Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 12

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, saying: If a woman conceives and gives birth to a male, she shall be unclean for seven days; as [in] the days of her menstrual flow, she shall be unclean.   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אִשָּׁה֙ כִּ֣י תַזְרִ֔יעַ וְיָֽלְדָ֖ה זָכָ֑ר וְטָֽמְאָה֙ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים כִּימֵ֛י נִדַּ֥ת דְּו‍ֹתָ֖הּ תִּטְמָֽא:
If a woman conceives: Rabbi Simlai said: “Just as in the Creation, man was created after all domestic animals, wild beasts, and birds, so too, the law [concerning the cleanness] of man is stated after the law [concerning the cleanness] of domestic animals, wild beasts, and birds.”- [Vayikra Rabbah 14:1]   אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ: אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלַאי: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְּצִירָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם אַחַר כָּל בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, כָּךְ תּוֹרָתוֹ נִתְפָּרְשָׁה אַחַר תּוֹרַת בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף (ויקרא רבה יד):
If [a woman] conceives: Heb. כִּי תַזְרִיעַ. [These words are stated] to include the case of [a woman] who gave birth to a dissolved [fetus, i.e., the fetus had matured, but had subsequently] dissolved [in the womb], resulting in a semen-like mass (זֶרַע akin to תַזְרִיע), its mother has the impurity of birth. — [Niddah 27b]   כִּי תַזְרִיעַ: לְרַבּוֹת שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ יְלָדַתּוּ מָחוּי — שֶׁנִּמְחָה וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּעֵין זֶרַע — אִמּוֹ טְמֵאָה לֵידָה (נדה כ"ז):
as [in] the days of her menstrual flow: According to the order of all the uncleanness mentioned in regard to the menstruating woman (נִדָּה), she becomes unclean on account of giving birth. [This is true] even if the womb opens without [any issue of] blood.   כִּימֵי נִדַּת דותה תִּטְמָֽא: כְּסֵדֶר כָּל טֻמְאָה הָאֲמוּרָה בְנִדָּה מִטַּמְּאָה בְטֻמְאַת לֵידָה, וַאֲפִלוּ נִפְתַּח הַקֶּבֶר בְּלֹא דָם (שם כ"א):
flow: Heb. דְּוֹתָהּ This expression denotes a substance that flows from her body. Another explanation: It denotes illness (מַדְוֶה) and sickness, for there is not a woman who sees [menstrual] blood without feeling ill, [since] her head and limbs become heavy upon her.   דותה: לְשׁוֹן דָּבָר הַזָּב מִגּוּפָהּ; לָשׁוֹן אַחֵר לְשׁוֹן מַדְוֶה וְחֹלִי, שֶׁאֵין אִשָּׁה רוֹאָה דָם שֶׁלֹּא תֶחֱלֶה וְרֹאשָׁהּ וְאֵבָרֶיהָ כְבֵדִין עָלֶיהָ (שם ט'):
3And on the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.   גוּבַיּ֖וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֑י יִמּ֖וֹל בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ:
4And for thirty three days, she shall remain in the blood of purity; she shall not touch anything holy, nor may she enter the Sanctuary, until the days of her purification have been completed.   דוּשְׁלשִׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וּשְׁל֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב בִּדְמֵ֣י טָֽהֳרָ֑ה בְּכָל־קֹ֣דֶשׁ לֹֽא־תִגָּ֗ע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תָבֹ֔א עַד־מְלֹ֖את יְמֵ֥י טָֽהֳרָֽהּ:
she shall remain: The word תֵּשֵׁב means only staying [or remaining], like, “And you dwelled (וַתֵּשְׁבוּ) in Kadesh” (Deut. 1:46), “and he dwelt (וַיֵּשֶׁב) in the plain of Mamre” (Gen. 13:18).   תֵּשֵׁב: אֵין תֵּשֵׁב אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן עַכָּבָה, כְּמוֹ וַתֵּשְׁבוּ בְקָדֵשׁ (דברים א'), וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא (בראשית י"ג):
in the blood of purity: [I. e., during this interim period,] although she may see blood [issued from her], she is ritually clean. — [Torath Kohanim 12:15]   בִּדְמֵי טָֽהֳרָה: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרוֹאָה טְהוֹרָה:
in the blood of purity: Heb. טָהֳרָה. [This could be mistakenly understood as “in the blood of her purity.” However,] this is not an aspirate “hey,” [as is evidenced by the absence of a dot in the final letter ה]. Therefore, it is an [unqualified] noun, like the word טֹהַר [meaning “purity”].   בִּדְמֵי טָֽהֳרָה: לֹא מַפִּיק הֵ"א, וְהוּא שֵׁם דָּבָר כְּמוֹ טֹהַר:
the days of her purification: Heb. טָהֳרָהּ. [Here,] this is an aspirate “hey,” meaning “the days of her purification.”   יְמֵי טָֽהֳרָה: מַפִּיק הֵ"א — יְמֵי טֹהַר שֶׁלָּהּ:
she shall not touch [anything holy]: [Although the verse says “shall not touch,” this is] a warning against one eating [anything holy] as is taught in Tractate Yev. (75a).   לֹֽא־תִגָּע: אַזְהָרָה לָאוֹכֵל וְכוֹ' כְּמוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנוּיָה בִיבָמוֹת (דף ע"ה):
[she shall not touch] anything holy: This comes to include terumah [being prohibited to this woman, before she is ritually clean (Torath Kohanim 12:16). This woman is considered a טְבוּל יוֹם, i.e., someone who has immersed in a mikvah, but must still wait for that day to elapse in order to become completely clean. Now, how is she considered a טְבוּל יוֹם? We are talking here about a thirty-three day period. However, she does fall under this category] because she is considered a טְבוּלַת יוֹם אָרֹךְ [i.e., she must wait a “prolonged day,” insofar as] she immerses after seven [days], but the sunset that she must wait for [in order to become pure is not the sunset of the day of her immersion, but rather, it] is the sunset of the fortieth day [from birth], since it is [only] on the following day that she may bring the atonement [sacrifice] of her purification. [Thus, the whole period is to be considered one prolonged day, in the context of the law regarding her eating anything holy.]   בְּכָל־קֹדֶשׁ: לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה, לְפִי שֶׁזּוֹ טְבוּלַת יוֹם אָרֹךְ, שֶׁטָּבְלָה לְסוֹף שִׁבְעָה וְאֵין שִׁמְשָׁהּ מַעֲרִיב לְטַהֲרָהּ עַד שְׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּה שֶׁל יוֹם אַרְבָּעִים שֶׁלְּמָחָר תָּבִיא אֶת כַּפָּרַת טָהֳרָתָהּ:
5And if she gives birth to a female, she shall be unclean for two weeks, like her menstruation [period]. And for sixty six days, she shall remain in the blood of purity.   הוְאִם־נְקֵבָ֣ה תֵלֵ֔ד וְטָֽמְאָ֥ה שְׁבֻעַ֖יִם כְּנִדָּתָ֑הּ וְשִׁשִּׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וְשֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב עַל־דְּמֵ֥י טָֽהֳרָֽה:
6And when the days of her purification have been completed, whether for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring a sheep in its first year as a burnt offering, and a young dove or a turtle dove as a sin offering, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to the kohen.   ווּבִמְלֹ֣את | יְמֵ֣י טָֽהֳרָ֗הּ לְבֵן֘ א֣וֹ לְבַת֒ תָּבִ֞יא כֶּ֤בֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ֙ לְעֹלָ֔ה וּבֶן־יוֹנָ֥ה אוֹ־תֹ֖ר לְחַטָּ֑את אֶל־פֶּ֥תַח אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֖ד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
7And he shall offer it up before the Lord and effect atonement for her, and thus, she will be purified from the source of her blood. This is the law of a woman who gives birth to a male or to a female.   זוְהִקְרִיב֞וֹ לִפְנֵ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ וְכִפֶּ֣ר עָלֶ֔יהָ וְטָֽהֲרָ֖ה מִמְּקֹ֣ר דָּמֶ֑יהָ זֹ֤את תּוֹרַת֙ הַיֹּלֶ֔דֶת לַזָּכָ֖ר א֥וֹ לַנְּקֵבָֽה:
And he shall offer it up: Heb. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ. This [singular object comes] to teach you that only one [of these sacrifices, if it has not yet been brought], holds her back from eating anything holy. And which one is it? It is the sin-offering, for it says, “a sin-offering. And [the kohen] shall effect atonement for her, and thus, she will be purified” (verse 8). The one through which her atonement is effected [namely, the sin-offering], is the same one upon which her purification is dependent. — [Torath Kohanim 12:27]   וְהִקְרִיבוֹ: לִמֶּדְךָ שֶׁאֵין מְעַכְּבָהּ לֶאֱכֹל בְּקָדָשִׁים אֶלָּא אֶחָד מֵהֶם, וְאֵי זֶה הוּא? זֶה חַטָּאת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵרָה, מִי שֶׁהוּא בָא לְכַפֵּר, בּוֹ הַטָּהֳרָה תְלוּיָה:
and she will thus become clean: From here, [we can conclude] that until here [namely, the offering up of her sacrifices, she is called unclean [and may not eat sacrificial flesh or enter the Sanctuary]. - [Yeb. 74b]   וְטָֽהֲרָה: מִכְּלָל שֶׁעַד כָּאן קְרוּיָה טְמֵאָה:
8And if she cannot afford a sheep, she shall take two turtle doves or two young doves: one as a burnt offering and one as a sin offering. And the kohen shall effect atonement for her, and she shall become clean.   חוְאִם־לֹ֨א תִמְצָ֣א יָדָהּ֘ דֵּ֣י שֶׂה֒ וְלָֽקְחָ֣ה שְׁתֵּֽי־תֹרִ֗ים א֤וֹ שְׁנֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יוֹנָ֔ה אֶחָ֥ד לְעֹלָ֖ה וְאֶחָ֣ד לְחַטָּ֑את וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלֶ֛יהָ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְטָהֵֽרָה:
One as a burnt-offering and one as a sin-offering: Scripture places [the burnt-offering] before [the sin-offering] only insofar as how they must be read [in the Torah. This is due to the higher esteem of the burnt-offering, because it is burned in its entirety (Maskil LeDavid).] But the sacrificing of the sin-offering precedes [that of]the burnt-offering. Thus we learned in Zevachim, in the chapter entitled כָּל-הַתָּדִיר (90a).   אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְאֶחָד לְחַטָּאת: לֹא הִקְדִּימָהּ הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא לְמִקְרָאָהּ, אֲבָל לְהַקְרָבָה חַטָּאת קוֹדֵם לָעוֹלָה, כָּךְ שָׁנִינוּ בִּזְבָחִים בְּפֶרֶק כָּל הַתָּדִיר (זבחים צ ע"א):

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 13

1And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
2If a man has a se'eith, a sappachath, or a bahereth on the skin of his flesh, and it forms a lesion of tzara'ath on the skin of his flesh, he shall be brought to Aaron the kohen, or to one of his sons, the kohanim.   באָדָ֗ם כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה בְעֽוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ֙ שְׂאֵ֤ת אֽוֹ־סַפַּ֨חַת֙ א֣וֹ בַהֶ֔רֶת וְהָיָ֥ה בְעֽוֹר־בְּשָׂר֖וֹ לְנֶ֣גַע צָרָ֑עַת וְהוּבָא֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֔ן א֛וֹ אֶל־אַחַ֥ד מִבָּנָ֖יו הַכֹּֽהֲנִֽים:
se’eith, a sappachath, [or a bahereth]: Heb. The [terms se’eith and bahereth] are the names of two [major] lesions [and the term sappachath refers to categories related to these two major lesions], and one [major lesion, namely, bahereth] is whiter than the other [se’eith].-[Shev. 6b].   שְׂאֵת אֽוֹ־סַפַּחַת וגו': שְׁמוֹת נְגָעִים הֵם וּלְבָנוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ:
bahereth: Heb. בַּהֶרֶת, spot, taye in Old French. This is similar to the verse, “it is [like] bright [clouds] (בָּהִיר) in the skies” (Job 37:21) [i.e., like the spots created by bright clouds in the blue sky].   בַהֶרֶת: חֲבַרְבּוּרוֹת, טיי"א בְּלַעַז, וְכֵן בָּהִיר הוּא בַּשְּׁחָקִים (איוב ל"ז):
[he shall be brought] to Aaron [the kohen, or to one of his sons]: It is a Scriptural decree that the uncleanness of lesions and their cleanness do not come about except by the pronouncement of a kohen. — [Torath Kohanim 13:43]   אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹן וגו': גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב הִיא שֶׁאֵין טֻמְאַת נְגָעִים וְטָהֳרָתָן אֶלָּא עַל פִּי כֹהֵן (ספרא):
3The kohen shall look at the lesion on the skin of his flesh, and [if] hair in the lesion has turned white and the appearance of the lesion is deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a lesion of tzara'ath. When the kohen sees this, he shall pronounce him unclean.   גוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֣ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֣גַע בְּעֽוֹר־הַ֠בָּשָׂ֠ר וְשֵׂעָ֨ר בַּנֶּ֜גַע הָפַ֣ךְ | לָבָ֗ן וּמַרְאֵ֤ה הַנֶּ֨גַע֙ עָמֹק֙ מֵע֣וֹר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ נֶ֥גַע צָרַ֖עַת ה֑וּא וְרָאָ֥הוּ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְטִמֵּ֥א אֹתֽוֹ:
[if] hair in the lesion has turned white: Heb. וְשֵׂעָר. At first [the hair] was black, and then it turned white in the lesion. The minimum [quantity referred to by the term] שֵׂעָר, hair, is two, [as opposed to שַׂעֲרָה, a hair, as in Jud. 20:16. Thus, there shall be a minimum of two hairs that turn white in the lesion for this law to apply]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:45-47]   הָפַךְ לָבָן: מִתְּחִלָּה שָׁחֹר וְהָפַךְ לְלָבָן בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע; וּמִעוּט שֵׂעָר שְׁנַיִם:
[and the appearance of the lesion] is deeper than the skin of his flesh: Anything with a white appearance seems deeper [in contrast to a darker object next to it], just as sunlight appears deeper than a shadow. — [Shev. 6b]   עָמֹק מֵעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ: כָּל מַרְאֵה לָבָן עָמֹק הוּא, כְּמַרְאֵה חַמָּה עֲמֻקָּה מִן הַצֵּל:
he shall pronounce him unclean: He shall say to him: “You are unclean,” for white hair is a sign of uncleanness by Scriptural decree.   וְטִמֵּא אֹתֽוֹ: יֹאמַר לוֹ טָמֵא אַתָּה, שֶׁשֵּׂעָר לָבָן סִימָן טֻמְאָה הוּא גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב:
4But if it is a white bahereth on the skin of his flesh, and its appearance is not deeper than the skin, and its hair has not turned white, the kohen shall quarantine the [person with the] lesion for seven days.   דוְאִם־בַּהֶ֩רֶת֩ לְבָנָ֨ה הִ֜וא בְּע֣וֹר בְּשָׂר֗וֹ וְעָמֹק֙ אֵֽין־מַרְאֶ֣הָ מִן־הָע֔וֹר וּשְׂעָרָ֖ה לֹֽא־הָפַ֣ךְ לָבָ֑ן וְהִסְגִּ֧יר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֖גַע שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
[But if it is a white bahereth…] and its appearance is not deeper: I do not know its meaning [since a white bahereth should always appear deeper than the skin, as above, yet here the verse describes a case where it does not].   וְעָמֹק אֵֽין־מַרְאֶהָ: לֹא יָדַעְתִּי פֵרוּשׁוֹ:
quarantine: He shall have him confined to one house, and the person shall not be seen [by the kohen] until the end of the week. [Only] then will his signs indicate about him [whether he is clean or unclean].   וְהִסְגִּיר: יַסְגִּירֶנּוּ בְּבַיִת אֶחָד וְלֹא יִרְאֶה עַד סוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ וְיוֹכִיחוּ סִימָנִים עָלָיו:
5And on the seventh day, the kohen shall see him. And, behold! the lesion has remained the same in its appearance; the lesion has not spread on the skin. So the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days a second time.   הוְרָאָ֣הוּ הַכֹּהֵן֘ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֒ וְהִנֵּ֤ה הַנֶּ֨גַע֙ עָמַ֣ד בְּעֵינָ֔יו לֹֽא־פָשָׂ֥ה הַנֶּ֖גַע בָּע֑וֹר וְהִסְגִּיר֧וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֛ן שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים שֵׁנִֽית:
in its appearance: In its original appearance and size.   בעניו: בְּמַרְאֵהוּ וּבְשִׁעוּרוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן:
[The kohen] shall quarantine him… a second time: But if it [the lesion] spread in the first week, he is definitely unclean. - [See Nega’im 3:3]   וְהִסְגִּירוֹ … שֵׁנִֽית: הָא אִם פָּשָׂה בְּשָׁבוּעַ רִאשׁוֹן, טָמֵא מֻחְלָט: