of לְיָמִים here means] regarding the early days.   לימים ראשונים: על ימים ראשונים:
and from the one end of the heavens: And also ask of all the creatures from one end [of the heavens] to the other end. This is its simple meaning, but its midrashic explanation is: [This] teaches [us] about Adam’s height, that it was from the earth to the heavens, and that this is the very same measurement as from one end of the heavens to the other end (San. 38b).   ולמקצה השמים: וגם שאל לכל הברואים אשר מקצה אל קצה זהו פשוטו. ומדרשו מלמד על קומתו של אדם שהיתה מן הארץ עד השמים והוא השיעור עצמו אשר מקצה אל קצה:
whether there was anything like this great thing: And what is this great thing? “Did ever a people hear,” etc.   הנהיה כדבר הגדול הזה: ומהו הדבר הגדול, השמע עם וגו':
33Did ever a people hear God's voice speaking out of the midst of the fire as you have heard, and live?   לגהֲשָׁ֣מַ֥ע עָם֩ ק֨וֹל אֱלֹהִ֜ים מְדַבֵּ֧ר מִתּֽוֹךְ־הָאֵ֛שׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַ֥עְתָּ אַתָּ֖ה וַיֶּֽחִי:
34Or has any god performed miracles to come and take him a nation from the midst of a[nother] nation, with trials, with signs, and with wonders, and with war and with a strong hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great awesome deeds, as all that the Lord your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes?   לדא֣וֹ | הֲנִסָּ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֗ים לָ֠ב֠וֹא לָקַ֨חַת ל֣וֹ גוֹי֘ מִקֶּ֣רֶב גּוֹי֒ בְּמַסֹּת֩ בְּאֹתֹ֨ת וּבְמֽוֹפְתִ֜ים וּבְמִלְחָמָ֗ה וּבְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙ וּבִזְר֣וֹעַ נְטוּיָ֔ה וּבְמֽוֹרָאִ֖ים גְּדֹלִ֑ים כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֛ם בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם לְעֵינֶֽיךָ:
Or has any god performed miracles: Heb. הֲנִסָּה אלֹהִים. Has any god performed miracles (נִסִּים)?   הנסה אלהים: הכי עשה נסים שום אלוה:
to come and take him a nation…: All the letters “hey” are in the interrogative form. Therefore, they are vocalized with a chataf patach הִנִהְיָה has there been? הִנִשְׁמַע has it been heard? הִשָמַע did there hear? הֲנִסָּה did… perform miracles?   לבא לקחת לו גוי וגו': כל ההי"ן הללו תמיהות הן לכך נקודות הן בחט"ף פת"ח הנהיה, הנשמע, הנסה, השמע:
with trials: Through tests, He let them know His might, for example: “[and Moses said to Pharaoh] 'Boast of your superiority over me [to fix a time]” (Exodus 8:5), whether I am able to do so. This is a test.   במסות: על ידי נסיונות הודיעם גבורותיו, כגון (שמות ח, ה) התפאר עלי, אם אוכל לעשות כן, הרי זה נסיון:
with signs: Heb. בְּאֹתֹת. With signs, so that they should believe that he [Moses] was the messenger of the Omnipresent, as, e.g., “What is that in your hand?” (Exod. 4:2)   באותות: בסימנין להאמין שהוא שלוחו של מקום, כגון (שמות ד ב) מה זה בידך:
and with wonders: Heb. וּבְמוֹפְתִים. These are wonders, [meaning] that God brought upon them [the Egyptians] wondrous plagues.   ובמופתים: הם נפלאות שהביא עליהם מכות מופלאות:
and with war: At the Red Sea, as it is said: “because the Lord is fighting for them” (Exod. 14:25).   ובמלחמה: בים, שנאמר (שם יד כה) כי ה' נלחם להם:
35You have been shown, in order to know that the Lord He is God; there is none else besides Him.   להאַתָּה֙ הָרְאֵ֣תָ לָדַ֔עַת כִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה ה֣וּא הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ין ע֖וֹד מִלְּבַדּֽוֹ:
You have been shown: Heb. הָרְאֵתָ As the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: אִתְחִזֵיתָא, you have been shown. When the Holy One, blessed is He, gave the Torah, He opened for Israel the seven heavens, and just as He tore open the upper regions, so did He tear open the lower regions, and they saw that He is One. Accordingly, it is stated, “You have been shown, in order to know [that the Lord He is God-there is none else besides Him].”   הראת: כתרגומו אתחזיתא. כשנתן הקב"ה את התורה פתח להם שבעה רקיעים. וכשם שקרע את העליונים כך קרע את התחתונים. וראו שהוא יחידי, לכך נאמר אתה הראת לדעת:
36From the heavens, He let you hear His voice to instruct you, and upon the earth He showed you His great fire, and you heard His words out of the midst of the fire,   לומִן־הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם הִשְׁמִֽיעֲךָ֥ אֶת־קֹל֖וֹ לְיַסְּרֶ֑ךָּ וְעַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ הֶרְאֲךָ֙ אֶת־אִשּׁ֣וֹ הַגְּדוֹלָ֔ה וּדְבָרָ֥יו שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ מִתּ֥וֹךְ הָאֵֽשׁ:
37and because He loved your forefathers and chose their seed after them, and He brought you out of Egypt before Him with His great strength,   לזוְתַ֗חַת כִּ֤י אָהַב֙ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ וַיִּבְחַ֥ר בְּזַרְע֖וֹ אַֽחֲרָ֑יו וַיּוֹצִֽאֲךָ֧ בְּפָנָ֛יו בְּכֹח֥וֹ הַגָּדֹ֖ל מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
And because He loved: And all this was because He loved [your forefathers].   ותחת כי אהב: וכל זה תחת אשר אהב:
and He brought you out… before Him: like a man who leads his son before him, as it is stated (Exod. 14:19), “Then the angel of the Lord who had been going, who had been going [in front of the Israelite camp,] moved and went behind them.” Another explanation: And He brought you out before him-before his forefathers, as it is said: “Before their forefathers, He wrought wonders” (Ps. 78:12). And do not be astonished by the fact that [Scripture] refers to them in the singular [using בְּפָנָיו instead of בִּפְנֵיהֶם], for it has already written about them in the singular, “And chose their seed (בְּזַרְעוֹ) after them (אַחֲרָיו),” [lit. his. seed after him].   ויוצאך בפניו: כאדם המנהיג בנו לפניו שנאמר (שמות יד יט) ויסע מלאך האלהים ההולך וגו' וילך מאחריהם. דבר אחר ויוציאך בפניו בפני אבותיו, כמו שנאמר (תהלים עח יב) נגד אבותם עשה פלא. ואל תתמה על שהזכירם בלשון יחיד, שהרי כתבם בלשון יחיד ויבחר בזרעו אחריו:
38to drive out from before you nations greater and stronger than you, to bring you and give you their land for an inheritance, as this day.   לחלְהוֹרִ֗ישׁ גּוֹיִ֛ם גְּדֹלִ֧ים וַֽעֲצֻמִ֛ים מִמְּךָ֖ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ לַֽהֲבִֽיאֲךָ֗ לָֽתֶת־לְךָ֧ אֶת־אַרְצָ֛ם נַֽחֲלָ֖ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
from before you [nations greater and stronger] than you: Heb. מִמְּךָ מִפָּנֶי‏ךָ, lit. than you from before you. The verse can be explained by transposing it: to drive out from before you מִפָּנֶי‏ךָ‏, nations greater and stronger than you מִמְּךָ.   ממך מפניך: סרסהו ודרשהו להוריש מפניך גוים גדולים ועצומים ממך:
as this day: As you see today.   כיום הזה: כאשר אתה רואה היום:
39And you shall know this day and consider it in your heart, that the Lord He is God in heaven above, and upon the earth below; there is none else.   לטוְיָֽדַעְתָּ֣ הַיּ֗וֹם וַֽהֲשֵֽׁבֹתָ֘ אֶל־לְבָבֶ֒ךָ֒ כִּ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ ה֣וּא הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם מִמַּ֔עַל וְעַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ מִתָּ֑חַת אֵ֖ין עֽוֹד:
40And you shall observe His statutes and His commandments, which I command you this day, that it may be well with you and your children after you, and that you may prolong your days upon the earth which the Lord your God gives you forever.   מוְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֞ אֶת־חֻקָּ֣יו וְאֶת־מִצְו‍ֹתָ֗יו אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ הַיּ֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר֙ יִיטַ֣ב לְךָ֔ וּלְבָנֶ֖יךָ אַֽחֲרֶ֑יךָ וּלְמַ֨עַן תַּֽאֲרִ֤יךְ יָמִים֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:

Third Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 4

41Then Moses decided to separate three cities on the side of the Jordan towards the sunrise,   מאאָ֣ז יַבְדִּ֤יל משֶׁה֙ שָׁל֣שׁ עָרִ֔ים בְּעֵ֖בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן מִזְרְחָ֖ה שָֽׁמֶשׁ:
Then [Moses] decided to separate: Heb. אָז יַבְדִּיל [The future form יַבְדִּיל instead of the past form הִבְדִּיל is to be explained]: Moses set his heart to hasten to [implement] the matter to separate them. And even though they were not to serve as cities of refuge until those of the land of Canaan would be separated, Moses said, “Any commandment that is possible to fulfill, I will fulfill” (Makkoth 10a).   אז יבדיל: נתן לב להיות חרד לדבר שיבדילם. ואף על פי שאינן קולטות עד שיבדלו אותן שבארץ כנען, אמר משה מצוה שאפשר לקיימה אקיימנה:
on the side of the Jordan towards the sunrise: On that side which is on the east of the Jordan.   בעבר הירדן מזרחה שמש: באותו עבר שבמזרחו של ירדן:
towards the sunrise: Heb. מִזְרְחָה שָׁמֶשׁ Because the word מִזְרְחָה is in the construct state, the “reish” is punctuated with a “chataf” (vocal “sh’va”), the meaning being, “the rising of the sun,” i.e., the place of the sunrise.   מזרחה שמש: לפי שהוא דבוק נקודה רי"ש בחטף, מזרח של שמש, מקום זריחת השמש:
42so that a murderer might flee there, he who murders his fellow man unintentionally, but did not hate him in time past, that he may flee to one of these cities, so that he might live:   מבלָנֻ֨ס שָׁ֜מָּה רוֹצֵ֗חַ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִרְצַ֤ח אֶת־רֵעֵ֨הוּ֙ בִּבְלִי־דַ֔עַת וְה֛וּא לֹֽא־שׂנֵ֥א ל֖וֹ מִתְּמֹ֣ל שִׁלְשֹׁ֑ם וְנָ֗ס אֶל־אַחַ֛ת מִן־הֶֽעָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖ל וָחָֽי:
43Bezer in the desert, in the plain country of the Reubenites, Ramoth in Gilead of the Gadites, and Golan in the Bashan of the Menassites.   מגאֶת־בֶּ֧צֶר בַּמִּדְבָּ֛ר בְּאֶ֥רֶץ הַמִּישֹׁ֖ר לָרֽאוּבֵנִ֑י וְאֶת־רָאמֹ֤ת בַּגִּלְעָד֙ לַגָּדִ֔י וְאֶת־גּוֹלָ֥ן בַּבָּשָׁ֖ן לַֽמְנַשִּֽׁי:
44And this is the teaching which Moses set before the children of Israel:   מדוְזֹ֖את הַתּוֹרָ֑ה אֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֣ם משֶׁ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And this is the teaching: This one which he is about to set down after this chapter.   וזאת התורה: זו שהוא עתיד לסדר אחר פרשה זו:
45These are the testimonies, statutes and ordinances, which Moses spoke to the children of Israel when they went out of Egypt,   מהאֵ֚לֶּה הָֽעֵדֹ֔ת וְהַֽחֻקִּ֖ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֤ר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּצֵאתָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
These are the testimonies… which [Moses] spoke: They are the very same ones that he spoke when they went out of Egypt, and he taught it to them again in the plains of Moab.   אלה העדות וגו' אשר דבר: הם הם אשר דבר בצאתם ממצרים חזר ושנאה להם בערבות מואב:
46on the side of the Jordan in the valley, opposite Beth Peor, in the land of Sihon, king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, whom Moses and the children of Israel smote, after they went out of Egypt.   מובְּעֵ֨בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֜ן בַּגַּ֗יְא מ֚וּל בֵּ֣ית פְּע֔וֹר בְּאֶ֗רֶץ סִיחֹן֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּחֶשְׁבּ֑וֹן אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכָּ֤ה משֶׁה֙ וּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּצֵאתָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
47And they possessed his land and the land of Og, king of the Bashan, the two kings of the Amorites, who were on the side of the Jordan, towards the sunrise,   מזוַיִּֽירְשׁ֨וּ אֶת־אַרְצ֜וֹ וְאֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ | ע֣וֹג מֶֽלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁ֗ן שְׁנֵי֙ מַלְכֵ֣י הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן מִזְרַ֖ח שָֽׁמֶשׁ:
who were on the side of the Jordan: which is in the east, because the other side was in the west. [That means on the side opposite the western side.]   אשר בעבר הירדן: שהוא במזרח שהעבר השני היה במערב:
48from Aroer, which is by the bank of the river Arnon, to Mount Sion, which is Hermon,   מחמֵֽעֲרֹעֵ֞ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר עַל־שְׂפַת־נַ֧חַל אַרְנֹ֛ן וְעַד־הַ֥ר שִׂיאֹ֖ן ה֥וּא חֶרְמֽוֹן:
49and all the plain across the Jordan eastward as far as the sea of the plain, under the waterfalls of the hill.   מטוְכָל־הָ֨עֲרָבָ֜ה עֵ֤בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן֙ מִזְרָ֔חָה וְעַ֖ד יָ֣ם הָֽעֲרָבָ֑ה תַּ֖חַת אַשְׁדֹּ֥ת הַפִּסְגָּֽה:

Fourth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 5

1And Moses called all Israel and said to them, "Hear, O Israel, the statutes and ordinances which I speak in your ears this day, and learn them, and observe [them] to do them.   אוַיִּקְרָ֣א משֶׁה֘ אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם שְׁמַ֤ע יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י דֹּבֵ֥ר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּ֣ם אֹתָ֔ם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם לַֽעֲשֹׂתָֽם:
2The Lord our God made a covenant with us in Horeb.   ביְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֗ינוּ כָּרַ֥ת עִמָּ֛נוּ בְּרִ֖ית בְּחֹרֵֽב:
3Not with our forefathers did the Lord make this covenant, but with us, we, all of whom are here alive today.   גלֹ֣א אֶת־אֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ כָּרַ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־הַבְּרִ֣ית הַזֹּ֑את כִּ֣י אִתָּ֔נוּ אֲנַ֨חְנוּ אֵ֥לֶּה פֹ֛ה הַיּ֖וֹם כֻּלָּ֥נוּ חַיִּֽים:
Not with our forefathers: Alone did the Lord make [this covenant], but with us.   לא את אבתינו: בלבד כרת ה' וגו' כי אתנו:
4Face to face, the Lord spoke with you at the mountain out of the midst of the fire:   דפָּנִ֣ים | בְּפָנִ֗ים דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה עִמָּכֶ֛ם בָּהָ֖ר מִתּ֥וֹךְ הָאֵֽשׁ:
Face to face: Rabbi Berechiah said, “So said Moses: 'Do not say that I am misleading you about something that does not exist, as an agent does, acting between the seller and the buyer, [because] behold, the seller Himself is speaking with you.’” (Pesikta Rabbathi).   פנים בפנים: אמר ר' ברכיה כך אמר משה אל תאמרו אני מטעה אתכם על לא דבר, כדרך שהסרסור עושה בין המוכר ללוקח, הרי המוכר עצמו מדבר עמכם:
5(and I stood between the Lord and you at that time, to tell you the word of the Lord, for you were afraid of the fire, and you did not go up on the mountain) saying,   האָֽנֹכִ֠י עֹמֵ֨ד בֵּֽין־יְהֹוָ֤ה וּבֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔וא לְהַגִּ֥יד לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֤י יְרֵאתֶם֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י הָאֵ֔שׁ וְלֹֽא־עֲלִיתֶ֥ם בָּהָ֖ר לֵאמֹֽר:
saying: This refers back to (verse 4), “the Lord spoke with you at the mountain out of the midst of the fire… saying, ‘I am the Lord…,’ and I stood between the Lord and you”.   לאמר: מוסב על (פסוק ד) דבר ה' עמכם בהר מתוך האש לאמר אנכי ה' וגו' ואנכי עומד בין ה' וביניכם:
6"I am the Lord your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.   ואָֽנֹכִ֖י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ אֲשֶׁ֧ר הֽוֹצֵאתִ֛יךָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֥ית עֲבָדִֽים:
7You shall not have the gods of others in My presence.   זלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים עַל־פָּנָֽי:
in My presence: Heb. עַל-פָּנָי, lit. before Me, i.e., wherever I am, and that is the entire world. Another explanation: As long as I exist [i.e., forever] (Mechilta). I have already explained the Ten Commandments (see Exodus 20:1-14).   על פני: בכל מקום אשר אני שם וזהו כל העולם. דבר אחר כל זמן שאני קיים. עשרת הדברות כבר פירשתים:
8You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness which is in the heavens above, which is on the earth below, or which is in the water beneath the earth.   חלֹא־תַֽעֲשֶׂ֨ה לְךָ֥ פֶ֨סֶל֙ כָּל־תְּמוּנָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר בַּשָּׁמַ֨יִם֙ מִמַּ֔עַל וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּאָ֖רֶץ מִתָּ֑חַת וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּמַּ֖יִם מִתַּ֥חַת לָאָֽרֶץ:
9You shall not prostrate yourself before them, nor worship them, for I, the Lord your God, am a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the third and the fourth generations of those who hate Me.   טלֹֽא־תִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶ֥ה לָהֶ֖ם וְלֹ֥א תָֽעָבְדֵ֑ם כִּ֣י אָֽנֹכִ֞י יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ אֵ֣ל קַנָּ֔א פֹּ֠קֵ֠ד עֲו‍ֹ֨ן אָב֧וֹת עַל־בָּנִ֛ים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֥ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִ֖ים לְשֽׂנְאָֽי:
10And [I] perform loving kindness to thousands [of generations] of those who love Me and to those who keep My commandments.   יוְעֹ֥שֶׂה חֶ֖סֶד לַֽאֲלָפִ֑ים לְאֹֽהֲבַ֖י וּלְשֹֽׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְו‍ֹתָֽי (כתיב מצותו) :
11You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain, for the Lord will not hold blameless anyone who takes His name in vain.   יאלֹ֥א תִשָּׂ֛א אֶת־שֵֽׁם־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לַשָּׁ֑וְא כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יְנַקֶּה֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ לַשָּֽׁוְא:
12Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it, as the Lord your God commanded you.   יבשָׁמ֛וֹר אֶת־י֥וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֖ת לְקַדְּשׁ֑וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
Keep [the Sabbath day]: But in the first set [of Ten Commandments] (in Exod. 20) it says: “Remember [the Sabbath day]!” The explanation is: Both of them (“Remember” and “Keep”) were spoken simultaneously as one word and were heard simultaneously. (Mechilta 20:8)   שמור: ובראשונות הוא אומר (שמות כ, ז) זכור שניהם בדבור אחד ובתיבה אחת נאמרו ובשמיעה אחת נשמעו:
just as [the Lord your God] commanded you: Before the giving of the Torah, at Marah (Shab. 87b).   כאשר צוך: קודם מתן תורה במרה:
13Six days may you work, and perform all your labor,   יגשֵׁ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד וְעָשִׂ֖יתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּֽךָ:
14but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall perform no labor, neither you, your son, your daughter, your manservant, your maidservant, your ox, your donkey, any of your livestock, nor the stranger who is within your cities, in order that your manservant and your maidservant may rest like you.   ידוְיוֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י שַׁבָּ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹא־תַֽעֲשֶׂ֨ה כָל־מְלָאכָ֜ה אַתָּ֣ה | וּבִנְךָֽ־וּבִתֶּ֣ךָ וְעַבְדְּךָֽ־וַֽאֲמָתֶ֗ךָ וְשֽׁוֹרְךָ֤ וַֽחֲמֹֽרְךָ֙ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּ֔ךָ וְגֵֽרְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ לְמַ֗עַן יָנ֛וּחַ עַבְדְּךָ֥ וַֽאֲמָֽתְךָ֖ כָּמֽוֹךָ:
15And you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord your God took you out from there with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm; therefore, the Lord, your God, commanded you to observe the Sabbath day.   טווְזָֽכַרְתָּ֗ כִּ֣י עֶ֤בֶד הָיִ֨יתָ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיֹּצִ֨אֲךָ֜ יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ מִשָּׁ֔ם בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָ֖ה וּבִזְרֹ֣עַ נְטוּיָ֑ה עַל־כֵּ֗ן צִוְּךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לַֽעֲשׂ֖וֹת אֶת־י֥וֹם הַשַּׁבָּֽת:
And you shall remember that you were a slave…: God redeemed you on the condition that you will be His slave and keep His commandments.   וזכרת כי עבד היית וגו': על מנת כן פדאך שתהיה לו עבד ותשמור מצותיו:
16Honor your father and your mother as the Lord your God commanded you, in order that your days be lengthened, and that it may go well with you on the land that the Lord, your God, is giving you.   טזכַּבֵּ֤ד אֶת־אָבִ֨יךָ֙ וְאֶת־אִמֶּ֔ךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לְמַ֣עַן | יַֽאֲרִיכֻ֣ן יָמֶ֗יךָ וּלְמַ֨עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ עַ֚ל הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ:
as the Lord your God commanded you: Also regarding the honoring of father and mother they were commanded at Marah, as it is said: (Exod. 15:25),“There He gave them a statute and an ordinance.” (San. 56b)   כאשר צוך: אף על כבוד אב ואם נצטוו במרה שנאמר (שמות טו כה) שם שם לו חוק ומשפט:
17You shall not murder. And you shall not commit adultery. And you shall not steal. And you shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.   יזלֹ֥א תִרְצַ֖ח ס וְלֹ֣א תִנְאָ֑ף ס וְלֹ֣א תִגְנֹ֔ב ס וְלֹא־תַֽעֲנֶ֥ה בְרֵֽעֲךָ֖ עֵ֥ד שָֽׁוְא:
And you shall not commit adultery: Adultery applies only [to relations] with a married woman.   ולא תנאף: אין לשון ניאוף אלא באשת איש:
18And you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor shall you desire your neighbor's house, his field, his manservant, his maidservant, his ox, his donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.   יחוְלֹ֥א תַחְמֹ֖ד אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֶ֑ךָ ס וְלֹ֨א תִתְאַוֶּ֜ה בֵּ֣ית רֵעֶ֗ךָ שָׂדֵ֜הוּ וְעַבְדּ֤וֹ וַֽאֲמָתוֹ֙ שׁוֹר֣וֹ וַֽחֲמֹר֔וֹ וְכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְרֵעֶֽךָ:
nor shall you desire: Heb. וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה. [As the Targum [Onkelos] renders:] וְלֹא תֵרוֹג, “you shall not desire.” This too is an expression of coveting (חֶמְדָּה), just as “pleasant (נֶחְמָד) to see” (Gen. 2:9), which the Targum [Onkelos] interprets as “desirable (דִּמִרַגֵּג) to see.”   ולא תתאוה: לא תירוג אף הוא לשון חמדה, כמו (בראשית ב, ט) נחמד למראה, דמתרגמינן דמרגג למחזי:

Fifth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 5

19The Lord spoke these words to your entire assembly at the mountain out of the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the opaque darkness, with a great voice, which did not cease. And He inscribed them on two stone tablets and gave them to me.   יטאֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֡לֶּה דִּבֶּר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֶל־כָּל־קְהַלְכֶ֜ם בָּהָ֗ר מִתּ֤וֹךְ הָאֵשׁ֙ הֶֽעָנָ֣ן וְהָֽעֲרָפֶ֔ל ק֥וֹל גָּד֖וֹל וְלֹ֣א יָסָ֑ף וַיִּכְתְּבֵ֗ם עַל־שְׁנֵי֙ לֻחֹ֣ת אֲבָנִ֔ים וַיִּתְּנֵ֖ם אֵלָֽי:
which did not cease: Heb. וְלֹא יָסָף, interpreted by the Targum [Onkelos]: וְלָא פְּסָק “and it did not cease.” [Because it is human nature that one is unable to utter all his words in one breath, but he must pause, whereas the characteristic of the Holy One, blessed is He, is not so. God did not pause, and since He did not pause, He did not have to resume,] for His voice is strong and exists continuously (San. 17a). Another explanation of וְלֹא יָסָף : He never again revealed Himself so publicly [as He did on Mount Sinai. Accordingly, we render: and He did not continue].   ולא יסף: מתרגמינן ולא פסק כי קולו חזק וקיים לעולם. דבר אחר ולא יסף לא הוסיף להראות באותו פומבי:
20And it was, when you heard the voice from the midst of the darkness, and the mountain was burning with fire, that you approached me, all the heads of your tribes and your elders.   כוַיְהִ֗י כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶ֤ם אֶת־הַקּוֹל֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַח֔שֶׁךְ וְהָהָ֖ר בֹּעֵ֣ר בָּאֵ֑שׁ וַתִּקְרְב֣וּן אֵלַ֔י כָּל־רָאשֵׁ֥י שִׁבְטֵיכֶ֖ם וְזִקְנֵיכֶֽם:
21And you said, "Behold, the Lord, our God, has shown us His glory and His greatness, and we heard His voice from the midst of the fire; we saw this day that God speaks with man, yet [man] remains alive.   כאוַתֹּֽאמְר֗וּ הֵ֣ן הֶרְאָ֜נוּ יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֵ֨ינוּ֙ אֶת־כְּבֹד֣וֹ וְאֶת־גָּדְל֔וֹ וְאֶת־קֹל֥וֹ שָׁמַ֖עְנוּ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הָאֵ֑שׁ הַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ רָאִ֔ינוּ כִּֽי־יְדַבֵּ֧ר אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֖ם וָחָֽי:
22So now, why should we die? For this great fire will consume us; if we continue to hear the voice of the Lord, our God, anymore, we will die.   כבוְעַתָּה֙ לָ֣מָּה נָמ֔וּת כִּ֣י תֹֽאכְלֵ֔נוּ הָאֵ֥שׁ הַגְּדֹלָ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את אִם־יֹֽסְפִ֣ים | אֲנַ֗חְנוּ לִ֠שְׁמֹ֠עַ אֶת־ק֨וֹל יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵ֛ינוּ ע֖וֹד וָמָֽתְנוּ:
23For who is there of all flesh, who heard the voice of the living God speaking from the midst of the fire, as we have, and lived?   כגכִּ֣י מִ֣י כָל־בָּשָׂ֡ר אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁ֣מַ֥ע קוֹל֩ אֱלֹהִ֨ים חַיִּ֜ים מְדַבֵּ֧ר מִתּֽוֹךְ־הָאֵ֛שׁ כָּמֹ֖נוּ וַיֶּֽחִי:
24You approach, and hear all that the Lord, our God, will say, and you speak to us all that the Lord, our God, will speak to you, and we will hear and do.   כדקְרַ֤ב אַתָּה֙ וּֽשֲׁמָ֔ע אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאמַ֖ר יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וְאַ֣תְּ | תְּדַבֵּ֣ר אֵלֵ֗ינוּ אֵת֩ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְדַבֵּ֜ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵ֛ינוּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְשָׁמַ֥עְנוּ וְעָשִֽׂינוּ:
And you speak to us: Heb. וְאַתְּ, a feminine form]-You weakened my strength as that of a female, for I was distressed regarding you, and you weakened me, since I saw that you were not anxious to approach God out of love. Would it not have been preferable for you to learn [directly] from the mouth of the Almighty God, rather than to learn from me?   ואת תדבר אלינו: התשתם את כחי כנקבה שנצטערתי עליכם ורפיתם את ידי כי ראיתי שאינכם חרדים להתקרב אליו מאהבה. וכי לא היה יפה לכם ללמוד מפי הגבורה ולא ללמוד ממני:
25And the Lord heard the sound of your words when you spoke to me, and the Lord said to me, "I have heard the sound of the words of this people that they have spoken to you; they have done well in all that they have spoken.   כהוַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל דִּבְרֵיכֶ֔ם בְּדַבֶּרְכֶ֖ם אֵלָ֑י וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י שָׁ֠מַ֠עְתִּי אֶת־ק֨וֹל דִּבְרֵ֜י הָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבְּר֣וּ אֵלֶ֔יךָ הֵיטִ֖יבוּ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֵּֽרוּ:
26Would that their hearts be like this, to fear Me and to keep all My commandments all the days, that it might be well with them and with their children forever!   כומִֽי־יִתֵּ֡ן וְהָיָה֩ לְבָבָ֨ם זֶ֜ה לָהֶ֗ם לְיִרְאָ֥ה אֹתִ֛י וְלִשְׁמֹ֥ר אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתַ֖י כָּל־הַיָּמִ֑ים לְמַ֨עַן יִיטַ֥ב לָהֶ֛ם וְלִבְנֵיהֶ֖ם לְעֹלָֽם:
27Go say to them, 'Return to your tents.'   כזלֵ֖ךְ אֱמֹ֣ר לָהֶ֑ם שׁ֥וּבוּ לָכֶ֖ם לְאָֽהֳלֵיכֶֽם:
28But as for you, stand here with Me, and I will speak to you all the commandments, the statutes, and the ordinances which you will teach them, that they may do them in the land which I give them to possess.   כחוְאַתָּ֗ה פֹּה֘ עֲמֹ֣ד עִמָּדִי֒ וַֽאֲדַבְּרָ֣ה אֵלֶ֗יךָ אֵ֧ת כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֛ה וְהַֽחֻקִּ֥ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר תְּלַמְּדֵ֑ם וְעָשׂ֣וּ בָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י נֹתֵ֥ן לָהֶ֖ם לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
29Keep them to perform [them] as the Lord your God has commanded you; do not turn aside either to the right or to the left.   כטוּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֣ם לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם אֶתְכֶ֑ם לֹ֥א תָסֻ֖רוּ יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹֽאל:
30In all the way which the Lord, your God, has commanded you, you shall go, in order that you may live and that it may be well with you, and so that you may prolong your days in the land you will possess.   לבְּכָל־הַדֶּ֗רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֜ה יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֛ם אֶתְכֶ֖ם תֵּלֵ֑כוּ לְמַ֤עַן תִּֽחְיוּן֙ וְט֣וֹב לָכֶ֔ם וְהַֽאֲרַכְתֶּ֣ם יָמִ֔ים בָּאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּֽירָשֽׁוּן:

Deuteronomy Chapter 6

1This is the commandment, the statutes, and the ordinances that the Lord, your God, commanded to teach you, to perform in the land into which you are about to pass, to possess it.   אוְזֹ֣את הַמִּצְוָ֗ה הַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם לְלַמֵּ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֑ם לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֛ם עֹֽבְרִ֥ים שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
2In order that you fear the Lord, your God, to keep all His statutes and His commandments that I command you, you, your son, and your son's son, all the days of your life, and in order that your days may be lengthened.   בלְמַ֨עַן תִּירָ֜א אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ לִ֠שְׁמֹ֠ר אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתָ֣יו וּמִצְו‍ֹתָיו֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָֽנֹכִ֣י מְצַוֶּ֒ךָ֒ אַתָּה֙ וּבִנְךָ֣ וּבֶן־בִּנְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י חַיֶּ֑יךָ וּלְמַ֖עַן יַֽאֲרִכֻ֥ן יָמֶֽיךָ:
3And you shall, [therefore,] hearken, O Israel, and be sure to perform, so that it will be good for you, and so that you may increase exceedingly, just as the Lord, the God of your fathers, spoke to you, a land flowing with milk and honey.   גוְשָֽׁמַעְתָּ֤ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֣ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁר֙ יִיטַ֣ב לְךָ֔ וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְבּ֖וּן מְאֹ֑ד כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י אֲבֹתֶ֨יךָ֙ לָ֔ךְ אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ:

Sixth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 6

4Hear, O Israel: The Lord is our God; the Lord is one.   דשְׁמַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יְהֹוָ֥ה | אֶחָֽד:
The Lord is our God; the Lord is one: The Lord, who is now our God and not the God of the other nations-He will be [declared] in the future “the one God,” as it is said: “For then I will convert the peoples to a pure language that all of them call in the name of the Lord” (Zeph. 3:9), and it is [also] said: “On that day will the Lord be one and His name one” (Zech. 14:9). (see Sifrei)   ה' אלהינו ה' אחד: ה' שהוא אלהינו עתה ולא אלהי האומות, הוא עתיד להיות ה' אחד, שנאמר (צפניה ג, ט) כי אז אהפוך אל עמים שפה ברורה לקרוא כולם בשם ה' ונאמר (זכריה יד, ט) ביום ההוא יהיה ה' אחד ושמו אחד:
5And you shall love the Lord, your God, with all your heart and with all your soul, and with all your means.   הוְאָ֣הַבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖ת יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ בְּכָל־לְבָֽבְךָ֥ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ֖ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶֽךָ:
And you shall love [the Lord]: Perform His commandments out of love. The one who acts out of love cannot be compared to the one who acts out of fear. If one serves his master out of fear, when the master sets a great burden upon him, this servant will leave him and go away [whereas if out of love he will serve him even under great burden] (Sifrei 6:5).   ואהבת: עשה דבריו מאהבה אינו דומה עושה מאהבה לעושה מיראה. העושה אצל רבו מיראה כשהוא מטריח עליו מניחו והולך לו:
with all your heart: Heb. בְּכָל-לְבָבְךָ [The double “veth” in לְבָבְךָ, instead of the usual form לִבְּךָ, suggests:] Love Him with your two inclinations [the good and the evil]. (Sifrei; Ber. 54a) Another explanation; “with all your heart,” is that your heart should not be divided [i.e., at variance] with the Omnipresent (Sifrei).   בכל לבבך: בשני יצריך. דבר אחר בכל לבבך, שלא יהיה לבך חלוק על המקום:
and with all your soul: Even if He takes your soul (Sifrei; Ber. 54a, 61a).   ובכל נפשך: אפילו הוא נוטל את נפשך:
and with all your means: Heb. וּבְכָל-מְאֹדֶךָ, with all your possessions. There are people whose possessions are more precious to them than their own bodies. Therefore, it says, “and with all your means.” (Sifrei) Another explanation of וּבְכָל-מְאֹדֶךָ is: You shall love God with whatever measure (מִדָּה) He metes out to you, whether it be the measure of good or the measure of retribution. Thus also did David say: “I will lift up the cup of salvations [and I will call upon the name of the Lord]” (Ps. 116:12-13); “I found trouble and grief [and I called out in the name of the Lord]” (Ps. 116:3-4).   ובכל מאדך: בכל ממונך יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר ובכל מאדך. דבר אחר ובכל מאדך בכל מדה ומדה שמודד לך בין במדה טובה בין במדת פורענות וכן דוד הוא אומר (תהלים קטז, יג) כוס ישועות אשא וגו' (שם קטז, יג) צרה ויגון אמצא וגו':
6And these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart.   ווְהָי֞וּ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ הַיּ֖וֹם עַל־לְבָבֶֽךָ:
And these words… shall be: What is this “love” [referred to in the previous verse]? It is that these words [the mitzvoth] shall be upon your heart, and through this, you will come to recognize the Holy One, blessed be He, and will [consequently] cling to His ways. (Sifrei 6:6)   והיו הדברים האלה: ומהו האהבה והיו הדברים האלה, שמתוך כך אתה מכיר בהקב"ה ומדבק בדרכיו:
which I command you this day: they should not appear to you as an antiquated edict (דְּיוּטַגְמָא) which no one cares about, but as a new one, which everyone hastens to read. The word דְּיוּטַגְמָא means: a royal edict which comes in writing.(Sifrei)   אשר אנכי מצוך היום: לא יהיו בעיניך כדיוטגמא ישנה שאין אדם סופנה, אלא כחדשה שהכל רצין לקראתה. דיוטגמא מצות המלך הבאה במכתב:
7And you shall teach them to your sons and speak of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk on the way, and when you lie down and when you rise up.   זוְשִׁנַּנְתָּ֣ם לְבָנֶ֔יךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ֖ בָּ֑ם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ֤ בְּבֵיתֶ֨ךָ֙ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ֣ בַדֶּ֔רֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ֖ וּבְקוּמֶֽךָ:
And you will teach them: Heb. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם. This is an expression of sharpness, meaning that these words should be sharply impressed in your mouth, so that if a person asks you something, you will not have to hesitate about it, but you will tell him immediately. (Sifrei ; Kidd. 30a)   ושננתם: לשון חדוד הוא, שיהיו מחודדים בפיך, שאם ישאלך אדם דבר לא תהא צריך לגמגם בו, אלא אמור לו מיד:
to your sons: These are your disciples. We find everywhere that disciples are termed “sons,” as it is said: “You are children to the Lord your God” (Deut. 14:1), and it says: “The disciples [lit. sons] of the prophets who were in Bethel” (II Kings 2:3). So too, we find that Hezekiah taught Torah to all Israel and called them children, as it is said: “My sons, now do not forget” (II Chron. 29:11). And just as disciples are called “children,” as it is said “You are children to the Lord your God” so too, the teacher is called “father,” as it is said [that Elisha referred to his teacher Elijah by the words] “My father, my father, the chariot of Israel…” (II Kings 2:12) (Sifrei 6:7).   לבניך: אלו התלמידים. מצינו בכל מקום שהתלמידים קרוים בנים, שנאמר (דברים יד, א) בנים אתם לה' אלהיכם, ואומר (מלכים ב' ב, ג) בני הנביאים אשר בבית אל, וכן בחזקיהו שלמד תורה לכל ישראל וקראם בנים שנאמר (ד"ה ב' כט, יא) בני עתה אל תשלו. וכשם שהתלמידים קרוים בנים, שנאמר בנים אתם לה' אלהיכם, כך הרב קרוי אב, שנאמר (מלכים ב' ב) אבי אבי רכב ישראל וגו':
and speak of them: That your principal topic of conversation should be only about them; make them the main topic, not the secondary one. (Sifrei)   ודברת בם: שלא יהא עיקר דבורך אלא בם. עשם עיקר ואל תעשם טפל:
and when you lie down: Now this [latter verse] might lead one to think [that the obligation to recite the “shema” is] even if one lies down in the middle of the day. Therefore it states; “and when you rise up” ; now this [latter verse] might lead one to think [that the obligation to recite the “shema” is] even if you arise in the middle of the night! It says therefore, “When you sit in your house, and when you walk on the way.” The Torah is thus speaking of the usual manner of conduct: The [usual] time of lying down and the [usual] time of rising up. (Sifrei)   ובשכבך: יכול אפילו שכב בחצי היום תלמוד לומר ובקומך. יכול אפילו עמד בחצי הלילה, תלמוד לומר בשבתך בביתך ובלכתך בדרך. דרך ארץ דברה תורה, זמן שכיבה וזמן קימה:
8And you shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for ornaments between your eyes.   חוּקְשַׁרְתָּ֥ם לְא֖וֹת עַל־יָדֶ֑ךָ וְהָי֥וּ לְטֹֽטָפֹ֖ת בֵּ֥ין עֵינֶֽיךָ:
And you shall bind them for a sign upon your hand: These are the tefillin of the arm.   וקשרתם לאות על ידך: אלו תפילין שבזרוע:
and they shall be for ornaments between your eyes: Heb. לְטֹטָפֹת. These are the tefillin of the head, and because of the number of the Scriptural sections contained in them [namely four], they are called טֹטָפֹת - totafoth, for טַט - tat in Coptic means “two,” פַּת - path in Afriki (Phrygian) [also] means “two.” (San. 4b)   והיו לטטפת בין עיניך: אלו תפילין שבראש ועל שם מנין פרשיותיהם נקראו טטפת. טט בכתפי שתים, פת באפריקי שתים:
9And you shall inscribe them upon the doorposts of your house and upon your gates.   טוּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם עַל־מְזֻז֥וֹת בֵּיתֶ֖ךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
the doorposts of your house: The word is מְזֻזוֹת [and not, מְזוּזוֹת, i.e., without the letter “vav”] to indicate that there is need for only one מְזוּזָה - mezuzah per door.   מזזות ביתך: מזזות כתיב, שאין צריך אלא אחת:
and upon your gates: This [“gates”] is to include the gates of courtyards, the gates of provinces, and the gates of cities [in that they also require a mezuzah]. (Yoma 11a)   ובשעריך: לרבות שערי חצרות ושערי מדינות ושערי עיירות:
10And it will be, when the Lord, your God, brings you to the land He swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give you, great and good cities that you did not build,   יוְהָיָ֞ה כִּֽי־יְבִֽיאֲךָ֣ | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֜רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֧ע לַֽאֲבֹתֶ֛יךָ לְאַבְרָהָ֛ם לְיִצְחָ֥ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹ֖ב לָ֣תֶת לָ֑ךְ עָרִ֛ים גְּדֹלֹ֥ת וְטֹבֹ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־בָנִֽיתָ:
11and houses full of all good things that you did not fill, and hewn cisterns that you did not hew, vineyards and olive trees that you did not plant, and you will eat and be satisfied.   יאוּבָ֨תִּ֜ים מְלֵאִ֣ים כָּל־טוּב֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־מִלֵּ֒אתָ֒ וּבֹרֹ֤ת חֲצוּבִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־חָצַ֔בְתָּ כְּרָמִ֥ים וְזֵיתִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־נָטָ֑עְתָּ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֖ וְשָׂבָֽעְתָּ:
hewn: Since it [the Land of Israel] was a stony and rocky place, the term “hewn” is appropriate [regarding the cisterns there].   חצובים: לפי שהיו מקום טרשין וסלעים נופל בו לשון חציבה:
12Beware, lest you forget the Lord, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.   יבהִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֔ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּ֖ח אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר הוֹצִֽיאֲךָ֛ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֥ית עֲבָדִֽים:
out of the house of bondage: Heb. מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים, lit. out of the house of slaves. As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: out of the house of slavery, i.e., out of the place where you were slaves [and “not the house that belonged to slaves.”]   מבית עבדים: כתרגומו מבית עבדותא, ממקום שהייתם שם עבדים:
13You shall fear the Lord, your God, worship Him, and swear by His name.   יגאֶת־יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ תִּירָ֖א וְאֹת֣וֹ תַֽעֲבֹ֑ד וּבִשְׁמ֖וֹ תִּשָּׁבֵֽעַ:
and swear by His name: If you possess all the attributes mentioned here, that you fear His name and serve Him, then you may swear by His Name, for if you fear His name, you will be cautious with your oath, but if [you do] not, you must not swear [by His name].   ובשמו תשבע: אם יש בך כל המדות הללו, שאתה ירא את שמו ועובד אותו, אז בשמו תשבע, שמתוך שאתה ירא את שמו תהא זהיר בשבועתך, ואם לאו לא תשבע:
14Do not go after other gods, of the gods of the peoples who are around you.   ידלֹ֣א תֵֽלְכ֔וּן אַֽחֲרֵ֖י אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים מֵֽאֱלֹהֵי֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר סְבִיבֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם:
of the gods of the peoples who are around you: The same applies to the gods of those peoples who are distant [from you], but, because you see those who are around you erring after them, it was necessary to warn you especially about them [i.e., the gods of the people close to you].   מאלהי העמים אשר סביבותיכם: הוא הדין לרחוקים אלא לפי שאתה רואה את סביבותיך תועים אחריהם הוצרך להזהיר עליהם ביותר:
15For the Lord, your God, is a zealous God among you, lest the wrath of the Lord, your God, be kindled against you, and destroy you off the face of the earth.   טוכִּ֣י אֵ֥ל קַנָּ֛א יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בְּקִרְבֶּ֑ךָ פֶּן־יֶֽ֠חֱרֶ֠ה אַף־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ בָּ֔ךְ וְהִשְׁמִ֣ידְךָ֔ מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
16You shall not try the Lord, your God, as you tried Him in Massah.   טזלֹ֣א תְנַסּ֔וּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִסִּיתֶ֖ם בַּמַּסָּֽה:
In Massah: When they went out of Egypt, when they tested Him concerning water, as it is said [that they asked], “Is the Lord among us or not?” (Exodus 17:7) [Hence “Massah” means test.]   במסה: כשיצאו ממצרים שנסוהו במים, שנאמר (שמות יז, ז) היש ה' בקרבנו:
17Diligently keep the commandments of the Lord, your God, and His testimonies. and His statutes, which He has commanded you.   יזשָׁמ֣וֹר תִּשְׁמְר֔וּן אֶת־מִצְוֹ֖ת יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם וְעֵֽדֹתָ֥יו וְחֻקָּ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽךְ:
18And you shall do what is proper and good in the eyes of the Lord, in order that it may be well with you, and that you may come and possess the good land which the Lord swore to your forefathers,   יחוְעָשִׂ֛יתָ הַיָּשָׁ֥ר וְהַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה לְמַ֨עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וּבָ֗אתָ וְיָֽרַשְׁתָּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטֹּבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּ֥ע יְהֹוָ֖ה לַֽאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ:
what is proper and good: This refers to compromising, acting beyond the strict demands of the law.   הישר והטוב: זו פשרה, לפנים משורת הדין:
19to drive out all your enemies from before you, as the Lord has spoken.   יטלַֽהֲדֹ֥ף אֶת־כָּל־אֹֽיְבֶ֖יךָ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
[To drive out all your enemies…] as [the Lord] has spoken: And where did He speak? When He said, “and I will confuse all the people….” (Exod. 23: 27)   כאשר דבר: והיכן דבר (שמות כג כז) והמותי את כל העם וגו':
20If your son asks you in time to come, saying, "What are the testimonies, the statutes, and the ordinances, which the Lord our God has commanded you?"   ככִּֽי־יִשְׁאָֽלְךָ֥ בִנְךָ֛ מָחָ֖ר לֵאמֹ֑ר מָ֣ה הָֽעֵדֹ֗ת וְהַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ אֶתְכֶֽם:
If your son asks you in time to come: Heb. מָחָר. [The word] מָחָר [which usually means “tomorrow”] may [also] mean “at a later time.”   כי ישאלך בנך מחר: יש מחר שהוא אחר זמן:
21You shall say to your son, "We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, and the Lord took us out of Egypt with a strong hand.   כאוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ לְבִנְךָ֔ עֲבָדִ֛ים הָיִ֥ינוּ לְפַרְעֹ֖ה בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם וַיֹּֽצִיאֵ֧נוּ יְהֹוָ֛ה מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה:
22And the Lord gave signs and wonders, great and terrible, upon Egypt, upon Pharaoh, and upon all his household, before our eyes.   כבוַיִּתֵּ֣ן יְהֹוָ֡ה אוֹתֹ֣ת וּ֠מֹֽפְתִ֠ים גְּדֹלִ֨ים וְרָעִ֧ים | בְּמִצְרַ֛יִם בְּפַרְעֹ֥ה וּבְכָל־בֵּית֖וֹ לְעֵינֵֽינוּ:
23And he brought us out of there, in order that He might bring us and give us the land which He swore to our fathers.   כגוְאוֹתָ֖נוּ הוֹצִ֣יא מִשָּׁ֑ם לְמַ֨עַן֙ הָבִ֣יא אֹתָ֔נוּ לָ֤תֶת לָ֨נוּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לַֽאֲבֹתֵֽינוּ:
24And the Lord commanded us to perform all these statutes, to fear the Lord, our God, for our good all the days, to keep us alive, as of this day.   כדוַיְצַוֵּ֣נוּ יְהֹוָ֗ה לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה לְיִרְאָ֖ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ לְט֥וֹב לָ֨נוּ֙ כָּל־הַיָּמִ֔ים לְחַיֹּתֵ֖נוּ כְּהַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
25And it will be for our merit that we keep to observe all these commandments before the Lord, our God, as He has commanded us."   כהוּצְדָקָ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑נוּ כִּֽי־נִשְׁמֹ֨ר לַֽעֲשׂ֜וֹת אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֣ה הַזֹּ֗את לִפְנֵ֛י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽנוּ:

Seventh Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 7

1When the Lord, your God, brings you into the land to which you are coming to possess it, He will cast away many nations from before you: the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivvites, and the Jebusites, seven nations more numerous and powerful than you.   אכִּ֤י יְבִֽיאֲךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּ֑הּ וְנָשַׁ֣ל גּוֹיִֽם־רַבִּ֣ים | מִפָּנֶ֡יךָ הַֽחִתִּי֩ וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁ֨י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִ֜י וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֣י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֗י וְהַֽחִוִּי֙ וְהַיְבוּסִ֔י שִׁבְעָ֣ה גוֹיִ֔ם רַבִּ֥ים וַֽעֲצוּמִ֖ים מִמֶּֽךָּ:
He will cast away: Heb. וְנָשַׁל. This is an expression meaning casting away, and causing to fly. Similarly is (Deut. 19:5), “and the iron [axe blade] will cause to fly [from the tree].”   ונשל: לשון השלכה והתזה, וכן (דברים יט, ה) ונשל הברזל:
2And the Lord, your God, will deliver them to you, and you shall smite them. You shall utterly destroy them; neither shall you make a covenant with them, nor be gracious to them.   בוּנְתָנָ֞ם יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ לְפָנֶ֖יךָ וְהִכִּיתָ֑ם הַֽחֲרֵ֤ם תַּֽחֲרִים֙ אֹתָ֔ם לֹֽא־תִכְרֹ֥ת לָהֶ֛ם בְּרִ֖ית וְלֹ֥א תְחָנֵּֽם:
nor be gracious to them: Heb. וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם This means, you must not show them any grace (חֵן). It is forbidden for a person to say, “How handsome is this heathen!” Another explanation: Do not grant them a settlement (חֲניָּה) in the land. (Avodah Zarah 20a)   לא תחנם: לא תתן להם חן. אסור לו לאדם לומר כמה נאה גוי זה. דבר אחר אל תתן להם חנייה בארץ:
3You shall not intermarry with them; you shall not give your daughter to his son, and you shall not take his daughter for your son.   גוְלֹ֥א תִתְחַתֵּ֖ן בָּ֑ם בִּתְּךָ֙ לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֣ן לִבְנ֔וֹ וּבִתּ֖וֹ לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח לִבְנֶֽךָ:
4For he will turn away your son from following Me, and they will worship the gods of others, and the wrath of the Lord will be kindled against you, and He will quickly destroy you.   דכִּֽי־יָסִ֤יר אֶת־בִּנְךָ֙ מֵאַֽחֲרַ֔י וְעָֽבְד֖וּ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים וְחָרָ֤ה אַף־יְהֹוָה֙ בָּכֶ֔ם וְהִשְׁמִֽידְךָ֖ מַהֵֽר:
For he will turn away your son from following Me: i.e., the heathen’s son, if he marries your daughter, will turn away your [grand]son whom your daughter will bear to him, from following Me. This teaches us that your daughter’s son, born of a heathen man, is called “your son,” but your son’s son, born of a heathen woman, is not called “your son,” but “her son.” For Scripture [first says, “Do not give your daughter to his son, and do not take his daughter for your son.” Then it follows with “For he will turn away your son….” However], referring to “do not take his daughter,” it does not say “For she will turn away your son…” [because he is considered her son, not yours (Kid. 68b).   כי יסיר את בנך מאחרי: בנו של גוי כשישא את בתך יסיר את בנך אשר תלד לו בתך מאחרי. למדנו שבן בתך הבא מן הגוי קרוי בנך, אבל בן בנך הבא מן הגויה אינו קרוי בנך אלא בנה, שהרי לא נאמר על בתו לא תקח כי תסיר את בנך מאחרי, אלא כי יסיר את בנך וגו':
5But so shall you do to them: You shall demolish their altars and smash their monuments, and cut down their asherim trees, and burn their graven images with fire.   הכִּ֣י אִם־כֹּ֤ה תַֽעֲשׂוּ֙ לָהֶ֔ם מִזְבְּחֹֽתֵיהֶ֣ם תִּתֹּ֔צוּ וּמַצֵּֽבֹתָ֖ם תְּשַׁבֵּ֑רוּ וַֽאֲשֵֽׁירֵהֶם֙ תְּגַדֵּע֔וּן וּפְסִֽילֵיהֶ֖ם תִּשְׂרְפ֥וּן בָּאֵֽשׁ:
their altars: Heb. מִזְבְּחֹתֵיהֶם [A מִזְבֵּח is a structure] built up [of several stones].   מזבחתיהם: של בנין:
and… their monuments: Heb. וּמַצֵּבֹתָם [A מַצֵּבָה is a structure made] of one stone.   מצבותם: אבן אחת:
their asherim trees: Trees that are worshipped (Avodah Zarah 48a).   ואשירהם: אילנות שעובדין אותן:
and… their graven images: [These are] images (i.e., idols).   ופסיליהם: צלמים:
6For you are a holy people to the Lord, your God: the Lord your God has chosen you to be His treasured people, out of all the peoples upon the face of the earth.   וכִּ֣י עַ֤ם קָדוֹשׁ֙ אַתָּ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ בְּךָ֞ בָּחַ֣ר | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ לִֽהְי֥וֹת לוֹ֙ לְעַ֣ם סְגֻלָּ֔ה מִכֹּל֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
7Not because you are more numerous than any people did the Lord delight in you and choose you, for you are the least of all the peoples.   זלֹ֣א מֵֽרֻבְּכֶ֞ם מִכָּל־הָֽעַמִּ֗ים חָשַׁ֧ק יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּכֶ֖ם וַיִּבְחַ֣ר בָּכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־אַתֶּ֥ם הַמְעַ֖ט מִכָּל־הָֽעַמִּֽים:
Not because you were [more] numerous: [This is to be understood] according to its simple meaning. But its midrashic explanation [understanding וְלֹא מֵרֻבְּכֶם as “not because you are great”] is: Because you do not boast about yourselves when I shower good upon you. This is why I delighted in you [says God].   לא מרבכם: כפשוטו. ומדרשו לפי שאין אתם מגדילים עצמכם כשאני משפיע לכם טובה לפיכך חשקתי בכם:
For you are the least [of all the peoples]: You humble yourselves as, e.g., Abraham, who said, “For I am dust and ashes” (Gen. 18:27), and Moses and Aaron, who said, “but of what [significance] are we?” (Exod. 16:7) Unlike Nebuchadnezzar, who said, “I will liken myself to the Most High,” (Isa. 14:14), and Sennacherib, who said, (Isa. 36:20), “Who are they among all the gods of the lands [who saved their land from my hand]?” and Hiram, who said,“I am a god, I have sat in a seat of God” (Ezek. 28:2). (Chul. 89a)   כי אתם המעט: הממעטין עצמכם, כגון אברהם, שאמר (בראשית יח, כז) ואנכי עפר ואפר, וכגון משה ואהרן שאמרו (שמות טז, ח) ונחנו מה, לא כנבוכדנצר שאמר (ישעיה יד, יד) אדמה לעליון, וסנחריב שאמר (שם לו, כ) מי בכל אלהי הארצות, וחירם שאמר (יחזקאל כח, ב) אל אני מושב אלהים ישבתי:
for you are the least: Heb. כִּי-אַתֶּם הַמְעַט Here כִּי is an expression of“because.”   כי אתם המעט: הרי כי משמש בלשון דהא:
8But because of the Lord's love for you, and because He keeps the oath He swore to your forefathers, the Lord took you out with a strong hand and redeemed you from the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt.   חכִּי֩ מֵאַֽהֲבַ֨ת יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶתְכֶ֗ם וּמִשָּׁמְר֤וֹ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נִשְׁבַּע֙ לַֽאֲבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם הוֹצִ֧יא יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם בְּיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֑ה וַיִּפְדְּךָ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית עֲבָדִ֔ים מִיַּ֖ד פַּרְעֹ֥ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרָֽיִם:
But because of the Lord’s love: Heb. כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת ה׳ Here, [however,] כִּי is an expression of “but.” [Thus, the verses read] Not because you were more numerous… did the Lord delight in you, but because of the Lord’s love for you.   כי מאהבת ה': הרי כי משמש בלשון אלא. לא מרובכם חשק ה' בכם, אלא מאהבת ה' אתכם:
and because He keeps the oath: Heb. וּמִשָּׁמְרוֹ means, “and because of His keeping the oath” [not “and from His keeping the oath”].   ומשמרו את השבועה: מחמת שמרו את השבועה:
9Know, therefore, that the Lord, your God He is God, the faithful God, Who keeps the covenant and loving kindness with those who love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations.   טוְיָ֣דַעְתָּ֔ כִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ ה֣וּא הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים הָאֵל֙ הַנֶּֽאֱמָ֔ן שֹׁמֵ֧ר הַבְּרִ֣ית וְהַחֶ֗סֶד לְאֹֽהֲבָ֛יו וּלְשֹֽׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְו‍ֹתָ֖יו (כתיב מצותו) לְאֶ֥לֶף דּֽוֹר:
to a thousand generations: But earlier, (verse 5:10) it says: “To thousands [of generations].” [Why the difference?] Here, where it is adjacent to “those who keep His commandments,” it says: “to a thousand generations” [because it is referring to those who obey God out of fear] but previously, where it is adjacent to those who love Him, it says: “for thousands [of generations].” (Sotah 31a)   לאלף דור: ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים ה, ט) לאלפים, כאן שהוא סמוך אצל לשומרי מצותיו, העושין מיראה, הוא אומר לאלף, ולהלן שהוא סמוך אצל לאוהביו, העושין מאהבה, ששכרם יותר גדול, הוא אומר לאלפים:
with those who love Him: Those who perform [the commandments] out of love.   לאוהביו: אלו העושין מאהבה:
and keep His commandments: Those who perform [the commandments] out of fear.   ולשומרי מצותיו: אלו העושין מיראה:
10And He repays those who hate Him, to their face, to cause them to perish; He will not delay the one who hates Him, but he will repay him to his face.   יוּמְשַׁלֵּ֧ם לְשֽׂנְאָ֛יו אֶל־פָּנָ֖יו לְהַֽאֲבִיד֑וֹ לֹ֤א יְאַחֵר֙ לְשׂ֣נְא֔וֹ אֶל־פָּנָ֖יו יְשַׁלֶּם־לֽוֹ:
And He repays those who hate Him to their face: During his lifetime, He pays him his good reward, in order to cause him to be lost from the World to Come.   ומשלם לשנאיו אל פניו: בחייו משלם לו גמולו הטוב כדי להאבידו מן העולם הבא:
11You shall therefore, observe the commandments, the statutes, and the ordinances, which I command you this day to do.   יאוְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֨ אֶת־הַמִּצְוָ֜ה וְאֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ הַיּ֖וֹם לַֽעֲשׂתָֽם:
this day to do them: But in the future, in the World to Come, you will receive their reward (Eruvin 22a).   היום לעשותם: ולמחר לעולם הבא ליטול שכרם:

Maftir Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 7

9Know, therefore, that the Lord, your God He is God, the faithful God, Who keeps the covenant and loving kindness with those who love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations.   טוְיָ֣דַעְתָּ֔ כִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ ה֣וּא הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים הָאֵל֙ הַנֶּֽאֱמָ֔ן שֹׁמֵ֧ר הַבְּרִ֣ית וְהַחֶ֗סֶד לְאֹֽהֲבָ֛יו וּלְשֹֽׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְו‍ֹתָ֖יו (כתיב מצותו) לְאֶ֥לֶף דּֽוֹר:
to a thousand generations: But earlier, (verse 5:10) it says: “To thousands [of generations].” [Why the difference?] Here, where it is adjacent to “those who keep His commandments,” it says: “to a thousand generations” [because it is referring to those who obey God out of fear] but previously, where it is adjacent to those who love Him, it says: “for thousands [of generations].” (Sotah 31a)   לאלף דור: ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים ה, ט) לאלפים, כאן שהוא סמוך אצל לשומרי מצותיו, העושין מיראה, הוא אומר לאלף, ולהלן שהוא סמוך אצל לאוהביו, העושין מאהבה, ששכרם יותר גדול, הוא אומר לאלפים:
with those who love Him: Those who perform [the commandments] out of love.   לאוהביו: אלו העושין מאהבה:
and keep His commandments: Those who perform [the commandments] out of fear.   ולשומרי מצותיו: אלו העושין מיראה:
10And He repays those who hate Him, to their face, to cause them to perish; He will not delay the one who hates Him, but he will repay him to his face.   יוּמְשַׁלֵּ֧ם לְשֽׂנְאָ֛יו אֶל־פָּנָ֖יו לְהַֽאֲבִיד֑וֹ לֹ֤א יְאַחֵר֙ לְשׂ֣נְא֔וֹ אֶל־פָּנָ֖יו יְשַׁלֶּם־לֽוֹ:
And He repays those who hate Him to their face: During his lifetime, He pays him his good reward, in order to cause him to be lost from the World to Come.   ומשלם לשנאיו אל פניו: בחייו משלם לו גמולו הטוב כדי להאבידו מן העולם הבא:
11You shall therefore, observe the commandments, the statutes, and the ordinances, which I command you this day to do.   יאוְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֨ אֶת־הַמִּצְוָ֜ה וְאֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ הַיּ֖וֹם לַֽעֲשׂתָֽם:
this day to do them: But in the future, in the World to Come, you will receive their reward (Eruvin 22a).   היום לעשותם: ולמחר לעולם הבא ליטול שכרם:


Isaiah Chapter 40

1"Console, console My people," says your God.   אנַֽחֲמ֥וּ נַֽחֲמ֖וּ עַמִּ֑י יֹאמַ֖ר אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
Console, console My people: He returns to his future prophecies; since from here to the end of the Book are words of consolations, this section separated them from the prophecies of retribution. Console, you, My prophets, console My people.  
2Speak to the heart of Jerusalem and call to her, for she has become full [from] her host, for her iniquity has been appeased, for she has taken from the hand of the Lord double for all her sins.   בדַּבְּר֞וּ עַל־לֵ֚ב יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ וְקִרְא֣וּ אֵלֶ֔יהָ כִּ֚י מָֽלְאָה֙ צְבָאָ֔הּ כִּ֥י נִרְצָ֖ה עֲו‍ֹנָ֑הּ כִּ֚י לָֽקְחָה֙ מִיַּ֣ד יְהֹוָ֔ה כִּפְלַ֖יִם בְּכָל־חַטֹּאתֶֽיהָ:
for she has become full [from] her host: Jonathan renders: She is destined to become full from the people of the exiles, as though it would say, “She has become full from her host.” Others interpret צְבָאָה like (Job 7:1), “Is there not a time (צָבָא) for man on the earth?”  
has been appeased: Heb. נִרְצָה, has been appeased.  
for she has taken etc.: [Jonathan paraphrases:] For she has received a cup of consolation from before the Lord as though she has been punished doubly for all her sins. According to its simple meaning, it is possible to explain, ‘for she received double punishment.’ Now if you ask, how is it the standard of the Holy One, blessed be He, to pay back a person double his sin, I will tell you that we find an explicit verse (Jer. 16:18): “And I will pay first the doubling of their iniquity and their sin.”  
3A voice calls, "In the desert, clear the way of the Lord, straighten out in the wilderness, a highway for our God."   גק֣וֹל קוֹרֵ֔א בַּמִּדְבָּ֕ר פַּנּ֖וּ דֶּ֣רֶךְ יְהֹוָ֑ה יַשְּׁרוּ֙ בָּֽעֲרָבָ֔ה מְסִלָּ֖ה לֵֽאלֹהֵֽינוּ:
A voice: The Holy Spirit calls, “In the desert, the way to Jerusalem.”  
clear the way of the Lord: for her exiles to return to her midst. [The Warsaw edition yields:]  
Clear the way of the Lord: The way of Jerusalem for her exiles to return to her midst.  
4Every valley shall be raised, and every mountain and hill shall be lowered, and the crooked terrain shall become a plain and the close mountains a champaign.   דכָּל־גֶּיא֙ יִנָּשֵׂ֔א וְכָל־הַ֥ר וְגִבְעָ֖ה יִשְׁפָּ֑לוּ וְהָיָ֚ה הֶֽעָקֹב֙ לְמִישׁ֔וֹר וְהָֽרְכָסִ֖ים לְבִקְעָֽה:
Every valley shall be raised: and the mountain shall be lowered, thus resulting in a smooth, even, and easily traversed road.  
and the close mountains: Heb. רְכָסִים, mountains close to each other, and because of their proximity, the descent between them is steep and it is not slanted, that it should be easy to descend and ascend. ([The word] רְכָסִים is translated by Jonathan as ‘banks,’ an expression of height like the banks of a river.)  
close mountains: Heb. רְכָסִים. Comp. (Ex. 28:28) “And they shall fasten (וְיִרְכְּסוּ) the breastplate.”  
a champaign: Canpayne in O.F., a smooth and even terrain.  
5And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh together shall see that the mouth of the Lord spoke.   הוְנִגְלָ֖ה כְּב֣וֹד יְהֹוָ֑ה וְרָא֚וּ כָל־בָּשָׂר֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו כִּ֛י פִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה דִּבֵּֽר:
6A voice says, "Call!" and it says, "What shall I call?" "All flesh is grass, and all its kindness is like the blossom of the field.   וקוֹל אֹמֵ֣ר קְרָ֔א וְאָמַ֖ר מָ֣ה אֶקְרָ֑א כָּל־הַבָּשָׂר֙ חָצִ֔יר וְכָל־חַסְדּ֖וֹ כְּצִ֥יץ הַשָּׂדֶֽה:
A voice: from the Holy One, blessed be He, says to me, “Call!”  
and it says: My spirit says to Him, “What shall I call?” And the voice answers him, "Call this, all flesh is grass. All those who are haughty their greatness shall be turned over and become like grass. ([Manuscripts yield:] All the princes of the kingdom their greatness shall be turned over and shall wither away [lit. shall end] like grass.)  
and all its kindness is like the blossom of the field: For “the kindness of the nations is sin” (Prov. 14:34). [Ed. note: We have inverted the order of Rashi and followed the order of K’li Paz and Parshandatha, to connect the second part of the verse with the first. Rashi’s explanation of the second part follows his first explanation of the first part. In the Lublin edition, the second explanation of the first part of the verse interrupts the sequence.] (Another explanation is: All flesh is grass.) A person’s end is to die; therefore, if he says to do kindness, he is like the blossom of the field, that is cut off and dries, and one must not rely on him, for he has no power to fulfill his promise, perhaps he will die, for, just as the grass dries out and the blossom wilts, so is it that when a man dies, his promise is null, but the word of our God shall last for He is living and existing, and He has the power to fulfill. Therefore, “Upon a lofty mountain ascend and herald, O herald of Zion, for the promise of the tidings emanates from the mouth of Him Who lives forever.”  
7The grass shall dry out, the blossom shall wilt, for a wind from the Lord has blown upon it; behold the people is grass.   זיָבֵ֚שׁ חָצִיר֙ נָ֣בֵֽל צִ֔יץ כִּ֛י ר֥וּחַ יְהֹוָ֖ה נָ֣שְׁבָה בּ֑וֹ אָכֵ֥ן חָצִ֖יר הָעָֽם:
shall wilt: Heb. נָבֵל, wilt.  
8The grass shall dry out, the blossom shall wilt, but the word of our God shall last forever.   חיָבֵ֥שׁ חָצִ֖יר נָ֣בֵֽל צִ֑יץ וּדְבַ֥ר אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יָק֥וּם לְעוֹלָֽם:
9Upon a lofty mountain ascend, O herald of Zion, raise your voice with strength, O herald of Jerusalem; raise [your voice], fear not; say to the cities of Judah, "Behold your God!"   טעַ֣ל הַר־גָּבֹ֚הַ עֲלִי־לָךְ֙ מְבַשֶּׂ֣רֶת צִיּ֔וֹן הָרִ֚ימִי בַכֹּ֙חַ֙ קוֹלֵ֔ךְ מְבַשֶּׂ֖רֶת יְרֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם הָרִ֙ימִי֙ אַל־תִּירָ֔אִי אִמְרִי֙ לְעָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה הִנֵּ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
O herald of Zion: Heb. מְבַשֶּׂרֶת. The prophets who herald Zion. [This is the feminine form.] Elsewhere (infra 52:7), he says, “the feet of the herald (מְבַשֵּׂר).” [This is the masculine form.] This denotes that if they are worthy, he will be as swift as a male. If they are not worthy, he will be as weak as a female and will delay his steps until the end.  
10Behold the Lord God shall come with a strong [hand], and His arm rules for Him; behold His reward is with Him, and His recompense is before Him.   יהִנֵּ֨ה אֲדֹנָ֚י יֱהֹוִה֙ בְּחָזָ֣ק יָב֔וֹא וּזְרֹע֖וֹ מֹ֣שְׁלָה ל֑וֹ הִנֵּ֚ה שְׂכָרוֹ֙ אִתּ֔וֹ וּפְעֻלָּת֖וֹ לְפָנָֽיו:
shall come with a strong [hand]: to mete out retribution upon the heathens. ([Mss. read:] Upon the nations.)  
behold His reward is with Him: It is prepared with Him for the righteous.  
and His recompense: [lit. His deed,] the recompense for the deed, which He is obliged to give them.  
11Like a shepherd [who] tends his flock, with his arm he gathers lambs, and in his bosom he carries [them], the nursing ones he leads.   יאכְּרֹעֶה֙ עֶדְר֣וֹ יִרְעֶ֔ה בִּזְרֹעוֹ֙ יְקַבֵּ֣ץ טְלָאִ֔ים וּבְחֵיק֖וֹ יִשָּׂ֑א עָל֖וֹת יְנַהֵֽל:
Like a shepherd [who] tends his flock: Like a shepherd who tends his flock; with his arm he gathers lambs, and he carries them in his bosom.  
the nursing ones he leads: [Jonathan renders:] The nursing ones he leads gently, the nursing sheep.  
he leads: Heb. יְנַהֵל, lit. he shall lead, like מְנַהֵל, he leads.  
12Who measured water with his gait, and measured the heavens with his span, and measured by thirds the dust of the earth, and weighed mountains with a scale and hills with a balance?   יבמִֽי־מָדַ֨ד בְּשָֽׁעֳל֜וֹ מַ֗יִם וְשָׁמַ֙יִם֙ בַּזֶּ֣רֶת תִּכֵּ֔ן וְכָ֥ל בַּשָּׁלִ֖שׁ עֲפַ֣ר הָאָ֑רֶץ וְשָׁקַ֚ל בַּפֶּ֙לֶס֙ הָרִ֔ים וּגְבָע֖וֹת בְּמֹֽאזְנָֽיִם:
Who measured etc.: He had the power to do all this, and surely He has the power to keep these promises.  
with his gait: Heb. בְּשָׁעֳלוֹ, with his walking, as it is said (Habakkuk 3:15): “You trod with Your horses in the sea.” Comp. (Num. 22:24) “In the path (בְּמִשְׁעוֹל) of the vineyards, a path (for walking).” Another explanation is that שַׁעַל is the name of a receptacle. Comp. (Ezekiel 13:19) “For measures (בְּשַׁעֲלוֹ) of barley.”  
measured: Amolad in O.F., an expression of measure and number. Comp. (Ex. 5:18) “And the number (וְתֹכֶן) of bricks you shall give.”  
and measured by thirds: Heb. בַּשָּׁלִשׁ, and measured by thirds, one third wilderness, one third civilization, and one third seas and rivers. Another interpretation: בַּשָּׁלִשׁ, from the thumb to the middle finger, the third of the fingers. Menahem explains it as the name of a vessel. Comp. (Ps. 80:6) “And You gave them to drink tears with a vessel (שָׁלִישׁ).”  
and weighed mountains with a scale: Everything according to the earth, a heavy mountain He inserted into hard earth, and the light ones into soft earth.  
13Who meted the spirit of the Lord, and His adviser who informs Him?   יגמִֽי־תִכֵּ֥ן אֶת־ר֖וּחַ יְהֹוָ֑ה וְאִ֥ישׁ עֲצָת֖וֹ יֽוֹדִיעֶֽנּוּ:
Who meted: the Holy Spirit in the mouth of the prophets? The Lord prepared it, and He is worthy of belief.  
and His adviser who informs Him: [and the one with whom He takes counsel He informs] of His spirit. So did Jonathan render it. [Who meted out the spirit? The Lord, and the one with whom He takes counsel He informs him, i.e., the righteous in whom God confides, He informs of His plans for the future.] But, according to its context, עֲצָתו ֹוְאִישׁ refers back to the beginning of the verse. Who meted out His spirit and who is His adviser who informs the Holy One, blessed be He, of counsel?  
14With whom did He take counsel give him to understand, and teach him in the way of justice, and teach him knowledge, and the way of understandings did He let him know?   ידאֶת־מִ֚י נוֹעַץ֙ וַיְבִינֵ֔הוּ וַֽיְלַמְּדֵ֖הוּ בְּאֹ֣רַח מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וַֽיְלַמְּדֵ֣הוּ דַ֔עַת וְדֶ֥רֶךְ תְּבוּנ֖וֹת יֽודִיעֶֽנּוּ:
With whom did He take counsel and give him to understand: With which of the heathens ([mss., K’li Paz:] nations) did He take counsel, as He took counsel with the prophets, as it is said concerning Abraham (Gen. 18:17): “Do I conceal from Abraham…?”  
and give him to understand, and teach him in the way of justice: With which one of the heathens ([mss., K’li Paz:] nations) did He do so, that He taught him wisdom as He did to Abraham, to whom He gave a heart to recognize Him by himself and to understand the Torah, as it is said (ibid. 26:5): “And he kept My charge,” and Scripture states further (ibid. 18:19), “For he commands etc.” And his kidneys would pour forth wisdom to him, as it is said (Ps. 16:7): “Even at night my kidneys chastised me.” (  
With whom did He take counsel and who gave Him to understand: [With which man did He take counsel and which] man gave the Holy One, blessed be He, [to understand?] Behold all the nations are like a drop in a bucket, and how could they teach Him?)  
15Behold the nations are like a drop from a bucket, and like dust on a balance are they counted; behold the islands are like fine [dust] that blows away.   טוהֵ֚ן גּוֹיִם֙ כְּמַ֣ר מִדְּלִ֔י וּכְשַׁ֥חַק מֹֽאזְנַ֖יִם נֶחְשָׁ֑בוּ הֵ֥ן אִיִּ֖ים כַּדַּ֥ק יִטּֽוֹל:
Behold the nations are like a drop from a bucket: And are not worthy to Him to appoint some of them as prophets to reveal His secret.  
like a drop from a bucket: Heb. כְּמַר, like a bitter drop that drips from the bottom of the bucket, bitter from the putrid water that is embedded in the bucket and the decay of the wood, limonede in O.F.  
and like the dust of a balance: for the copper corrodes and wears off.  
like fine: fine dust.  
that blows away: [lit. that will be taken.] Like dust that is picked up and goes up through the wind, like fine dust that is carried away.  
16And the Lebanon-there is not enough to burn, and its beasts-there is not enough for burnt offerings.   טזוּלְבָנ֕וֹן אֵ֥ין דֵּ֖י בָּעֵ֑ר וְחַ֨יָּת֔וֹ אֵ֥ין דֵּ֖י עוֹלָֽה:
there is not enough to burn: on His altar.  
and its beasts: (the beasts] of the Lebanon-there is not enough for burnt offerings. Another explanation is:  
And the Lebanon etc.: to expiate the iniquity of the heathens.  
17All the nations are as nought before Him; as things of nought and vanity are they regarded by Him.   יזכָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם כְּאַ֣יִן נֶגְדּ֑וֹ מֵאֶ֥פֶס וָתֹ֖הוּ נֶחְשְׁבוּ־לֽוֹ:
All the nations are as naught before Him: In His eyes they are as naught, and are not regarded by Him.  
18And to whom do you compare God, and what likeness do you arrange for Him?   יחוְאֶל־מִ֖י תְּדַמְּי֣וּן אֵ֑ל וּמַה־דְּמ֖וּת תַּֽעַרְכוּ־לֽוֹ:
19The graven image, the craftsman has melted, and the smith plates it with gold, and chains of silver he attaches.   יטהַפֶּ֙סֶל֙ נָסַ֣ךְ חָרָ֔שׁ וְצֹרֵ֖ף בַּזָּהָ֣ב יְרַקְּעֶ֑נּוּ וּרְתֻקּ֥וֹת כֶּ֖סֶף צוֹרֵֽף:
melted: Heb. נָסַךְ, an expression of melting (מַסֵּכָה).  
the craftsman has melted: The ironsmith has cast it from iron or from copper, and then the goldsmith plates it with plates of gold and covers it from above.  
and chains: Heb. וּרְתֻקוֹת, and chains.  
20He who is accustomed to select, chooses a tree that does not rot; he seeks for himself a skilled craftsman, to prepare a graven image, which will not move.   כהַֽמְסֻכָּ֣ן תְּרוּמָ֔ה עֵ֥ץ לֹֽא־יִרְקַ֖ב יִבְחָ֑ר חָרָ֚שׁ חָכָם֙ יְבַקֶּשׁ־ל֔וֹ לְהָכִ֥ין פֶּ֖סֶל לֹ֥א יִמּֽוֹט:
He who is accustomed to select: הַמְסֻכָּן תְּרוּמָה. Or, if he comes to make it of wood, one who is accustomed to discern between a durable tree and other trees, chooses a tree that does not decay quickly.  
He who is accustomed: Heb. הַמְסֻכָּן. Comp. (Num. 22:30) “Have I been accustomed (הַהַסְכֵּן הִסְכַּנְתִּי)?”  
to select: Heb. תְּרוּמָה, separation, selection of the trees.  
21Do you not know, have you not heard has it not been told to you from the beginning? Do you not understand the foundations of the earth?   כאהֲל֚וֹא תֵֽדְעוּ֙ הֲל֣וֹא תִשְׁמָ֔עוּ הֲל֛וֹא הֻגַּ֥ד מֵרֹ֖אשׁ לָכֶ֑ם הֲלוֹא֙ הֲבִ֣ינוֹתֶ֔ם מֽוֹסְד֖וֹת הָאָֽרֶץ:
Do you not know… the foundations of the earth: Who founded it, and you should have worshipped Him.  
22It is He Who sits above the circle of the earth, and whose inhabitants are like grasshoppers, who stretches out the heaven like a curtain, and He spread them out like a tent to dwell.   כבהַיּשֵׁב֙ עַל־ח֣וּג הָאָ֔רֶץ וְיֹֽשְׁבֶ֖יהָ כַּֽחֲגָבִ֑ים הַנּוֹטֶ֚ה כַדֹּק֙ שָׁמַ֔יִם וַיִּמְתָּחֵ֥ם כָּאֹ֖הֶל לָשָֽׁבֶת:
the circle: Heb. חוּג, an expression similar to (infra 44:13) “And with a compass (וּבַמְּחוּגָה),” a circle (compas in O.F.).  
and whose inhabitants: are to Him [lit. before Him] like grasshoppers.  
like a curtain: Heb. כַדֹּק, a curtain, toile in French.  
23Who brings princes to nought, judges of the land He made like a thing of nought.   כגהַנּוֹתֵ֥ן רֽוֹזְנִ֖ים לְאָ֑יִן שֹׁ֥פְטֵי אֶ֖רֶץ כַּתֹּ֥הוּ עָשָֽׂה:
24Even [as though] they were not planted, even [as though] they were not sown, even [as though] their trunk was not rooted in the earth; and also He blew on them, and they dried up, and a tempest shall carry them away like straw.   כדאַ֣ף בַּל־נִטָּ֗עוּ אַף בַּל־זֹרָ֔עוּ אַ֛ף בַּל־שֹׁרֵ֥שׁ בָּאָ֖רֶץ גִּזְעָ֑ם וְגַם־נָשַׁ֚ף בָּהֶם֙ וַיִּבָ֔שׁוּ וּסְעָרָ֖ה כַּקַּ֥שׁ תִּשָּׂאֵֽם:
Even [as though] they were not planted: They are even as though they were not planted.  
even [as though] they were not sown: And still more than this, that they shall be uprooted and plucked out, as if they were not sown. Sowing is less than planting.  
their trunk is not rooted in the earth: When they will be plucked out, the trunk will not take root in the ground that it will grow up anew. Every שֹׁרֶשׁ, root, in Scripture is accented on the first letter, and the ‘reish’ is vowelized with a ‘pattah’ [segol]. This one, however, is accented on the latter syllable and it is vowelized with a ‘kamatz katan’ [tzeireh] because it is a verb, present tense, [enracinant in French] being rooted.  
25"Now, to whom will you compare Me that I should be equal?" says the Holy One.   כהוְאֶל־מִ֥י תְדַמְּי֖וּנִי וְאֶשְׁוֶ֑ה יֹאמַ֖ר קָדֽוֹשׁ:
26Lift up your eyes on high and see, who created these, who takes out their host by number; all of them He calls by name; because of His great might and because He is strong in power, no one is missing.   כושְׂאוּ־מָר֨וֹם עֵינֵיכֶ֚ם וּרְאוּ֙ מִֽי־בָרָ֣א אֵ֔לֶּה הַמּוֹצִ֥יא בְמִסְפָּ֖ר צְבָאָ֑ם לְכֻלָּם֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יִקְרָ֔א מֵרֹ֚ב אוֹנִים֙ וְאַמִּ֣יץ כֹּ֔חַ אִ֖ישׁ לֹ֥א נֶעְדָּֽר:
who created these: All the host that you will see on high.  
because of His great might: that He has, and that He is strong in power, no one of His host is missing, that He does not call by name.  
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