Torah Reading for Matot

Parshat Matot
Shabbat, 21 Tammuz, 5795
28 July, 2035
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Complete: (Numbers 30:2 - 32:42; Jeremiah 1:1 - 2:3)
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First Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 30

2Moses spoke to the heads of the tribes of the children of Israel, saying: This is the thing the Lord has commanded.   בוַיְדַבֵּ֤ר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־רָאשֵׁ֣י הַמַּטּ֔וֹת לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָֽה:
the heads of the tribes: He honored the chieftains by teaching them first, and only later the rest of the Israelites. How do we know that he did so with other statements? For it says, “[Moses called to them] and Aaron and all the princes of the community returned to him, and Moses would speak to them. Afterwards, all the children of Israel would draw near” (Exod. 34:31-32). [If so,] why did [Scripture] see fit to mention it here? It is to teach us that annulment of vows may be performed by a single expert, and if no single expert is available, it may be annulled by three laymen. Alternatively, perhaps Moses related this passage to the princes alone? However, here it says, “This is the word,” and in [the chapter dealing with] sacrifices slaughtered outside the Temple confines it [also] says, “This is the word” (Lev. 17:2). Just as there it was said to Aaron, his sons and all the Israelites, as it says, “Speak to Aaron, etc.” (Lev. 17:2), so in this case was it said to all of them. — [Ned. 78a]   רָאשֵׁי הַמַּטּוֹת: חָלַק כָּבוֹד לַנְּשִׂיאִים לְלַמְּדָם תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ לְכָל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל; וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאַף שְׁאָר הַדִּבְּרוֹת כֵּן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (שמות ל"ד) "וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם, וְאַחֲרֵי כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל". וּמָה רָאָה לְאָמְרָהּ כָּאן? לִמֵּד שֶׁהֲפָרַת נְדָרִים בְּיָחִיד מֻמְחֶה, וְאִם אֵין יָחִיד מֻמְחֶה, מֵפֵר בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה הֶדְיוֹטוֹת; אוֹ יָכוֹל שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר מֹשֶׁה פָרָשָׁה זוֹ אֶלָּא לַנְּשִׂיאִים בִּלְבַד? נֶאֱמַר כָּאן "זֶה הַדָּבָר" וְנֶאֱמַר בִּשְׁחוּטֵי חוּץ (ויקרא י"ז) "זֶה הַדָּבָר", מַה לְּהַלָּן נֶאֶמְרָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו וּלְכָל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "דַּבֵּר אֶל אַהֲרֹן" וְגוֹ' — אַף זוֹ נֶאֶמְרָה לְכֻלָּן (ספרי; נדרים ע"ח):
This is the thing: Moses prophesied with, “So says the Lord, 'At the dividing point of the night… ’” (Exod. 11:4), and the prophets prophesied with [the phrase] “So says the Lord.” But Moses surpassed them, for he prophesied with the expression, “This is the thing.” Another interpretation: “This is the thing” is exclusive, informing us that a sage [revokes a vow] with the expression הַתָּרָה,“release” and the husband through the expression הִפָרָה “revocation,” as Scripture has here. If they exchange [these terms] there is neither a release nor a revocation. — [Sifrei Mattoth 2]   זֶה הַדָּבָר: מֹשֶׁה נִתְנַבֵּא בְּ"כֹה אָמַר ה' כַּחֲצֹת הַלַּיְלָה" (שמות י"א) וְהַנְּבִיאִים נִתְנַבְּאוּ בְּ"כֹה אָמַר ה'", מוּסָף עֲלֵיהֶם מֹשֶׁה שֶׁנִּתְנַבֵּא בִּלְשׁוֹן "זֶה הַדָּבָר". דָּבָר אַחֵר — זה הדבר מִעוּט הוּא, לוֹמַר שֶׁהֶחָכָם בִּלְשׁוֹן הַתָּרָה, וּבַעַל בִּלְשׁוֹן הֲפָרָה, כִּלְשׁוֹן הַכָּתוּב כָּאן, וְאִם חִלְּפוּ — אֵין מֻתָּר וְאֵין מוּפָר (ספרי; נדרים ע"ז):
3If a man makes a vow to the Lord or makes an oath to prohibit himself, he shall not violate his word; according to whatever came out of his mouth, he shall do.   גאִישׁ֩ כִּֽי־יִדֹּ֨ר נֶ֜דֶר לַֽיהֹוָ֗ה אֽוֹ־הִשָּׁ֤בַע שְׁבֻעָה֙ לֶאְסֹ֤ר אִסָּר֙ עַל־נַפְשׁ֔וֹ לֹ֥א יַחֵ֖ל דְּבָר֑וֹ כְּכָל־הַיֹּצֵ֥א מִפִּ֖יו יַֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
a vow: By saying, “It shall be prohibited just like a sacrifice, that I will not eat, or I will not do a certain thing.” One might think that even if he swears to eat carrion, I apply to him “according to whatever came out of his mouth, he shall do.” Scripture therefore states, “to prohibit”-to prohibit what is permitted, but not to permit what is prohibited. — [Sifrei Mattoth 7]   נֶדֶר: הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי קוֹנָם שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא אֶעֱשֶׂה דָבָר פְּלוֹנִי; יָכוֹל אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁבַּע שֶׁיֹּאכַל נְבֵלוֹת אֲנִי קוֹרֵא עָלָיו כְּכָל הַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיו יַעֲשֶׂה? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר לאסר אסר — לֶאֱסֹר אֶת הַמֻּתָּר וְלֹא לְהַתִּיר אֶת הָאָסוּר (ספרי):
he shall not violate his word: Heb. לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ, like לֹא יְחַלֵּל דְּבָרוֹ “he shall not profane his word,” he shall not treat his word as being unholy. — [Sifrei Mattoth 8]   לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ: כְּמוֹ לֹא יְחַלֵּל דְּבָרוֹ — לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה דְּבָרוֹ חֻלִּין (שם):
4If a woman makes a vow to the Lord, or imposes a prohibition [upon herself] while in her father's house, in her youth,   דוְאִשָּׁ֕ה כִּֽי־תִדֹּ֥ר נֶ֖דֶר לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְאָֽסְרָ֥ה אִסָּ֛ר בְּבֵ֥ית אָבִ֖יהָ בִּנְעֻרֶֽיהָ:
while in her father’s house: Under her father’s jurisdiction, even if she is not [actually] in his house. - [Sifrei Mattoth 12]   בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ: בִּרְשׁוּת אָבִיהָ וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ בְּבֵיתוֹ (שם):
in her youth: Neither a minor nor an adult [above the age of twelve and a half], since a minor’s vows are invalid, and an adult is not under her father’s jurisdiction to revoke her vows. What is considered a minor? Our Rabbis said: A girl of eleven years and a day-her vows are examined. If she knew in whose name she vowed, or in whose name she consecrated something, her vow stands. From the age of twelve years and one day, she does not need to be tested. — [Niddah 45b]   בִּנְעֻרֶֽיהָ: וְלֹא קְטַנָּה וְלֹא בוֹגֶרֶת, שֶׁהַקְּטַנָּה אֵין נִדְרָהּ נֶדֶר, וְהַבּוֹגֶרֶת אֵינָהּ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל אָבִיהָ לְהָפֵר נְדָרֶיהָ; וְאֵי זוֹ הִיא קְטַנָּה? אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בַּת י"א שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד נְדָרֶיהָ נִבְדָּקִין, אִם יָדְעָה לְשֵׁם מִי נָדְרָה וּלְשֵׁם מִי הִקְדִּישָׁה, נִדְרָהּ נֶדֶר, בַּת י"ב שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לִבָּדֵק:
5if her father heard her vow or her prohibition which she has prohibited upon herself, yet her father remains silent, all her vows shall stand, and any prohibition that she has imposed upon herself shall stand.   הוְשָׁמַ֨ע אָבִ֜יהָ אֶת־נִדְרָ֗הּ וֶֽאֱסָרָהּ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָֽסְרָ֣ה עַל־נַפְשָׁ֔הּ וְהֶֽחֱרִ֥ישׁ לָ֖הּ אָבִ֑יהָ וְקָ֨מוּ֙ כָּל־נְדָרֶ֔יהָ וְכָל־אִסָּ֛ר אֲשֶׁר־אָֽסְרָ֥ה עַל־נַפְשָׁ֖הּ יָקֽוּם:
6But if her father hinders her on the day he hears it, all her vows and her prohibitions that she has imposed upon herself shall not stand. The Lord will forgive her because her father hindered her.   ווְאִם־הֵנִ֨יא אָבִ֣יהָ אֹתָהּ֘ בְּי֣וֹם שָׁמְעוֹ֒ כָּל־נְדָרֶ֗יהָ וֶֽאֱסָרֶ֛יהָ אֲשֶׁר־אָֽסְרָ֥ה עַל־נַפְשָׁ֖הּ לֹ֣א יָק֑וּם וַֽיהֹוָה֙ יִסְלַח־לָ֔הּ כִּֽי־הֵנִ֥יא אָבִ֖יהָ אֹתָֽהּ:
But if her father hinders her: Heb. הֵנִיא, if he prevented her from [fulfilling] the vow, that is to say, he revoked it. I would not know what this term of הַנָאָה [in the verse, הֵנִיא] means. However, when it says, “But if her husband hinders her on the day he heard it, he has revoked” (verse 9), I conclude that הִנָאָה means revocation. Literally, it is a term implying prevention and removal. Similarly, “Why do you discourage [lit., turn away (תְנִיאוּן) the people’s hearts]?” (32:7), and, “may the oil of the anointment of my head not turn my head away (יָנִי)” (Ps. 141:5); similarly, “thus you will come to know My alienation (תְּנוּאֲתִי)” (14:34), that you have turned away from Me.   וְאִם־הֵנִיא אָבִיהָ אֹתָהּ: אִם מָנַע אוֹתָהּ מִן הַנֶּדֶר, כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהֵפֵר לָהּ. הֲנָאָה זוֹ אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה הִיא, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר "וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר" (פסוק ט') הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר הֲנָאָה זוֹ הֲפָרָה. וּפְשׁוּטוֹ לְשׁוֹן מְנִיעָה וַהֲסָרָה, וְכֵן "וְלָמָּה תְנִיאוּן" (במדבר ל"ב), וְכֵן "שֶׁמֶן רֹאשׁ אַל יָנִי רֹאשִׁי" (תהילים קמ"א), וְכֵן "וִידַעְתֶּם אֶת תְּנוּאָתִי" (במדבר י"ד) — אֶת אֲשֶׁר סַרְתֶּם מֵעָלַי:
and the Lord will forgive her: To what case does the verse refer? To a woman who took a nazarite vow, and her husband heard and revoked it for her without her knowledge. She then transgressed her vow by drinking wine and becoming unclean through contact with corpses-such [a woman] requires forgiveness even though it was revoked. And if those which have been revoked require forgiveness, all the more so those which have not been revoked. — [Sifrei Mattoth 17]   וה' יִסְלַח־לָהּ: בַּמֶּה הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר? בְּאִשָּׁה שֶׁנָּדְרָה בְנָזִיר וְשָׁמַע בַּעְלָהּ וְהֵפֵר לָהּ וְהִיא לֹא יָדְעָה וְעוֹבֶרֶת עַל נִדְרָהּ וְשׁוֹתָה יַיִן וּמִטַּמְּאָה לְמֵתִים, זוֹ הִיא שֶׁצְּרִיכָה סְלִיחָה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מוּפָר, וְאִם הַמּוּפָרִין צְרִיכִים סְלִיחָה, קַל וָחֹמֶר לְשֶׁאֵינָן מוּפָרִים (עי' קידושין פ"א):
7But if she is [betrothed] to a man, with her vows upon her or by an utterance of her lips which she has imposed upon herself,   זוְאִם־הָי֤וֹ תִֽהְיֶה֙ לְאִ֔ישׁ וּנְדָרֶ֖יהָ עָלֶ֑יהָ א֚וֹ מִבְטָ֣א שְׂפָתֶ֔יהָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽסְרָ֖ה עַל־נַפְשָֽׁהּ:
If she is [betrothed] to a man: Heb. וְאִם הָיֹה תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ. This [refers to] a betrothed woman [i.e., אֲרוּסָה, the first stage of marriage, when the marriage ceremony has been performed, but the couple does not yet live together], or perhaps it refers to a married woman [נְשׂוּאָה, who lives already with her husband]? When [Scripture] says, “if she vowed in her husband’s house” (verse 11) it speaks of a married woman, so this must refer to a betrothed woman, and it comes to distinguish her [the betrothed woman from the married woman] in that both her father and husband [must] revoke her vows. If the father revoked it, but the husband did not revoke it, or if the husband revoked it, but the father did not revoke it, it is not revoked, and it goes without saying that if one of them upheld it. — [Ned. 67a]   וְאִם־הָיוֹ תִֽהְיֶה לְאִישׁ: זוֹ אֲרוּסָה, אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא נְשׂוּאָה? כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר "וְאִם בֵּית אִישָׁהּ נָדָרָה" הֲרֵי נְשׂוּאָה אָמוּר, וְכָאן בַּאֲרוּסָה, וּבָא לַחֲלֹק בָּהּ שֶׁאָבִיהָ וּבַעְלָהּ מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ, הֵפֵר הָאָב וְלֹא הֵפֵר הַבַּעַל, אוֹ הֵפֵר הַבַּעַל וְלֹא הֵפֵר הָאָב, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ מוּפָר, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם קִיֵּם אֶחָד מֵהֶם:
with her vows upon her: which she had vowed while in her father’s house, but her father had not heard them, so they were neither revoked nor upheld. — [Sifrei Mattoth 20]   וּנְדָרֶיהָ עָלֶיהָ: שֶׁנָּדְרָה בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ, וְלֹא שָׁמַע בָּהֶן אָבִיהָ וְלֹא הוּפְרוּ וְלֹא הוּקְמוּ (עי' ספרי):
8and her husband hears it but remains silent on the day he hears it, her vows shall stand, and her prohibition which she has imposed upon herself shall stand.   חוְשָׁמַ֥ע אִישָׁ֛הּ בְּי֥וֹם שָׁמְע֖וֹ וְהֶֽחֱרִ֣ישׁ לָ֑הּ וְקָ֣מוּ נְדָרֶ֗יהָ וֶֽאֱסָרֶ֛הָ אֲשֶׁר־אָֽסְרָ֥ה עַל־נַפְשָׁ֖הּ יָקֻֽמוּ:
and her husband heard…: Here you have the case that if the husband upholds it, it stands. - [Sifrei Mattoth 21]   וְשָׁמַע אִישָׁהּ וגו': הֲרֵי לְךָ שֶׁאִם קִיֵּם הַבַּעַל שֶׁהוּא קַיָּם:
9But if her husband hinders her on the day he heard it, he has revoked the vow she had taken upon herself and the utterance which she had imposed upon herself, and the Lord will forgive her.   טוְאִ֠ם בְּי֨וֹם שְׁמֹ֣עַ אִישָׁהּ֘ יָנִ֣יא אוֹתָהּ֒ וְהֵפֵ֗ר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָלֶ֔יהָ וְאֵת֙ מִבְטָ֣א שְׂפָתֶ֔יהָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽסְרָ֖ה עַל־נַפְשָׁ֑הּ וַֽיהֹוָ֖ה יִסְלַח־לָֽהּ:
he has revoked the vow she had taken upon herself: I might think that even if the father had not revoked it [it is revoked]? Scripture therefore teaches, “in her youth, while in her father’s house” (verse 17); throughout her youth she is under her father’s jurisdiction. — [Sifrei Mattoth 31]   וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ: יָכוֹל אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הֵפֵר הָאָב, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר (פסוק י"ז) "בִּנְעֻרֶיהָ בֵּית אָבִיהָ" — כָּל שֶׁבִּנְעוּרֶיהָ בִּרְשׁוּת אָבִיהָ הִיא (ספרי שם):
10As for the vow of a widow or a divorced woman, whatever she prohibited upon herself will remain upon her.   יוְנֵ֥דֶר אַלְמָנָ֖ה וּגְרוּשָׁ֑ה כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־אָֽסְרָ֥ה עַל־נַפְשָׁ֖הּ יָק֥וּם עָלֶֽיהָ:
whatever she prohibited upon herself will remain upon her: since she is neither under the jurisdiction of her father nor of her husband. Scripture refers to a widow from marriage, but if she is widowed from betrothal, as soon as her betrothed [husband] has died, she reverts to the jurisdiction of her father. — [Ned. 70a]   כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־אָֽסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ יָקוּם עָלֶֽיהָ: לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ לֹא בִרְשׁוּת אָב וְלֹא בִרְשׁוּת בַּעַל, וּבְאַלְמָנָה מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, אֲבָל אַלְמָנָה מִן הָאֵרוּסִין — מֵת הַבַּעַל נִתְרוֹקְנָה וְחָזְרָה רְשׁוּת לָאָב (נדרים ע'):
11But if she vowed in her husband's house, or imposed a prohibition upon herself with an oath.   יאוְאִם־בֵּ֥ית אִישָׁ֖הּ נָדָ֑רָה אוֹ־אָֽסְרָ֥ה אִסָּ֛ר עַל־נַפְשָׁ֖הּ בִּשְׁבֻעָֽה:
But if she made a vow in her husband’s house: Scripture refers to a married woman (נְשׂוּאָה). - [Sifrei Mattoth 25, Ned. 67a]   וְאִם־בֵּית אשה נָדָרָה: בִּנְשׂוּאָה הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר (שם ס"ז):
12and her husband heard and remained silent, and did not hinder her, all her vows shall stand, and every prohibition she imposed upon herself shall stand.   יבוְשָׁמַ֤ע אִישָׁהּ֙ וְהֶֽחֱרִ֣שׁ לָ֔הּ לֹ֥א הֵנִ֖יא אֹתָ֑הּ וְקָ֨מוּ֙ כָּל־נְדָרֶ֔יהָ וְכָל־אִסָּ֛ר אֲשֶׁר־אָֽסְרָ֥ה עַל־נַפְשָׁ֖הּ יָקֽוּם:
13If her husband revokes them on the day he hears them, anything issuing from her lips regarding her vows or self imposed prohibitions shall not stand; her husband has revoked them and the Lord shall forgive her.   יגוְאִם־הָפֵר֩ יָפֵ֨ר אֹתָ֥ם | אִישָׁהּ֘ בְּי֣וֹם שָׁמְעוֹ֒ כָּל־מוֹצָ֨א שְׂפָתֶ֧יהָ לִנְדָרֶ֛יהָ וּלְאִסַּ֥ר נַפְשָׁ֖הּ לֹ֣א יָק֑וּם אִישָׁ֣הּ הֲפֵרָ֔ם וַֽיהֹוָ֖ה יִסְלַח־לָֽהּ:
14Any vow or any binding oath of self affliction, her husband can either uphold it or revoke it.   ידכָּל־נֵ֛דֶר וְכָל־שְׁבֻעַ֥ת אִסָּ֖ר לְעַנֹּ֣ת נָ֑פֶשׁ אִישָׁ֥הּ יְקִימֶ֖נּוּ וְאִישָׁ֥הּ יְפֵרֶֽנּוּ:
Any vow or any binding oath of self-affliction: Since it says that the husband may revoke, I might think this includes all vows? Scripture therefore says, “of self-affliction”-he can revoke only vows of self-affliction. They are delineated in Tractate Nedarim (79a).   כָּל־נֵדֶר וְכָל־שְׁבֻעַת אִסָּר וגו': לְפִי שֶׁאָמַר שֶׁהַבַּעַל מֵפֵר, יָכוֹל כָּל נְדָרִים בְמַשְׁמָע, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר לענת נפש — אֵינוֹ מֵפֵר אֶלָּא נִדְרֵי עִנּוּי נֶפֶשׁ בִּלְבַד, וְהֵם מְפֹרָשִׁים בְּמַסֶּ' נְדָרִים (דף ע"ט):
15However, if her husband remained silent from day to day, he has upheld all the vows and prohibitions she has assumed; he has upheld them since he remained silent on the day he heard it.   טווְאִם־הַֽחֲרֵשׁ֩ יַֽחֲרִ֨ישׁ לָ֥הּ אִישָׁהּ֘ מִיּ֣וֹם אֶל־יוֹם֒ וְהֵקִים֙ אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶ֔יהָ א֥וֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶ֖יהָ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָלֶ֑יהָ הֵקִ֣ים אֹתָ֔ם כִּי־הֶֽחֱרִ֥שׁ לָ֖הּ בְּי֥וֹם שָׁמְעֽוֹ:
from day to day: So that you should not say that [he has the power to revoke] for a twenty-four hour period, it says, “from day to day” to inform you that he may revoke only until nightfall. — [Ned. 76b]   מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם: שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר מֵעֵת לְעֵת, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר "מִיּוֹם אֶל יוֹם", לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁאֵין מֵפֵר אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ (נדרים ע"ו):
16If he revokes them after having heard [them], he shall bear her iniquity.   טזוְאִם־הָפֵ֥ר יָפֵ֛ר אֹתָ֖ם אַֽחֲרֵ֣י שָׁמְע֑וֹ וְנָשָׂ֖א אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָֽהּ:
after having heard them: After he heard and upheld [them], by saying, “I approve of it” and then he retracted and revoked it, even on that very day. — [Sifrei Mattoth 30]   אַֽחֲרֵי שָׁמְעוֹ: אַחֲרֵי שֶׁשָּׁמַע וְקִיֵּם, שֶׁאָמַר אֶפְשִׁי בּוֹ, וְחָזַר וְהֵפֵר לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם:
he shall bear her iniquity: He takes her place. We learn from here that if someone causes his fellow to stumble, he bears his punishments in his place. — [Sifrei Mattoth 30]   וְנָשָׂא אֶת־עונה: הוּא נִכְנָס תַּחְתֶּיהָ. לָמַדְנוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁהַגּוֹרֵם תַּקָּלָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ הוּא נִכְנָס תַּחְתָּיו לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין:
17These are the statutes which the Lord commanded Moses concerning a man and his wife, a father and his daughter, in her youth, while in her father's house.   יזאֵ֣לֶּה הַֽחֻקִּ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־משֶׁ֔ה בֵּ֥ין אִ֖ישׁ לְאִשְׁתּ֑וֹ בֵּין־אָ֣ב לְבִתּ֔וֹ בִּנְעֻרֶ֖יהָ בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיהָ:

Second Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 31

1The Lord spoke to Moses saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2"Take revenge for the children of Israel against the Midianites; afterwards you will be gathered to your people."   בנְקֹ֗ם נִקְמַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵאֵ֖ת הַמִּדְיָנִ֑ים אַחַ֖ר תֵּֽאָסֵ֥ף אֶל־עַמֶּֽיךָ:
against the Midianites: But not against the Moabites, for the Moabites were involved in the matter out of fear, since they were afraid of being plundered by them, because all it says is, “do not provoke them into battle” (Deut. 2:9), but the Midianites were angered over a dispute which did not concern them (See Sifrei Mattoth 33). Another interpretation: Because of the two good doves [virtuous proselytes] whom I have [in mind] to bring forth from them, [namely] Ruth the Moabitess and Naamah the Ammonitess (I Kings 14: 21). - [B.K. 38b]   מֵאֵת הַמִּדְיָנִים: וְלֹא מֵאֵת הַמּוֹאָבִים, שֶׁהַמּוֹאָבִים נִכְנְסוּ לַדָּבָר מֵחֲמַת יִרְאָה, שֶׁהָיוּ יְרֵאִים מֵהֶם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שׁוֹלְלִים אוֹתָם, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא "וְאַל תִּתְגָּר בָּם מִלְחָמָה" (דברים ב'), אֲבָל מִדְיָנִים נִתְעַבְּרוּ עַל רִיב לֹא לָהֶם; דָּבָר אַחֵר, מִפְּנֵי שְׁנֵי פְרֵידוֹת טוֹבוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֶם — רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה וְנַעֲמָה הָעַמּוֹנִית (בבא קמא ל"ח):
3So Moses spoke to the people, saying, "Arm from among you men for the army, that they can be against Midian, and carry out the revenge of the Lord against Midian.   גוַיְדַבֵּ֤ר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־הָעָ֣ם לֵאמֹ֔ר הֵחָֽלְצ֧וּ מֵֽאִתְּכֶ֛ם אֲנָשִׁ֖ים לַצָּבָ֑א וְיִֽהְיוּ֙ עַל־מִדְיָ֔ן לָתֵ֥ת נִקְמַת־יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּמִדְיָֽן:
Moses spoke: Although he heard that his death depended on the matter, he did it joyfully, without delay. — [Sifrei Mattoth 34, Mid. Tanchuma Mattoth 3, Num. Rabbah 22:2]   וַיְדַבֵּר משֶׁה וגו': אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁמַע שֶׁמִּיתָתוֹ תְלוּיָה בַּדָּבָר עָשָׂה בְשִׂמְחָה וְלֹא אֵחַר (ספרי):
arm: Heb. הֵחָלְצוּ, as the Targum [Onkelos renders זְרִיזוּ], in the sense of “armed for battle” (verse 5), armed with weapons. — [See Sifrei Mattoth 34]   הֵחָֽלְצוּ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, לְשׁוֹן חֲלוּצֵי צָבָא — מְזֻיָּנִים:
men: Righteous men. Similarly, “choose men for us” (Exod. 17:9), and “men who are wise and renowned” (Deut. 1:15). - [Mid. Tanchuma Mattoth 3, Sifrei Mattoth 36, Num. Rabbah 22:2]   אֲנָשִׁים: צַדִּיקִים, וְכֵן "בְּחַר לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים" (שמות י"ז), וְכֵן "אֲנָשִׁים חֲכָמִים וִידֻעִים" (דברים א'):
the revenge of the Lord: For anyone opposing Israel is reckoned as opposing the Holy One, blessed is He. — [See Mid. Tanchuma Mattoth 3, Num. Rabbah 22:2]   נִקְמַת־ה': שֶׁהָעוֹמֵד כְּנֶגֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּאִלּוּ עוֹמֵד כְּנֶגֶד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:
4A thousand for each tribe, a thousand for each tribe, from all the tribes of Israel you shall send into the army."   דאֶ֚לֶף לַמַּטֶּ֔ה אֶ֖לֶף לַמַּטֶּ֑ה לְכֹל֙ מַטּ֣וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל תִּשְׁלְח֖וּ לַצָּבָֽא:
from all the tribes: including the tribe of Levi. — [Sifrei Mattoth 35]   לְכֹל מַטּוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל: לְרַבּוֹת שֵׁבֶט לֵוִי (ספרי):
5From the thousands of Israel one thousand was given over for each tribe, twelve thousand armed for battle.   הוַיִּמָּֽסְרוּ֙ מֵֽאַלְפֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶ֖לֶף לַמַּטֶּ֑ה שְׁנֵֽים־עָשָׂ֥ר אֶ֖לֶף חֲלוּצֵ֥י צָבָֽא:
was given over: Heb. וַיִּמָּסְרוּ. [The passive form is used] to inform you of the virtues of the Israelite shepherds [leaders]-how cherished they were by Israel. When they had not yet heard of his death, what did he say? “Just a little longer and they will stone me” (Exod. 17:4). But as soon as they heard that Moses’ demise was contingent upon the revenge against Midian, they refused to go, until they were given over against their will. — [Sifrei Mattoth 36, Mid. Tanchuma Mattoth 3, Num. Rabbah 22:3]   וַיִּמָּֽסְרוּ: לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שִׁבְחָן שֶׁל רוֹעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּמָּה הֵם חֲבִיבִים עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמְעוּ בְמִיתָתוֹ מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר? "עוֹד מְעַט וּסְקָלֻנִי" (שמות י"ז), וּמִשֶּׁשָּׁמְעוּ שֶׁמִּיתַת מֹשֶׁה תְלוּיָה בְנִקְמַת מִדְיָן לֹא רָצוּ לָלֶכֶת עַד שֶׁנִּמְסְרוּ עַל כָּרְחָן (ספרי):
6Moses sent them the thousand from each tribe to the army, them along with Phinehas the son of Eleazar the kohen to the army, with the sacred utensils and the trumpets for sounding in his possession.   ווַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח אֹתָ֥ם משֶׁ֛ה אֶ֥לֶף לַמַּטֶּ֖ה לַצָּבָ֑א אֹ֠תָ֠ם וְאֶת־פִּ֨ינְחָ֜ס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָ֤ר הַכֹּהֵן֙ לַצָּבָ֔א וּכְלֵ֥י הַקֹּ֛דֶשׁ וַֽחֲצֹֽצְר֥וֹת הַתְּרוּעָ֖ה בְּיָדֽוֹ:
them along with Phinehas: This shows that Phinehas equaled them all (Sifrei Mattoth 34). Why did Phinehas go, and Eleazar did not go? The Holy One, blessed is He, said, “The one who began the mitzvah by killing Cozbi the daughter of Zur, should finish it” (Mid. Tanchuma Mattoth 3). Another interpretation: He sought the vengeance of Joseph, his maternal grandfather, for it says, “And the Medanites sold him” (Gen. 37:36) (Sifrei Mattoth 34, Sotah 43a). How do we know that Phinehas’s mother was [descended] from Joseph? Because it says, “[Eleazar the son of Aaron took himself one] of the daughters of Putiel (פּוּטִיאֵל)” (Exod. 6:25) [meaning] of the descendants of Jethro, who fattened (פִּטֵּם) calves for idolatry, and from the descendants of Joseph, who made light of (פִּטְפֵּט) his passion and prevailed over it [when he was tempted by Potiphar’s wife]. Another interpretation: He was [the kohen] anointed for war. — [Sotah 43a]   אֹתָם וְאֶת־פִּינְחָס: מַגִּיד שֶׁהָיָה פִינְחָס שָׁקוּל כְּנֶגֶד כֻּלָּם (ספרי); וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הָלַךְ פִּינְחָס וְלֹא הָלַךְ אֶלְעָזָר? אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִי שֶׁהִתְחִיל בַּמִּצְוָה, שֶׁהָרַג כָּזְבִּי בַת צוּר, יִגְמֹר; דָּבָר אַחֵר — שֶׁהָלַךְ לִנְקֹם נִקְמַת יוֹסֵף אֲבִי אִמּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְהַמְּדָנִים מָכְרוּ אֹתוֹ" (בראשית ל"ז); וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהָיְתָה אִמּוֹ שֶׁל פִּינְחָס מִשֶּׁל יוֹסֵף? שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "מִבְּנוֹת פּוּטִיאֵל" (שמות ו') — מִזֶּרַע יִתְרוֹ שֶׁפִּטֵּם עֲגָלִים לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וּמִזֶּרַע יוֹסֵף שֶׁפִּטְפֵּט בְּיִצְרוֹ (סוטה מ"ג); דָּבָר אַחֵר — שֶׁהָיָה מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה (שם):
the sacred utensils: The holy Ark (Sifrei Mattoth 34, Num. Rabbah 22:4) and the golden showplate (Mid. Aggadah), since Balaam was with them and through sorcery was able to make the Midianite kings fly, and he flew along with them, he [Phinehas] showed them the showplate on which God’s Name was engraved, and they fell down [to earth]. For this reason it says, concerning the Midianite kings, “upon their slain” (verse 8), for they fell from the air on top of those slain. Likewise, it says in the book of Joshua (13:22) in connection with Balaam, “upon (sic) their slain.” - [Mid. Tanchuma Mattoth 4]   וּכְלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ: זֶה הָאָרוֹן וְהַצִּיץ, שֶׁהָיָה בִּלְעָם עִמָּהֶם וּמַפְרִיחַ מַלְכֵי מִדְיָן בִּכְשָׁפִים וְהוּא עַצְמוֹ פוֹרֵחַ עִמָּהֶם, הֶרְאָה לָהֶם אֶת הַצִּיץ שֶׁהַשֵּׁם חָקוּק בּוֹ וְהֵם נוֹפְלִים, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר "עַל חַלְלֵיהֶם" בְּמַלְכֵי מִדְיָן — שֶׁנּוֹפְלִים עַל הַחֲלָלִים מִן הָאֲוִיר, וְכֵן בְּבִלְעָם כָּתוּב "עַל חַלְלֵיהֶם" בְּסֵ' יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (תנחומא):
in his possession: Heb. בְּיָדוֹ, lit. in his hand, [here] in his possession. Similarly, “taking all his land from his possession (מִיָּדוֹ)” (Num. 21: 26). - [Sifrei Mattoth 37]   בְּיָדֽוֹ: בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, וְכֵן (במדבר כ"א) "וַיִּקַּח אֶת כָּל אַרְצוֹ מִיָּדוֹ" (ספרי):
7They mounted an attack against Midian, as the Lord had commanded Moses, and they killed every male.   זוַיִּצְבְּאוּ֙ עַל־מִדְיָ֔ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶׁ֑ה וַיַּֽהַרְג֖וּ כָּל־זָכָֽר:
8And they killed the Midianite kings upon their slain: Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba, the five kings of Midian, and Balaam the son of Beor they slew with the sword.   חוְאֶת־מַלְכֵ֨י מִדְיָ֜ן הָֽרְג֣וּ עַל־חַלְלֵיהֶ֗ם אֶת־אֱוִ֤י וְאֶת־רֶ֨קֶם֙ וְאֶת־צ֤וּר וְאֶת־חוּר֙ וְאֶת־רֶ֔בַע חֲמֵ֖שֶׁת מַלְכֵ֣י מִדְיָ֑ן וְאֵת֙ בִּלְעָ֣ם בֶּן־בְּע֔וֹר הָֽרְג֖וּ בֶּחָֽרֶב:
the five kings of Midian: Do I not see that the verse lists five [kings]? Why was it necessary [for Scripture] to say “five”? But it is to teach you that they were all equally involved in the conspiracy, and they all received the same punishment. Balaam went there [to Midian] to receive his reward for the twenty-four thousand that had fallen from Israel as a result of his advice, and now he left Midian to meet the Israelites, and he offered them harmful advice. He said to them, “If, when you were six hundred thousand, you could not overcome them, and now with twelve thousand, you come to fight?” They gave him his just deserts-in full, without depriving him in the least. — [Sifrei Mattoth 40]   חֲמֵשֶׁת מַלְכֵי מִדְיָן: וְכִי אֵינִי רוֹאֶה שֶׁחֲמִשָּׁה מָנָה הַכָּתוּב? לָמָּה הֻזְקַק לוֹמַר חֲמֵשֶׁת? אֶלָּא לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁשָּׁווּ כֻלָּם בָּעֵצָה וְהֻשְׁווּ כֻלָּם בַּפֻּרְעָנוּת (שם); בִּלְעָם הָלַךְ שָׁם לִטֹּל שְׂכַר עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה אֶלֶף שֶׁהִפִּיל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל בַּעֲצָתוֹ, וְיָצָא מִמִּדְיָן לִקְרַאת יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַשִּׂיאָן עֵצָה רָעָה — אָמַר לָהֶם אִם כְּשֶׁהֱיִיתֶם שִׁשִּׁים רִבּוֹא לֹא יְכָלְתֶּם לָהֶם, וְעַכְשָׁיו בְּי"ב אֶלֶף אַתֶּם בָּאִים לְהִלָּחֵם? — נָתְנוּ לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ מִשָּׁלֵם וְלֹא קִפְּחוּהוּ (ספרי):
with the sword: He came against Israel and exchanged his craft for theirs. For they are victorious only with their mouths, through prayer and supplication, and he came and adopted their craft to curse them with his mouth. So they too came against him by exchanging their craft for the craft of the nations, who come with the sword, as it says [concerning Esau], “And you shall live by your sword” (Gen. 27:40). - [See Mid. Tanchuma Balak 8]   בֶּחָֽרֶב: הוּא בָא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֶחֱלִיף אֻמָּנוּתוֹ בְּאֻמָּנוּתָם, שֶׁאֵין נוֹצְחִים אֶלָּא בְּפִיהֶם וְעַל יְדֵי תְפִלָּה וּבַקָּשָׁה, וּבָא הוּא וְתָפַשׂ אֻמָּנוּתָם לְקַלְּלָם בְּפִיו, אַף הֵם בָּאוּ עָלָיו וְהֶחֱלִיפוּ אֻמָּנוּתָם בְּאֻמָּנוּת הָאֻמּוֹת שֶׁבָּאִין בַּחֶרֶב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְעַל חַרְבְּךָ תִחְיֶה" (בראשית כ"ז):
9The children of Israel took the Midianite women and their small children captive, and they plundered all their beasts, livestock, and all their possessions.   טוַיִּשְׁבּ֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־נְשֵׁ֥י מִדְיָ֖ן וְאֶת־טַפָּ֑ם וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־בְּהֶמְתָּ֧ם וְאֶת־כָּל־מִקְנֵהֶ֛ם וְאֶת־כָּל־חֵילָ֖ם בָּזָֽזוּ:
10They set fire to all their residential cities and their castles.   יוְאֵ֤ת כָּל־עָֽרֵיהֶם֙ בְּמ֣וֹשְׁבֹתָ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־טִֽירֹתָ֑ם שָֽׂרְפ֖וּ בָּאֵֽשׁ:
their castles: Heb. בְּטִירֹתָם, the place of their notaries (נוֹטֵירִין), [or the place of their palaces (פַּלְטֵירִין)] which is an expression denoting the residence of the priests, knowledgeable in their laws. Another interpretation: The residence of their lords, for the Targum renders “the lords of the Philistines” פְלִשְׁתִּים) (סַרְנֵי (I Sam. 6:4) as טוּרְנֵי פְלשְׁתָּאֵי. - [See Sifrei Mattoth 41]   טִֽירֹתָם: מְקוֹם נוֹטִירִין שֶׁלָּהֶם, שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן מוֹשַׁב כּוּמָרִים יוֹדְעֵי חֻקֵּיהֶם; דָּבָר אַחֵר — לְשׁוֹן מוֹשַׁב שָׂרֵיהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּתֻרְגָּם "סַרְנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים" (שמואל א ו') — טוּרְנֵי פְלִשְׁתָּאֵי:
11They took all the booty and all the plunder of man and beast.   יאוַיִּקְחוּ֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַשָּׁלָ֔ל וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־הַמַּלְק֑וֹחַ בָּֽאָדָ֖ם וּבַבְּהֵמָֽה:
They took all the booty: This teaches us that they were virtuous and righteous, and were not suspect of theft, to appropriate the booty without permission, for it says, “all the booty” (Sifrei Mattoth 42). In tradition, [i.e., in the Prophets and the Writings] Scripture explicitly refers to them, [for it says,] “your teeth are like a flock of ewes…” (Song 6:6) - even your warriors; they are all righteous. — [See Rashi on Song 6:6]   וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַשָּׁלָל וגו': מַגִּיד שֶׁהָיוּ כְשֵׁרִים וְצַדִּיקִים, וְלֹא נֶחְשְׁדוּ עַל הַגֶּזֶּל לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בַּבִּזָּה שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר את כל השלל וגו', וַעֲלֵיהֶם מְפֹרָשׁ בַּקַּבָּלָה "שִׁנַּיִךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָרְחֵלִים" וְגוֹ' (שיר השירים ו׳:ו׳) — אַף אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה שֶׁבָּךְ כֻּלָּם צַדִּיקִים:
booty: Heb. שָׁלָל, movable objects such as garments and ornaments.   שלל: הֵן מִטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁל מַלְבּוּשׁ וְתַכְשִׁיטִין:
spoil: Heb. בָּז denotes plunder of movable objects which are not ornaments.   בז: הוּא בִזַּת מִטַּלְטְלִין שֶׁאֵינָם תַּכְשִׁיט:
plunder: Heb. מַלְקוֹחַ, man and beast, but when “captives” (שְׁבִי) is mentioned together with “plunder” (מַלְקוֹחַ) , the “captives” refers to people and the “plunder” to animals.   מלקוח: אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה, וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁכָּתוּב שְׁבִי אֵצֶל מַלְקוֹחַ, שְׁבִי בָאָדָם וּמַלְקוֹחַ בַּבְּהֵמָה:
12They brought the captives, the plunder, and the booty to Moses and to Eleazar the kohen and to the entire community of Israel in the camp, in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho.   יבוַיָּבִ֡אוּ אֶל־משֶׁה֩ וְאֶל־אֶלְעָזָ֨ר הַכֹּהֵ֜ן וְאֶל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֶת־הַשְּׁבִ֧י וְאֶת־הַמַּלְק֛וֹחַ וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָ֖ל אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה אֶל־עַרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵחֽוֹ:

Third Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 31

13Moses, Eleazar the kohen, and all princes of the community went out to meet them, outside the camp.   יגוַיֵּ֨צְא֜וּ משֶׁ֨ה וְאֶלְעָזָ֧ר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן וְכָל־נְשִׂיאֵ֥י הָֽעֵדָ֖ה לִקְרָאתָ֑ם אֶל־מִח֖וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
Moses, Eleazar the kohen… went out: because they saw the Israelite youths going out to grab the spoils. — [Sifrei Mattoth 42]   וַיֵּצְאוּ משֶׁה וְאֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן: לְפִי שֶׁרָאוּ אֶת נַעֲרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יוֹצְאִים לַחֲטֹף מִן הַבִּזָּה (ספרי):
14Moses became angry with the officers of the army, the commanders of thousands and the commanders of hundreds, who had returned from the campaign of war.   ידוַיִּקְצֹ֣ף משֶׁ֔ה עַ֖ל פְּקוּדֵ֣י הֶחָ֑יִל שָׂרֵ֤י הָֽאֲלָפִים֙ וְשָׂרֵ֣י הַמֵּא֔וֹת הַבָּאִ֖ים מִצְּבָ֥א הַמִּלְחָמָֽה:
Moses became angry with the officers of the army: Those appointed over the army. [This comes] to teach you that when a generation is corrupt, the leaders are held responsible, for they have the power to protest. — [Sifrei Mattoth 43]   וַיִּקְצֹף משֶׁה עַל פְּקוּדֵי הֶחָיִל: מְמֻנִּים עַל הַחַיִל, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁכָּל סִרְחוֹן הַדּוֹר תָּלוּי בַּגְּדוֹלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ כֹּחַ בְּיָדָם לִמְחוֹת (שם):
15Moses said to them, "Did you allow all the females to live?   טווַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם משֶׁ֑ה הַֽחִיִּיתֶ֖ם כָּל־נְקֵבָֽה:
16They were the same ones who were involved with the children of Israel on Balaam's advice to betray the Lord over the incident of Peor, resulting in a plague among the congregation of the Lord.   טזהֵ֣ן הֵ֜נָּה הָי֨וּ לִבְנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בִּדְבַ֣ר בִּלְעָ֔ם לִמְסָר־מַ֥עַל בַּֽיהֹוָ֖ה עַל־דְּבַ֣ר פְּע֑וֹר וַתְּהִ֥י הַמַּגֵּפָ֖ה בַּֽעֲדַ֥ת יְהֹוָֽה:
They were the same ones: This shows that they recognized them [saying,] "This is the one who led so-and-so astray. — [Sifrei Zuta, Yalkut Shimoni]   הֵן הֵנָּה: מַגִּיד שֶׁהָיוּ מַכִּירִים אוֹתָן — זוֹ הִיא שֶׁנִּכְשַׁל פְּלוֹנִי בָהּ (ילקוט שמעוני תשפ"ה):
on Balaam’s advice: He said to them, "Even if you assemble all the multitudes of the world, you will not be able to overcome them. Are you more numerous than the Egyptians, who had six hundred chosen chariots? Come, and I will advise you. Their God hates immorality [thus, entice them to sin with your women…] as appears in [the chapter of] Cheilek (Sanh. 106a and in the Sifrei (Mattoth 43).   בִּדְבַר בִּלְעָם: אָמַר לָהֶם אֲפִלּוּ אַתֶּם מַכְנִיסִין כָּל הֲמוֹנוֹת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם אֵין אַתֶּם יְכוֹלִים לָהֶם, שֶׁמָּא מְרֻבִּים אַתֶּם מִן הַמִּצְרִיִּים שֶׁהָיוּ שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת רֶכֶב בָּחוּר? בֹּאוּ וְאַשִּׂיאֲכֶם עֵצָה, אֱלֹהֵיהֶם שֶׁל אֵלּוּ שׂוֹנֵא זִמָּה הוּא וְכוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְחֵלֶק (דף ק"ו) וּבְסִפְרֵי:
17So now kill every male child, and every woman who can lie intimately with a man you shall kill.   יזוְעַתָּ֕ה הִרְג֥וּ כָל־זָכָ֖ר בַּטָּ֑ף וְכָל־אִשָּׁ֗ה יֹדַ֥עַת אִ֛ישׁ לְמִשְׁכַּ֥ב זָכָ֖ר הֲרֹֽגוּ:
Every woman who can lie intimately with a man: Capable of sexual intercourse, even though she may never have experienced it. They passed them all in front of the showplate, and the faces of those capable of intercourse turned green. — [Yev. 60b]   וְכָל־אִשָּׁה יֹדַעַת אישׁ: רְאוּיָה לִבָּעֵל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִבְעֲלָה, וְלִפְנֵי הַצִּיץ הֶעֱבִירוּם, וְהָרְאוּיָה לִבָּעֵל פָּנֶיהָ מוֹרִיקוֹת (יבמות ס'):
you shall kill: Why is this repeated? In order to make a pause in the text; so says R. Ishmael. For when I read, “kill every male child, and every woman who can lie intimately with a man… And all the young girls…” I would not know whether to kill them [the women of the first verse] with the males, or allow them to live along with the young [girls]. That is why it says [at the end of the verse] “you shall kill.” - [Sifrei Mattoth 45]   הִרְגוּ: לָמָּה חָזַר וְאָמַר? לְהַפְסִיק הָעִנְיָן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, שֶׁאִם אֲנִי קוֹרֵא הִרְגוּ כָל זָכָר בַּטָּף וְכָל אִשָּׁה יֹדַעַת אִישׁ וְכֹל הַטַּף בַּנָּשִׁים וְגוֹ', אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם לַהֲרֹג עִם הַזְּכָרִים אוֹ לְהַחֲיוֹת עִם הַטַּף, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר הֲרֹגוּ:
18And all the young girls who have no experience of intimate relations with a man, you may keep alive for yourselves.   יחוְכֹל֙ הַטַּ֣ף בַּנָּשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־יָֽדְע֖וּ מִשְׁכַּ֣ב זָכָ֑ר הַֽחֲי֖וּ לָכֶֽם:
19And you, encamp outside the camp for seven days; whoever killed a person or who touched a corpse shall cleanse himself on the third and seventh day, both you and your captives.   יטוְאַתֶּ֗ם חֲנ֛וּ מִח֥וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים כֹּל֩ הֹרֵ֨ג נֶ֜פֶשׁ וְכֹ֣ל | נֹגֵ֣עַ בֶּֽחָלָ֗ל תִּתְחַטְּא֞וּ בַּיּ֤וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי֙ וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י אַתֶּ֖ם וּשְׁבִיכֶֽם:
outside the camp: [This means] that they should not enter the courtyard [of the Mishkan].   מִחוּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶה: שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנְסוּ לָעֲזָרָה:
anyone who killed a person: R. Meir says, Scripture speaks of one who killed with a weapon susceptible to contamination, and it teaches that a vessel defiles a person when it is in contact with a corpse, as if he were actually in contact with the corpse itself. Or, I might think that [he becomes contaminated] even if he shot an arrow and killed him. Scripture therefore teaches, “or who touched a corpse,” equating the one who kills with the one who touches. Just as one who touches is [contaminated] through contact, so is the one who kills [contaminated] through contact. — [Sifrei Chukkath 48]   כֹּל הֹרֵג נֶפֶשׁ: רַ' מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר בְּהוֹרֵג בְּדָבָר הַמְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, וְלִמֶּדְךָ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁהַכְּלִי מְטַמֵּא אָדָם בְּחִבּוּרֵי הַמֵּת כְּאִלּוּ נוֹגֵעַ בַּמֵּת עַצְמוֹ, אוֹ יָכוֹל אֲפִלּוּ זָרַק בּוֹ חֵץ וַהֲרָגוֹ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וכל נגע בחלל, הִקִּישׁ הוֹרֵג לְנוֹגֵעַ, מַה נּוֹגֵעַ עַל יְדֵי חִבּוּרוֹ, אַף הוֹרֵג עַל יְדֵי חִבּוּרוֹ (ספרי במדבר י"ט):
shall cleanse himself: with sprinkling water, as is the law with others who were defiled through contact with corpses. For even those who believe that gentile graves do not contaminate [an Israelite] if they are under the same roof-as it says, “You my sheep, the sheep of My pasture; you are men” (Ezek. 34:31) [and the Sages add,] only you are called “men” (Yev. 61a) - admit that gentiles contaminate through contact and carrying, for [the term] “men” is said only in reference to uncleanness caused by being in the same tent [namely, under one roof] as it says, “[This is the law for a man (אָדָם) who dies in a tent” (19:14).   תִּתְחַטְּאוּ: בְּמֵי נִדָּה כְּדִין שְׁאָר טְמֵאֵי מֵתִים, שֶׁאַף לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים קִבְרֵי גוֹיִם אֵינָם מְטַמְּאִין בָּאֹהֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל ל"ד) "וְאַתֵּן צֹאנִי צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי אָדָם אַתֶּם" — אַתֶּם קְרוּיִם אָדָם — מוֹדֶה הוּא שֶׁהַגּוֹיִם מְטַמְּאִים בְּמַגַּע וּבְמַשָּׂא, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר אָדָם אֶלָּא אֵצֶל טֻמְאַת אָהֳלוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אָדָם כִּי יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל" (במדבר י"ט):
you and your captives: Not that gentiles are susceptible to contamination and therefore require sprinkling, but just as you are members of the covenant, so too your captives, should they become contaminated after they enter the covenant [of God], they require sprinkling. — [Sifrei Mattoth 46]   אַתֶּם וּשְׁבִיכֶֽם: לֹא שֶׁהַגּוֹיִם מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה וּצְרִיכִין הַזָּאָה, אֶלָּא מָה אַתֶּם בְּנֵי בְרִית, אַף שְׁבִיכֶם כְּשֶׁיָּבֹאוּ לַבְּרִית וְיִטָּמְאוּ, צְרִיכִין הַזָּאָה (ספרי):
20All garments, leather articles, any goat product, and every wooden article shall undergo purification."   כוְכָל־בֶּ֧גֶד וְכָל־כְּלִי־ע֛וֹר וְכָל־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה עִזִּ֖ים וְכָל־כְּלִי־עֵ֑ץ תִּתְחַטָּֽאוּ:
and any goat product: This includes articles made from the horns, the hooves, and the bones. — [Chul. 25b]   וְכָל־מַֽעֲשֵׂה עִזִּים: לְהָבִיא כְלֵי הַקַּרְנַיִם וְהַטְּלָפַיִם וְהָעֲצָמוֹת (חולין כ"ה):
21Eleazar the kohen said to the soldiers returning from battle, "This is the statute that the Lord commanded Moses.   כאוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֶלְעָזָ֤ר הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֶל־אַנְשֵׁ֣י הַצָּבָ֔א הַבָּאִ֖ים לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה זֹ֚את חֻקַּ֣ת הַתּוֹרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
Eleazar the kohen…: Since Moses came to a state of anger, he came to err, for the laws of purging gentile vessels eluded him. A similar incident happened on the eighth day of the investitures [of the kohanim], as it says, “He [Moses] became angry with Eleazar and Ithamar” (Lev. 10:16); he came to a state of anger, so he came to err. Similarly, in the episode of “Now listen, you rebels… and struck the rock” (20:10-11); through anger, he came to err. — [Sifrei Mattoth 48]   וַיֹּאמֶר אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וגו': לְפִי שֶׁבָּא מֹשֶׁה לִכְלַל כַּעַס בָּא לִכְלַל טָעוּת, שֶׁנִּתְעַלְּמוּ מִמֶּנּוּ הִלְכוֹת גִּעוּלֵי גּוֹיִם, וְכֵן אַתָּה מוֹצֵא בַשְּׁמִינִי לַמִּלּוּאִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיִּקְצֹף עַל אֶלְעָזָר וְעַל אִיתָמָר" (ויקרא י') — בָּא לִכְלַל כַּעַס בָּא לִכְלַל טָעוּת, וְכֵן בְּשִׁמְעוּ נָא הַמֹּרִים (במדבר כ') "וַיַּךְ אֶת הַסֶּלַע" — עַל יְדֵי הַכַּעַס טָעָה (ספרי; פסחים ס"ו):
which the Lord commanded [Moses]: He ascribed the ruling to his mentor. — [Sifrei Mattoth 48]   אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה ה' וגו': תָּלָה הַהוֹרָאָה בְּרַבּוֹ (עי' ספרי):
22Only the gold, the silver, the copper, the iron, the tin, and the lead   כבאַ֥ךְ אֶת־הַזָּהָ֖ב וְאֶת־הַכָּ֑סֶף אֶת־הַנְּח֨שֶׁת֙ אֶת־הַבַּרְזֶ֔ל אֶת־הַבְּדִ֖יל וְאֶת־הָֽעֹפָֽרֶת:
Only the gold etc.: Even though Moses warned you only about the laws of ritual uncleanness, you must further be warned of the laws concerning the purging [of contaminated vessels]. [The word] אַךְ “only” is an exclusive expression, that is to say, you are excluded from using vessels even after their purification from contamination by a corpse, until they have been purged from the absorption of the forbidden flesh of carrion. Our Rabbis said,“ Only the gold…” teaches you that one must remove its rust before one purges it. This is the meaning of אַךְ “only”-there should be no rust; “only” the metal itself in its original form. — [Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel, Yalkut Shimoni]   אַךְ אֶת־הַזָּהָב וגו': אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִזְהִיר לָכֶם מֹשֶׁה אֶלָּא עַל הִלְכוֹת טֻמְאָה, עוֹד יֵשׁ לְהַזְהִיר לָכֶם עַל הִלְכוֹת גִּעוּל, וְ"אַךְ" לְשׁוֹן מִעוּט, כְּלוֹמַר מְמֻעָטִין אַתֶּם מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בַּכֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר טָהֲרָתָן מִטֻּמְאַת הַמֵּת עַד שֶׁיִּטְהֲרוּ מִבְּלִיעַת אִסּוּר נְבֵלוֹת; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ אָמְרוּ, אך את הזהב לוֹמַר, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַעֲבִיר חֲלוּדָה שֶׁלּוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּגְעִילֶנּוּ, וְזֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן אך, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שָׁם חֲלוּדָה אַךְ הַמַּתֶּכֶת יִהְיֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא:
23whatever is used in fire you shall pass through fire and then it will be clean; it must, however, [also] be cleansed with sprinkling water, and whatever is not used in fire you shall pass through water.   כגכָּל־דָּבָ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־יָבֹ֣א בָאֵ֗שׁ תַּֽעֲבִ֤ירוּ בָאֵשׁ֙ וְטָהֵ֔ר אַ֕ךְ בְּמֵ֥י נִדָּ֖ה יִתְחַטָּ֑א וְכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־יָבֹ֛א בָּאֵ֖שׁ תַּֽעֲבִ֥ירוּ בַמָּֽיִם:
whatever is used in fire: For cooking anything.   כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יָבֹא בָאֵשׁ: לְבַשֵּׁל בּוֹ כְּלוּם:
shall pass through fire: It is purged in the manner it is used. If it is used in hot water, it must be purged in hot water, and if it is used for roasting, such as a spit or grill, it must be made to glow in fire. — [A.Z. 75b]   תַּֽעֲבִירוּ בָאֵשׁ: כְּדֶרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ הַגְעָלָתוֹ — מִי שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ עַל יְדֵי חַמִּין יַגְעִילֶנּוּ בְחַמִּין, וּמִי שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ עַל יְדֵי צְלִי, כְּגוֹן הַשְּׁפוּד וְהָאַסְכְּלָה, יְלַבְּנוֹ בָּאוּר (עבודה זרה ע"ד):
it must, however, [also] be cleansed with sprinkling water: According to its simple meaning, this sprinkling was to cleanse it from contamination by a corpse. He said to them,“The vessels require purging to cleanse them from the [absorption of] forbidden [food], and sprinkling to cleanse them of [spiritual] uncleanness [caused by a corpse].” Our Rabbis expounded from here that even to make them fit for use [after contamination] from forbidden food, ritual immersion was required for metal utensils. They expound מֵי נִדָּה written here to mean water fit for a menstruant [Heb. נִדָּה] to immerse herself in. How much is that? Forty 'seah.’- [A.Z. 75b]   אַךְ בְּמֵי נִדָּה יִתְחַטָּא: לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ חִטּוּי זֶה לְטַהֲרוֹ מִטֻּמְאַת מֵת, אָמַר לָהֶם צְרִיכִין הַכֵּלִים גִּעוּל לְטַהֲרָם מִן הָאִסּוּר וְחִטּוּי לְטַהֲרָן מִן הַטֻּמְאָה; וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁאַף לְהַכְשִׁירָן מִן הָאִסּוּר הִטְעִין טְבִילָה לִכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת, וּמֵי נִדָּה הַכְּתוּבִין כָּאן דָּרְשׁוּ מַיִם הָרְאוּיִם לִטְבֹּל בָּהֶם נִדָּה, וְכַמָּה הֵם? אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה (שם ע"ה):
and whatever is not used in fire: Anything which is not used in fire such as ewers, cups, and jugs, all of which are used for cold [food] and did not absorb forbidden food. — [A.Z. 75b]   וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־לֹֽא־יָבֹא בָאֵשׁ: כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר, כְּגוֹן כּוֹסוֹת וּצְלוֹחִיּוֹת שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישָׁן בְּצוֹנֵן וְלֹא בָלְעוּ אִסּוּר:
shall be passed through water: He immerses them and that is sufficient. This refers only to metal utensils. — [A.Z. 75b, Sifrei Mattoth 50]   תַּֽעֲבִירוּ בַמָּֽיִם: מַטְבִּילָן וְדַיּוֹ, וְדַוְקָא כְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת:
24You shall wash your garments on the seventh day and become [ritually] clean; afterwards, you may enter the camp."   כדוְכִבַּסְתֶּ֧ם בִּגְדֵיכֶ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י וּטְהַרְתֶּ֑ם וְאַחַ֖ר תָּבֹ֥אוּ אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
the camp: The camp of the Shechinah, for one who is defiled by the dead is not banned from the Levite camp or the Israelite camp. — [Pes. 67a]   אֶל־הַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה: לְמַחֲנֵה שְׁכִינָה, שֶׁאֵין טְמֵא מֵת טָעוּן שִׁלּוּחַ מִמַּחֲנֵה לְוִיָּה וּמִמַּחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל:

Fourth Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 31

25The Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   כהוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
26"Take a count of the plunder of the captive people and animals, you, together with Eleazar the kohen and the paternal leaders of the community.   כושָׂ֗א אֵ֣ת רֹ֤אשׁ מַלְק֨וֹחַ֙ הַשְּׁבִ֔י בָּֽאָדָ֖ם וּבַבְּהֵמָ֑ה אַתָּה֙ וְאֶלְעָזָ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְרָאשֵׁ֖י אֲב֥וֹת הָֽעֵדָֽה:
Take a count of: Heb. שָׂא אֶת ראשׁ, take the tally.   שָׂא אֵת רֹאשׁ: קַח אֶת הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן:
27And you shall divide the plunder equally between the warriors who went out to battle and the entire congregation.   כזוְחָצִ֨יתָ֙ אֶת־הַמַּלְק֔וֹחַ בֵּ֚ין תֹּֽפְשֵׂ֣י הַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה הַיֹּֽצְאִ֖ים לַצָּבָ֑א וּבֵ֖ין כָּל־הָֽעֵדָֽה:
Divide the plunder equally between the warriors…: Half for these and half for those.   וְחָצִיתָ אֶת־הַמַּלְקוֹחַ בֵּין תֹּֽפְשֵׂי הַמִּלְחָמָה וגו': חֶצְיוֹ לָאֵלּוּ וְחֶצְיוֹ לָאֵלּוּ:
28And you shall levy a tax for the Lord from the soldiers who went out to battle: one soul out of every five hundred, from the people, from the cattle, from the donkeys, and from the sheep.   כחוַֽהֲרֵֽמֹתָ֨ מֶ֜כֶס לַֽיהֹוָ֗ה מֵאֵ֞ת אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ הַיֹּֽצְאִ֣ים לַצָּבָ֔א אֶחָ֣ד נֶ֔פֶשׁ מֵֽחֲמֵ֖שׁ הַמֵּא֑וֹת מִן־הָֽאָדָם֙ וּמִן־הַבָּקָ֔ר וּמִן־הַֽחֲמֹרִ֖ים וּמִן־הַצֹּֽאן:
29You shall take from their half and give it to Eleazar the kohen as a gift to the Lord.   כטמִמַּֽחֲצִיתָ֖ם תִּקָּ֑חוּ וְנָֽתַתָּ֛ה לְאֶלְעָזָ֥ר הַכֹּהֵ֖ן תְּרוּמַ֥ת יְהֹוָֽה:
30From the half belonging to the children of Israel you shall take one part out of fifty of the people, of the cattle, of the donkeys, of the sheep, and of all animals, and you shall give them to the Levites, the guardians of the Mishkan of the Lord."   לוּמִמַּֽחֲצִ֨ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל תִּקַּ֣ח | אֶחָ֣ד | אָחֻ֣ז מִן־הַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֗ים מִן־הָֽאָדָ֧ם מִן־הַבָּקָ֛ר מִן־הַֽחֲמֹרִ֥ים וּמִן־הַצֹּ֖אן מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָ֑ה וְנָֽתַתָּ֤ה אֹתָם֙ לַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם שֹֽׁמְרֵ֕י מִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת מִשְׁכַּ֥ן יְהֹוָֽה:
31Moses and Eleazar the kohen did as the Lord had commanded Moses.   לאוַיַּ֣עַשׂ משֶׁ֔ה וְאֶלְעָזָ֖ר הַכֹּהֵ֑ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
32The plunder, which was in addition to the spoils that the army had spoiled, consisted of six hundred and seventy five thousand sheep.   לבוַֽיְהִי֙ הַמַּלְק֔וֹחַ יֶ֣תֶר הַבָּ֔ז אֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּֽזְז֖וּ עַ֣ם הַצָּבָ֑א צֹ֗אן שֵֽׁשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אֶ֛לֶף וְשִׁבְעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֥שֶׁת אֲלָפִֽים:
The plunder which was in addition to the spoil…: Because they were not commanded to levy a tax from the movable objects, but only from the [living] plunder, Scripture expresses it in this way: The plunder which was included in the allocation and in the tax-which remained over after the spoils of the movable property were plundered by the soldiers for themselves, and were therefore not included in the allocation- [was as follows:] the number of sheep etc.   וַֽיְהִי הַמַּלְקוֹחַ יֶתֶר הַבָּז: לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטַוּוּ לְהָרִים מֶכֶס מִן הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין אֶלָּא מִן הַמַּלְקוֹחַ, כָּתַב אֶת הַלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה ויהי המלקוח, שֶׁבָּא לִכְלַל חֲלֻקָּה וְלִכְלַל מֶכֶס, שֶׁהָיָה עוֹדֵף עַל בַּז הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין אשר בזזו עם הצבא איש לו וְלֹא בָא לִכְלַל חֲלֻקָּה — מִסְפַּר הַצֹּאן וְגוֹ':
33Seventy two thousand cattle.   לגוּבָקָ֕ר שְׁנַ֥יִם וְשִׁבְעִ֖ים אָֽלֶף:
34Sixty one thousand donkeys.   לדוַֽחֲמֹרִ֕ים אֶחָ֥ד וְשִׁשִּׁ֖ים אָֽלֶף:
35As for the people, of the women who had no experience of intimate relations with a man, all souls were thirty two thousand.   להוְנֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֔ם מִן־הַנָּשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־יָֽדְע֖וּ מִשְׁכַּ֣ב זָכָ֑ר כָּל־נֶ֕פֶשׁ שְׁנַ֥יִם וּשְׁלשִׁ֖ים אָֽלֶף:
36The half that was the portion of those who went out to battle: the number of sheep was three hundred and thirty seven thousand, five hundred.   לווַתְּהִי֙ הַמֶּֽחֱצָ֔ה חֵ֕לֶק הַיֹּֽצְאִ֖ים בַּצָּבָ֑א מִסְפַּ֣ר הַצֹּ֗אן שְׁלֽשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אֶ֨לֶף֙ וּשְׁלשִׁ֣ים אֶ֔לֶף וְשִׁבְעַ֥ת אֲלָפִ֖ים וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
37The tax to the Lord from the sheep was six hundred and seventy five.   לזוַיְהִ֛י הַמֶּ֥כֶס לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה מִן־הַצֹּ֑אן שֵׁ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת חָמֵ֥שׁ וְשִׁבְעִֽים:
38Thirty six thousand cattle, of which the tax to the Lord was seventy two.   לחוְהַ֨בָּקָ֔ר שִׁשָּׁ֥ה וּשְׁלשִׁ֖ים אָ֑לֶף וּמִכְסָ֥ם לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה שְׁנַ֥יִם וְשִׁבְעִֽים:
39Thirty thousand and five hundred donkeys, of which the tax to the Lord was sixty one.   לטוַֽחֲמֹרִ֕ים שְׁלשִׁ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֣שׁ מֵא֑וֹת וּמִכְסָ֥ם לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֶחָ֥ד וְשִׁשִּֽׁים:
40Sixteen thousand people, of which the tax to the Lord was thirty two people.   מוְנֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֔ם שִׁשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר אָ֑לֶף וּמִכְסָם֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה שְׁנַ֥יִם וּשְׁלשִׁ֖ים נָֽפֶשׁ:
41Moses gave the tax which was a gift to the Lord, to Eleazar the kohen, as the Lord had commanded Moses.   מאוַיִּתֵּ֣ן משֶׁ֗ה אֶת־מֶ֨כֶס֙ תְּרוּמַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה לְאֶלְעָזָ֖ר הַכֹּהֵ֑ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־מֹשֶֽׁה:

Fifth Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 31

42And from the half allotted to the children of Israel, which Moses had divided from the men who had gone into the army.   מבוּמִמַּֽחֲצִ֖ית בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲשֶׁר֙ חָצָ֣ה משֶׁ֔ה מִן־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים הַצֹּֽבְאִֽים:
And from the half allotted to the children of Israel, which Moses had divided: on behalf of the community, for he took it for them from the men who had gone out to war.   וּמִמַּֽחֲצִית בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר חָצָה משֶׁה: לָעֵדָה, וְהוֹצִיאָהּ לָהֶם מן האנשים הצבאים:
43The community's half [consisted of] three hundred and thirty seven thousand, five hundred sheep.   מגוַתְּהִ֛י מֶֽחֱצַ֥ת הָֽעֵדָ֖ה מִן־הַצֹּ֑אן שְׁלֽשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אֶ֨לֶף֙ וּשְׁלשִׁ֣ים אֶ֔לֶף שִׁבְעַ֥ת אֲלָפִ֖ים וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
The community’s half [consisted of]: such and such.   וַתְּהִי מֶֽחֱצַת הָֽעֵדָה: כָּךְ וְכָךְ:
44Thirty six thousand cattle.   מדוּבָקָ֕ר שִׁשָּׁ֥ה וּשְׁלשִׁ֖ים אָֽלֶף:
45Thirty thousand five hundred donkeys.   מהוַֽחֲמֹרִ֕ים שְׁלשִׁ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף וַֽחֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
46And sixteen thousand people.   מווְנֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֔ם שִׁשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר אָֽלֶף:
47Moses took one part out of fifty from the half of the children of Israel, the people and the animals, and gave them to the Levites, the guardians of the Lord's sanctuary as G-d commanded Moses.   מזוַיִּקַּ֨ח משֶׁ֜ה מִמַּֽחֲצִ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֶת־הָֽאָחֻז֙ אֶחָ֣ד מִן־הַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֔ים מִן־הָֽאָדָ֖ם וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֑ה וַיִּתֵּ֨ן אֹתָ֜ם לַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם שֹֽׁמְרֵי֙ מִשְׁמֶ֨רֶת֙ מִשְׁכַּ֣ן יְהֹוָ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־מֹשֶֽׁה:
Moses took etc.:   וַיִּקַּח משֶׁה וגו':
48The officers appointed over the army's thousands, the commanders of thousands and the commanders of hundreds, approached Moses.   מחוַיִּקְרְבוּ֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה הַפְּקֻדִ֕ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר לְאַלְפֵ֣י הַצָּבָ֑א שָׂרֵ֥י הָֽאֲלָפִ֖ים וְשָׂרֵ֥י הַמֵּאֽוֹת:
The officers: Heb. הַפְּקֻדִים, those appointed.   הַפְּקֻדִים: הַמְמֻנִּים:
49They said to Moses, "Your servants counted the soldiers who were in our charge, and not one man was missing from us.   מטוַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה עֲבָדֶ֣יךָ נָּֽשְׂא֗וּ אֶת־רֹ֛אשׁ אַנְשֵׁ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּיָדֵ֑נוּ וְלֹֽא־נִפְקַ֥ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ אִֽישׁ:
not…missing: Heb. ולֹא נִפְקַד, there is not one missing. The Targum [Onkelos] renders לָא שְׁגָא which in Aramaic also means ‘missing,’ as in “I would suffer its loss (אֲחַטֶּנָּה)” (Gen. 31:39) which the Targum renders, “what was missing (שַׁגְיָא) from the count.” Similarly, “for your seat will be vacant (יִפָּקֵד)” (I Sam. 20:18)-the place where you sit will be missing, the one who usually sits there. Similarly, וַיִפָּקֵד מְקוֹם דָּוד “David’s place was vacant” (ibid. 25); his place was missing, and no one was sitting there.   וְלֹֽא־נִפְקַד: לֹא נֶחְסַר, וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ "לָא שְׁגָא", אַף הוּא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִי חִסָּרוֹן, כְּמוֹ "אָנֹכִי אֲחַטֶּנָּה" (בראשית ל"א) תַרְגּוּמוֹ "דַּהֲוַת שָׁגְיָא מִמִּנְיָנָא", וְכֵן "כִּי יִפָּקֵד מוֹשָׁבֶךָ" (שמואל א כ') — יֶחְסַר מְקוֹם מוֹשָׁבְךָ, אִישׁ הָרָגִיל לֵישֵׁב שָׁם, וְכֵן "וַיִּפָּקֵד מְקוֹם דָּוִד" (שם) — נֶחְסַר מְקוֹמוֹ וְאֵין אִישׁ יוֹשֵׁב שָׁם:
50We therefore wish to bring an offering for the Lord. Any man who found a gold article, be it an anklet, a bracelet, a ring, an earring, or a body ornament, to atone for our souls before the Lord.   נוַנַּקְרֵ֞ב אֶת־קָרְבַּ֣ן יְהֹוָ֗ה אִישׁ֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר מָצָ֤א כְלִֽי־זָהָב֙ אֶצְעָדָ֣ה וְצָמִ֔יד טַבַּ֖עַת עָגִ֣יל וְכוּמָ֑ז לְכַפֵּ֥ר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵ֖ינוּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
anklet: Heb. אֶצְעָדָה, bangles for the foot.   אֶצְעָדָה: אֵלּוּ צְמִידִים שֶׁל רֶגֶל:
bracelet: Heb. וְצָמִיד, [bangles] for the hand.   וְצָמִיד: שֶׁל יָד:
earring: Heb. עָגִיל, earrings.   עָגִיל: נִזְמֵי אֹזֶן:
body ornament: Heb. וְכוּמָז, a form for the female genitalia, to atone for their sinful thoughts concerning the Midianite women. — [Shab. 64a]   וְכוּמָז: דְּפוּס שֶׁל בֵּית הָרֶחֶם, לְכַפֵּר הִרְהוּר הַלֵּב שֶׁל בְּנוֹת מִדְיָן (שבת ס"ד):
51Moses and Eleazar the kohen took all the gold articles from them.   נאוַיִּקַּ֨ח משֶׁ֜ה וְאֶלְעָזָ֧ר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַזָּהָ֖ב מֵֽאִתָּ֑ם כֹּ֖ל כְּלִ֥י מַֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
52The total of the gift of gold which they dedicated to the Lord [amounted to] sixteen thousand, seven hundred and fifty shekels; this was from the commanders of the thousands and the commanders of the hundreds.   נבוַיְהִ֣י | כָּל־זְהַ֣ב הַתְּרוּמָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר הֵרִ֨ימוּ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה שִׁשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר אֶ֛לֶף שְׁבַע־מֵא֥וֹת וַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שָׁ֑קֶל מֵאֵת֙ שָׂרֵ֣י הָֽאֲלָפִ֔ים וּמֵאֵ֖ת שָׂרֵ֥י הַמֵּאֽוֹת:
53The soldiers had seized spoils for themselves.   נגאַנְשֵׁי֙ הַצָּבָ֔א בָּֽזְז֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ לֽוֹ:
54Moses and Eleazar the kohen took the gold from the commanders of the thousands and hundreds and brought it to the Tent of Meeting, as a remembrance for the children of Israel before the Lord.   נדוַיִּקַּ֨ח משֶׁ֜ה וְאֶלְעָזָ֤ר הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֶת־הַזָּהָ֔ב מֵאֵ֛ת שָׂרֵ֥י הָֽאֲלָפִ֖ים וְהַמֵּא֑וֹת וַיָּבִ֤אוּ אֹתוֹ֙ אֶל־אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד זִכָּר֥וֹן לִבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:

Sixth Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 32

1The descendants of Reuben and Gad had an abundance of livestock very numerous and they saw the land of Jazer and the land of Gilead, and behold, the place was a place for livestock.   אוּמִקְנֶ֣ה | רַ֗ב הָיָ֞ה לִבְנֵ֧י רְאוּבֵ֛ן וְלִבְנֵי־גָ֖ד עָצ֣וּם מְאֹ֑ד וַיִּרְא֞וּ אֶת־אֶ֤רֶץ יַעְזֵר֙ וְאֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ גִּלְעָ֔ד וְהִנֵּ֥ה הַמָּק֖וֹם מְק֥וֹם מִקְנֶֽה:
2The descendants of Gad and the descendants of Reuben came, and they spoke to Moses and to Eleazar the kohen and to the princes of the community, saying,   בוַיָּבֹ֥אוּ בְנֵי־גָ֖ד וּבְנֵ֣י רְאוּבֵ֑ן וַיֹּֽאמְר֤וּ אֶל־משֶׁה֙ וְאֶל־אֶלְעָזָ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְאֶל־נְשִׂיאֵ֥י הָֽעֵדָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
3"Ataroth, Dibon, Jazer, and Nimrah, Heshbon, Elealeh, Sebam, Nebo, and Beon,   געֲטָר֤וֹת וְדִיבֹן֙ וְיַעְזֵ֣ר וְנִמְרָ֔ה וְחֶשְׁבּ֖וֹן וְאֶלְעָלֵ֑ה וּשְׂבָ֥ם וּנְב֖וֹ וּבְעֹֽן:
Ataroth, Dibon…: They were [part] of the land belonging to Sihon and Og.   עֲטָרוֹת וְדִיבֹן וגו': מֵאֶרֶץ סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג הָיוּ:
4the land that the Lord struck down before the congregation of Israel is a land for livestock, and your servants have livestock."   דהָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכָּ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ לִפְנֵי֙ עֲדַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶ֥רֶץ מִקְנֶ֖ה הִ֑וא וְלַֽעֲבָדֶ֖יךָ מִקְנֶֽה:
5They said, "If it pleases you, let this land be given to your servants as a heritage; do not take us across the Jordan."   הוַיֹּֽאמְר֗וּ אִם־מָצָ֤אנוּ חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ יֻתַּ֞ן אֶת־הָאָ֧רֶץ הַזֹּ֛את לַֽעֲבָדֶ֖יךָ לַֽאֲחֻזָּ֑ה אַל־תַּֽעֲבִרֵ֖נוּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּֽן:
6[Thereupon,] Moses said to the descendants of Gad and the descendants of Reuben, "Shall your brethren go to war while you stay here?   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֔ה לִבְנֵי־גָ֖ד וְלִבְנֵ֣י רְאוּבֵ֑ן הַֽאַחֵיכֶ֗ם יָבֹ֨אוּ֙ לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאַתֶּ֖ם תֵּ֥שְׁבוּ פֹֽה:
Shall your brethren: This [’hey’] denotes a question.   הַֽאַחֵיכֶם: לְשׁוֹן תְּמִיהָה הוּא:
7Why do you discourage the children of Israel from crossing over to the land which the Lord has given them?   זוְלָ֣מָּה תְנִיא֔וּן (כתיב תנואון) אֶת־לֵ֖ב בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מֵֽעֲבֹר֙ אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן לָהֶ֖ם יְהֹוָֽה:
Why do you discourage: You turn aside and dissuade their hearts from crossing, for they will think that you are afraid to cross because of the war and the strength of the cities and the people.   וְלָמָּה תניאון: תָּסִירוּ וְתַמְנִיעוּ לִבָּם מֵעֲבֹר, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ סְבוּרִים שֶׁאַתֶּם יְרֵאִים לַעֲבֹר מִפְּנֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה וְחֹזֶק הֶעָרִים וְהָעָם:
8This is what your fathers did when I sent them from Kadesh barnea to explore the Land.   חכֹּ֥ה עָשׂ֖וּ אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּשָׁלְחִ֥י אֹתָ֛ם מִקָּדֵ֥שׁ בַּרְנֵ֖עַ לִרְא֥וֹת אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
from Kadesh-barnea: This was its name; there were two places called Kadesh [one Kadesh-barnea and one Kadesh unmodified].   מִקָּדֵשׁ בַּרְנֵעַ: כָּךְ שְׁמָהּ, וּשְׁתֵּי קָדֵשׁ הָיוּ:
9They went up to the Valley of Eshkol and saw the land, and they discouraged the children of Israel from crossing into the land which the Lord has given them.   טוַיַּֽעֲל֞וּ עַד־נַ֣חַל אֶשְׁכּ֗וֹל וַיִּרְאוּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ וַיָּנִ֕יאוּ אֶת־לֵ֖ב בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לְבִלְתִּי־בֹא֙ אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן לָהֶ֖ם יְהֹוָֽה:
10The anger of the Lord flared on that day, and He swore, saying,   יוַיִּֽחַר־אַ֥ף יְהֹוָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיִּשָּׁבַ֖ע לֵאמֹֽר:
11'None of the men from the age of twenty years and over who came out of Egypt will see the land that I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, for they did not follow Me wholeheartedly,   יאאִם־יִרְא֨וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֜ים הָֽעֹלִ֣ים מִמִּצְרַ֗יִם מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה אֵ֚ת הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֛עְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹ֑ב כִּ֥י לֹֽא־מִלְא֖וּ אַֽחֲרָֽי:
12except for Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizite and Joshua the son of Nun, for they followed the Lord wholeheartedly.'   יבבִּלְתִּ֞י כָּלֵ֤ב בֶּן־יְפֻנֶּה֙ הַקְּנִזִּ֔י וִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ בִּן־נ֑וּן כִּ֥י מִלְא֖וּ אַֽחֲרֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
The Kenizite: He [Caleb] was the stepson of Kenaz, to whom Caleb’s mother bore Othniel [see Jud. 3:9]. — [Sotah 11b]   הַקְּנִזִּי: חוֹרְגוֹ שֶׁל קְנַז הָיָה וְיָלְדָה לוֹ אִמּוֹ שֶׁל כָּלֵב אֶת עָתְנִיאֵל (סוטה י"א):
13The anger of the Lord flared against Israel, and He made them wander in the desert for forty years until the entire generation who had done evil in the eyes of the Lord had died out.   יגוַיִּחַר־אַ֤ף יְהֹוָה֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיְנִעֵם֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר אַרְבָּעִ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה עַד־תֹּם֙ כָּל־הַדּ֔וֹר הָֽעֹשֶׂ֥ה הָרָ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
He made them wander: He moved them about from place to place, as in נָע וָנָד “a wanderer and an exile” (Gen. 4:12).   וַיְנִעֵם: וַיְטַלְטְלֵם, מִן "נָע וָנָד" (בראשית ד):
14And behold, you have now risen in place of your fathers as a society of sinful people, to add to the wrathful anger of the Lord against Israel.   ידוְהִנֵּ֣ה קַמְתֶּ֗ם תַּ֚חַת אֲבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם תַּרְבּ֖וּת אֲנָשִׁ֣ים חַטָּאִ֑ים לִסְפּ֣וֹת ע֗וֹד עַ֛ל חֲר֥וֹן אַף־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
to add: לִסְפּוֹת like “add (סְפוּ) year to year” (Isa. 29:1), and “add (סְפוּ) your burnt offerings” (Jer. 7:21); it denotes addition.   לִסְפּוֹת: כְּמוֹ "סְפוּ שָׁנָה עַל שָׁנָה" (ישעיהו כ"ט), "עֹלוֹתֵיכֶם סְפוּ" וְגוֹ' (ירמיהו ז'), לְשׁוֹן תּוֹסֶפֶת:
15If you turn away from following Him, He will leave you in the desert again, and you will destroy this entire people."   טוכִּ֤י תְשׁוּבֻן֙ מֵאַ֣חֲרָ֔יו וְיָסַ֣ף ע֔וֹד לְהַנִּיח֖וֹ בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר וְשִֽׁחַתֶּ֖ם לְכָל־הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּֽה:
16They approached him and said, "We will build sheepfolds for our livestock here and cities for our children.   טזוַיִּגְּשׁ֤וּ אֵלָיו֙ וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ גִּדְרֹ֥ת צֹ֛אן נִבְנֶ֥ה לְמִקְנֵ֖נוּ פֹּ֑ה וְעָרִ֖ים לְטַפֵּֽנוּ:
We shall build sheepfolds for our livestock here: They were more concerned about their possessions than about their sons and daughters, since they mentioned their livestock before [mentioning] their children. Moses said to them, “Not so! Treat the fundamental as a fundamental, and the matter of secondary importance as a matter of secondary importance. First ‘build cities for your children,’ and afterwards 'enclosures for your sheep’” (verse 24) - [Mid. Tanchuma Mattoth 7]   נִבְנֶה לְמִקְנֵנוּ פֹּה: חָסִים הָיוּ עַל מָמוֹנָם יוֹתֵר מִבְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם, שֶׁהִקְדִּימוּ מִקְנֵיהֶם לְטַפָּם. אָמַר לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה "לֹא כֵן, עֲשׂוּ הָעִקָּר עִקָּר וְהַטָּפֵל טָפֵל, בְּנוּ לָכֶם תְּחִלָּה עָרִים לְטַפְּכֶם וְאַחַר כֵּן גְּדֵרוֹת לְצֹאנְכֶם" (תנחומא):
17We will then arm ourselves quickly [and go] before the children of Israel until we have brought them to their place. Our children will reside in the fortified cities on account of the inhabitants of the land.   יזוַֽאֲנַ֜חְנוּ נֵֽחָלֵ֣ץ חֻשִׁ֗ים לִפְנֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַ֛ד אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִם־הֲבִֽיאֹנֻ֖ם אֶל־מְקוֹמָ֑ם וְיָשַׁ֤ב טַפֵּ֨נוּ֙ בְּעָרֵ֣י הַמִּבְצָ֔ר מִפְּנֵ֖י יֽשְׁבֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ:
We will then arm ourselves quickly: We will speedily arm ourselves, as in, “the booty speeds, the spoil hastens (חָשׁ)” (Isa. 8:3); “Let Him hurry, let Him hasten (יָחִישָׁה)” (ibid. 5:19).   וַֽאֲנַחְנוּ נֵֽחָלֵץ חֻשִׁים: נִזְדַּיֵּן מְהִירִים, כְּמוֹ "מַהֵר שָׁלָל חָשׁ בַּז" (ישעיהו ח'), "יְמַהֵר יָחִישָׁה" (שם ה'):
before the children of Israel: At the head of the troops, because they were mighty warriors, for concerning Gad it says, “tearing the arm [of his prey, together] with the head” (Deut. 33:20). Moses too, explained this to them a second time in [the portion of] Eleh Hadevarim: “And I commanded you at that time saying, “…pass over, armed, before your brothers, the children of Israel, all who are warriors” (ibid. 3:18), and concerning Jericho it is written, “the armed force went ahead of them” (Josh. 6:13). These were [the tribes of] Gad and Reuben, who were fulfilling their condition.   לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: בְּרָאשֵׁי גְּיָסוֹת, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁגִּבּוֹרִים הָיוּ, שֶׁכֵּן נֶאֱמַר בְּגָד (דברים ל"ג) "וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף קָדְקֹד"; וְאַף מֹשֶׁה חָזַר וּפֵרֵשׁ לָהֶם בְּאֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים (דברים ג') "וָאֲצַו אֶתְכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא וְגוֹ' חֲלוּצִים תַּעַבְרוּ לִפְנֵי אֲחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל בְּנֵי חָיִל", וּבִירִיחוֹ כְּתִיב (יהושע ו') "וְהֶחָלוּץ עוֹבֵר (הֹלֵךְ) לִפְנֵיהֶם" — זֶה רְאוּבֵן וְגָד שֶׁקִּיְּמוּ תְנָאָם:
Our children will reside: while we are still with our brethren.   וְיָשַׁב טַפֵּנוּ: בְּעוֹדֵנוּ אֵצֶל אַחֵינוּ:
in the fortified cities: which we shall build now.   בְּעָרֵי הַמִּבְצָר: שֶׁנִּבְנֶה עַכְשָׁו:
18We shall not return to our homes until each of the children of Israel has taken possession of his inheritance.   יחלֹ֥א נָשׁ֖וּב אֶל־בָּתֵּ֑ינוּ עַ֗ד הִתְנַחֵל֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אִ֖ישׁ נַֽחֲלָתֽוֹ:
19For we will not inherit with them on the other side of the Jordan and beyond, because our inheritance has come to us on the east bank of the Jordan."   יטכִּ֣י לֹ֤א נִנְחַל֙ אִתָּ֔ם מֵעֵ֥בֶר לַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן וָהָ֑לְאָה כִּ֣י בָ֤אָה נַּֽחֲלָתֵ֨נוּ֙ אֵלֵ֔ינוּ מֵעֵ֥בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן מִזְרָֽחָה:
on the other side of the Jordan and beyond: On the western bank.   מֵעֵבֶר לַיַּרְדֵּן וָהָלְאָה: בָּעֵבֶר הַמַּעֲרָבִי:
for our inheritance has come to us: We have already received it on the eastern side.   כִּי בָאָה נַּֽחֲלָתֵנוּ: כְּבָר קִבַּלְנוּהָ בָּעֵבֶר הַמִּזְרָחִי:

Seventh Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 32

20Moses said to them, "If you do this thing, if you arm yourselves for battle before the Lord,   כוַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ משֶׁ֔ה אִם־תַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּן אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה אִם־תֵּחָֽלְצ֛וּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לַמִּלְחָמָֽה:
21and your armed force crosses the Jordan before the Lord until He has driven out His enemies before Him,   כאוְעָבַ֨ר לָכֶ֧ם כָּל־חָל֛וּץ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה עַ֧ד הֽוֹרִישׁ֛וֹ אֶת־אֹֽיְבָ֖יו מִפָּנָֽיו:
22and the Land will be conquered before the Lord, afterwards you may return, and you shall be freed [of your obligation] from the Lord and from Israel, and this land will become your heritage before the Lord.   כבוְנִכְבְּשָׁ֨ה הָאָ֜רֶץ לִפְנֵ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ וְאַחַ֣ר תָּשֻׁ֔בוּ וִֽהְיִיתֶ֧ם נְקִיִּ֛ם מֵֽיהֹוָ֖ה וּמִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְ֠הָֽיְתָ֠ה הָאָ֨רֶץ הַזֹּ֥את לָכֶ֛ם לַֽאֲחֻזָּ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
23But, if you do not do so, behold, you will have sinned against the Lord, and be aware of your sin which will find you.   כגוְאִם־לֹ֤א תַֽעֲשׂוּן֙ כֵּ֔ן הִנֵּ֥ה חֲטָאתֶ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וּדְעוּ֙ חַטַּאתְכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּמְצָ֖א אֶתְכֶֽם:
24So build yourselves cities for your children and enclosures for your sheep, and what has proceeded from your mouth you shall do."   כדבְּנֽוּ־לָכֶ֤ם עָרִים֙ לְטַפְּכֶ֔ם וּגְדֵרֹ֖ת לְצֹנַֽאֲכֶ֑ם וְהַיֹּצֵ֥א מִפִּיכֶ֖ם תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
for your sheep: Heb. לְצֹנַאֲכֶם. This word is cognate with, “Flocks (צֹנֶה) and cattle, all of them” (Ps. 8:8), in which there is no א separating the נ from the צ. The א that appears here after the נ [in the word לְצֹנַאֲכֶם is in place of the ה in the word צֹנֶה. I learned this from the commentary of R. Moshe Hadarshan [the preacher].   לְצֹנַֽאֲכֶם: תֵּבָה זוֹ מִגִּזְרַת "צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם" (תהלים ח') שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אָלֶ"ף מַפְסִיק בֵּין נוּ"ן לַצָּדִ"י, וְאָלֶ"ף שֶׁבָּא כָאן אַחַר הַנּוּ"ן בִּמְקוֹם הֵ"א שֶׁל צֹנֶה הוּא; מִיסוֹדוֹ שֶׁל רַ' מֹשֶׁה הַדַּרְשָׁן לָמַדְתִּי כֵן:
and what has proceeded from your mouth you shall do: for the sake of the Most High [God], for you have undertaken to cross over for battle until [the completion of] conquest and the apportionment [of the Land]. Moses had asked of them only “and… will be conquered before the Lord, afterwards you may return,” (verse 22), but they undertook, “until… has taken possession” (verse 18). Thus, they added that they would remain seven years while it was divided, and indeed they did so (see Josh. 22).   וְהַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיכֶם תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּ: לְגָבוֹהַּ, שֶׁקִּבַּלְתֶּם עֲלֵיכֶם לַעֲבֹר לַמִּלְחָמָה עַד כִּבּוּשׁ וְחִלּוּק, שֶׁמֹּשֶׁה לֹא בִּקֵּשׁ מֵהֶם אֶלָּא "וְנִכְבְּשָׁה … וְאַחַר תָּשׁוּבוּ" וְהֵם קִבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם "עַד הִתְנַחֵל", הֲרֵי הוֹסִיפוּ לְהִתְעַכֵּב שֶׁבַע שֶׁחָלְקוּ, וְכֵן עָשׂוּ:
25The descendants of Gad and the descendants of Reuben spoke to Moses, saying, "Your servants will do as my master commands.   כהוַיֹּ֤אמֶר בְּנֵי־גָד֙ וּבְנֵ֣י רְאוּבֵ֔ן אֶל־משֶׁ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר עֲבָדֶ֣יךָ יַּֽעֲשׂ֔וּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲדֹנִ֖י מְצַוֶּֽה:
The descendants of Gad spoke: Heb. וַיֹּאמֶר [in the singular form, indicating that] they all [spoke] as one person. — [Jonathan ben Uzziel]   וַיֹּאמֶר בְּנֵי־גָד: כֻּלָּם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד:
26Our children and our wives, our livestock and our cattle will remain there, in the cities of Gilead.   כוטַפֵּ֣נוּ נָשֵׁ֔ינוּ מִקְנֵ֖נוּ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֵּ֑נוּ יִֽהְיוּ־שָׁ֖ם בְּעָרֵ֥י הַגִּלְעָֽד:
27But your servants will cross over all who are armed for combat before the Lord, for the battle, as my master has spoken."   כזוַֽעֲבָדֶ֨יךָ יַֽעַבְר֜וּ כָּל־חֲל֥וּץ צָבָ֛א לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲדֹנִ֖י דֹּבֵֽר:
28Moses commanded Eleazar the kohen and Joshua the son of Nun and all the paternal heads of the tribes of the children of Israel concerning them.   כחוַיְצַ֤ו לָהֶם֙ משֶׁ֔ה אֵ֚ת אֶלְעָזָ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְאֵ֖ת יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ בִּן־נ֑וּן וְאֶת־רָאשֵׁ֛י אֲב֥וֹת הַמַּטּ֖וֹת לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
commanded… concerning them: Heb. לָהֶם, like עִלֵיהֶם, concerning them, and concerning [the fulfillment of] their condition, he appointed Eleazar and Joshua, as in, “the Lord will fight for you (לָכֶם) ” (Exod. 14:14) [not “to you”].   וַיְצַו לָהֶם: כְּמוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם, וְעַל תְּנָאָם מִנָּה אֶלְעָזָר וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, כְּמוֹ "ה' יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם" (שמות י"ד):
29Moses said to them, "If the descendants of Gad and Reuben cross the Jordan with you armed for battle before the Lord, and the Land is conquered before you, you shall give them the land of Gilead as a heritage.   כטוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֲלֵהֶ֗ם אִם־יַֽעַבְר֣וּ בְנֵי־גָ֣ד וּבְנֵֽי־רְאוּבֵ֣ן | אִ֠תְּכֶ֠ם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֞ן כָּל־חָל֤וּץ לַמִּלְחָמָה֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וְנִכְבְּשָׁ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ לִפְנֵיכֶ֑ם וּנְתַתֶּ֥ם לָהֶ֛ם אֶת־אֶ֥רֶץ הַגִּלְעָ֖ד לַֽאֲחֻזָּֽה:
30But if they do not cross over with you armed [for battle], they shall receive a possession among you in the land of Canaan."   לוְאִם־לֹ֧א יַֽעַבְר֛וּ חֲלוּצִ֖ים אִתְּכֶ֑ם וְנֹֽאחֲז֥וּ בְתֹֽכְכֶ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
31The descendants of Gad and the descendants of Reuben answered, saying, "We shall do as the Lord has spoken to your servants.   לאוַיַּֽעֲנ֧וּ בְנֵי־גָ֛ד וּבְנֵ֥י רְאוּבֵ֖ן לֵאמֹ֑ר אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־עֲבָדֶ֖יךָ כֵּ֥ן נַֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
32We shall cross over in an armed force before the Lord to the land of Canaan, and then we shall have the possession of our inheritance on this side of the Jordan."   לבנַ֣חְנוּ נַֽעֲבֹ֧ר חֲלוּצִ֛ים לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן וְאִתָּנוּ֨ אֲחֻזַּ֣ת נַֽחֲלָתֵ֔נוּ מֵעֵ֖בֶר לַיַּרְדֵּֽן:
and then we shall have the possession of our inheritance: That is to say, the possession of our inheritance on this side [of the Jordan] will be in our hands and under our ownership.   וְאִתָּנוּ אֲחֻזַּת נַֽחֲלָתֵנוּ: כְּלוֹמַר בְּיָדֵינוּ וּבִרְשׁוּתֵנוּ תְהִי אֲחֻזַּת נַחֲלָתֵנוּ מֵעֵבֶר הַזֶּה:
33Moses gave the descendants of Gad and the descendants of Reuben and half the tribe of Manasseh the son of Joseph, the kingdom of Sihon, king of the Amorites, and the kingdom of Og, king of Bashan the land together with its cities within borders, the cities of the surrounding territory.   לגוַיִּתֵּ֣ן לָהֶ֣ם | משֶׁ֡ה לִבְנֵי־גָד֩ וְלִבְנֵ֨י רְאוּבֵ֜ן וְלַֽחֲצִ֣י | שֵׁ֣בֶט | מְנַשֶּׁ֣ה בֶן־יוֹסֵ֗ף אֶת־מַמְלֶ֨כֶת֙ סִיחֹן֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י וְאֶ֨ת־מַמְלֶ֔כֶת ע֖וֹג מֶ֣לֶךְ הַבָּשָׁ֑ן הָאָ֗רֶץ לְעָרֶ֨יהָ֙ בִּגְבֻלֹ֔ת עָרֵ֥י הָאָ֖רֶץ סָבִֽיב:
34The descendants of Gad built Dibon, Ataroth, and Aroer.   לדוַיִּבְנ֣וּ בְנֵי־גָ֔ד אֶת־דִּיבֹ֖ן וְאֶת־עֲטָרֹ֑ת וְאֵ֖ת עֲרֹעֵֽר:
35And Atroth Shophan, Jazer, and Jogbehah.   להוְאֶת־עַטְרֹ֥ת שׁוֹפָ֛ן וְאֶת־יַעְזֵ֖ר וְיָגְבְּהָֽה:
36And Beth Nimrah and Beth Haran, fortified cities and sheepfolds.   לווְאֶת־בֵּ֥ית נִמְרָ֖ה וְאֶת־בֵּ֣ית הָרָ֑ן עָרֵ֥י מִבְצָ֖ר וְגִדְרֹ֥ת צֹֽאן:
fortified cities and sheepfolds: This last part of the verse relates to the beginning of the passage, “The descendants of Gad built” these cities as fortified cities and sheepfolds.   עָרֵי מִבְצָר וְגִדְרֹת צֹֽאן: זֶה סוֹף פָּסוּק מוּסָב עַל תְּחִלַּת הָעִנְיָן — וַיִּבְנוּ בְנֵי גָד אֶת הֶעָרִים הַלָּלוּ לִהְיוֹת עָרֵי מִבְצָר וְגִדְרֹת צֹאן:
37The descendants of Reuben built Heshbon, Elealeh, and Kirjathaim.   לזוּבְנֵ֤י רְאוּבֵן֙ בָּנ֔וּ אֶת־חֶשְׁבּ֖וֹן וְאֶת־אֶלְעָלֵ֑א וְאֵ֖ת קִרְיָתָֽיִם:
38And Nebo and Baal Meon, their names having been changed, and Sibmah. And they were called with names of the names of the cities they built.   לחוְאֶת־נְב֞וֹ וְאֶת־בַּ֧עַל מְע֛וֹן מֽוּסַבֹּ֥ת שֵׁ֖ם וְאֶת־שִׂבְמָ֑ה וַיִּקְרְא֣וּ בְשֵׁמֹ֔ת אֶת־שְׁמ֥וֹת הֶֽעָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר בָּנֽוּ:
Nebo and Baal-Meon, their names having been changed: Nebo and Baal Meon were names of pagan deities, and the Amorites named their towns after their deities, and the descendants of Reuben changed their names to other names. This is the meaning of “their names having been changed”-Nebo and Baal-Meon, changed to another name.   וְאֶת־נְבוֹ וְאֶת־בַּעַל מְעוֹן מֽוּסַבֹּת שֵׁם: נְבוֹ וּבַעַל מְעוֹן שְׁמוֹת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה הֵם, וְהָיוּ הָאֱמוֹרִיִּים קוֹרִים עָרֵיהֶם עַל שֵׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלָּהֶם, וּבְנֵי רְאוּבֵן הֵסֵבּוּ אֶת שְׁמָם לְשֵׁמוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וְזֶהוּ מוסבת שם — נְבוֹ וּבַעַל מְעוֹן מוּסַבּוֹת לְשֵׁם אַחֵר:
and Sibmah: They built Sibmah, which is identical with Sebam mentioned earlier (verse 3).   וְאֶת־שִׂבְמָה: בָּנוּ שִׂבְמָה, וְהִיא שְׂבָם הָאֲמוּרָה לְמַעְלָה:
39The children of Machir the son of Manasseh went to Gilead and conquered it, driving out the Amorites who were there.   לטוַיֵּ֨לְכ֜וּ בְּנֵ֨י מָכִ֧יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֛ה גִּלְעָ֖דָה וַיִּלְכְּדֻ֑הָ וַיּ֖וֹרֶשׁ אֶת־הָֽאֱמֹרִ֥י אֲשֶׁר־בָּֽהּ:
driving out: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders, וְתָרִיךְ‏, and drove out, for the word רִישׁ can be used in two [different] ways, in the sense of יְרוּשָׁה, ‘inheritance,’ or in the sense of הוֹרָשָׁה ‘driving out,’ meaning to expel or oust. — [Machbereth Menachem p. 167]   וַיּוֹרֶשׁ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "וְתָרִיךְ", שֶׁתֵּבַת ריש מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שְׁתֵּי מַחֲלָקוֹת, לְשׁוֹן יְרֻשָּׁה וּלְשׁוֹן הוֹרָשָׁה שֶׁהוּא טֵרוּד וְתֵרוּךְ:
40Moses gave Gilead to Machir the son of Manasseh, and he settled in it.   מוַיִּתֵּ֤ן משֶׁה֙ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָ֔ד לְמָכִ֖יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בָּֽהּ:
41Jair the son of Manasseh went and conquered their hamlets, and called them the hamlets of Jair.   מאוְיָאִ֤יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה֙ הָלַ֔ךְ וַיִּלְכֹּ֖ד אֶת־חַוֹּֽתֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶתְהֶ֖ן חַוֹּ֥ת יָאִֽיר:
their hamlets: Heb. חַוֹּתֵיהֶם, [Onkelos renders,] כַּפְרָנֵיהוֹן, their hamlets.   חַוֹּֽתֵיהֶם: כַּפְרָנֵיהוֹן:
and called them the hamlets of Jair: Since he had no children, he named them after himself, as a memorial.   וַיִּקְרָא אֶתְהֶן חַוֹּת יָאִֽיר: לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ לוֹ בָנִים קְרָאָם בִּשְׁמוֹ לְזִכָּרוֹן:
42Nobah went and conquered Kenath and its surrounding villages, and called it Nobah, after his name.   מבוְנֹ֣בַח הָלַ֔ךְ וַיִּלְכֹּ֥ד אֶת־קְנָ֖ת וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֶ֑יהָ וַיִּקְרָ֧א לָ֦ה נֹ֖בַח בִּשְׁמֽוֹ:
and called it Nobah: Heb. לָה. [The ‘hey’ in] לָה is not a ‘mappik’ [aspirate ‘hey’ since there is no dot in the] ה [thus indicating that it is silent, contrary to the general rule]. I saw in the commentary of R. Moshe Hadarshan [as follows]: Since this name did not remain permanently, it is [a] silent [letter], so that it [the word לָה] can be expounded as לֹא, ‘not.’ But I wonder how he would expound two words similar to this, namely, “Boaz said to her (לָה)” (Ruth 2:14); “to build her (לָה) a house” (Zech. 5:11).   וַיִּקְרָא לָה נֹבַח: "לָה" אֵינוֹ מַפִּיק הֵ"א, וְרָאִיתִי בִיסוֹדוֹ שֶׁל רַ' מֹשֶׁה הַדַּרְשָׁן לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְקַיֵּם לָהּ שֵׁם זֶה לְפִיכָךְ הוּא רָפֶה, שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעוּת מִדְרָשׁוֹ כְּמוֹ לֹא; וּתְמֵהַנִי מַה יִּדְרֹשׁ בִּשְׁתֵּי תֵבוֹת הַדּוֹמוֹת לָהּ "וַיֹּאמֶר לָה בֹעַז" (רות ב'), "לִבְנוֹת לָה בַיִת" (זכריה ה'):

Maftir Portion

Bamidbar (Numbers) Chapter 32

40Moses gave Gilead to Machir the son of Manasseh, and he settled in it.   מוַיִּתֵּ֤ן משֶׁה֙ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָ֔ד לְמָכִ֖יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בָּֽהּ:
41Jair the son of Manasseh went and conquered their hamlets, and called them the hamlets of Jair.   מאוְיָאִ֤יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה֙ הָלַ֔ךְ וַיִּלְכֹּ֖ד אֶת־חַוֹּֽתֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶתְהֶ֖ן חַוֹּ֥ת יָאִֽיר:
their hamlets: Heb. חַוֹּתֵיהֶם, [Onkelos renders,] כַּפְרָנֵיהוֹן, their hamlets.   חַוֹּֽתֵיהֶם: כַּפְרָנֵיהוֹן:
and called them the hamlets of Jair: Since he had no children, he named them after himself, as a memorial.   וַיִּקְרָא אֶתְהֶן חַוֹּת יָאִֽיר: לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ לוֹ בָנִים קְרָאָם בִּשְׁמוֹ לְזִכָּרוֹן:
42Nobah went and conquered Kenath and its surrounding villages, and called it Nobah, after his name.   מבוְנֹ֣בַח הָלַ֔ךְ וַיִּלְכֹּ֥ד אֶת־קְנָ֖ת וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֶ֑יהָ וַיִּקְרָ֧א לָ֦ה נֹ֖בַח בִּשְׁמֽוֹ:
and called it Nobah: Heb. לָה. [The ‘hey’ in] לָה is not a ‘mappik’ [aspirate ‘hey’ since there is no dot in the] ה [thus indicating that it is silent, contrary to the general rule]. I saw in the commentary of R. Moshe Hadarshan [as follows]: Since this name did not remain permanently, it is [a] silent [letter], so that it [the word לָה] can be expounded as לֹא, ‘not.’ But I wonder how he would expound two words similar to this, namely, “Boaz said to her (לָה)” (Ruth 2:14); “to build her (לָה) a house” (Zech. 5:11).   וַיִּקְרָא לָה נֹבַח: "לָה" אֵינוֹ מַפִּיק הֵ"א, וְרָאִיתִי בִיסוֹדוֹ שֶׁל רַ' מֹשֶׁה הַדַּרְשָׁן לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְקַיֵּם לָהּ שֵׁם זֶה לְפִיכָךְ הוּא רָפֶה, שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעוּת מִדְרָשׁוֹ כְּמוֹ לֹא; וּתְמֵהַנִי מַה יִּדְרֹשׁ בִּשְׁתֵּי תֵבוֹת הַדּוֹמוֹת לָהּ "וַיֹּאמֶר לָה בֹעַז" (רות ב'), "לִבְנוֹת לָה בַיִת" (זכריה ה'):


Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) Chapter 1

1The words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah, of the priests who were in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin.   א דִּבְרֵ֥י יִרְמְיָ֖הוּ בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּ֑הוּ מִן־הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּֽעֲנָת֔וֹת בְּאֶ֖רֶץ בִּנְיָמִֽן:
The words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah: Let the son of the corrupt woman, whose deeds are proper Jeremiah was descended from Rahab the harlot and let him reprove the son of the righteous woman whose deeds are corrupt these are Israel who corrupted their deeds who are descended from legitimate seed.   דברי ירמיהו בן חלקיהו וגו': ליתי בר קלקלתא דתקנן עובדוהי ירמיה בא מרחב הזונה ולוכח בר מתקנתא דמקלקלן עובדוהי אלו ישראל שקלקלו מעשיהן שבאו מזרע כשר:
2To whom the word of the Lord came in the days of Josiah son of Amon, king of Judah, in the thirteenth year of his reign.   באֲשֶׁ֨ר הָיָ֚ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלָ֔יו בִּימֵ֛י יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֥הוּ בֶן־אָמ֖וֹן מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה בִּשְׁלֹשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵ֥ה שָׁנָ֖ה לְמָלְכֽוֹ:
To whom the word of the Lord came: Upon whom the Shechinah commenced to rest at that time.   אשר היה דבר ה' אליו וגו': אשר התחילה שכינה לשרות עליו באותו הזמן:
3And he was in the days of Jehoiakim son of Josiah, king of Judah, until the end of eleven years of Zedekiah son of Josiah, king of Judah, until the exile of Jerusalem in the fifth month.   גוַיְהִ֗י בִּימֵ֨י יְהֽוֹיָקִ֚ים בֶּן־יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֙הוּ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה עַד־תֹּם֙ עַשְׁתֵּֽי־עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֔ה לְצִדְקִיָּ֥הוּ בֶן־יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֖הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה עַד־גְּל֥וֹת יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַֽחֲמִישִֽׁי:
And he was in the days of Jehoiakim: And he was a prophet all the remaining days of Josiah, the days of his son Jehoiakim, and the days of his son Zedekiah, until the end of the eleventh year that is the year until the exile of Jerusalem in the fifth month.   ויהי בימי יהויקים: ויהי נביא כל ימי יאשיהו הנותרים וימי יהויקים בנו וימי צדקיהו בנו עד תום עשתי עשרה שנה היא השנה עד גלות ירושלים בחדש החמישי:
4And the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   דוַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
5When I had not yet formed you in the womb, I knew you, and when you had not yet emerged from the womb, I had appointed you; a prophet to the nations I made you.   הבְּטֶ֨רֶם אֶצָּרְךָ֚ (כתיב אֶצָּורְךָ֚) בַבֶּ֙טֶן֙ יְדַעְתִּ֔יךָ וּבְטֶ֛רֶם תֵּצֵ֥א מֵרֶ֖חֶם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּ֑יךָ נָבִ֥יא לַגּוֹיִ֖ם נְתַתִּֽיךָ:
When I had not yet formed you in the womb, etc.: Since the days of the first man. The Holy One, blessed be He, showed Adam each generation and its prophets.   בטרם אצרך בבטן וגו': מימי אדם הראשון הראהו הקב"ה לאדם דור ודור ונביאיו:
I… formed you: Heb. אצרך, an expression of צורה, a form.   אצרך: לשון צורה:
I knew you: connois toi in O.F. Comp. (Exodus 6:3), “I was not known (נודעתּי) to them.”   ידעתיך: קנייושט"וי בלעז כמו לא נודעתי להם (שמות ו׳:ג׳):
I appointed you: I appointed you for this.   הקדשתיך: זמנתיך לכך:
a prophet to the nations: To Israel, who behave like the nations. In this manner it is expounded in Sifrei on the verse: “A prophet from your midst, etc.” (Deut. 18:15), will set up for you and not for those who deny the Torah. How then do I fulfill “A prophet to the nations I made you” ? To the children of Israel who deport themselves with the customs of the nations. It can further be interpreted: “A prophet for the nations,” like “About the nations,” to give them to drink the cup of poison, to prophesy retribution upon them, as it is said: “Take this cup of the wine of wrath from My hand, you shall give all the nations to drink of it” (infra 25:15). Another explanation of “When you had not yet emerged from the womb I appointed you” is: Concerning you I said to Moses: “I will set up a prophet… like you” (Deut. 18:18). This one reproved them, and this one reproved them. This one prophesied for forty years and this one prophesied for forty years.   נביא לגוים: לישראל שהיו נוהגים עצמם כעכו"ם כך נדרש בספרי נביא מקרבך וגו' (דברים י״ח:ט״ו) יקים לך ולא למכחישי תורה הא מה אני מקיים נביא לגוים נתתיך בבני ישראל שהיו נוהגים כעכו"ם ד"א בטרם תצא מרחם הקדשתיך עליך אמרתי למשה נביא אקים להם כמוך (דברים י״ח:י״ח) זה הוכיחם וזה הוכיחם זה נתנבא ארבעים שנה וזה נתנבא ארבעים שנה:
6And I said, "Alas, O Lord God! Behold, I know not to speak for I am a youth.   ווָֽאֹמַ֗ר אֲהָהּ֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה הִנֵּ֥ה לֹֽא־יָדַ֖עְתִּי דַבֵּ֑ר כִּי־נַ֖עַר אָנֹֽכִי:
Alas: This is an expression of wailing (konpljjnt in 0.F.).   אהה: ל' יילל קונפליינ"ט בלע"ז:
for I am a youth: I am not worthy to reprove them. Moses reproved them shortly before his death, when he was already esteemed in their eyes through the many miracles that he had performed for them. He had taken them out of Egypt, split the Reed Sea for them, brought down the manna, caused the quails to fly, given them the Torah, brought up the well. I come to reprove them at the beginning of my mission.   כי נער אנכי: איני כדאי להוכיחן משה הוכיחן סמוך למיתתו כבר נחשב בעיניהם בכמה נסים שעשה להם הוציאם ממצרים וקרע להם את הים הוריד את המן הגיז את השליו נתן להם את התורה העלה את הבאר אני בתחלת שליחותי אני בא להוכיחם:
7And the Lord said to me; Say not, "I am a youth," for wherever I send you, you shall go, and whatever I command you, you shall speak.   זוַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י אַל־תֹּאמַ֖ר נַ֣עַר אָנֹ֑כִי כִּ֠י עַל־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֚ר אֶֽשְׁלָֽחֲךָ֙ תֵּלֵ֔ךְ וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲצַוְּךָ֖ תְּדַבֵּֽר:
wherever I send you: to the heathens.   על כל אשר אשלחך: אל העכו"ם:
and whatever I command you: to Israel, you shall speak.   ואת כל אשר אצוך: לישראל תדבר:
8Fear them not, for I am with you to save you, says the Lord.   חאַל־תִּירָ֖א מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם כִּֽי־אִתְּךָ֥ אֲנִ֛י לְהַצִּלֶ֖ךָ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
9And the Lord stretched out His hand and reached my mouth, and the Lord said to me; Behold, I have placed My words in your mouth.   טוַיִּשְׁלַ֚ח יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ וַיַּגַּ֖ע עַל־פִּ֑י וַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלַ֔י הִנֵּ֛ה נָתַ֥תִּי דְבָרַ֖י בְּפִֽיךָ:
And the Lord stretched forth His hand: Every sending mentioned concerning a hand is an expression of stretching forth. Another explanation is like the Targum: And the Lord sent the words of His prophecy.   וישלח ה' את ידו: כל שליחות שהוא אצל יד לשון הושטה ל"א כתרגום ושלח ה' ית פתגמי נביאותיה:
10Behold, I have appointed you this day over the nations and over the kingdoms, to uproot and to crush, and to destroy and to demolish, to build and to plant.   ירְאֵ֞ה הִפְקַדְתִּ֣יךָ | הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה עַל־הַגּוֹיִם֙ וְעַל־הַמַּמְלָכ֔וֹת לִנְת֥וֹשׁ וְלִנְת֖וֹץ וּלְהַֽאֲבִ֣יד וְלַֽהֲר֑וֹס לִבְנ֖וֹת וְלִנְטֽוֹעַ:
I have appointed you: I have appointed you over the heathens.   הפקדתיך: מנותיך על העכו"ם:
to uproot and to crush: (depayser in French, to uproot) and over Israel to build and to plant if they heed. So did Jonathan paraphrase it.   לנתוש ולנתוץ: דיספציר בלעז:
11And the word of the Lord came to me, saying: What do you see, Jeremiah? And I said, "I see a rod of an almond tree."   יאוַיְהִ֚י דְבַר־יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלַ֣י לֵאמֹ֔ר מָֽה־אַתָּ֥ה רֹאֶ֖ה יִרְמְיָ֑הוּ וָֽאֹמַ֕ר מַקֵּ֥ל שָׁקֵ֖ד אֲנִ֥י רֹאֶֽה:
a rod of an almond tree: (amendleer in O.F.) Jonathan, however, renders: A King who hastens to do evil.   מקל שקד: מנדולי"ר בלעז, ויונתן תרגם מקל שקד מלך דמוחי לאבאשא:
12And the Lord said to me; You have seen well, for I hasten My word to accomplish it.   יבוַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֵלַ֖י הֵיטַ֣בְתָּ לִרְא֑וֹת כִּֽי־שֹׁקֵ֥ד אֲנִ֛י עַל־דְּבָרִ֖י לַֽעֲשֹׂתֽוֹ:
You have seen well: This almond tree hastens to blossom before all other trees. I, too, hasten to perform My word. And the Midrash Aggadah (Ecc. Rabbah 12:8) explains: An almond tree takes twenty-one days from its blossoming until it is completely ripe, as the number of days between the seventeenth of Tammuz, when the city was broken into, until the ninth of Av, when the Temple was burnt.   היטבת לראות: השקד הזה הוא ממהר להוציא פרח קודם לכל האילנות אף אני ממהר לעשות דברי, ומדרש אגדה השקד הזה הוא משעת חניטתו עד גמר בישולו עשרים ואחד יום כמנין ימים שבין שבעה עשר בתמוז שבו הובקעה העיר לתשעה באב שבו נשרף הבית:
13And the word of the Lord came to me a second time, saying: What do you see? And I said, "I see a bubbling pot, whose foam is toward the north."   יגוַיְהִ֨י דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֚ה | אֵלַי֙ שֵׁנִ֣ית לֵאמֹ֔ר מָ֥ה אַתָּ֖ה רֹאֶ֑ה וָֽאֹמַ֗ר סִ֚יר נָפ֙וּחַ֙ אֲנִ֣י רֹאֶ֔ה וּפָנָ֖יו מִפְּנֵ֥י צָפֽוֹנָה:
a bubbling pot: [lit. blown up,] seething (boillant in French).   סיר נפוח: רותח בויילנ"ט בלעז:
whose foam: [lit. and its face,] its seething (et ses ondes in O.F.) [and its waves].   ופניו: רתיחותיו אשישאונדי"ש בלעז:
14And the Lord said to me; From the north the misfortune will break forth upon all the inhabitants of the land.   ידוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלָ֑י מִצָּפוֹן֙ תִּפָּתַ֣ח הָֽרָעָ֔ה עַ֥ל כָּל־יֹֽשְׁבֵ֖י הָאָֽרֶץ:
From the north the misfortune will break forth: Babylon is on the north of Eretz Israel.   מצפון תפתח הרעה: בבל לצפונה של ארץ ישראל היא:
15For, behold I am summoning all the families of the kingdoms of the north, says the Lord, and they will come and place, each one his throne at the entrance of the gates of Jerusalem and against all its walls around and against all the cities of Judah.   טוכִּ֣י | הִנְנִ֣י קֹרֵ֗א לְכָֽל־מִשְׁפְּח֛וֹת מַמְלְכ֥וֹת צָפ֖וֹנָה נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֑ה וּבָ֡אוּ וְֽנָֽתְנוּ֩ אִ֨ישׁ כִּסְא֜וֹ פֶּ֣תַח | שַֽׁעֲרֵ֣י יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֗ם וְעַ֚ל כָּל־חֽוֹמֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ סָבִ֔יב וְעַ֖ל כָּל־עָרֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה:
16And I will utter My judgments against them concerning all their evil, that they left Me and offered up burnt-offerings to other gods and they prostrated themselves to the work of their hands.   טזוְדִבַּרְתִּ֚י מִשְׁפָּטַי֙ אוֹתָ֔ם עַ֖ל כָּל־רָֽעָתָ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲזָב֗וּנִי וַֽיְקַטְּרוּ֙ לֵֽאלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וַיִּֽשְׁתַּֽחֲו֖וּ לְמַֽעֲשֵׂ֥י יְדֵיהֶֽם:
And I will utter My judgments against them: I will debate with them, with Judah and Jerusalem.   ודברתי משפטי אותם: אתווכח עמם עם יהודה וירושלים:
17And you shall gird your loins and arise and speak to them all that I command you; be not dismayed by them, lest I break you before them.   יזוְאַתָּה֙ תֶּאְזֹ֣ר מָתְנֶ֔יךָ וְקַמְתָּ֙ וְדִבַּרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י אֲצַוֶּ֑ךָּ אַל־תֵּחַת֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם פֶּן־אֲחִתְּךָ֖ לִפְנֵיהֶֽם:
And you shall gird your loins: This is an expression of quickening like a man of valor.   תאזור מתניך: ל' זירוז כאיש חיל:
18And I, behold I have made you today into a fortified city and into an iron pillar, and into copper walls against the entire land, against the kings of Judah, against its princes, against its priests, and against the people of the land.   יחוַֽאֲנִ֞י הִנֵּ֛ה נְתַתִּ֣יךָ הַיּ֗וֹם לְעִ֨יר מִבְצָ֜ר וּלְעַמּ֥וּד בַּרְזֶ֛ל וּלְחֹמ֥וֹת נְחֹ֖שֶׁת עַל־כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ לְמַלְכֵ֚י יְהוּדָה֙ לְשָׂרֶ֔יהָ לְכֹֽהֲנֶ֖יהָ וּלְעַ֥ם הָאָֽרֶץ:
against the Kings of Judah: lit. to the Kings of Judah.   למלכי יהודה: כנגד מלכי יהודה:
19And they shall fight against you but they shall not prevail against you, for I am with you says the Lord, to save you.   יטוְנִלְחֲמ֥וּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְלֹֽא־י֣וּכְלוּ לָ֑ךְ כִּֽי־אִתְּךָ֥ אֲנִ֛י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֖ה לְהַצִּילֶֽךָ:
And they shall fight against you: They shall quarrel and fight against you to refute the words of your prophecy.   ונלחמו אליך: ויהון דינין ומגיחין לקבלך למסתר ית פתגמי נבואתך:

Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) Chapter 2

1And the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   אוַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
2Go and call out in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: so said the Lord: I remember to you the lovingkindness of your youth, the love of your nuptials, your following Me in the desert, in a land not sown.   בהָלֹ֡ךְ וְֽקָרָאתָ֩ בְּאָזְנֵי֙ יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה זָכַ֚רְתִּי לָךְ֙ חֶ֣סֶד נְעוּרַ֔יִךְ אַֽהֲבַ֖ת כְּלוּלֹתָ֑יִךְ לֶכְתֵּ֚ךְ אַֽחֲרַי֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר בְּאֶ֖רֶץ לֹ֥א זְרוּעָֽה:
I remember to you: Were you to return to Me, I would desire to have mercy on you for I remember the loving kindness of your youth and the love of the nuptials of your wedding canopy, when I brought you into the wedding canopy, and this (כלולתיך) is an expression of bringing in. Your nuptials (Noces in O.F.). Now what was the loving kindness of your youth? Your following My messengers, Moses and Aaron, from an inhabited land to the desert without provisions for the way since you believed in Me.   זכרתי לך: אם הייתם שבים אלי תאוותי לרחם עליכם כי זכרת חסד נעוריך ואהבת כלילת חופתך שהכללתיך לחופה ול' הכנסה הוא, כלולותיך נוצי"ש בלעז, ומה הוא חסד נעוריך לכתך אחר שלוחי משה ואהרן מארץ נושבת יצאתם למדבר ואין צדה לדרך כי האמנתם בי:
3Israel is holy to the Lord, the first of His grain; all who eat him shall be guilty, evil shall befall them, says the Lord.   גקֹ֚דֶשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לַיהֹוָ֔ה רֵאשִׁ֖ית תְּבֽוּאָתֹ֑ה כָּל־אֹֽכְלָ֣יו יֶאְשָּׁ֔מוּ רָעָ֛ה תָּבֹ֥א אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
Israel is holy: like terumah.   קדש ישראל: כתרומה:
the first of His grain: Like the first of the harvest before the Omer, which it is forbidden to eat, and whoever eats it is liable, so will all those who eat him be guilty. So did Jonathan render it.   ראשית תבואתה: כראשית קציר לפני העומר שאסור באכילה והאוכלו מתחייב כן כל אוכליו יאשמו כן ת"י:
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