Leviticus Chapter 26

10You will eat very old [produce], and you will clear out the old from before the new.   י וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֥ם יָשָׁ֖ן נוֹשָׁ֑ן וְיָשָׁ֕ן מִפְּנֵ֥י חָדָ֖שׁ תּוֹצִֽיאוּ:
You will eat very old [produce]: [But what blessing is it to eat old food? The Torah, means, however, that] the produce will remain well preserved, growing mellow with age, so that very old produce from three years ago will be better to eat than that of last year. — [B.B. 91b]   ואכלתם ישן נושן: הפירות יהיו משתמרין וטובים להתיישן, שיהא ישן הנושן של שלש שנים יפה לאכול משל אשתקד:
and you will clear out the old from before the new: The threshing floors will be full of new [grain, which would decay if left there, and, therefore, must be stored]. The storehouses, however, will be filled with the [abundant] old produce. Therefore, you will have to remove what is in the storehouses and take it elsewhere [in your house], in order to put the new produce into them. - [Sifthei Chachamim and see preceding Rashi; B.B. 91b]   וישן מפני חדש תוציאו: שיהיו הגרנות מלאות חדש והאוצרות מלאות ישן, וצריכים אתם לפנות האוצרות למקום אחר לתת החדש לתוכן:
11And I will place My dwelling in your midst, and My Spirit will not reject you;   יאוְנָֽתַתִּ֥י מִשְׁכָּנִ֖י בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תִגְעַ֥ל נַפְשִׁ֖י אֶתְכֶֽם:
And I will place My dwelling: This is the Holy Temple. — [see Er. 2a and Rashi there; Torath Kohanim 26:14]   ונתתי משכני: זה בית המקדש:
and My Spirit will not reject you: My Spirit will not be disgusted with you. Every [expression of] גְּעִילָה is an expression of the purging of something that had been absorbed by something else, as in the verse, “For there, the shield of the mighty was rejected (נִגְעֲל),” (II Sam. 1:21), it did not accept that anointment, that [warriors] used to anoint their leather shields with cooked fat, in order to have attacking arrows or spears glide off it, rather than pierce the leather.   ולא תגעל נפשי: אין רוחי קצה בכם. כל געילה לשון פליטת דבר הבלוע בדבר אחר, כמו (שמואל ב' א כא) כי שם נגעל מגן גבורים, לא קבל המשיחה שמושחין מגן של עור בחלב מבושל, כדי להחליק מעליו מכת חץ או חנית, שלא יקוב העור:
12I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be My people.   יבוְהִתְהַלַּכְתִּי֙ בְּת֣וֹכְכֶ֔ם וְהָיִ֥יתִי לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים וְאַתֶּ֖ם תִּֽהְיוּ־לִ֥י לְעָֽם:
I will walk among you: [God promises a blessing of special spiritual quality, involving intimate knowledge of Him (Zeidah Laderech):] “I will stroll with you in the Garden of Eden, as if I were one of you, and you will not be terrified of Me.” Now, one might think that you will not fear Me [under such “familiar” circumstances]. Scripture, therefore, says here, “and be your God.” - [Torath Kohanim 26: 15]   והתהלכתי בתוככם: אטייל עמכם בגן עדן כאחד מכם, ולא תהיו מזדעזעים ממני. יכול לא תיראו ממני, תלמוד לומר והייתי לכם לא-להים:
13I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt from being slaves to them; and I broke the pegs of your yoke and led you upright.   יגאֲנִ֞י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הוֹצֵ֤אתִי אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מִֽהְיֹ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם עֲבָדִ֑ים וָֽאֶשְׁבֹּר֙ מֹטֹ֣ת עֻלְּכֶ֔ם וָֽאוֹלֵ֥ךְ אֶתְכֶ֖ם קֽוֹמְמִיּֽוּת:
I am the Lord, your God, [Who took you out of the land of Egypt]: It is worthwhile for you to believe Me that I can do all these things, for indeed “I took you out of the land of Egypt” and performed great miracles for you. — [Torath Kohanim 26:16]   אני ה' אלהיכם: כדאי אני שתאמינו בי שאני יכול לעשות כל אלה, שהרי הוצאתי אתכם מארץ מצרים ועשיתי לכם נסים גדולים:
the pegs: [A plowing yoke consists of a bar that is placed over the animal’s neck and reins that are placed under its neck and threaded through two holes at each end of the bar. This term מוֹט refers to] a type of peg, which is inserted into the two [holes at the] ends of the yoke. [These pegs therefore jam the reins tightly through the holes,] preventing the reins from coming off the ox’s head and [preventing the] undoing of the knot. [The term is] as [it appears] in the verse, “Make yourself reins and yoke-pegs (מֹטוֹת) ” (Jer. 27:2); cheville in French.   מטת: כמין יתד [התחובה] בשני ראשי העול המעכבים המוסרה שלא תצא מראש השור ויתיר הקשר, כמו (ירמיה כז ב) עשה לך מוסרות ומוטות קוניונגל"א בלע"ז [רצועת העול]:
upright: Erect in stature [due to relief from bondage]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:17]   קוממיות: בקומה זקופה:
14But if you do not listen to Me and do not perform all these commandments,   ידוְאִם־לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וְלֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֔וּ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַמִּצְוֹ֖ת הָאֵֽלֶּה:
But if you do not listen to Me: to toil in [the study of] Torah in order to know the exposition of the Sages [corresponding to verse 3]. I might think that this refers to fulfilling the commandments. When Scripture says, “and you do not perform all these commandments,” the fulfillment of commandments is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “if you do not listen to Me”? To toil in [the study of] Torah. And what is the meaning of “to Me”? This is speaking only about someone who knows his Master, and yet willfully rebels against Him (Sanh. 109a). Likewise, regarding Nimrod [whom Scripture calls], “a powerful hunter before the Lord ” (Gen. 10:9), [it means that] he recognized God but intentionally rebelled against Him; likewise, regarding the people of Sodom, [referred to as], “very evil and sinful against the Lord ” (Gen. 13:13)- [it means that] they recognized their Master but intentionally rebelled against Him. — [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ואם לא תשמעו לי: להיות עמלים בתורה, לדעת מדרש חכמים. יכול לקיום המצות, כשהוא אומר ולא תעשו וגו', הרי קיום מצות אמור, הא מה אני מקיים ואם לא תשמעו לי, להיות עמלים בתורה. ומה תלמוד לומר לי, אין לי אלא זה המכיר את רבונו ומתכוין למרוד בו, וכן בנמרוד (בראשית י ט) גבור ציד לפני ה', שמכירו ומתכוין למרוד בו, וכן באנשי סדום (שם יג יג) רעים וחטאים לה' מאד, מכירים את רבונם ומתכוונים למרוד בו:
and do not perform: If you do not learn [the Torah], you will not perform. Scripture hereby enumerates two transgressions [namely, (a) not learning the Torah and therefore (b) not fulfilling its commandments properly]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ולא תעשו: משלא תלמדו לא תעשו הרי שתי עבירות:
15and if you despise My statutes and reject My ordinances, not performing any of My commandments, thereby breaking My covenant   טווְאִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֣י תִּמְאָ֔סוּ וְאִ֥ם אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֖י תִּגְעַ֣ל נַפְשְׁכֶ֑ם לְבִלְתִּ֤י עֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתַ֔י לְהַפְרְכֶ֖ם אֶת־בְּרִיתִֽי:
and if you despise My statutes: [This refers to one who] despises others who perform [the commandments];- [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   ואם בחקתי תמאסו: מואס באחרים העושים:
and reject My ordinances: [refers to one who] hates the Sages - [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   משפטי תגעל נפשכם: שונא החכמים:
not performing: [refers to someone who] prevents others from fulfilling [the commandments];- [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   לבלתי עשות: מונע את אחרים מעשות:
any of my commandments: [refers to one who] denies that I [God,] commanded them. This is why the verse says “any of My commandments” and “not any of the commandments.” - [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   את כל מצותי: כופר המצוות שלא צויתים, לכך נאמר את כל מצותי, ולא נאמר את כל המצות:
thereby breaking My covenant: [This refers to one who] denies the main tenet [of Judaism, namely, that God is the Omnipotent Creator of all existence (Torath Kohanim 26:18).] Hence, [this verse has enumerated] seven sins, the first leading to the second, and so on, until the seventh, [and the process of degeneration is] as follows: [First, a person] does not learn [the Torah]; then, he [subsequently] does not fulfill [the commandments]; he then despises others who do [fulfill them]; then, he hates the Sages, prevents others from fulfilling [the commandments], denies the [authenticity of the] commandments and [finally] denies the very omnipotence of God.   להפרכם את בריתי: כופר בעיקר הרי שבע עבירות, הראשונה גוררת השניה, וכן עד השביעית ואלו הן לא למד, ולא עשה, מואס באחרים העושים, שונא את החכמים, מונע את האחרים, כופר במצות, כופר בעיקר:
16then I too, will do the same to you; I will order upon you shock, consumption, fever, and diseases that cause hopeless longing and depression. You will sow your seed in vain, and your enemies will eat it.   טזאַף־אֲנִ֞י אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־זֹּ֣את לָכֶ֗ם וְהִפְקַדְתִּ֨י עֲלֵיכֶ֤ם בֶּֽהָלָה֙ אֶת־הַשַּׁחֶ֣פֶת וְאֶת־הַקַּדַּ֔חַת מְכַלּ֥וֹת עֵינַ֖יִם וּמְדִיבֹ֣ת נָ֑פֶשׁ וּזְרַעְתֶּ֤ם לָרִיק֙ זַרְעֲכֶ֔ם וַֽאֲכָלֻ֖הוּ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
I will order: I will order upon you.   והפקדתי עליכם: וצויתי עליכם:
consumption: This is a disease that consumes the flesh; anpoles in Old French, blisters. [The afflicted] appears like one who has had swellings and whose swellings have abated, thereby causing a sad appearance to his face [due to the stretched skin sagging after the swellings have abated].   שחפת: חולי שמשחף את הבשר, אנפולי"ש בלע"ז [בועות], דומה לנפוח שהוקלה נפיחתו ומראית פניו זעופה:
fever: Heb. קַדַּחַת, an illness that makes the body feverish, heating it up and making it burn, like, “For a fire blazed (קָדְחָה) in My wrath” (Deut. 32:22).   קדחת: חולי שמקדיח את הגוף ומחממו ומבעירו, כמו (דברים לב כב) כי אש קדחה באפי:
that cause hopeless longing and depression: Heb. מְכַלּות עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נֶפֶשׁ. The eyes (עֵינַיִם) look with anticipation, longing (כָּלוֹת) to see that the illness will abate, and he will recover, but, he eventually does not recover, and depression (מְדִיבֹת נֶפֶשׁ) falls upon his family members when he dies. Any desire that is not realized or some prolonged yearning [for something], is termed כִּלְיוּן עֵינַיִם.   מכלות עינים ומדיבת נפש: העינים צופות וכלות לראות שיקל וירפא, וסוף שלא ירפא, וידאבו הנפשות של משפחתו במותו. כל תאוה שאינה באה ותוחלת ממושכה קרויה כליון עינים:
You will sow [your seed] in vain [and your enemies will eat it]: You will sow, but it will not grow, and if it does grow-“your enemies will eat it.”   וזרעתם לריק: תזרעו ולא תצמח, ואם תצמח ואכלוהו אויביכם:
17I will set My attention against you, and you will be smitten before your enemies. Your enemies will rule over you; you will flee, but no one will be pursuing you.   יזוְנָֽתַתִּ֤י פָנַי֙ בָּכֶ֔ם וְנִגַּפְתֶּ֖ם לִפְנֵ֣י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְרָד֤וּ בָכֶם֙ שֽׂנְאֵיכֶ֔ם וְנַסְתֶּ֖ם וְאֵֽין־רֹדֵ֥ף אֶתְכֶֽם:
I will set my attention: [The word here פָנַי, means] My leisure. [Thus, God is saying here:] “I will turn (פּוֹנֶה) away from all My affairs, to harm you.”   ונתתי פני: פנאי שלי, פונה אני מכל עסקי להרע לכם:
Your enemies will rule over you: Heb. וְרָדוּ. [This expression is to be understood] literally, namely, [that they] will rule over you. Now, the Aggadic explanation of this passage (beginning from verse 16), as taught in Torath Kohanim (26:19-24), is as follows: [16]   ורדו בכם שנאיכם: כמשמעו ישלטו בכם. אגדת תורת כהנים מפרשה זו:
Then I too, will do the same: Heb., אַף אֲנִי אֶעשֶׂה זֹּאת. I will speak only out of wrath (אַף). Likewise, וְהָלַכְתִּי אַף אֲנִי עִמָּכֶם בְּקֶרִי (verse 24 below);   אף אני אעשה זאת: איני מדבר אלא באף, וכן והלכתי אף אני עמכם בקרי (פסוק כד):
I will order upon you: Heb., וְהִפְקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם. The plagues will address (פּוֹקְדוֹת) you one immediately after the other; i.e., the first plague will not have even finished, when I will bring the next one upon you, right next to it.   והפקדתי עליכם: שיהיו המכות פוקדות אתכם מזו לזו, עד שהראשונה פקודה אצלכם אביא אחרת ואסמכנה לה:
shock: Heb., בֶּהָלָה. This is a plague that shocks (מַבְהֶלֶת) people. And what is this? A plague [whose cure is anxiously] awaited, [and when the afflicted dies suddenly, people are (נִבְהָלִים) shocked];   בהלה: מכה המבהלת את הבריות, ואיזו, זו מכת מותן:
Consumption…: Heb. אֶת הַשַּׁחֶפֶת וְאֶת הַקַּדַּחַת מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נָפֶשׁ . Sometimes, a person is sick and lies in bed, but his flesh is well preserved on him-therefore, Scripture states, שַׁחֶפֶת, [a disease that] consumes the flesh. Or occasionally, a person may be worn away [from disease], but is comfortable in that he has no burning fever. Therefore, Scripture states, וְאֶת הַקַדַּחַת, which teaches us that [the afflicted] will be burning with fever. Or sometimes, a person may be burning with fever, but he himself believes that he will survive. Therefore, Scripture states, “[and diseases] that cause hopeless longing” [explained above in Rashi to mean that he will not recover]. Or, although he himself does not believe that he will survive, nevertheless, others may believe that he will. Therefore, Scripture states, מְדִיבוֹת נֶפֶשׁ [explained above in Rashi to mean that the family members of the afflicted will be depressed due to his death];   את השחפת: יש לך אדם שהוא חולה ומוטל במטה אבל בשרו שמור עליו, תלמוד לומר שחפת, שהוא נשחף. או עתים שהוא נשחף אבל נוח ואינו מקדיח, תלמוד לומר ואת הקדחת, מלמד שהוא מקדיח. או עתים שהוא מקדיח אבל סבור הוא בעצמו שיחיה, תלמוד לומר מכלות עינים. או הוא אינו סבור בעצמו שיחיה אבל אחרים סבורים שיחיה, תלמוד לומר ומדיבות נפש:
You will sow your seed in vain: You will sow your seed, but it will not grow. If this is the case, though, what would your enemies come and eat, that the verse should then state, “and your enemies will eat it”? What circumstance are we speaking about here? You will sow your seed one particular year, and it will not grow [then]; in the following year, however, it will grow, but then, your enemies will come and find the produce for the time of the siege. Thus, those inside [the besieged cities] will be dying of starvation, because they had not gathered in produce from the previous year. Another explanation of “You will sow your seed in vain” is that Scripture here is alluding to sons and daughters, namely, that you will invest hard work in your children, rearing them, but [the punishment of your] sin will come and consume them, as the verse says, “Those whom I have reared and brought up-my enemy has consumed” (Lam. 2:22). [17]   וזרעתם לריק זרעכם: זורעה ואינה מצמחת, ומעתה מה אויביכם באים ואוכלים, ומה תלמוד לומר ואכלוהו אויביכם, הא כיצד, זורעה שנה ראשונה ואינה מצמחת, שנה שניה מצמחת ואויבים באים ומוצאים תבואה לימי המצור, ושבפנים מתים ברעב, שלא לקטו תבואה אשתקד. דבר אחר וזרעתם לריק זרעכם, כנגד הבנים והבנות הכתוב מדבר, שאתה עמל בהם ומגדלן, והחטא בא ומכלה אותם, שנאמר (איכה ב כב) אשר טפחתי ורביתי אויבי כלם:
I will set My attention against you: Just as it is said regarding the good, “I will turn towards you” (verse 9), so it is said regarding the bad, “I will set My attention [against you.” Our Sages] drew a parable to a king, who said to his servants [when they had not obeyed him]: “I am now turning my attention away from all my affairs, and I am occupying myself with you, to do [you] harm!”   ונתתי פני בכם: כמו שנאמר בטובה ופניתי אליכם, כך נאמר ברעה ונתתי פני. משלו משל, למלך שאמר לעבדיו פונה אני מכל עסקי ועוסק אני עמכם [לרעה]:
and you will be smitten before your enemies: Heb. וְנִגַּפְתֶּם, [lit., “and you will fall by the plague before your enemies,”] that the deathly plague will kill you inside [the besieged cities] while your enemies surround you from the outside [and rejoice that you are dying off within, from the plague];- [Sifthei Chachamim]   ונגפתם לפני איביכם: שיהא המות הורג אתכם מבפנים ובעלי דבביכון מקיפין אתכם מבחוץ:
Your enemies will rule over you: Heb. וְרָדוּ בָכֶם. I will make your enemies stem from within your very own people. For at the time that the nations stand up against Israel, they seek out only what is visible, as it is said, “And it happened, when Israel sowed, that Midian, Amalek, and the children of the East came up… and they camped against them and destroyed the Land’s produce” (Jud. 6:3-4). However, when I will set up [enemies] against you from within your very own camp, they will seek out your hidden treasures [within]. Thus, says the verse, “who ate the flesh of My people and flayed their skin from upon them [and opened their bones and broke them” (Micah 3:3)-the metaphor of breaking the bone to get to the marrow within, alluding to the enemy seeking out the hidden treasure within (Yosef Hallel)].   ורדו בכם שנאיכם: שאיני מעמיד שונאים אלא מכם ובכם, שבשעה שאומות העולם עומדים על ישראל אינם מבקשים אלא מה שבגלוי, שנאמר (שופטים ו ג - ד) והיה אם זרע ישראל ועלה מדין ועמלק ובני קדם וגו' ויחנו עליהם וישחיתו את יבול הארץ, אבל בשעה שאעמיד עליכם מכם ובכם, הם מחפשים אחר המטמוניות שלכם, וכן הוא אומר (מיכה ג ג) ואשר אכלו שאר עמי ועורם מעליהם הפשיטו וגו':
you will flee: out of fright,   ונסתם: מפני אימה:
but no one will be pursuing you: for lack of strength [left to pursue you.] - [Torath Kohanim 26:24] [This is the end of the Aggadic explanation given by Torath Kohanim. Now Rashi resumes his commentary, although sometimes quoting Torath Kohanim.]   ואין רדף אתכם: מבלי כח:
18And if, during these, you will not listen to Me, I will add another seven punishments for your sins:   יחוְאִ֨ם־עַד־אֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וְיָֽסַפְתִּי֙ לְיַסְּרָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
And if, during these: Heb. וְאִםעַדאֵלֶּה, [equivalent to:] וְאִםבְּעוֹדאֵלֶּה, lit., “and if, while (עוֹד) these [are transpiring], you [still] will not listen to Me.”   ואם עד אלה: ואם בעוד אלה המכות עמכם לא תשמעו:
I will add: more sufferings of a different [nature].   ויספתי: עוד יסורין אחרים:
another seven… for your sins: Seven retributions for your seven sins that have been enumerated earlier [not sevenfold for your sins]. — [see Rashi verse 15 above; Torath Kohanim 26:26]   שבע על חטאתיכם: שבע פורעניות על שבע העבירות האמורות למעלה:
19I will break the pride of your strength and make your skies like iron and your land like copper.   יטוְשָֽׁבַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־גְּא֣וֹן עֻזְּכֶ֑ם וְנָֽתַתִּ֤י אֶת־שְׁמֵיכֶם֙ כַּבַּרְזֶ֔ל וְאֶת־אַרְצְכֶ֖ם כַּנְּחֻשָֽׁה:
I will break the pride of your strength: This is the Temple, and so Scripture says, “Behold I profaning My Sanctuary, the pride of your strength” (Ezek. 24:21). - [Torath Kohanim 26:27]   ושברתי את גאון עזכם: זה בית המקדש, וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל כד כא) הנני מחלל את מקדשי גאון עוזכם:
and make your skies like iron and your land like copper: This is more severe than that of Moses, for there he says, “And your sky above you will be [like] copper and the earth beneath you (like) iron” (Deut. 28:23), that the sky will sweat as copper sweats, and the earth will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat, and therefore, [the earth] will preserve [any of] its [existing] fruit. Here, however, [in this harsher curse, pronounced by God Himself,] the sky will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat, and therefore, there will be drought in the world, while the earth will sweat, just as copper sweats, thus causing its fruits to rot [through its dampness]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:28]   ונתתי את שמיכם כברזל ואת ארצכם כנחשה: זו קשה משל משה, ששם הוא אומר (דברים כח כג) והיו שמיך אשר על ראשך נחשת וגו', שיהיו השמים מזיעין כדרך שהנחשת מזיעה והארץ אינה מזיעה כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע והיא משמרת פירותיה, אבל כאן השמים לא יהיו מזיעין כדרך שאין הברזל מזיע ויהא חורב בעולם והארץ תהא מזיעה כדרך שהנחשת מזיעה והיא מאבדת פירותיה:
20Your strength will be expended in vain; your land will not yield its produce, neither will the tree of the earth give forth its fruit.   כוְתַ֥ם לָרִ֖יק כֹּֽחֲכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תִתֵּ֤ן אַרְצְכֶם֙ אֶת־יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְעֵ֣ץ הָאָ֔רֶץ לֹ֥א יִתֵּ֖ן פִּרְיֽוֹ:
Your strength will be expended in vain: In the case of a man who did not toil, not having plowed, sown, weeded, cut off [the thorns], or hoed-at the time of harvest, if blight comes and ruins everything [that others worked on], it does not affect him at all. However, a man who did toil, who plowed, sowed, weeded, cut off [the thorns], and hoed-if blight comes and ruins everything, this man’s teeth become blunt [i.e., his spirit will surely be broken]! [Thus is the force of the retribution described here]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:28]   ותם לריק כחכם: הרי אדם שלא עמל שלא חרש שלא זרע שלא נכש שלא כסח שלא עדר ובשעת הקציר בא שדפון ומלקה אותו, אין בכך כלום, אבל אדם שעמל וחרש וזרע ונכש וכסח ועדר ובא שדפון ומלקה אותו, הרי שניו של זה קהות:
your land will not yield its produce: [Heb. יְבוּלָה. Even [that quantity of seed] that you “bring forth (מוֹבִיל) ” to [the field] at the time of sowing. — Torath Kohanim 26:29]   ולא תתן ארצכם את יבולה: אף מה שאתה מוביל לה בשעת הזרע:
and the tree of the earth [will not give forth its fruit]: [Why the expression “tree of the earth”? It means that] the trees will be smitten even from the earth, for they will not be able to put forth their fruits in the season when fruits sprout forth. [The production of fruit originates from the earth in which the tree is rooted. The tree will blossom, but the earth will have no power to bring forth fruit.] - [Sefer Hazikkaron; Torath Kohanim 26:29]   ועץ הארץ: אפילו מן הארץ יהא לקוי, שלא יחניט פירותיו בשעת החנטה:
will not give forth: [This phrase comes after “the tree of the land” and before “its fruit” and must be understood here to] refer to both that [phrase] which is before it and that which comes after it, the trees and the fruits [and therefore, there are two separate retributions specified here (see next Rashi)].   לא יתן: משמש למעלה ולמטה אעץ ואפרי:
will not give forth its fruit: i.e., if a tree will produce any fruit (Mizrachi), they will drop off (Torath Kohanim 26:29). Thus, this [clause, “the tree of the land will not give forth its fruit”] represents two separate curses and [by so identifying them as two separate curses here, Rashi has shown that verses 19-20 have] now enumerated seven retributions here (see Rashi on verse 18) [namely: (a) Breaking the pride of your strength, (b) making your skies like iron, and (c) your land like copper, (d) that your strength will be expended in vain, (e) your land will not yield its produce, (f) trees will not be able to give forth their fruits altogether (see preceding Rashi), and (g) any fruit produced will drop off the tree]. [Torath Kohanim]   לא יתן פריו: כשהוא מפרה משיר פירותיו, הרי שתי קללות, ויש כאן שבע פורעניות:
21And if you treat Me as happenstance, and you do not wish to listen to Me, I will add seven punishments corresponding to your sins:   כאוְאִם־תֵּֽלְכ֤וּ עִמִּי֙ קֶ֔רִי וְלֹ֥א תֹאב֖וּ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ לִ֑י וְיָֽסַפְתִּ֤י עֲלֵיכֶם֙ מַכָּ֔ה שֶׁ֖בַע כְּחַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
And if you treat me as happenstance: Heb. קֶרִי. Our Rabbis said that [this word means] temporary, by chance (מִקְרֶה), something that happens only sometimes. Thus, [our verse means:] “If you treat the commandments as happenstance, a temporary concern.” Menachem [Ben Saruk], (Machbereth, p. 1158) however, explains קֶרִי as refraining. Similar is, “hold back (הֹקֵר) your steps” (Prov. 25:17), and also, “he who keeps back (יְקַר) his breath” (Prov. 17:27). And this explanation [of לָלֶכֶת עִמִּי קֶרִי] resembles Onkelos’s translation, namely, denoting hardness (קשִׁי), i.e., [those who commit the sin of לָלֶכֶת עִמִּי קֶרִי] harden (מַקְשִׁין) their hearts to refrain from coming close to Me.   ואם תלכו עמי קרי: רבותינו אמרו עראי, במקרה, שאינו אלא לפרקים, כן תלכו עראי במצות. ומנחם פירש לשון מניעה, וכן (משלי כה יז) הוקר רגלך, וכן יקר רוח (משלי יז כז), וקרוב לשון זה לתרגומו של אונקלוס לשון קושי, שמקשים לבם להמנע מהתקרב אלי:
I will add seven punishments corresponding to your sins: Seven other punishments, with the number seven, corresponding to your sins. - [Torath Kohanim 26:30]   שבע כחטאתיכם: שבע פורעניות אחרים במספר שבע כחטאתיכם:
22I will incite the wild beasts of the field against you, and they will bereave you, utterly destroy your livestock and diminish you, and your roads will become desolate.   כבוְהִשְׁלַחְתִּ֨י בָכֶ֜ם אֶת־חַיַּ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ וְשִׁכְּלָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהִכְרִ֨יתָה֙ אֶת־בְּהֶמְתְּכֶ֔ם וְהִמְעִ֖יטָה אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְנָשַׁ֖מּוּ דַּרְכֵיכֶֽם:
I will incite: Heb. הִשְׁלַחְתּי, an expression of inciting.   והשלחתי: לשון גירוי:
and they will bereave you: [From this verse,] I know only that wild beasts will bereave you, for this is their nature. How do I know that domestic animals, which are not accustomed [to kill people, that they too, will kill]? Therefore, Scripture says, “I will incite the teeth of livestock upon them” (Deut. 32:24). Thus, there are two [punishments-both wild beasts and domestic animals attacking people]. How do I know that they will kill through their bite? Because that verse continues, “with the venom of the creatures that slither in the dust”-just as those [snakes] kill through their bite, these also will kill through their bite, and indeed, there were years in the Land of Israel, when [domestic] donkeys used to bite and kill, wild donkeys bit and killed. — [see Rashi Deut. 32:24; Torath Kohanim 26:31] [Be’er Mayim Chayim writes that the wild donkey is basically a domestic animal, but, as Leket Bahir comments, it lives in the wilderness and is therefore considered a wild animal. See also Sefer Hazikkaron. Extant editions of Torath Kohanim read: Donkeys would bite and kill; oxen would bite and kill.]   ושכלה אתכם: אין לי אלא חיה משכלת שדרכה בכך, בהמה שאין דרכה בכך מנין, תלמוד לומר (דברים לב כד) ושן בהמות אשלח בם, הרי שתים. ומנין שתהא ממיתה בנשיכתה, תלמוד לומר (שם) עם חמת זוחלי עפר. מה אלו נושכין וממיתין, אף אלו נושכין וממיתין. כבר היו שנים בארץ ישראל חמור נושך וממית, ערוד נושך וממית:
and they will bereave you: these are the young children.   ושכלה אתכם: אלו הקטנים:
utterly destroy your livestock: from outside [your city].   והכריתה את בהמתכם: מבחוץ:
and diminish you: from within [your city].   והמעיטה אתכם: מבפנים:
and your roads will become desolate: The major trails and the minor trails. Here you have seven punishments: 1) the teeth of domestic animals, 2) the teeth of wild animals, 3) the venom of the crawling things of the dust, 4) and they will bereave [you], 5) utterly destroy [you], 6) and diminish [you], 7) and [your roads] will become desolate.   ונשמו דרכיכם: שבילים גדולים ושבילים קטנים, הרי שבע פורעניות שן בהמה, ושן חיה, חמת זוחלי עפר, ושכלה, והכריתה, והמעיטה, ונשמו:
23And if, through these, you will still not be chastised [to return] to Me, and if you [continue to] treat Me happenstance,   כגוְאִ֨ם־בְּאֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א תִוָּֽסְר֖וּ לִ֑י וַֽהֲלַכְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י קֶֽרִי:
you will not be chastised to Me: to return to Me.   לא תוסרו לי: לשוב אלי:
24Then I too, will treat you as happenstance. I will again add seven punishments for your sins:   כדוְהָֽלַכְתִּ֧י אַף־אֲנִ֛י עִמָּכֶ֖ם בְּקֶ֑רִי וְהִכֵּיתִ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ גַּם־אָ֔נִי שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
25I will bring upon you an army that avenges the avenging of a covenant, and you will gather into your cities. I will incite the plague in your midst, and you will be delivered into the enemy's hands,   כהוְהֵֽבֵאתִ֨י עֲלֵיכֶ֜ם חֶ֗רֶב נֹקֶ֨מֶת֙ נְקַם־בְּרִ֔ית וְנֶֽאֱסַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶל־עָֽרֵיכֶ֑ם וְשִׁלַּ֤חְתִּי דֶ֨בֶר֙ בְּת֣וֹכְכֶ֔ם וְנִתַּתֶּ֖ם בְּיַד־אוֹיֵֽב:
the avenging of a covenant: [Since] there is also an avenging which is not of the covenant [i.e., not stated here in the Torah, such as those] in the manner of other avengings and this is the blinding of the eyes of Zedekiah (see II Kings, 25:7) [i.e., blinding is not one of the punishments enumerated here]. Another explanation of “the avenging of a covenant” : The avenging [here] will be because you broke My covenant [namely, the Torah] (Sifthei Chachamim and Onkelos; Shab. 33a). Wherever the expression of “bringing חֶרֶב ” appears in Scripture, it refers to a war of enemy armies.   נקם ברית: ויש נקם שאינו בברית כדרך שאר נקמות, וזהו סמוי עיניו של צדקיהו. דבר אחר נקם ברית נקמת בריתי אשר עברתם. כל הבאת חרב שבמקרא היא מלחמת חיילות אויבים:
and you will gather [into your cities]: from the outside, to the inside of the cities, due to the siege. — [Torath Kohanim 26:33]   ונאספתם: מן החוץ אל תוך הערים מפני המצור:
I will then incite the plague in your midst [and you will be delivered into the enemy’s hands]: Through this plague, you will be delivered over to the hands of your enemies who are besieging you (see preceding Rashi); because since one may not allow a dead person to remain [unburied] overnight in Jerusalem (B.K. 82b), when they bring out their dead for burial, they will then be “delivered into the enemy’s hands.” - [Torath Kohanim 26:33]   ושלחתי דבר בתוככם: ועל ידי הדבר ונתתם ביד האויבים הצרים עליכם, לפי שאין מלינים את המת בירושלים, וכשהם מוציאים את המת לקברו, נתנים ביד אויב:
26when I break for you the staff of bread, and ten women will bake your bread in one oven, and they will bring back your bread by weight, and you will eat, yet not be satisfied.   כובְּשִׁבְרִ֣י לָכֶם֘ מַטֵּה־לֶ֒חֶם֒ וְ֠אָפ֠וּ עֶ֣שֶׂר נָשִׁ֤ים לַחְמְכֶם֙ בְּתַנּ֣וּר אֶחָ֔ד וְהֵשִׁ֥יבוּ לַחְמְכֶ֖ם בַּמִּשְׁקָ֑ל וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם וְלֹ֥א תִשְׂבָּֽעוּ:
the staff of bread: Heb. מַטֵּה. [This expression] denotes [a source of] “support” [namely, food or bread, just as a staff (מַטֵּה) supports a person (Mizrachi)], similar to “staff (מַטֵּה) of strength” (Jer. 48:17).   מטה לחם: לשון משען, כמו (ירמיה מח יז) מטה עז:
When I break for you the staff of bread: I will break every support of bread that you have. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34] This refers to “the arrows of hunger” (see Ezek. 5:16 where both of these expressions appear, and Redak identifies the “arrows of hunger” as blight, mildew, and locusts, which destroy some or most of the grain).   בשברי לכם מטה לחם: אשבור לכם כל מסעד אוכל, והם חצי רעב:
and ten women will bake your bread in one oven: because of lack of wood. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34]   ואפו עשר נשים לחמכם בתנור אחד: מחוסר עצים:
and they will bring back your bread by weight: The grain will rot, and the bread will become crumbly, breaking apart inside the oven. The women, therefore, will sit and weigh the broken pieces, to divide them among themselves. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34]   והשיבו לחמכם במשקל: שתהא התבואה נרקבת ונעשית פת נפולה ומשתברת בתנור, והן יושבות ושוקלות את השברים לחלקם ביניהם:
and you will eat, yet not be satisfied: This describes a curse within the intestines. [Once again,] seven retributions [are enumerated here (verses 25-26) corresponding to the seven sins (see Rashi on verses 15, 18, 20 and 22 above)], namely: (a) the attacking armies, (b) the siege, (c) the plague, (d) the destruction of food supply, (e) a lack of wood, (f) crumbly bread and (g) a curse in the intestines. The clause, “you will be delivered [into the enemy’s hand]” (in verse 25), does not count [as a separate retribution because it] is [part of] the attacking armies.   ואכלתם ולא תשבעו: זה מארה בתוך המעים, הרי שבע פורעניות חרב, מצור, דבר, שבר מטה לחם, חוסר עצים, פת נפולה, מארה במעים. ונתתם (פסוק כה) אינה מן המנין, שהיא החרב:
27And if, despite this, you still do not listen to Me, still treating Me as happenstance,   כזוְאִ֨ם־בְּזֹ֔את לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וַֽהֲלַכְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י בְּקֶֽרִי:
28I will treat you with a fury of happenstance, adding again seven [chastisements] for your sins:   כחוְהָֽלַכְתִּ֥י עִמָּכֶ֖ם בַּֽחֲמַת־קֶ֑רִי וְיִסַּרְתִּ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ אַף־אָ֔נִי שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
29You will eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your daughters you will eat.   כטוַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם בְּשַׂ֣ר בְּנֵיכֶ֑ם וּבְשַׂ֥ר בְּנֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
30I will demolish your edifices and cut down your sun idols; I will make your corpses [fall] upon the corpses of your idols, and My Spirit will reject you.   לוְהִשְׁמַדְתִּ֞י אֶת־בָּמֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם וְהִכְרַתִּי֙ אֶת־חַמָּ֣נֵיכֶ֔ם וְנָֽתַתִּי֙ אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶ֔ם עַל־פִּגְרֵ֖י גִּלּֽוּלֵיכֶ֑ם וְגָֽעֲלָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֖י אֶתְכֶֽם:
your edifices: Towers and castles.   במתיכם: מגדלים ובירניות:
your sun-idols: A type of idol that they would place upon the rooftops, and since they would stand in the sun (חַמָּה), they are called “sun idols.” (חַמָּנִים) - [Torath Kohanim 19:7]   חמניכם: מין עבודה זרה שמעמידין על הגגות. ועל שם שמעמידין בחמה קרויין חמנים:
I will make your corpses [fall] upon [the corpses of your idols]: [How so?] The people would be swollen from starvation; [and in a futile gesture of homage,] they would take out their idol from their bosom and kiss it; their bellies would burst open, and they would fall down [dead] on top of it. — [Torath Kohanim 26:36]   ונתתי את פגריכם: תפוחי רעב היו, ומוציאים יראתם מחיקם ומנשקים אותם, וכרסו נבקעת ונופל עליה:
and My Spirit will reject you: This is the departure of the Divine Presence. — [Torath Kohanim 26:36]   וגעלה נפשי אתכם: זה סילוק שכינה:
31I will lay your cities waste and make your holy places desolate, and I will not partake of your pleasant fragrances.   לאוְנָֽתַתִּ֤י אֶת־עָֽרֵיכֶם֙ חָרְבָּ֔ה וַֽהֲשִׁמּוֹתִ֖י אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶ֑ם וְלֹ֣א אָרִ֔יחַ בְּרֵ֖יחַ נִיחֹֽחֲכֶֽם:
I will lay your cities waste: I might think that this means [desolate] of people [who reside there (Mizrachi)]. When the [next verse] says, “I will make the Land desolate,” [desolation of] people [who reside there] is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “waste”? [It means that the Land will be desolate] of any passerby. — [Torath Kohanim 26:2]   ונתתי את עריכם חרבה: יכול מאדם, כשהוא אומר והשימותי אני את הארץ (פסוק לב) הרי אדם אמור, הא מה אני מקיים חרבה מעובר ושב:
and make your holy places (מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם) desolate: I might think that this means [desolate] of sacrifices. [However,] when [Scripture] states, “and I will not partake [of your pleasant fragrances],” [desolation of] sacrifices is stated. So what is the meaning of “and make your holy places desolate”? It means [desolate] of throngs (Torath Kohanim 26: 4) - these are the caravans of Israelites who prepare themselves (מִתְקַדְּשׁוֹת) and gather to go there [to the Holy Temple in Jerusalem]. [Here also,] seven retributions [are enumerated here (verses 29-31) corresponding to the seven sins (see Rashi on verses 15, 18, 20 and 22 above)], namely: eating the flesh of sons and daughters, edifices being demolished; thus we have two [retributions enumerated]. The cutting down of sun-idols is not [counted as a separate] retribution, but rather, [part of this second one, for] as a consequence of the edifices being demolished, the sun-idols that had been erected on the rooftops (see Rashi verse 30 above) will fall off [these tall buildings] and be destroyed; I will make your corpses [(fall) upon the corpses of your idols]-that makes three; the departure of the Divine Presence-four; the cities being laid waste, the desolation of the holy places from throngs, and I will not partake [of the pleasant fragrances of] your sacrifices-in total, seven [even though the ensuing verses go on to mention several other additional hardships that are not actually part of these seven, but that Israel will have to endure if they sin (Mizrachi)].   והשמותי את מקדשיכם: יכול מן הקרבנות, כשהוא אומר ולא אריח הרי קרבנות אמורים, הא מה אני מקיים והשימותי את מקדשיכם, מן הגדודיות, שיירות של ישראל שהיו מתקדשות ונועדות לבא שם. הרי שבע פורעניות אכילת בשר בנים ובנות, והשמדת במות, הרי שתים. כריתת חמנים אין כאן פורענות אלא על ידי השמדת הבירניות יפלו החמנים שבראשי הגגות ויכרתו. ונתתי את פגריכם וגו' הרי שלש. סלוק שכינה ארבע. חרבן ערים, שממון מקדש מן הגדודיות, ולא אריח קרבנות, הרי שבע:
32I will make the Land desolate, so that it will become desolate [also] of your enemies who live in it.   לבוַֽהֲשִׁמֹּתִ֥י אֲנִ֖י אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְשָֽׁמְמ֤וּ עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֔ם הַיּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בָּֽהּ:
I will make the Land desolate: This is actually a good thing for Israel, namely, that since the Land will be desolate of people living in it, the enemies will not find contentment in Israel’s Land [and will have to leave]. — [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 26:38]   והשמתי אני את הארץ: זו מדה טובה לישראל שלא ימצאו האויבים נחת רוח בארצם, שתהא שוממה מיושביה:
33And I will scatter you among the nations, and I will unsheathe the sword after you. Your land will be desolate, and your cities will be laid waste.   לגוְאֶתְכֶם֙ אֱזָרֶ֣ה בַגּוֹיִ֔ם וַֽהֲרִֽיקֹתִ֥י אַֽחֲרֵיכֶ֖ם חָ֑רֶב וְהָֽיְתָ֤ה אַרְצְכֶם֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה וְעָֽרֵיכֶ֖ם יִֽהְי֥וּ חָרְבָּֽה:
And you, I will scatter among the nations: This [though,] is a harsh thing [for Israel], for when the people of a country are exiled to the same place, they see each other and find solace. However, Israel was scattered as if through a winnowing basket, just as a person who scatters barley through a sieve [so that] not one of them is attached to another. — [Torath Kohanim 26: 39]   ואתכם אזרה בגוים: זו מדה קשה, שבשעה שבני מדינה גולים למקום אחד רואים זה את זה ומתנחמין, וישראל נזרו כבמזרה, כאדם הזורה שעורים בנפה ואין אחת מהן דבוקה בחברתה:
and I will unsheathe: Heb. וַהֲרִיקֹתִי, [lit., “I will empty out,” which means here to unsheathe, because] when one unsheathes a sword, the sheath is emptied out (מִתְרוֹקֵֵן). And the Midrashic explanation [based on the term לְהָרִיק, often used to mean “to empty out water,” is as follows]: The sword that will be taken out against you will not return quickly [to its sheath]. This is like a person who empties out (מֵרִיק) [a pitcher of] water, which does not return [to the pitcher]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:39]   והריקתי: כששולף החרב מתרוקן הנדן. ומדרשו חרב הנשמטת אחריכם אינה חוזרת מהר, כאדם שמריק את המים ואין סופן לחזור:
Your land will be desolate: For you will not hasten to return into it, and subsequently, “your cities will be laid waste,” i.e., they will appear to you as having been [permanently] laid waste. For when a person is exiled from his house, from his vineyard, and from his city, but he [knows that he] that he will ultimately return, [in his eyes,] it is as though his vineyard and house are not laid waste [whereas here, since Israel will give up hope of returning to their Land, it will appear to them as having been laid waste]; thus is it taught in Torath Kohanim (26:40).   והיתה ארצכם שממה: שלא תמהרו לשוב לתוכה ומתוך כך עריכם יהיו חרבה, נראות לכם חרבות שבשעה שאדם גולה מביתו ומכרמו ומעירו וסופו לחזור כאלו אין כרמו וביתו חרבים, כך שנויה בתורת כהנים:
34Then, the land will be appeased regarding its sabbaticals. During all the days that it remains desolate while you are in the land of your enemies, the Land will rest and thus appease its sabbaticals.   לדאָז֩ תִּרְצֶ֨ה הָאָ֜רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶ֗יהָ כֹּ֚ל יְמֵ֣י הָשַּׁמָּ֔ה וְאַתֶּ֖ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם אָ֚ז תִּשְׁבַּ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהִרְצָ֖ת אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶֽיהָ:
Then, the Land will be appeased: [This verb is in the reflexive form and the meaning is: Then, the Land will be appeased, and in turn,] appease the anger of the Omnip resent, Who had been angry regarding the Land’s Shemittah years (Mizrachi) [and thus appease [God regarding them].   אז תרצה: תפייס את כעס המקום שכעס על שמטותיה:
and thus appease: [This verb is in the causative form, meaning: The Land will appease] the King regarding its sabbaticals (Mizrachi).   והרצת: למלך את שבתותיה:
35It will rest during all the days that it remains desolate, whatever it had not rested on your sabbaticals, when you lived upon it.   להכָּל־יְמֵ֥י הָשַּׁמָּ֖ה תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹא־שָֽׁבְתָ֛ה בְּשַׁבְּתֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם בְּשִׁבְתְּכֶ֥ם עָלֶֽיהָ:
all the days that it remains desolate: [This word הָשַּׁמָּה is in the passive form, just] like the word הֵעָשׂוֹת [and means “being desolate”]. The [root of the word, שׁמם, actually has two letters מ, and our word should therefore appear as הָשַּׁמָמָּה Since this is difficult to pronounce, however, the first] “mem” is vocalized with a dagesh, which replaces the [second, omitted “mem,” rather than having the full word with a] double [“mem” in it, as in the noun form,] שְׁמָמָה.   כל ימי השמה: לשון העשות ומ"ם דגש במקום כפל שממה:
whatever it had not rested on your sabbaticals: The seventy years of the Babylonian exile [i.e., between the destruction of the first Temple and the building of the second,] corresponded to the seventy years of Shemittah and Jubilee years that took place during the years that Israel angered the Omnipresent while in their Land, [a total of] 430 years. Three hundred and ninety years were the years of their sinning from when they entered the land until the Ten Tribes were exiled, and the people of Judah angered Him for forty more years from the time the Ten Tribes were exiled until the destruction of Jerusalem. This is what is referred to in Ezek. (4:4-5) [when God makes Ezekiel figuratively suffer one day for each year Israel sinned, in order to atone for their sins], “And you shall lie on your left side (symbolizing the house of Israel, i.e., the ten tribes)… [Now I have made for you the years of their iniquity by the number of days, three hundred and ninety days, and you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Israel]. And when you complete these, you shall lie on your right side a second time, and you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Judah: forty days [a day for a year, a day for a year, I have given it to you].” Now, this prophecy was stated to Ezekiel in the fifth year of King Jehoiachin’s exile. And [since the people of Judah] spent another six years [in the Land] until Zedekiah’s exile, totaling forty-six [sinful years of the house of Judah, and hence, of the 850 years the people of Israel spent from the time of their entry into the Land until their eventual exile from it after the destruction of the first Holy Temple, they sinned for a total of 436 years]. Now, you might object, saying that King Manasseh [who was born immediately after the ten tribes were exiled, and who] ruled for fifty-five years [and so, even without taking into account the sinful years during the reigns of all the other kings of Judah, fifty-five years alone is more than forty-six, so surely the calculation is incorrect]! [However,] Manasseh repented [his evil ways] for thirty-three [of the fifty-five] years [of his reign], and thus, his sinful years [amounted to] twenty-two years, as it is written, “and he made an asherah as Ahab, the king of Israel, had made” (II Kings 21:3), and Ahab ruled for twenty-two [sinful] years, [so did Manasseh sin for twenty-two of his fifty-five year reign,] as is taught in the Aggadah of [the eleventh chapter of Tractate Sanh. (103a), entitled] Cheilek. [Thus, the number of years that the house of Judah sinned was: 22 years during the reign of Manasseh,] two during [the reign of] Amon, eleven during [the reign of] Jehoiakim and the same [i.e., another eleven] during [the reign of] Zedekiah [making a total of 46 years. The other kings of Judah are not included in the calculation, because during the righteous Josiah’s reign, Israel did not sin, while Jehoachaz and Jehoiachin each ruled for only three months. Let us now] go and calculate, for the [period of] 436 years [of sin], how many Shemittah and Jubilee years transpired during the years, at a rate of sixteen in every hundred years: 14 Shemittah years and two Jubilee years [totaling 16 sabbatical years]. Therefore, for 400 years, we have 64, and for the remaining 36 years, there are five [cycles of seven years and thus five] Shemittah years, making a total of [64 and 5 =] seventy minus one [i.e., 69 unobserved sabbatical years in that total of 436 sinful years in that period]. And [we must add to this calculation] an extra year-this extra year was the [last sinful] year [of the 436,] which began another Shemittah cycle [and God exiled Israel then and did not wait for the completion of that cycle for them to desecrate the seventieth Shemittah year-out of mercy for them, so that they would not have to endure the punishment of utter destruction, God forbid.] - [see Deut. 4:25 and Rashi there; Sifthei Chachamim] [This extra year, nevertheless, is included in the calculation here, as though another sabbatical had gone by unobserved, thereby] completing the seventy [unobserved sabbatical years of that period]. And for these [unobserved sabbaticals], a full seventy years [of exile] were decreed. And thus is it stated in (II) Chron. (36: 21), “until the Land was appeased regarding its Sabbaths; [for all the days of its desolation it rested,] until the completion of seventy years.” - [See Sefer Hazikkaron for the explanation of this Rashi.]   את אשר לא שבתה: שבעים שנה של גלות בבל הן היו כנגד שבעים שנות השמטה ויובל שהיו בשנים שהכעיסו ישראל בארצם לפני המקום ארבע מאות ושלשים שנה. שלש מאות ותשעים היו שני עונם משנכנסו לארץ עד שגלו עשרת השבטים, ובני יהודה הכעיסו לפניו ארבעים שנה משגלו עשרת השבטים עד חרבות ירושלים, הוא שנאמר ביחזקאל (יחזקאל ד ד - ו) ואתה שכב על צדך השמאלי וגו' וכלית את אלה ושכבת על צדך הימני שנית ונשאת את עון בית יהודה ארבעים יום. ונבואה זו נאמרה ליחזקאל בשנה החמישית לגלות המלך יהויכין. ועוד עשו שש שנים עד גלות צדקיהו, הרי ארבעים ושש. ואם תאמר, שנות מנשה חמשים וחמש היו, מנשה עשה תשובה שלשים ושלש שנה וכל שנות רשעו עשרים ושתים שנה, דכתיב ויעש אשרה כאשר עשה אחאב (מלכים ב' כא ג) ואחאב מלך עשרים ושתים שנה, כמו שאמרו באגדת חלק (סנהדרין קג א) ושל אמון שתים, ואחת עשרה ליהויקים, וכנגדן לצדקיהו. צא וחשוב לארבע מאות ושלשים ושש שנה שמיטין ויובלות שבהם, והם שש עשרה למאה, י"ד שמיטין וב' יובלות, הרי לארבע מאות שנה ששים וארבע. לשלשים ושש שנה חמש שמיטות, הרי שבעים חסר אחת, ועוד שנה יתירה שנכנסה בשמטה המשלמת לשבעים. ועליהם נגזר שבעים שנה שלמים. וכן הוא אומר בדברי הימים (דה"ב לו כא) עד רצתה הארץ את שבתותיה למלאות שבעים שנה:
36And those of you who survive I will bring fear in their hearts in the lands of their enemies, and the sound of a rustling leaf will pursue them; they will flee as one flees the sword, and they will fall, but there will be no pursuer.   לווְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּכֶ֗ם וְהֵבֵ֤אתִי מֹ֨רֶךְ֙ בִּלְבָבָ֔ם בְּאַרְצֹ֖ת אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֑ם וְרָדַ֣ף אֹתָ֗ם ק֚וֹל עָלֶ֣ה נִדָּ֔ף וְנָס֧וּ מְנֻֽסַת־חֶ֛רֶב וְנָֽפְל֖וּ וְאֵ֥ין רֹדֵֽף:
I will bring fear: Heb. מֹרֶךְ, fear and timidity (רֹךְ) of heart (see Torath Kohanim 26:43). The letter “mem” of מֹרֶךְ is [actually part of] the root [of the word, but occasionally] is omitted (see Rashi on Gen. 17:11 and 49:10) [and does not appear in other forms of the word, e.g., אַל יֵרַךְ לְבַבְכֶם (Deut. 20:3)], like the “mem” of מוֹעֵד and מוֹקֵשׁ [where the “mem” is also part of the root, but is omitted in different forms of these words, e.g., וְנוֹעַדְתּי שָׁמָה (Exod. 29:43) and, יָקוּשׁ (Hos. 9:8)]. — [Meira Dachya]   והבאתי מרך: פחד ורך לבב. מ"ם של מרך יסוד נופל הוא, כמו מ"ם של מועד ושל מוקש:
they will flee as one flees the sword: i. e., as if murderers are pursuing them [but only “as if,” because “there will be no pursuer.” - [Mizrachi]   ונסו מנסת חרב: כאילו רודפים הורגים אותם:
a rustling leaf: Heb., עָלֶה נִדָּף, lit., a “ pushed” leaf, that the wind “pushes,” striking it against another leaf, so that it knocks and makes a sound. And so does the Targum [Onkelos] render: קַל טַרְפָא דְשָׁקִיף, an expression of striking, like שְׁדוּפוֹת קָדִים, beaten by the east wind (Gen. 41:6), [which Onkelos renders:] שְׁקִיפָן קִדּוּם, [and it is like] the term מַשְׁקוֹף, lintel, the place where the door slams. Similar is [Onkelos’s] translation of חַבּוּרָה [“bruise” (Exod. 21:25), which he renders:], מַשְׁקוֹפֵי [which actually means “blow,” since the bruise is a result of a blow on the body (see Rashi there)]. [Although the word נִדָּף actually means “pushed,” Onkelos conveys the result of one leaf being pushed against another, namely, that it “strikes” its neighboring leaf. (Mizrachi).]   עלה נדף: שהרוח דוחפו ומכהו על עלה אחר ומקשקש ומוציא קול, וכן תרגומו קל טרפא דשקיף, לשון חבטה, שדופות קדים (בראשית מא ו) שקיפן קידום, לשון משקוף, מקום חבטת הדלת, וכן תרגומו של חבורה (שמות כא כה) משקופי:
37Each man will stumble over his brother, [fleeing] as if from the sword, but without a pursuer. You will not be able to stand up against your enemies.   לזוְכָֽשְׁל֧וּ אִֽישׁ־בְּאָחִ֛יו כְּמִפְּנֵי־חֶ֖רֶב וְרֹדֵ֣ף אָ֑יִן וְלֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ תְּקוּמָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
Each man will stumble over his brother: When they run away to flee, they will stumble over each other, because they will flee in panic.   וכשלו איש באחיו: כשירוצו לנוס, יכשלו זה בזה, כי יבהלו לרוץ:
as if from the sword: i.e., as if fleeing from [people] who want to kill them, for they will have fear in their hearts, and every moment, they will think that someone is chasing them. And the Midrashic explanation of וְכָשְׁלוּ אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו is: “Each man will stumble because of his brother,” i.e., one person will stumble because of someone else’s sin, because all Jews are guarantors for one another. - [Torath Kohanim 26:45, Sanh. 27b]   כמפני חרב: כאילו בורחים מלפני הורגים, שיהא בלבבם פחד וכל שעה סבורים שאדם רודפם. ומדרשו וכשלו איש באחיו, זה נכשל בעונו של זה, שכל ישראל ערבין זה לזה:
38You will become lost among the nations, and the land of your enemies will consume you.   לחוַֽאֲבַדְתֶּ֖ם בַּגּוֹיִ֑ם וְאָֽכְלָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֶ֖רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
You will become lost among the nations: When you will be scattered, you will become lost from one another.   ואבדתם בגוים: כשתהיו פזורים תהיו אבודים זה מזה:
and the land of your enemies will consume you: This refers to those [Jews] who will die in the Diaspora.   ואכלה אתכם: אלו המתים בגולה:
39And because of their iniquity, those of you who survive will rot away in the lands of your enemies; moreover, they will rot away because the iniquities of their fathers are still within them.   לטוְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּכֶ֗ם יִמַּ֨קּוּ֙ בַּֽעֲו‍ֹנָ֔ם בְּאַרְצֹ֖ת אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְאַ֛ף בַּֽעֲו‍ֹנֹ֥ת אֲבֹתָ֖ם אִתָּ֥ם יִמָּֽקּוּ:
because the iniquities of their fathers are still with them: If they hold onto the [evil] practices of their forefathers in their hands. — [Sanh. 27b]   בעונת אבתם אתם: כשאוחזים מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם:
they will rot away: Heb. יִמָּקּוּ, an expression of melting, and has the same meaning as יִמַּסּוּ, “they will melt.” Similar is, “their eyes will melt (תִּמַּקְנָה) in their sockets” (Zech. 14:12), and, “my bruises are… decayed (נָמַקּוּ) ” (Ps. 38:6).   ימקו: לשון המסה, כמו ימסו, וכמו (זכריה יד יב) תמקנה בחוריהן, (תהלי' לח ו) נמקו חבורותי:
40They will then confess their iniquity and the iniquity of their fathers their betrayal that they dealt Me, and that they also treated Me as happenstance.   מוְהִתְוַדּ֤וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָם֙ וְאֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן אֲבֹתָ֔ם בְּמַֽעֲלָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָֽעֲלוּ־בִ֑י וְאַ֕ף אֲשֶׁר־הָֽלְכ֥וּ עִמִּ֖י בְּקֶֽרִי:
41Then I too, will treat them as happenstance and bring them [back while] in the land of their enemies. If then, their clogged heart becomes humbled, then, [their sufferings] will gain appeasement for their iniquity,   מאאַף־אֲנִ֞י אֵלֵ֤ךְ עִמָּם֙ בְּקֶ֔רִי וְהֵֽבֵאתִ֣י אֹתָ֔ם בְּאֶ֖רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֑ם אוֹ־אָ֣ז יִכָּנַ֗ע לְבָבָם֙ הֶֽעָרֵ֔ל וְאָ֖ז יִרְצ֥וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָֽם:
Then I too, will… bring them [… (back while) in the land of their enemies]: “I Myself will bring them [back]!” This is a good thing for Israel, so that they should not say, “Since we have been exiled among the nations, we may as well behave like them!” [Says God in answer to this:] “I will not allow them [to do this]! Rather, I will set up My prophets, and bring them back [to Me] under My very wings!” as it is said, “But what enters your mind shall not come about, [what you say, 'Let us be like the nations, like the families of the lands, serving wood and stone’]. As I live, says the Lord God, surely with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm and with poured out fury, will I reign over you!” (Ezek. 20:32-33). - [Torath Kohanim 26:48]   והבאתי אתם: אני בעצמי אביאם, זו מדה טובה לישראל, שלא יהיו אומרים, הואיל וגלינו בין האומות נעשה כמעשיהם, אני איני מניחם, אלא מעמיד אני את נביאי ומחזירן לתחת כנפי, שנאמר (יחזקאל כ לב - לג) והעולה על רוחכם היו לא תהיה וגו' חי אני וגו' אם לא ביד חזקה וגו':
If then… becomes humbled: Heb. אוֹ אָז יִכָּנַע [This unusual expression, אוֹ אָז, is] similar to that in the verse, אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא, “If it was known that it was a [habitually] goring bull” (Exod. 21:36). [Thus, the meaning of this verse is: If they want to become like the nations, I will have to take them back to Me against their will] but, if (אוֹ) their clogged heart then (אָז) becomes humbled [without force, their sufferings will atone for them…] (Sifthei Chachamim). Another meaning [of אוֹ אָז is:] Perhaps. [Thus, the verse means:] “Perhaps then, their blocked heart will become humbled….”   או אז יכנע: כמו (שמות כא לו) או נודע כי שור נגח הוא, אם אז יכנע. לשון אחר אולי שמא אז יכנע לבבם וגו':
then, [their sufferings] will gain appeasement for their iniquity: [means that] they will gain atonement for their iniquity through their sufferings.   ואז ירצו את עונם: יכפרו על עונם ביסוריהם:
42and I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob, and also My covenant [with] Isaac, and also My covenant [with] Abraham I will remember. And I will remember the Land,   מבוְזָֽכַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֣י יַֽעֲק֑וֹב וְאַף֩ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֨י יִצְחָ֜ק וְאַ֨ף אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֶזְכֹּ֖ר וְהָאָ֥רֶץ אֶזְכֹּֽר:
And I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob: Heb. יַעִקוֹב. [The name יַעִקוֹב is] written in full, [i.e., with a “vav,”] in five places [in Scripture], and [the name] אֵלִיָּהוּ is written defectively [without a “vav,” i.e., אֵלִיָּה also] in five places [in Scripture]. Jacob took a letter [“vav”] from the name of Elijah [the Prophet] as security-that he will come and herald the redemption of his [Jacob’s] children [and since this is Elijah’s mission in life, his name will remain “incomplete,” as it were, until he fulfills it, speedily, in our days. The five instances of the “vav” symbolize the five fingers of the hand; i.e., this security arrangement between Jacob and Elijah was sealed by a handshake (Gur Aryeh)].   וזכרתי את בריתי יעקוב: בחמשה מקומות נכתב מלא, ואליהו חסר בחמשה מקומות, יעקב נטל אות משמו של אליהו ערבון שיבוא ויבשר גאולת בניו:
I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob, and also… Isaac, and also… Abraham]: Why are the forefathers enumerated in reverse order? To inform [you that the youngest patriarch,] Jacob is [alone] worthy of this [i.e., that Israel be redeemed through his merit alone], but if this is not enough, then Isaac is together with him, and if this is not enough, then Abraham is with him, and [Abraham] is certainly worthy. And why is the expression “remembering” not used with Isaac? [Because] Isaac’s ashes (see Rashi on Gen. 22:13; Bereishith Rabbah 56:9; Tanchuma Shelach 14) [always] appear before Me, gathered up and placed upon the altar“ [and therefore, God does not have to ”remember" Isaac, for Isaac is never forgotten]. — [Hagahoth Ubiyurei Hagra on Torath Kohanim]   וזכרתי את בריתי יעקוב: למה נמנו אבות אחורנית, לומר כדאי הוא יעקב הקטן לכך, ואם אינו כדאי הרי יצחק עמו, ואם אינו כדאי, הרי אברהם עמו, שהוא כדאי. ולמה לא נאמרה זכירה ביצחק, אלא אפרו של יצחק נראה לפני צבור ומונח על המזבח:
43[For] the Land will be bereft of them, appeasing its sabbaticals when it had been desolate of them, and they will gain appeasement for their iniquity. This was all in retribution for their having despised My ordinances and in retribution for their having rejected My statutes.   מגוְהָאָ֩רֶץ֩ תֵּֽעָזֵ֨ב מֵהֶ֜ם וְתִ֣רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶ֗יהָ בָּהְשַׁמָּה֙ מֵהֶ֔ם וְהֵ֖ם יִרְצ֣וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָ֑ם יַ֣עַן וּבְיַ֔עַן בְּמִשְׁפָּטַ֣י מָאָ֔סוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֖י גָּֽעֲלָ֥ה נַפְשָֽׁם:
This was all in retribution for: [means:] “In retribution (יַעַן) and in retribution (וּבְיַעַן) [i.e., in retribution] for their having despised My ordinances [and in retribution (וּבְיַעַן) for their having rejected My statutes].”- [Mizrachi]   יען וביען: גמול ובגמול אשר במשפטי מאסו:
44But despite all this, while they are in the land of their enemies, I will not despise them nor will I reject them to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them, for I am the Lord their God.   מדוְאַף גַּם־זֹאת בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֞ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֗ם לֹֽא־מְאַסְתִּ֤ים וְלֹֽא־גְעַלְתִּים֙ לְכַלֹּתָ֔ם לְהָפֵ֥ר בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתָּ֑ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶֽם:
But despite all this: Moreover (אַף), even though (גַּם) I will mete out this (זֹאת) retribution upon them which I have described [for them] when they are in the land of their enemies-nevertheless, I will not despise them… to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them.   ואף גם זאת: ואף אפילו אני עושה עמהם זאת הפורענות אשר אמרתי בהיותם בארץ אויביהם, לא אמאסם לכלותם ולהפר בריתי אשר אתם:
45I will remember for them the covenant [made with] the ancestors, whom I took out from the land of Egypt before the eyes of the nations, to be a God to them. I am the Lord.   מהוְזָֽכַרְתִּ֥י לָהֶ֖ם בְּרִ֣ית רִֽאשֹׁנִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוֹצֵֽאתִי־אֹתָם֩ מֵאֶ֨רֶץ מִצְרַ֜יִם לְעֵינֵ֣י הַגּוֹיִ֗ם לִֽהְי֥וֹת לָהֶ֛ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֖ים אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
The covenant [made with] the ancestors: i.e., with the Tribes. — [Torath Kohanim 26:53]   ברית ראשנים: של שבטים:
46These are the statutes, the ordinances, and the laws that the Lord gave between Himself and the children of Israel on Mount Sinai, by the hand of Moses.   מואֵ֠לֶּה הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים֘ וְהַתּוֹרֹת֒ אֲשֶׁר֙ נָתַ֣ן יְהֹוָ֔ה בֵּינ֕וֹ וּבֵ֖ין בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֥ר סִינַ֖י בְּיַד־משֶֽׁה:
the laws: וְהַתּוֹרוֹת. [Why the plural form, וְהַתּוֹרוֹת ? This denotes two Torahs -] one Written Torah and one Oral Torah. It teaches us that all were given to Moses on [Mount] Sinai. — [Torath Kohanim 26:54]   והתורת: אחת בכתב ואחת בעל פה, מגיד שכולם נתנו למשה בסיני: