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Torah Reading for Shemini

Parshat Shemini
Shabbat, 24 Nissan, 5783
15 April, 2023
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Complete: (Leviticus 9:1 - 11:47; Samuel II 6:1-19)
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First Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 9

1And it was on the eighth day, that Moses summoned Aaron and his sons and the elders of Israel.   אוַֽיְהִי֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֔י קָרָ֣א משֶׁ֔ה לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָ֑יו וּלְזִקְנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And it was on the eighth day: of the investitures. It was the first of the month of Nissan, the very day on which the Mishkan was erected. And [this day] took ten “crowns” [of distinction], which are enumerated in Seder Olam 7. — [Torath Kohanim 9:1]   וַֽיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי: לַמִּלּוּאִים; הוּא רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן שֶׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן בּוֹ בַיּוֹם וְנָטַל עֶשֶׂר עֲטָרוֹת הַשְּׁנוּיוֹת בְּסֵדֶר עוֹלָם:
[called…] the elders of Israel: to inform them that it was by the express command of God that Aaron was entering into the Kehunah Gedolah , so that they should not say that he entered of his own accord.   וּלְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: לְהַשְׁמִיעָם שֶׁעַל פִּי הַדִּבּוּר אַהֲרֹן נִכְנָס וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּכְהֻנָּה גְדוֹלָה וְלֹא יֹאמְרוּ מֵאֵלָיו נִכְנָס (תנחומא):
2And he said to Aaron, "Take for yourself a bull calf as a sin offering, and a ram as a burnt offering, [both] unblemished, and bring [them] near before the Lord.   בוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן קַח־לְ֠ךָ֠ עֵ֣גֶל בֶּן־בָּקָ֧ר לְחַטָּ֛את וְאַ֥יִל לְעֹלָ֖ה תְּמִימִ֑ם וְהַקְרֵ֖ב לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
Take for yourself a bull-calf: [This was] to inform [Aaron] that the Holy One, Blessed is He, had granted him atonement through this calf for the incident involving the [golden] calf, which he had made. — [see Tanchuma 10]   קַח־לְךָ עֵגֶל: לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁכִּפֵּר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יְדֵי עֵגֶל זֶה עַל מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל שֶׁעָשָֹה (שם):
3And to the children of Israel, you shall speak, saying, 'Take a he goat as a sin offering; and a calf and a lamb, [both] in their first year and [both] unblemished, as a burnt offering,   גוְאֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תְּדַבֵּ֣ר לֵאמֹ֑ר קְח֤וּ שְׂעִֽיר־עִזִּים֙ לְחַטָּ֔את וְעֵ֨גֶל וָכֶ֧בֶשׂ בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה תְּמִימִ֖ם לְעֹלָֽה:
4and an ox and a ram as peace offerings, to slaughter before the Lord, and a meal offering mixed with oil, for today the Lord is appearing to you.' "   דוְשׁ֨וֹר וָאַ֜יִל לִשְׁלָמִ֗ים לִזְבֹּ֨חַ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וּמִנְחָ֖ה בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשָּׁ֑מֶן כִּ֣י הַיּ֔וֹם יְהֹוָ֖ה נִרְאָ֥ה אֲלֵיכֶֽם:
for today the Lord is appearing to you: to make His Shechinah rest in the work of your hands [i.e., the work of the Mishkan], and for this reason, these sacrifices are obligatory for this day.   כִּי הַיּוֹם ה' נִרְאָה אֲלֵיכֶֽם: לְהַשְׁרוֹת שְׁכִינָתוֹ בְמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיכֶם, לְכָךְ קָרְבָּנוֹת הַלָּלוּ בָּאִין חוֹבָה לְיוֹם זֶה:
5And they took what Moses had commanded, to the front of the Tent of Meeting, and the entire community approached and stood before the Lord.   הוַיִּקְח֗וּ אֵ֚ת אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה משֶׁ֔ה אֶל־פְּנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וַיִּקְרְבוּ֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה וַיַּֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
6And Moses said, "This is the thing the Lord has commanded; do [it], and the glory of the Lord will appear to you."   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֔ה זֶ֧ה הַדָּבָ֛ר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה תַּֽעֲשׂ֑וּ וְיֵרָ֥א אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם כְּב֥וֹד יְהֹוָֽה:
7And Moses said to Aaron, "Approach the altar and perform your sin offering and your burnt offering, atoning for yourself and for the people, and perform the people's sacrifice, atoning for them, as the Lord has commanded.   זוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן קְרַ֤ב אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ וַֽעֲשֵׂ֞ה אֶת־חַטָּֽאתְךָ֙ וְאֶת־עֹ֣לָתֶ֔ךָ וְכַפֵּ֥ר בַּֽעַדְךָ֖ וּבְעַ֣ד הָעָ֑ם וַֽעֲשֵׂ֞ה אֶת־קָרְבַּ֤ן הָעָם֙ וְכַפֵּ֣ר בַּֽעֲדָ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָֽה:
Approach the altar: [Moses had to order Aaron to do so,] because Aaron was bashful and afraid to approach [the altar]. So Moses said to him: “Why are you ashamed? For this [function] you have been chosen!” - [Torath Kohanim 9:7]   קְרַב אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: שֶׁהָיָה אַהֲרֹן בּוֹשׁ וְיָרֵא לָגֶשֶׁת, אָמַר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה, לָמָּה אַתָּה בוֹשׁ? לְכָךְ נִבְחַרְתָּ (ספרא):
your sin offering: The bull-calf.   אֶת־חַטָּֽאתְךָ: עֵגֶל בֶּן בָּקָר:
and your burnt offering: The ram.   וְאֶת־עֹלָתֶךָ: הָאָיִל:
the people’s offering: The he-goat, the calf, and the lamb. Wherever the [unqualified] term עֵגֶל (calf) is stated [in Scripture], it denotes one in the first year. This [rule] is derived from this passage. [The term פַּר denotes one in the third year, עֵגֶל בֶּן בָּקָר one in the second year, and עֵגֶל one in the first year.]- [Torath Kohanim 4:208]   קָרְבַּן הָעָם: שְׂעִיר עִזִּים וְעֵגֶל וְכֶבֶשׂ; כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "עֵגֶל" בֶּן שָׁנָה הוּא וּמִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד (שם):
8So Aaron approached the altar and slaughtered his sin offering calf.   חוַיִּקְרַ֥ב אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּשְׁחַ֛ט אֶת־עֵ֥גֶל הַֽחַטָּ֖את אֲשֶׁר־לֽוֹ:
9And Aaron's sons brought forward the blood to him, and he dipped his finger into the blood, placing [some] on the horns of the altar, and he poured the blood at the base of the altar.   טוַ֠יַּקְרִ֠בוּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן אֶת־הַדָּם֘ אֵלָיו֒ וַיִּטְבֹּ֤ל אֶצְבָּעוֹ֙ בַּדָּ֔ם וַיִּתֵּ֖ן עַל־קַרְנ֣וֹת הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וְאֶת־הַדָּ֣ם יָצַ֔ק אֶל־יְס֖וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
10And the fat, the kidneys, and the diaphragm with the liver from the sin offering, he caused to [go up in] smoke on the altar, as the Lord had commanded Moses.   יוְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב וְאֶת־הַכְּלָיֹ֜ת וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֤רֶת מִן־הַכָּבֵד֙ מִן־הַ֣חַטָּ֔את הִקְטִ֖יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־משֶֽׁה:
11And he burned the flesh and the hide in fire, outside the camp.   יאוְאֶת־הַבָּשָׂ֖ר וְאֶת־הָע֑וֹר שָׂרַ֣ף בָּאֵ֔שׁ מִח֖וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
the flesh and the hide: We do not find [in Scripture] an outside sin-offering [i.e., one whose blood is sprinkled on the outside altar] to be burned, with the exceptions of this [instance] and [the sin-offerings] of the investitures. And all these [exceptions] were [burnt] at the express command [of God].   וְאֶת־הַבָּשָׂר וְאֶת־הָעוֹר וגו': לֹא מָצִינוּ חַטָּאת חִיצוֹנָה נִשְֹרֶפֶת אֶלָּא זוֹ וְשֶׁל מִלּוּאִים, וְכֻלָּן עַל פִּי הַדִּבּוּר:
12And he slaughtered the burnt offering. And Aaron's sons presented the blood to him, and he dashed it on the altar, around.   יבוַיִּשְׁחַ֖ט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וַ֠יַּמְצִ֠אוּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן אֵלָיו֙ אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וַיִּזְרְקֵ֥הוּ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
presented: Heb. וַיַּמְצִיאוּ. [This term] denotes “presentation” and “preparation.”   וַיַּמְצִאוּ: לְשׁוֹן הוֹשָׁטָה וְהַזְמָנָה:
13And they presented the burnt offering to him in its [prescribed] pieces, along with the head. And he caused [them] to [go up in] smoke on the altar.   יגוְאֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֗ה הִמְצִ֧יאוּ אֵלָ֛יו לִנְתָחֶ֖יהָ וְאֶת־הָרֹ֑אשׁ וַיַּקְטֵ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
14And he washed the innards and the legs, and he caused [them] to [go up in] smoke on the altar, along with the burnt offering.   ידוַיִּרְחַ֥ץ אֶת־הַקֶּ֖רֶב וְאֶת־הַכְּרָעָ֑יִם וַיַּקְטֵ֥ר עַל־הָֽעֹלָ֖ה הַמִּזְבֵּֽחָה:
15And he brought forward the people's sacrifice; he took the people's sin offering goat, slaughtered it, and made it a sin offering, like the first one.   טווַיַּקְרֵ֕ב אֵ֖ת קָרְבַּ֣ן הָעָ֑ם וַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת־שְׂעִ֤יר הַֽחַטָּאת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לָעָ֔ם וַיִּשְׁחָטֵ֥הוּ וַיְחַטְּאֵ֖הוּ כָּֽרִאשֽׁוֹן:
and made it a sin-offering: Heb. וַיְחַטְּאֵהוּ. He sacrificed it according to the law of the sin-offering (חַטָּאת).   וַיְחַטְּאֵהוּ: עָשָׂהוּ כְּמִשְׁפַּט חַטָּאת:
like the first one: like his own calf.   כָּֽרִאשֽׁוֹן: כָּעֵגֶל שֶׁלּוֹ:
16And he brought forward the burnt offering and prepared it according to the law.   טזוַיַּקְרֵ֖ב אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וַיַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖הָ כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
and prepared it according to the law: which is specified regarding a voluntary burnt-offering in [Parashath] Vayikra (1: 117) - [Beitzah 20a]   וַיַּֽעֲשֶׂהָ כַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט: הַמְפֹרָשׁ בְּעוֹלַת נְדָבָה בְּוַיִּקְרָא:

Second Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 9

17And he brought forward the meal offering, filled his palm with it, and caused it to [go up in] smoke on the altar, in addition to the morning burnt offering.   יזוַיַּקְרֵב֘ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה֒ וַיְמַלֵּ֤א כַפּוֹ֙ מִמֶּ֔נָּה וַיַּקְטֵ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ מִלְּבַ֖ד עֹלַ֥ת הַבֹּֽקֶר:
and he filled his palm: I.e., the קְמִיצָה [i.e., the “fistful,” namely, scooping out three fingers-full of the meal offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 9:11]   וַיְמַלֵּא כַפּוֹ: הִיא קְמִיצָה (שם):
in addition to the morning burnt offering: All these sacrifices [Aaron] offered up [only] after [he had offered up the morning] continual burnt offering.   מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַבֹּֽקֶר: כָּל אֵלֶּה עָשָֹה אַחַר עוֹלַת הַתָּמִיד:
18And he slaughtered the ox and the ram, the people's peace offering, and Aaron's sons presented the blood to him, and he dashed it on the altar, around,   יחוַיִּשְׁחַ֤ט אֶת־הַשּׁוֹר֙ וְאֶת־הָאַ֔יִל זֶ֥בַֽח הַשְּׁלָמִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לָעָ֑ם וַ֠יַּמְצִ֠אוּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן אֶת־הַדָּם֙ אֵלָ֔יו וַיִּזְרְקֵ֥הוּ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
19and [they also presented] the fats from the ox and from the ram: the tail, the [fatty] covering, the kidneys and the diaphragm with the liver.   יטוְאֶת־הַֽחֲלָבִ֖ים מִן־הַשּׁ֑וֹר וּמִ֨ן־הָאַ֔יִל הָֽאַלְיָ֤ה וְהַֽמְכַסֶּה֙ וְהַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְיֹתֶ֖רֶת הַכָּבֵֽד:
and the [fatty] covering: [I.e.,] the fat that covers the innards.   וְהַֽמְכַסֶּה: חֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה אֶת הַקֶּרֶב:
20And they placed the fats on top of the breasts, and he caused the fats to [go up in] smoke on the altar.   כוַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ אֶת־הַֽחֲלָבִ֖ים עַל־הֶֽחָז֑וֹת וַיַּקְטֵ֥ר הַֽחֲלָבִ֖ים הַמִּזְבֵּֽחָה:
And they placed the [sacrificial] fats on top of the breasts: After the waving, the kohen who performed the waving gives [the portions] to another kohen to make them go up in smoke. The result is that [the portions] that were on the top are now on the bottom [due to the kohen’s inverting the portions to place them into the receiving hands of the next kohen. See Rashi on Lev. 7:30 for further explanation]. — [Men. 62a]   וַיָּשִׂימוּ אֶת־הַֽחֲלָבִים עַל־הֶֽחָזוֹת: לְאַחַר הַתְּנוּפָה נְתָנָן כֹּהֵן הַמֵּנִיף לְכֹהֵן אַחֵר לְהַקְטִירָם, נִמְצְאוּ הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לְמַטָּה (מנחות ס"ב):
21And Aaron had [already] waved the breasts and the right thigh as a wave offering before the Lord, as Moses had commanded.   כאוְאֵ֣ת הֶֽחָז֗וֹת וְאֵת֙ שׁ֣וֹק הַיָּמִ֔ין הֵנִ֧יף אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן תְּנוּפָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֥ה משֶֽׁה:
22And Aaron lifted up his hands towards the people and blessed them. He then descended from preparing the sin offering, the burnt offering, and the peace offering.   כבוַיִּשָּׂ֨א אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן אֶת־יָדָ֛יו (כתיב את־ידו) אֶל־הָעָ֖ם וַיְבָֽרֲכֵ֑ם וַיֵּ֗רֶד מֵֽעֲשׂ֧ת הַֽחַטָּ֛את וְהָֽעֹלָ֖ה וְהַשְּׁלָמִֽים:
and blessed them: with the blessing of the kohanim [see Num. 6:2227]: יְבָרֶכְ -“May the Lord bless you”… יָאֵר -“May the Lord make His face shine”… יִשָָֹּא -“May the Lord lift His face….”- [Torath Kohanim 10:22]   וַיְבָֽרֲכֵם: בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים — יְבָרֶכְךָ, יָאֵר, יִשָּׂא (סוטה ל"ח):
He then descended: from the altar.   וַיֵּרֶד: מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
23And Moses and Aaron went into the Tent of Meeting. Then they came out and blessed the people, and the glory of the Lord appeared to all the people.   כגוַיָּבֹ֨א משֶׁ֤ה וְאַֽהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד וַיֵּ֣צְא֔וּ וַיְבָֽרֲכ֖וּ אֶת־הָעָ֑ם וַיֵּרָ֥א כְבֽוֹד־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־כָּל־הָעָֽם:
And Moses and Aaron went into [the Tent of Meeting]: Why did they enter [the Tent of Meeting]? In the section of the investitures, I found a baraitha added to our version of Torath Kohanim [which states the following]: Why did Moses enter with Aaron? To teach him about the procedure of [burning] the incense. Or did he perhaps enter only for another purpose? I can make a deduction: Descending [from the altar (verse 22)] and entering [the Tent of Meeting (this verse) both] required blessing [the people]. Just as descending [from the altar] is related to the service, so is entering [the Tent of Meeting] related to the service. Hence, you learn from here why Moses entered with Aaron, [namely] to teach him about the procedure of [burning] the incense [which is related to the service]. Another explanation [of why Moses entered with Aaron is]: When Aaron saw that all the sacrifices had been offered and all the procedures had been performed, and yet the Shechinah had not descended for Israel, he was distressed. He said, “I know that the Holy One, blessed is He, is angry with me, and on my account the Shechinah has not descended for Israel.” So he said to Moses, “My brother Moses, is this what you have done to me, that I have entered and been put to shame?” At once, Moses entered [the Tent of Meeting] with him, and they prayed for mercy. Then the Shechinah came down for Israel. — [Torath Kohanim 9:16]   וַיָּבֹא משֶׁה וְאַֽהֲרֹן וגו': לָמָּה נִכְנְסוּ? מָצָאתִי בְּפָרָשַׁת מִלּוּאִים, בְּבָרַיְתָא הַנּוֹסֶפֶת עַל תּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים שֶׁלָּנוּ, לָמָּה נִכְנַס מֹשֶׁה עִם אַהֲרֹן? לְלַמְּדוֹ עַל מַעֲשֵׂה הַקְּטֹרֶת, אוֹ לֹא נִכְנַס אֶלָּא לְדָבָר אַחֵר? הֲרֵינִי דָן, יְרִידָה וּבִיאָה טְעוּנָה בְרָכָה, מַה יְּרִידָה מֵעֵין עֲבוֹדָה אַף בִּיאָה מֵעֵין עֲבוֹדָה, הָא לָמַדְתָּ לָמָּה נִכְנַס מֹשֶׁה עִם אַהֲרֹן לְלַמְּדוֹ עַל מַעֲשֵׂה הַקְּטֹרֶת; דָּבָר אַחֵר כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אַהֲרֹן שֶׁקָּרְבוּ כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת וְנַעֲשׂוּ כָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים וְלֹא יָרְדָה שְׁכִינָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, הָיָה מִצְטַעֵר וְאוֹמֵר, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁכָּעַס הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָלַי וּבִשְׁבִילִי לֹא יָרְדָה שְׁכִינָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, אָמַר לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה, מֹשֶׁה אָחִי, כָּךְ עָשִֹיתָ לִי שֶׁנִּכְנַסְתִּי וְנִתְבַּיַּשְׁתִּי? מִיַּד נִכְנַס מֹשֶׁה עִמּוֹ וּבִקְּשׁוּ רַחֲמִים וְיָרְדָה שְׁכִינָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל (ספרא):
Then they came out and blessed the people: They said: “May the pleasantness of the Lord, our God, be upon us (Ps. 90:17); May it be God’s will that the Shechinah rest in the work of your hands.” [And why did they choose this particular blessing?] Because throughout all seven days of the investitures, when Moses erected the Mishkan, performed the service in it, and then dismantled it daily, the Shechinah did not rest in it. The Israelites were humiliated, and they said to Moses, “Moses, our teacher, all the efforts we have taken were so that the Shechinah should dwell among us, so that we would know that we have been forgiven for the sin of the [golden] calf!” Therefore, Moses answered them (verse 6), “This is the thing the Lord has commanded; do [it], and the glory of the Lord will appear to you. My brother Aaron is more worthy and important than I, insofar as through his offerings and his service the Shechinah will dwell among you, and you will know that the Omnipresent has chosen him.”   וַיֵּצְאוּ וַיְבָֽרֲכוּ אֶת־הָעָם: אָמְרוּ וִיהִי נֹעַם ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ עָלֵינוּ, יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁתִּשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָה בְמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיכֶם; לְפִי שֶׁכָּל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּלּוּאִים שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוֹ מֹשֶׁה לַמִּשְׁכָּן וְשִׁמֵּשׁ בּוֹ וּפֵרְקוֹ בְכָל יוֹם לֹא שָׁרְתָה בוֹ שְׁכִינָה, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נִכְלָמִים וְאוֹמְרִים לְמֹשֶׁה, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, כָּל הַטֹּרַח שֶׁטָּרַחְנוּ שֶׁתִּשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָה בֵינֵינוּ וְנֵדַע שֶׁנִּתְכַּפֵּר לָנוּ עֲוֹן הָעֵגֶל, לְכָךְ אָמַר לָהֶם זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה ה' תַּעֲשׂוּ וְיֵרָא אֲלֵיכֶם כְּבוֹד ה' — אַהֲרֹן אָחִי כְּדַאי וְחָשׁוּב מִמֶּנִּי, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי קָרְבְּנוֹתָיו וַעֲבוֹדָתוֹ תִשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָה בָכֶם וְתֵדְעוּ שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם בָּחַר בּוֹ:

Third Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 9

24And fire went forth from before the Lord and consumed the burnt offering and the fats upon the altar, and all the people saw, sang praises, and fell upon their faces.   כדוַתֵּ֤צֵא אֵשׁ֙ מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וַתֹּ֨אכַל֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֖ה וְאֶת־הַֽחֲלָבִ֑ים וַיַּ֤רְא כָּל־הָעָם֙ וַיָּרֹ֔נּוּ וַיִּפְּל֖וּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶֽם:
and sang praises: Heb. ויַָּרֹנּוּ, as Targum [Onkelos] renders it [namely, “and they praised” God].   וַיָּרֹנּוּ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 10

1And Aaron's sons, Nadab and Abihu, each took his pan, put fire in them, and placed incense upon it, and they brought before the Lord foreign fire, which He had not commanded them.   אוַיִּקְח֣וּ בְנֵי־אַֽ֠הֲרֹ֠ן נָדָ֨ב וַֽאֲבִיה֜וּא אִ֣ישׁ מַחְתָּת֗וֹ וַיִּתְּנ֤וּ בָהֵן֙ אֵ֔שׁ וַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ עָלֶ֖יהָ קְטֹ֑רֶת וַיַּקְרִ֜יבוּ לִפְנֵ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ אֵ֣שׁ זָרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹ֦א צִוָּ֖ה אֹתָֽם:
2And fire went forth from before the Lord and consumed them, and they died before the Lord.   בוַתֵּ֥צֵא אֵ֛שׁ מִלִּפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה וַתֹּ֣אכַל אוֹתָ֑ם וַיָּמֻ֖תוּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
And fire went forth: Rabbi Eliezer says: Aaron’s sons died only because they rendered halachic decisions in the presence of Moses, their teacher. Rabbi Ishmael says: [They died because] they had entered the sanctuary after having drunk wine. The proof is that after their death, [Scripture] admonished the survivors that they may not enter the sanctuary after having drunk wine. This is analogous to a king who had a faithful attendant. [When he found him standing at tavern entrances, he severed his head in silence and appointed another attendant in his place. We would not know why he put the first to death, but for his enjoining the second thus, “You must not enter the doorway of taverns,” from which we know that for such a reason he had put the first one to death. Thus [it is said], “And fire went forth from before the Lord and consumed them, and they died before the Lord.” But we would not know why they [Nadab and Abihu] died, but for His commanding Aaron, “Do not drink wine that will lead to intoxication.” We know from this that they died precisely on account of the wine. For this reason Scripture showed love to Aaron by directing the divine utterance to him alone, thus, “Do not drink wine that will lead to intoxication,”] as recounted in Vayikra Rabbah (12:1).   וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ: רַ' אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר לֹא מֵתוּ בְנֵי אַהֲרֹן אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהוֹרוּ הֲלָכָה בִּפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה רַבָּן, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר שְׁתוּיֵי יַיִן נִכְנְסוּ לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, תֵּדַע, שֶׁאַחַר מִיתָתָן הִזְהִיר הַנּוֹתָרִים שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנְסוּ שְׁתוּיֵי יַיִן לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בֶן בַּיִת וְכוּ', כִּדְאִיתָא בְּוַיִּקְרָא רַבָּה:
3Then Moses said to Aaron, "This is what the Lord spoke, [when He said], 'I will be sanctified through those near to Me, and before all the people I will be glorified.' " And Aaron was silent.   גוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן ה֩וּא אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֤ה | לֵאמֹר֙ בִּקְרֹבַ֣י אֶקָּדֵ֔שׁ וְעַל־פְּנֵ֥י כָל־הָעָ֖ם אֶכָּבֵ֑ד וַיִּדֹּ֖ם אַֽהֲרֹֽן:
This is what the Lord spoke: But when did He speak? [It was when He said], “And I will meet with the children of Israel, and it will be sanctified through My glory (בִּכְבוֹדִי) ” (Exod. 29:43). Do not read בִּכְבוֹדִי, “through My glory,” but בִּמְכֻבָּדַי, “through My honorable ones.” Moses said to Aaron, “Aaron, my brother! I knew that this House was to be sanctified through the beloved ones of the Omnipresent, but I thought it would be either through me or through you. Now I see that they [Nadab and Abihu] were greater than I or you!”- [Vayikra Rabbah 12:2]   הוּא אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר וגו': הֵיכָן דִּבֵּר? וְנֹעַדְתִּי שָׁמָּה לִבְנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל וְנִקְדַּשׁ בִּכְבֹדִי (שמות כ"ט), אַל תִּקְרֵי בִּכְבֹדִי אֶלָּא בִּמְכֻבָּדַי; אָמַר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה לְאַהֲרֹן, אַהֲרֹן אָחִי, יוֹדֵעַ הָיִיתִי שֶׁיִּתְקַדֵּשׁ הַבַּיִת בִּמְיֻדָּעָיו שֶׁל מָקוֹם, וְהָיִיתִי סָבוּר אוֹ בִי אוֹ בְךָ, עַכְשָׁיו רוֹאֶה אֲנִי שֶׁהֵם גְּדוֹלִים מִמֶּנִּי וּמִמְּךָ (ספרא):
And Aaron was silent: [and did not complain. Consequently,] he was rewarded for his silence. And what reward did he receive? That God addressed him exclusively in the [ensuing] passage regarding those who drink wine [as verse 8 says, “And the Lord spoke to Aaron, saying…”]. — [Vayikra Rabbah 12:2]   וַיִּדֹּם אַֽהֲרֹן: קִבֵּל שָׂכָר עַל שְׁתִיקָתוֹ, וּמַה שָּׂכָר קִבֵּל? שֶׁנִּתְיַחֵד עִמּוֹ הַדִּבּוּר — שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרָה לוֹ לְבַדּוֹ פָּרָשַׁת שְׁתוּיֵי יַיִן (ויקרא רבה י"ב):
with those near to Me: [I.e.,] My chosen ones.   בִּקְרֹבַי: בִּבְחִירַי:
and before all the people I will be glorified: When the Holy One, blessed is He, exacts judgment upon the righteous, He becomes feared, exalted, and praised. Now, if this is so concerning the righteous, how much more is it so concerning the wicked! Similarly, the verse says “You are awesome, O God, from Your sanctuaries (מִמִּקְדָּשֶׁי) ” (Ps. 68:36). Do not read מִמִּקְדָּשֶׁי “from Your sanctuaries,” but מִמְּקֻדָּשֶׁי, “because of Your sanctified ones.” - [Zev. 115b]   וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶכָּבֵד: כְּשֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה דִין בַּצַּדִּיקִים מִתְיָרֵא וּמִתְעַלֶּה וּמִתְקַלֵּס, אִם כֵּן בְּאֵלּוּ, כָּל שֶׁכֵּן בָּרְשָׁעִים; וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר נוֹרָא אֱלֹהִים מִמִּקְדָּשֶׁיךָ (תהלים ס"ח), אַל תִּקְרֵי מִמִּקְדָּשֶׁיךָ אֶלָּא מִמְּקֻדָּשֶׁיךָ:
4And Moses summoned Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Aaron's uncle Uzziel, and said to them, "Draw near; carry your kinsmen from within the Sanctuary, to the outside of the camp.   דוַיִּקְרָ֣א משֶׁ֗ה אֶל־מִֽישָׁאֵל֙ וְאֶ֣ל אֶלְצָפָ֔ן בְּנֵ֥י עֻזִּיאֵ֖ל דֹּ֣ד אַֽהֲרֹ֑ן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם קִ֠רְב֞וּ שְׂא֤וּ אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם֙ מֵאֵ֣ת פְּנֵֽי־הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ אֶל־מִח֖וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
Aaron’s uncle: Uzziel was Amram’s brother, as it says, “And the sons of Kohath were [Amram…and Uzziel], etc.” (Exod. 6:18).   דֹּד אַֽהֲרֹן: עֻזִּיאֵל אֲחִי עַמְרָם הָיָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּבְנֵי קְהָת וְגוֹ' (שמות ו'):
carry your kinsmen [from within the Sanctuary], etc.: As a person would say to his fellow [when someone had died at a wedding feast], “Remove the deceased from before the bride so as not to disturb the joyous occasion.” [Here, too, Mishael and Elzaphan were to remove the dead “from inside the sanctuary,” so as not to disturb the serenity of the investitures of the Sanctuary.]   שְׂאוּ אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם וגו': כְּאָדָם הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ, הַעֲבֵר אֶת הַמֵּת מִלִּפְנֵי הַכַּלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לְעַרְבֵּב אֶת הַשִּׂמְחָה:
5So they approached and carried them with their tunics to the outside of the camp, as Moses had spoken.   הוַיִּקְרְב֗וּ וַיִּשָּׂאֻם֙ בְּכֻתֳּנֹתָ֔ם אֶל־מִח֖וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר משֶֽׁה:
with their tunics: [i.e., with the tunics] of the dead ones [the tunics of Nadab and Abihu, not Mishael and Elzaphan, for the latter were Levites and did not wear the tunics of the kohanim]. This teaches us that their garments had not been burnt, but [only] their souls. Two thread-like [sparks] of fire entered their nostrils [thereby destroying their souls along with all their internal organs, but leaving their external body structures intact. See Be’er Basadeh]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:25]   בְּכֻתֳּנֹתָם: שֶׁל מֵתִים; מְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׂרְפוּ בִגְדֵיהֶם אֶלָּא נִשְׁמָתָם, כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חוּטִין שֶׁל אֵשׁ נִכְנְסוּ לְתוֹךְ חָטְמֵיהֶם (ספרא):
6And Moses said to Aaron and to Eleazar and to Ithamar, his sons, "Do not leave your heads unshorn, and do not rend your garments, so that you shall not die, and lest He be angry with the entire community, but your brothers, the entire house of Israel, shall bewail the conflagration that the Lord has burned.   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֣ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֡ן וּלְאֶלְעָזָר֩ וּלְאִֽיתָמָ֨ר | בָּנָ֜יו רָֽאשֵׁיכֶ֥ם אַל־תִּפְרָ֣עוּ | וּבִגְדֵיכֶ֤ם לֹֽא־תִפְרֹ֨מוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א תָמֻ֔תוּ וְעַ֥ל כָּל־הָֽעֵדָ֖ה יִקְצֹ֑ף וַֽאֲחֵיכֶם֙ כָּל־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יִבְכּוּ֙ אֶת־הַשְּׂרֵפָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר שָׂרַ֥ף יְהֹוָֽה:
Do not leave [your heads] unshorn: [I.e.,] do not let your hair grow long. — [Torath Kohanim 10:25] [Had Moses not commanded them, they would have let their hair grow long as a sign of mourning. We learn] from here that a mourner is forbidden to cut his hair (Moed Katan 14b). “But you shall not disturb the happiness of the Omnipresent [at the investitures of the Mishkan].”   אֶל־תִּפְרָעוּ: אַל תְּגַדְּלוּ שֵׂעָר, מִכָּאן שֶׁאָבֵל אָסוּר בְּתִסְפֹּרֶת, אֲבָל אַתֶּם אַל תְּעַרְבְּבוּ שִׂמְחָתוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם (מועד קטן י"ד):
so that you shall not die: But if you do so [and leave your heads unshorn and rend your garments], you will die. — [Torath Kohanim 10:31]   וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ: הָא אִם תַּעֲשׂוּ תָּמוּתוּ (ספרא):
But your brothers, the entire house of Israel, [shall bewail]: From here [we learn] that when [Torah] scholars are afflicted, all of Israel is obligated to mourn for them.   וַֽאֲחֵיכֶם כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל: מִכָּאן שֶׁצָּרָתָן שֶׁל תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים מֻטֶּלֶת עַל הַכֹּל לְהִתְאַבֵּל בָּהּ (מועד קטן כ"ח):
7And do not go out of the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, lest you die, because the Lord's anointing oil is upon you." And they did according to Moses' order.   זוּמִפֶּ֩תַח֩ אֹ֨הֶל מוֹעֵ֜ד לֹ֤א תֵֽצְאוּ֙ פֶּן־תָּמֻ֔תוּ כִּי־שֶׁ֛מֶן מִשְׁחַ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה עֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּ כִּדְבַ֥ר משֶֽׁה:
8And the Lord spoke to Aaron, saying,   חוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
9Do not drink wine that will lead to intoxication, neither you nor your sons with you, when you go into the Tent of Meeting, so that you shall not die. [This is] an eternal statute for your generations,   טיַ֣יִן וְשֵׁכָ֞ר אַל־תֵּ֣שְׁתְּ | אַתָּ֣ה | וּבָנֶ֣יךָ אִתָּ֗ךְ בְּבֹֽאֲכֶ֛ם אֶל־אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד וְלֹ֣א תָמֻ֑תוּ חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
wine that will lead to intoxication: Heb. יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר. [שֵׁכָר does not mean other strong drink,] but wine in a manner that leads to intoxication" [namely, sufficient wine to cause intoxication, undiluted, and drunk without interruption]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:35]   יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר: יַיִן דֶּרֶךְ שִׁכְרוּתוֹ (ספרא):
when you go into the Tent of Meeting: We know only [that a kohen is forbidden] to enter the Heichal [after drinking wine]. How do we know that [this prohibition applies also to] approaching the altar [which is outside the Heichal]? [The answer is:] Here [in our verse] it speaks of “entering the Tent of Meeting.” Regarding washing the hands and feet [at the washstand-see Exod. 30:1721], “entering the Tent of Meeting” is [also] mentioned (verse 20). [Now, concerning washing, approaching the altar is regarded as similar to entering the Tent of Meeting insofar as both require washing the hands and feet, as it says, “When they enter the Tent of Meeting, they shall wash with water… or when they approach the altar to serve” (Exod. 30:20). Hence,] just as there [in the case of washing], Scripture made approaching the altar the same as entering the Tent of Meeting, here too, it made approaching the altar the same as entering the Tent of Meeting [insofar as both are equally prohibited when the kohen has drunk wine]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:37]   בְּבֹֽאֲכֶם אַל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בְּבֹאֲכֶם לַהֵיכָל, בְּגִשְׁתָּם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִנַּיִן? נֶאֱמַר כָּאן בִּיאַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְנֶאֱמַר בְּקִדּוּשׁ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם בִּיאַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, מַה לְּהַלָּן עָשָׂה גִישַׁת מִזְבֵּחַ כְּבִיאַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, אַף כָּאן עָשָׂה גִישַׁת מִזְבֵּחַ כְּבִיאַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד (שם):
10to distinguish between holy and profane and between unclean and clean,   יוּֽלֲהַבְדִּ֔יל בֵּ֥ין הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ וּבֵ֣ין הַחֹ֑ל וּבֵ֥ין הַטָּמֵ֖א וּבֵ֥ין הַטָּהֽוֹר:
to distinguish: [I.e.,] so that you can distinguish between a holy service and one that has been profaned. Thus you have learned that if one performed a particular service [after having drunk wine], it is invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 10:39]   וּֽלֲהַבְדִּיל: כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּבְדִּילוּ בֵּין עֲבוֹדָה קְדוֹשָׁה לִמְחֻלֶּלֶת, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁאִם עָבַד עֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְסוּלָה (שם):
11and to instruct the children of Israel regarding all the statutes which the Lord has spoken to them through Moses.   יאוּלְהוֹרֹ֖ת אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֵ֚ת כָּל־הַ֣חֻקִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם בְּיַד־משֶֽׁה:
and to instruct: [This] teaches that an intoxicated person is prohibited to render halachic decisions. One might think that he incurs the death penalty [like the intoxicated kohen who performs the sacrificial service (see verse 9)]. Scripture [therefore] says, “[neither] you nor your sons with you…so that you shall not die” (verse 9). [This implies that only intoxicated] kohanim in their service incur the death penalty, whereas [intoxicated] sages who render halachic decisions do not incur the death penalty. — [Torath Kohanim 10:38]   וּלְהוֹרֹת: לִמֵּד שֶׁאָסוּר שִׁכּוֹר בְּהוֹרָאָה, יָכוֹל יְהֵא חַיָּב מִיתָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ, וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ, כֹּהֲנִים בַּעֲבוֹדָתָם בְּמִיתָה, וְאֵין חֲכָמִים בְּהוֹרָאָתָן בְּמִיתָה (שם):

Fourth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 10

12And Moses spoke to Aaron and his surviving sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, "Take the meal offering that is left over from the Lord's fire offerings, and eat it as unleavened loaves beside the altar, for it is a holy of holies;   יבוַיְדַבֵּ֨ר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן וְאֶ֣ל אֶ֠לְעָזָ֠ר וְאֶל־אִ֨יתָמָ֥ר | בָּנָיו֘ הַנּֽוֹתָרִים֒ קְח֣וּ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֗ה הַנּוֹתֶ֨רֶת֙ מֵֽאִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וְאִכְל֥וּהָ מַצּ֖וֹת אֵ֣צֶל הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ כִּ֛י קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים הִֽוא:
surviving: [i.e., Aaron’s sons who survived] death. [Here, since the verse alludes to the fact that Eleazar and Ithamar survived death, it must mean a death which penalty they themselves had incurred.] This teaches [us] that because of the sin of the [golden] calf, the death penalty had been imposed upon them too. This is the meaning of “And with Aaron, the Lord was very furious, to destroy him (לְהַשְׁמִידוֹ) ” (Deut. 9:20). The term הַשְׁמָדָה, “destruction,” [in Scripture] always denotes the destruction of children, as it is said, “But I destroyed (וְאַשְׁמִיד) his fruit above,” (Amos 2:9), [referring to his children]. Moses’ prayer, however, effected the nullification of half [of this decree, resulting in the survival of Eleazar and Ithamar], as it is said: “and I prayed also for Aaron at that time” (Deut. 9:20), [where the word “also” includes Aaron’s four sons]. - [Vayikra Rabbah 10:5]   הַנּֽוֹתָרִים: מִן הַמִּיתָה, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאַף עֲלֵיהֶן נִקְנְסָה מִיתָה עַל עֲוֹן הָעֵגֶל, הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ט'), וּבְאַהֲרֹן הִתְאַנַּף ה' מְאֹד לְהַשְׁמִידוֹ, וְאֵין הַשְׁמָדָה אֶלָּא כִלּוּי בָּנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עמוס ב'), וָאַשְׁמִיד פִּרְיוֹ מִמַּעַל, וּתְפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה בִּטְּלָה מֶחֱצָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ט'), וָאֶתְפַּלֵּל גַּם בְּעַד אַהֲרֹן בָּעֵת הַהִיא:
Take the meal-offering: Although you are אוֹנְנִים [mourners for a close relative on the day of that relative’s demise], and holy [sacrifices] are forbidden to an אוֹנֵן. [Zev. 101b]   קְחוּ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹנְנִין וְקָדָשִׁים אֲסוּרִים לְאוֹנֵן:
the meal-offering: This is the meal-offering of the eighth [day of the investitures], and the meal-offering of Nahshon [Ben Aminadab, the leader of the tribe of Judah, the first tribe to offer sacrifices for the dedication of the Mishkan (Num. 7:12). See Torath Kohanim 10:42].   אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה: זוֹ מִנְחַת שְׁמִינִי וּמִנְחַת נַחְשׁוֹן (ספרא):
and eat it as unleavened loaves: [But we already know that meal-offerings must be eaten unleavened (see Lev. 2:11). So] what does Scripture come to teach us? Since this was a communal meal-offering, and it was a [special] meal-offering [brought exclusively] at that time, and there is nothing like it in [future] generations, Scripture found it necessary to specify the law of other meal-offerings in its context [to teach us that those laws applied to this meal-offering as well]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:46]   וְאִכְלוּהָ מַצּוֹת: מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר? לְפִי שֶׁהִיא מִנְחַת צִבּוּר וּמִנְחַת שָׁעָה וְאֵין כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהּ לְדּוֹרוֹת, הֻצְרַךְ לְפָרֵשׁ בָּהּ דִּין שְׁאָר מְנָחוֹת (שם):
13You shall eat it in a holy place because it is your portion and your sons' portion from the Lord's fire offerings, for so I have been commanded.   יגוַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם אֹתָהּ֙ בְּמָק֣וֹם קָד֔וֹשׁ כִּ֣י חָקְךָ֤ וְחָק־בָּנֶ֨יךָ֙ הִ֔וא מֵֽאִשֵּׁ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּי־כֵ֖ן צֻוֵּֽיתִי:
and your sons’ portion: [But] the daughters [of kohanim] do not have a portion in holy [sacrifices]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:46]   וְחָק־בָּנֶיךָ: אֵין לַבָּנוֹת חֹק בַּקֳּדָשִׁים (שם):
for so I have been commanded: that they eat it when they are אוֹנְנִים [mourners for a close relative on the day of that relative’s demise and burial]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:48]   כִּי כֵן צֻוֵּֽיתִי: בַּאֲנִינוּת יֹאכְלוּהָ (שם; זבחים ק"א):
14The breast of the waving and the thigh of the raising up you shall eat in a clean place, you and your sons and your daughters with you, for [as] your portion and your sons' portion they have been given, from the peace offerings of the children of Israel.   ידוְאֵת֩ חֲזֵ֨ה הַתְּנוּפָ֜ה וְאֵ֣ת | שׁ֣וֹק הַתְּרוּמָ֗ה תֹּֽאכְלוּ֙ בְּמָק֣וֹם טָה֔וֹר אַתָּ֕ה וּבָנֶ֥יךָ וּבְנֹתֶ֖יךָ אִתָּ֑ךְ כִּֽי־חָקְךָ֤ וְחָק־בָּנֶ֨יךָ֙ נִתְּנ֔וּ מִזִּבְחֵ֥י שַׁלְמֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
The breast of the waving: from the communal peace offerings.   וְאֵת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה: שֶׁל שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר.
you shall eat in a clean place: Now did they eat the previous sacrifices in an unclean place? Rather, the previous sacrifices were holy of holies (קָדְשֵׁי קֳדָשִׁים), and as such, they were required to be eaten in a holy place. These, however, were not required [to be eaten] within the hangings [of the courtyard]. Notwithstanding, they were still to be eaten within the camp of Israel, which is “clean” insofar as those who were afflicted with tzara’ath could not enter therein. From here, then, we learn the law that sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness (קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים) may be eaten anywhere in the city [of Jerusalem, and these specific communal peace offerings had the status of קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, even though communal peace offerings are usually קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים]. — [Zev. 55a]   תֹּֽאכְלוּ בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר: וְכִי אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנִים אָכְלוּ בְּמָקוֹם טָמֵא? אֶלָּא הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁהֵם קָדְשֵׁי קֳדָשִׁים הֻזְקְקָה אֲכִילָתָם בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ, אֲבָל אֵלּוּ אֵין צְרִיכִים תּוֹךְ הַקְּלָעִים אֲבָל צְרִיכִים הֵם לֵאָכֵל תּוֹךְ מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר מִלִּכָּנֵס שָׁם מְצֹרָעִים; מִכָּאן שֶׁקָּדָשִׁים קַלִּים נֶאֱכָלִין בְּכָל הָעִיר (שם נ"ה):
you and your sons and your daughters: You and your sons have a portion. Your daughters, however, do not have a portion. Yet if you give them [sacrificial flesh as] gifts, they are permitted to eat from the breasts and the thighs. [How do we know this?] Perhaps the verse means that the daughters also receive a portion? Scripture therefore states [in the continuation of this verse], “for [as] your portion and your sons’ portion they have been given,” - [i.e., it is given as] a portion to the sons, but not as a portion to the daughters. - [Torath Kohanim 10:50]   אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ: אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ בְּחֵלֶק אֲבָל בְּנוֹתֶיךָ לֹא בְחֵלֶק, אֶלָּא אִם תִּתְּנוּ לָהֶם מַתָּנוֹת רַשָּׁאוֹת הֵן לֶאֱכֹל בְּחָזֶה וְשׁוֹק, אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא אַף הַבָּנוֹת בְּחֵלֶק? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר כִּי חָקְךָ וְחָק בָּנֶיךָ נִתְּנוּ — חֹק לַבָּנִים וְאֵין חֹק לַבָּנוֹת (ספרא):
15They shall bring the thigh of the raising up and the breast of the waving upon the fats for fire offerings, to wave as a waving before the Lord. And it shall belong to you and to your sons with you as an eternal due, as the Lord has commanded.   טושׁ֣וֹק הַתְּרוּמָ֞ה וַֽחֲזֵ֣ה הַתְּנוּפָ֗ה עַ֣ל אִשֵּׁ֤י הַֽחֲלָבִים֙ יָבִ֔יאוּ לְהָנִ֥יף תְּנוּפָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְהָיָ֨ה לְךָ֜ וּלְבָנֶ֤יךָ אִתְּךָ֙ לְחָק־עוֹלָ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָֽה:
The thigh of the raising-up and the breast of the waving: Heb. שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וַחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה. These words are related to the expressions: “which was waved (הוּנַף) and which was lifted up (הוּרָם) ” (Exod. 29:27). תְּנוּפָה, waving, is performed by a forward and backward motion, whereas תְּרוּמָה, lifting up, is performed by an upward and downward motion. Why Scripture separates them, using “lifting up” in reference to the thigh and “waving” in reference to the breast, we do not know, since both of them were lifted up and waved.   שוק התרומה וחזה התנופה: לשון אשר הונף ואשר הורם. תנופה מוליך ומביא, תרומה מעלה ומוריד. ולמה חלקן הכתוב, תרומה בשוק ותנופה בחזה, לא ידענו, ששניהם בהרמה והנפה:
upon the fats for fire offerings: Heb. הַחִלָבִים עַל אִשֵּי. [This phrase is to be read as equivalent to: עַל חֶלְבֵי הָאִשִּים, meaning “upon the fats for fire-offerings.”] From here we learn that the fats were placed underneath [the breast and thigh portions] at the time of the waving (Torath Kohanim 10:51). [Now, earlier verses (Lev. 7:30 and 9:20) both state that the sacrificial fats were placed on top of the breast and thigh portions, thus seemingly contradicting our verse here, which says, “They should bring the thigh…and the breast…upon the fats.”] However, I have already explained the resolution of all these three verses, so that they do not contradict each other, in the section “Command Aaron” (see Rashi on Lev. 7:30).   עַל אִשֵּׁי הַֽחֲלָבִים: מִכָּאן שֶׁהַחֲלָבִים לְמַטָּה בִּשְׁעַת תְּנוּפָה, וְיִשּׁוּב הַמִּקְרָאוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יַכְחִישׁוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה כְּבָר פֵּרַשְׁתִּי אֶת שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּצַו אֶת אַהֲרֹן:

Fifth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 10

16And Moses thoroughly investigated concerning the sin offering he goat, and behold, it had been burnt! So he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's surviving sons, saying,   טזוְאֵ֣ת | שְׂעִ֣יר הַֽחַטָּ֗את דָּר֥שׁ דָּרַ֛שׁ משֶׁ֖ה וְהִנֵּ֣ה שׂרָ֑ף וַ֠יִּקְצֹ֠ף עַל־אֶלְעָזָ֤ר וְעַל־אִֽיתָמָר֙ בְּנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן הַנּֽוֹתָרִ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
the sin-offering he-goat: The he-goat of the רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ מוּסְפֵי, the additional offerings of Rosh Chodesh . On that day [Rosh Chodesh Nissan], three sin-offering goats were sacrificed: a) “[Take] a he-goat [as a sin-offering]” (Lev. 9:3); b) the he-goat of Nahshon [the son of Aminadab, leader of the tribe of Judah] (Num. 7:16); and c) the he-goat [of the additional offering] of Rosh Chodesh. Now, of all of these, the only one burnt was this one [i.e., this additional offering of Rosh Chodesh. And why did they burn it?] The Sages of Israel are divided on the matter (Torath Kohanim 10:52; Zev. 101a). Some said that it was burnt on account of uncleanness that had come into contact with it, [while] others said that it was burnt because [Aaron’s sons were] אוֹנְנִים, because this [sacrifice came under the category of] holy [sacrifices] that would also be sacrificed in [future] generations. [Thus they deemed it fit for burning, as the law would require for future generations.] However, when it came to holy [sacrifices] that were [brought] only at that time [like the other two goat offerings], they relied on Moses, who had said to them regarding the meal-offering, “eat it as unleavened loaves” (verse 12) [even though they were אוֹנְנִים, assuming that since that meal-offering was brought only at that time (see Rashi on verse 12), so must Moses’ command apply to all holy sacrifices brought at that time only].   שְׂעִיר הַֽחַטָּאת: שְׂעִיר מוּסְפֵי רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ; וּשְׁלֹשָׁה שְׂעִירֵי חַטָּאוֹת קָרְבוּ בוֹ בַיּוֹם, שְׂעִיר עִזִּים וּשְׂעִיר נַחְשׁוֹן וּשְׂעִיר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, וּמִכֻּלָּן לֹא נִשְׂרַף אֶלָּא זֶה; וְנֶחְלְקוּ בַדָּבָר חַכְמֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים מִפְּנֵי הַטֻּמְאָה שֶׁנָּגְעָה בוֹ נִשְׂרַף, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים מִפְּנֵי אֲנִינוּת נִשְׂרַף, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא קָדְשֵׁי דוֹרוֹת, אֲבָל בְּקָדְשֵׁי שָׁעָה סָמְכוּ עַל מֹשֶׁה שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם בַּמִּנְחָה וְאִכְלוּהָ מַצּוֹת (ספרא; זבחים ק"א):
thoroughly investigated: Heb. דָרשׁ דָרַשׁ. [This double expression signifies] two investigations. [Moses asked:] a) “Why has this sacrifice been burnt?” and b) “Why have the other sacrifices not been eaten?” Thus it is taught in Torath Kohanim (10:52).   דָּרשׁ דָּרַשׁ: שְׁתֵּי דְרִישׁוֹת: מִפְּנֵי מָה נִשְׂרַף זֶה? וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נֶאֶכְלוּ אֵלּוּ? כָּךְ הִיא בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים:
[he was angry] with Eleazar and Ithamar: Out of respect for Aaron, Moses turned towards his sons and was angry [with them, even though he was angry with Aaron as well, regarding what had happened]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:53]   עַל־אֶלְעָזָר וְעַל־אִֽיתָמָר: בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן הָפַךְ פָּנָיו כְּנֶגֶד הַבָּנִים וְכָעַס (ספרא):
saying: He said to them, “Answer my questions!” - [Torath Kohanim 10:53]   לֵאמֹֽר: אָמַר לָהֶם הֲשִׁיבוּנִי עַל דְּבָרַי (שם):
17"Why did you not eat the sin offering in the holy place? For it is holy of holies, and He has given it to you to gain forgiveness for the sin of the community, to effect their atonement before the Lord!   יזמַדּ֗וּעַ לֹֽא־אֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־הַֽחַטָּאת֙ בִּמְק֣וֹם הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ כִּ֛י קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים הִ֑וא וְאֹתָ֣הּ | נָתַ֣ן לָכֶ֗ם לָשֵׂאת֙ אֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן הָֽעֵדָ֔ה לְכַפֵּ֥ר עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
Why did you not eat the sin-offering in the holy place?: But had they eaten it outside the holy place? Had they not burnt it? What then [did Moses mean] when he said, “in the holy place?” But, [by phrasing the question in this way,] Moses was asking [Aaron’s sons]: "Perhaps that sacrifice went out of the hangings [of the courtyard], thereby becoming invalid [and that was why you burned it]?   מַדּוּעַ לֹֽא־אֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת־הַֽחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ: וְכִי חוּץ לַקֹּדֶשׁ אֲכָלוּהָ, וַהֲלֹא שְׂרָפוּהָ, וּמַה הוּא אוֹמֵר בִּמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אֶלָּא אָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁמָּא חוּץ לַקְּלָעִים יָצְאָה וְנִפְסְלָה:
For it is a holy of holies: which becomes invalid by going out [of the hangings].“ They answered him, ”No.“ [So Moses] said to them: ”Well, since it remained within the holy place, why did you not eat it?" - [Torath Kohanim 10:54]   כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁים הִוא: וְנִפְסֶלֶת בְּיוֹצֵא, וְהֵם אָמְרוּ לוֹ לָאו. אָמַר לָהֶם הוֹאִיל וּבִמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ הָיְתָה, מַדּוּעַ לֹא אֲכַלְתֶּם אוֹתָהּ:
and He has given it to you to gain forgiveness [for the sin of the community]: For the kohanim eat [the sacrifice], and [thereby] its owners are granted atonement. — [Torath Kohanim 10:54]   וְאֹתָהּ נָתַן לָכֶם לָשֵׂאת וגו': שֶׁהַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹכְלִים וּבְעָלִים מִתְכַּפְּרִים:
to gain forgiveness for the sin of the community: From here, we learn that it [the he-goat that was burned] was the he-goat of Rosh Chodesh, which atones for the sin of uncleanness concerning the sanctuary and its holy [sacrificial] food, for the sin-offering of the eighth day [of the investitures] and the sin-offering of Nahshon [Ben Aminadab] were not brought to effect atonement. — [Torath Kohanim 10:52]   לָשֵׂאת אֶת־עֲוֹן הָֽעֵדָה: מִכָּאן לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁשְּׂעִיר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ הָיָה, שֶׁהוּא מְכַפֵּר עַל עֲוֹן טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו, שֶׁחַטַּאת שְׁמִינִי וְחַטַּאת נַחְשׁוֹן לֹא לְכַפָּרָה בָּאוּ:
18Behold, its blood was not brought into the Sanctuary within, so you should have surely eaten it within holy [precincts], as I commanded!"   יחהֵ֚ן לֹֽא־הוּבָ֣א אֶת־דָּמָ֔הּ אֶל־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ פְּנִ֑ימָה אָכ֨וֹל תֹּֽאכְל֥וּ אֹתָ֛הּ בַּקֹּ֖דֶשׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוֵּֽיתִי:
Behold, [its blood] was not brought: For if [its blood] had been brought [into the Holy], then indeed you would have been required to burn it, as it is said, “But any sin-offering some of whose blood [was brought into the Tent of Meeting to make atonement in the Holy, shall not be eaten; it shall be burned in fire]” (Lev. 6:23). - [Torath Kohanim 10:55]   הֵן לֹֽא־הוּבָא וגו': שֶׁאִלּוּ הוּבָא, הָיָה לָכֶם לְשָֹרְפָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו'), וְכָל חַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר יוּבָא מִדָּמָהּ וְגוֹ' (פסחים פ"ב):
so you should have surely eaten it: [I.e.,] “You should have surely eaten it,” even though you are אוֹנְנִים.   אכל תֹּֽאכְלוּ אֹתָהּ: הָיָה לָכֶם לְאָכְלָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹנְנִים:
as I commanded: you, regarding the meal-offering.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר צִוֵּֽיתִי: לָכֶם בַּמִּנְחָה:
19And Aaron spoke to Moses, "But today, did they offer up their sin offering and their burnt offering before the Lord? But [if tragic events] like these had befallen me, and if I had eaten a sin offering today, would it have pleased the Lord?"   יטוַיְדַבֵּ֨ר אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה הֵ֣ן הַ֠יּ֠וֹם הִקְרִ֨יבוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָ֤ם וְאֶת־עֹֽלָתָם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וַתִּקְרֶ֥אנָה אֹתִ֖י כָּאֵ֑לֶּה וְאָכַ֤לְתִּי חַטָּאת֙ הַיּ֔וֹם הַיִּיטַ֖ב בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
And Aaron spoke: The expression דִּבּוּר [in Scripture, unless followed by the expression לֵאמֹר] always denotes boldness, as it is said, “And the people [thus] spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) [against God and Moses, ‘Why did you bring us up from Egypt to die in the desert…?’” (Num. 21:5). Thus, in this verse, Aaron boldly responded to Moses’ investigation.] Is it possible that Moses addressed his anger to Eleazar and Ithamar, and Aaron answers? However, this [demonstrates to us that the behavior of Aaron’s sons] was only out of respect [for their father and their teacher]. They said, “It is inappropriate that while our father is sitting [in front of us], we should answer in his presence, and it is also inappropriate that a disciple should refute his master.” One might suggest that [the sons did not respond] because Eleazar was not capable [i.e., he did not have the courage] to answer. Scripture, [however,] says, “And Eleazar the kohen spoke to the men of the army…” (Num. 31:21). Thus, we see that when Eleazar wanted to, he spoke before Moses and before the princes [and hence, here, he was deliberately silent]. I found this [explanation] in the second version of the Sifrei. — [Sifrei Zuta on Numbers, ed. Horowitz, p. 329, Yalkut Bamidbar on Num. 31: 21]   וַיְדַבֵּר אַֽהֲרֹן: אֵין לְשׁוֹן דִּבּוּר אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן עַז, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם וְגוֹ' (במדבר כ"א), אֶפְשָׁר מֹשֶׁה קָצַף עַל אֶלְעָזָר וְעַל אִיתָמָר וְאַהֲרֹן מְדַבֵּר? הָא יָדַעְתָּ שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה אֶלָּא מִדֶּרֶךְ כָּבוֹד; אָמְרוּ: אֵינוֹ בַדִּין שֶׁיְּהֵא אָבִינוּ יוֹשֵׁב וְאָנוּ מְדַבְּרִים לְפָנָיו, וְאֵינוֹ בַדִּין שֶׁיְּהֵא תַלְמִיד מֵשִׁיב אֶת רַבּוֹ; יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְאֶלְעָזָר לְהָשִׁיב? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן אֶל אַנְשֵׁי הַצָּבָא וְגוֹמֵר (שם ל"א), הֲרֵי כְּשֶׁרָצָה, דִּבֵּר לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְלִפְנֵי הַנְּשִֹיאִים, זוֹ מָצָאתִי בְּסִפְרֵי שֶׁל פָּנִים שֵׁנִי:
But today, did they offer up: What is he saying? [He could have simply said, “Such tragic events like these have befallen me….”] Rather, Moses said to them, “Did you perhaps sprinkle its blood while you were אוֹנְנִים, and [as you probably know,] an אוֹנֵן who performs the service renders [that sacrifice] invalid?” So Aaron answered him,… הֵם הִקְרִיבוּ, i.e., “But did they who offer up [the sacrifices]?” They are ordinary kohanim [for whom the law of invalidation by an אוֹנֵן applies.] I offered [them] up! For I am a Kohen Gadol, and [a Kohen Gadol] is permitted to offer [a sacrifice] while he is an אוֹנֵן] [Zev. 101a]   הֵן הַיּוֹם הִקְרִיבוּ: מַהוּ אוֹמֵר? אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה: שֶׁמָּא זְרַקְתֶּם דָּמָהּ אוֹנְנִין, שֶׁאוֹנֵן שֶׁעָבַד חִלֵּל? אָמַר לוֹ אַהֲרֹן וְכִי הֵם הִקְרִיבוּ שֶׁהֵם הֶדְיוֹטוֹת? אֲנִי הִקְרַבְתִּי שֶׁאֲנִי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל וּמַקְרִיב אוֹנֵן (זבחים ק"א):
But [if tragic events] like these had befallen me: [By these words, Aaron was effectively saying: “My point would be just as valid] even if those who died were not my sons, but other relatives for whom I am obligated to mourn as an אוֹנֵן like these,” such as all those enumerated in the parashah of the kohanim [i.e., Parashath אֱמוֹר, Lev. 21:13], for whom a kohen may become unclean. — [Torath Kohanim 10:59]   וַתִּקְרֶאנָה אֹתִי כָּאֵלֶּה: אֲפִלוּ לֹא הָיוּ הַמֵּתִים בָּנַי, אֶלָּא שְׁאָר קְרוֹבִים שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב לִהְיוֹת אוֹנֵן עֲלֵיהֶם כְּאֵלּוּ, כְּגוֹן כָּל הָאֲמוּרִים בְּפָרָשַׁת כֹּהֲנִים שֶׁהַכֹּהֵן מִטַּמֵּא לָהֶם (ספרא).
and if I had eaten a sin-offering today: [Lit., “and I ate a sin-offering.” However, here the meaning is:] “But if I had eaten [the sin-offering],” would it have pleased [the Lord]?   וְאָכַלְתִּי חַטָּאת: וְאִם אָכַלְתִּי הייטב וגו':
[If I had eaten the sin-offering] today: [today it would not have been pleasing to the Lord; however, tonight I could have eaten it, because] an אוֹנֵן is permitted [to eat sacrifices] at night, for one is considered an אוֹנֵן only on the day of burial. — [Torath Kohanim 10:59; Zev. 101b]   הַיּוֹם: אֲבָל אֲנִינוּת לַיְלָה מֻתָּר, שֶׁאֵין אוֹנֵן אֶלָּא יוֹם קְבוּרָה (ספרא; זבחים ק'):
would it have pleased the Lord?: If you heard this [special law that an אוֹנֵן may eat] holy sacrifices brought exclusively for a special occasion [like the people’s sin-offering goat and Nahshon’s goat, both offered just today], you have no right to be lenient [regarding this law] regarding holy sacrifices offered for [future] generations [like the sacrifice on Rosh Chodesh, about which you asked us, “Why did you not eat…?”]. — [Zev. 101a]   הַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינֵי ה': אִם שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקָדְשֵׁי שָׁעָה אֵין לְךָ לְהָקֵל בְּקָדְשֵׁי דוֹרוֹת:
20Moses heard [this], and it pleased him.   כוַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע משֶׁ֔ה וַיִּיטַ֖ב בְּעֵינָֽיו:
and it pleased him: [Moses] admitted [that Aaron was correct,] and was not ashamed, [for he could have covered up by] saying, “I have not heard [of this law.” Rather, Moses frankly said to Aaron, “You are right! I did hear that an אוֹנֵן must not eat from sacrifices that will be offered in future generations, but I forgot!”]. — [Torath Kohanim 10:60; Zev. 101a]   וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינָֽיו: הוֹדָה וְלֹא בוֹשׁ לוֹמַר לֹא שָׁמַעְתִּי (זבחים ק"א):

Sixth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 11

1And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, to say to them:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹ֥ר אֲלֵהֶֽם:
[And the Lord spoke] to Moses and to Aaron: He told Moses that he should [in turn] tell Aaron. — [Torath Kohanim 1:4]   אֶל־משֶׁה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹן: לְמֹשֶׁה אָמַר שֶׁיֹּאמַר לְאַהֲרֹן:
to say to them: [Whom does “to them” refer to?] The Lord said that [Aaron] should tell Eleazar and Ithamar. Or perhaps it means only to tell the Israelites? However, when [Scripture] says (verse 2),“Speak to the children of Israel,” speaking to Israel is already mentioned. So how do I understand “to say to them”? [That Aaron was to say] to his sons, to Eleazar and to Ithamar [who, in turn, were to tell the children of Israel the laws that follow]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:61]   לֵאמֹר אֲלֵהֶֽם: אָמַר שֶׁיֹּאמַר לְאֶלְעָזָר וּלְאִיתָמָר; אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לֵאמֹר לְיִשְֹרָאֵל? כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר דַּבְּרוּ אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְֹרָאֵל הֲרֵי דִּבּוּר אָמוּר לְיִשְֹרָאֵל, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם לֵאמֹר אֲלֵהֶם? לַבָּנִים — לְאֶלְעָזָר וּלְאִיתָמָר (ספרא):
2Speak to the children of Israel, saying: These are the creatures that you may eat among all the animals on earth:   בדַּבְּר֛וּ אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר זֹ֤את הַֽחַיָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Speak to the children of Israel: God made them all [namely Moses, Aaron, Eleazar, and Ithamar] equal messengers for [relaying] the following speech. [And why did Aaron and his sons deserve this special honor?] Because they all equally remained silent, accepting the Omnipresent’s decree [to put Nadab and Abihu to death] with love.   דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: אֶת כֻּלָּם הִשְׁוָה לִהְיוֹת שְׁלוּחִים בְּדִבּוּר זֶה, לְפִי שֶׁהֻשְׁווּ בַּדְּמִימָה וְקִבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם גְּזֵרַת הַמָּקוֹם מֵאַהֲבָה:
These are the creatures: [The word חַיָּה, “living creature”] denotes חַיִּים, “life.” [In the context of this passage, which sets out the clean and unclean creatures, the meaning is expounded as follows:] Since the Israelites cleave to the Omnipresent and are therefore worthy of being alive, accordingly, God separated them from uncleanness and decreed commandments upon them [so that through these commandments Israel would live]. For the other nations, however, He prohibited nothing. This is comparable to a physician who went to visit a patient [who was incurable, and allowed him to eat anything he wished, whereas when he went to his patient who was to recover, the physician imposed restrictions on his diet that would ensure that the recoverable patient would live. So too, the nations and Israel…], etc. as is found in the Midrash of Rabbi Tanchuma (6).   זֹאת הַֽחַיָּה: לְשׁוֹן חַיִּים, לְפִי שֶׁיִּשְֹרָאֵל דְּבוּקִים בַּמָּקוֹם וּרְאוּיִין לִהְיוֹת חַיִּים, לְפִיכָךְ הִבְדִּילָם מִן הַטֻּמְאָה וְגָזַר עֲלֵיהֶם מִצְוֹת, וְלָאֻמּוֹת לֹא אָסַר כְּלוּם, מָשָׁל לְרוֹפֵא שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבַקֵּר אֶת הַחוֹלֶה כּוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְּמִדְרַשׁ רַבִּי תַנְחוּמָא:
These are the creatures: [When the verse says “These are…,” the word זֹאת] teaches us that Moses would hold up an animal and show it to the Israelites, saying, “This one you may eat,” and “This one you may not eat.” “You may eat the following!” (verse 9) even with the creatures of the water-he held up [one] of every species and showed it to them. And likewise with birds [as stated in verse 13], “you shall hold these in abomination….” Similarly with creeping creatures, (שְׁרָצִים) [as stated in verse 29], “these are unclean….” - [Torath Kohanim 11:62]   זֹאת הַֽחַיָּה: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה מֹשֶׁה אוֹחֵז בַּחַיָּה וּמַרְאֶה אוֹתָהּ לְיִשְֹרָאֵל זֹאת תֹּאכְלוּ וְזֹאת לֹא תֹאכְלוּ (חולין מ"ב), אֶת זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ וְגוֹ' (פסוק ט'), אַף בְּשִׁרְצֵי הַמַּיִם אָחַז מִכָּל מִין וָמִין וְהֶרְאָה לָהֶם, וְכֵן בָּעוֹף וְאֶת אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן הָעוֹף (פסוק י"ג), וְכֵן בַּשְּׁרָצִים וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא (פסוק כ"ט):
These are the creatures…among all the animals: [The word חַיָּה, although usually denoting an undomesticated animal, such as a deer, also has the meaning of “living (חַי) creatures” in general; the word בְּהֵמָה, usually denoting domesticated animals like cattle, also has the meaning of large land animals, or mammals. We see this in our verse, for it says here, "These are the creatures (חַיָּה) that you may eat among all the animals (בְּהֵמָה) on earth, thus,] teaching that [the term] בְּהֵמָה is included in [the more general term] חַיָּה. - [Torath Kohanim 11:66; and see Rashi Chul. 70b]   זֹאת הַֽחַיָּה … מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה בִּכְלַל חַיָּה (ספרא; חולין ע'):
3Any animal that has a cloven hoof that is completely split into double hooves, and which brings up its cud that one you may eat.   גכֹּ֣ל | מַפְרֶ֣סֶת פַּרְסָ֗ה וְשֹׁסַ֤עַת שֶׁ֨סַע֙ פְּרָסֹ֔ת מַֽעֲלַ֥ת גֵּרָ֖ה בַּבְּהֵמָ֑ה אֹתָ֖הּ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
which has a cloven: Heb. מַפְרֶסֶת. [Although resembling the following word, פַּרְסָה, the word, מַפְרֶסֶת, is to be understood] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: סְדִיקָא, “split.”   מַפְרֶסֶת: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ סְדִיקָא:
hoof: Heb. פַּרְסָה, plante in French [meaning “ sole” or “hoof.” Thus, מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה means: “split or cloven hoof”].   פַּרְסָה: פלנט"א בְּלַעַז:
that is completely separated into double hooves: Heb. וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע [meaning that the hoof] is completely separated [i.e., split] from top to bottom, into two nails, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: וּמְטַלְפָא טִילְפִין, meaning “split into hooves” [i.e., split into two hoof sections,] because there are animals whose hooves are split at the top, but are not completely split and separated [into two hoof sections], since the bottom [sections of the hoof] are connected.   וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע: שֶׁמֻּבְדֶּלֶת מִלְּמַעְלָה וּמִלְּמַטָּה בִּשְׁתֵּי צִפָּרְנִַין, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וּמַטִּלְּפָן טִלְפִין, שֶׁיֵּשׁ שֶׁפַּרְסוֹתָיו סְדוּקוֹת מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֵין שְׁסוּעוֹת וּמֻבְדָּלוֹת לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁמִּלְּמַטָּה מְחֻבָּרוֹת:
which brings up its cud: It brings up and regurgitates the [ingested] food from its stomach, returning the food to its mouth, in order to thoroughly crush it and grind it thoroughly.   מַֽעֲלַת גֵּרָה: מַעֲלָה וּמְקִיאָה הָאֹכֶל מִמֵּעֶיהָ וּמַחֲזֶרֶת אוֹתוֹ לְתוֹךְ פִּיהָ לְכָתְשׁוֹ וּלְטָחֳנוֹ הָדֵק:
cud: Heb. גֵּרָה. This is its name. [I.e., the name of the food that an animal regurgitates.] It possibly stems from the root [נגר, “to drag” or “flow,” as in the verse] “and as water which has flowed (הַנִּגָּרִים) ” (II Sam. 14:14), for the regurgitated food “flows back” to the mouth. Targum [Onkelos] renders the word גֵּרָה as פִּישְׁרָא, dissolved, since, through its being regurgitated, the food is dissolved and melted.   גֵּרָה: כָּךְ שְׁמוֹ; וְיִתָּכֵן לִהְיוֹת מִגִּזְרַת מַיִם הַנִּגָּרִים (שמואל ב י"ד), שֶׁהוּא נִגְרָר אַחַר הַפֶּה; וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ פִשְׁרָא, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַגֵּרָה הָאֹכֶל נִפְשָׁר וְנִמּוֹחַ:
among the animals: Heb. בַּבְּהֵמָה, lit. in the animal. This is an extra word from which to derive that [if a pregnant animal is slaughtered properly,] the fetus inside its mother’s innards is permitted [to be eaten]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:67]   בַּבְּהֵמָה: תֵּיבָה יְתֵרָה הִיא לִדְרָשָׁה — לְהַתִּיר אֶת הַשְּׁלִיל הַנִּמְצָא בִמְעֵי אִמּוֹ (ספרא; חולין ס"ט):
that one you may eat: but not an unclean animal. However, is this [negative inference] not already included in the [explicit] prohibition [stated in verse 4, “…you must not eat…”]? Notwithstanding, [this positive statement is included here] so that [one who eats an unclean animal] transgresses a positive and a negative commandment [i.e., a negative inference of a positive commandment]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:69]   אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ: וְלֹא בְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, וַהֲלֹא בְאַזְהָרָה הִיא? אֶלָּא לַעֲבֹר עָלֶיהָ בַּעֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה (ספרא; זבחים ל"ד):
4But these you shall not eat among those that bring up the cud and those that have a cloven hoof: the camel, because it brings up its cud, but does not have a [completely] cloven hoof; it is unclean for you.   דאַ֤ךְ אֶת־זֶה֙ לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֔וּ מִמַּֽעֲלֵי֙ הַגֵּרָ֔ה וּמִמַּפְרִסֵ֖י הַפַּרְסָ֑ה אֶת־הַ֠גָּמָ֠ל כִּי־מַֽעֲלֵ֨ה גֵרָ֜ה ה֗וּא וּפַרְסָה֙ אֵינֶ֣נּוּ מַפְרִ֔יס טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
5And the hyrax, because it brings up its cud, but will not have a [completely] cloven hoof; it is unclean for you;   הוְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָ֗ן כִּי־מַֽעֲלֵ֤ה גֵרָה֙ ה֔וּא וּפַרְסָ֖ה לֹ֣א יַפְרִ֑יס טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
6And the hare, because it brings up its cud, but does not have a [completely] cloven hoof; it is unclean for you;   ווְאֶת־הָֽאַרְנֶ֗בֶת כִּֽי־מַֽעֲלַ֤ת גֵּרָה֙ הִ֔וא וּפַרְסָ֖ה לֹ֣א הִפְרִ֑יסָה טְמֵאָ֥ה הִ֖וא לָכֶֽם:
7And the pig, because it has a cloven hoof that is completely split, but will not regurgitate its cud; it is unclean for you.   זוְאֶת־הַֽ֠חֲזִ֠יר כִּֽי־מַפְרִ֨יס פַּרְסָ֜ה ה֗וּא וְשֹׁסַ֥ע שֶׁ֨סַע֙ פַּרְסָ֔ה וְה֖וּא גֵּרָ֣ה לֹֽא־יִגָּ֑ר טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
8You shall not eat of their flesh, and you shall not touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.   חמִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָ֖ם לֹ֣א תִגָּ֑עוּ טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶֽם:
You shall not eat of their flesh: I know only [that] these [animals possessing one sign of cleanness are prohibited to be eaten]. How do we know that any other unclean animal, which has no sign of cleanness altogether [may also not be eaten]? Here, we can infer from a kal vachomer [i.e., an inference from minor to major]: If those animals that have part of the signs of cleanness are prohibited, [how much more so are those animals that lack both signs of cleanness!]- [Torath Kohanim 11:69]   מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ: אֵין לִי אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ, שְׁאָר בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ שׁוּם סִימָן טָהֳרָה מִנַּיִן? אָמַרְתָּ קַל וָחֹמֶר, וּמָה אֵלּוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן קְצָת סִימָנֵי טָהֳרָה אֲסוּרוֹת וְכוּ' (ספרא):
of their flesh: The [Scriptural] prohibition applies [only] to the “flesh” [of an unclean animal], but not its bones, sinews, horns, or hooves. — [Torath Kohanim 11:74]   מִבְּשָׂרָם: עַל בְּשָׂרָם בְּאַזְהָרָה וְלֹא עַל עֲצָמוֹת וְגִידִין וְקַרְנַיִם וּטְלָפַיִם (שם):
and you shall not touch their carcasses: One might think that Israelites are prohibited to touch a carcass. Scripture, however, says, “Say to the kohanim …[(a kohen) shall not defile himself for a (dead) person among his people]” (Lev. 21:1); thus, kohanim are prohibited [from defiling themselves by human corpses], but ordinary Israelites are not prohibited. Now a kal vachomer can be made: Since in the more stringent case of defilement by a human corpse, only kohanim are prohibited, then in the more lenient case of defilement by animal carcasses, how much more so [should only kohanim be prohibited! If so,] what does Scripture mean by, “you shall not touch their carcasses”? [It means that Israelites may not touch animal carcasses] on the Festivals [since at those times they deal with holy sacrifices and enter the Temple]. This is what [the Sages] said: A person is obligated to cleanse himself on Festivals. - [R.H. 16b, Torath Kohanim 11:74]   וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ: יָכוֹל יְהוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻזְהָרִים עַל מַגַּע נְבֵלָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹ' — כֹּהֲנִים מֻזְהָרִין וְאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻזְהָרִין — קַל וָחֹמֶר מֵעַתָּה: וּמַה טֻּמְאַת מֵת חֲמוּרָה לֹא הִזְהִיר בָּהּ אֶלָּא כֹּהֲנִים, טֻמְאַת נְבֵלָה קַלָּה לֹא כָל שֶׁכֵּן, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר לֹא תִגָּעוּ? בָּרֶגֶל (שם; ראש השנה ט"ז):
9Among all [creatures] that are in the water, you may eat these: Any [of the creatures] in the water that has fins and scales, those you may eat, whether [it lives] in the waters, in the seas or in the rivers.   טאֶת־זֶה֙ תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמָּ֑יִם כֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֩ סְנַפִּ֨יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֜שֶׂת בַּמַּ֗יִם בַּיַּמִּ֛ים וּבַנְּחָלִ֖ים אֹתָ֥ם תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
fins: Heb. סְנַפִּיר. These are [the wing-like appendages] with which it swims [namely, fins].   סְנַפִּיר: אֵלּוּ שֶׁשָּׁט בָּהֶם (חולין נ"ט):
scales: Heb. קַשְׂקֶשֶׂת. These are the scales that are affixed to it, as it is said: “And he was wearing a coat of mail (קַשְׂקַשִּׂים) ” (I Sam. 17:5), [lit. armor of scales]. — [Chul. 66b]   קשקשת: אֵלּוּ קְלִפִּין הַקְּבוּעִים בּוֹ (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א י"ז), וְשִׁרְיוֹן קַשְׂקַשִּׂים הוּא לָבוּשׁ):
10But any [creatures]that do not have fins and scales, whether in the seas or in the rivers, among all the creeping creatures in the water and among all living creatures that [live] in the water, are an abomination for you.   יוְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵין־ל֜וֹ סְנַפִּ֣יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֗שֶׂת בַּיַּמִּים֙ וּבַנְּחָלִ֔ים מִכֹּל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הַמַּ֔יִם וּמִכֹּ֛ל נֶ֥פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמָּ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ הֵ֖ם לָכֶֽם:
creeping creatures: שֶׁרֶץ. Anywhere this [term] appears [in Scripture], it denotes a low creature that slithers and moves on the ground.   שֶׁרֶץ: בְּכָל מָקוֹם מַשְׁמָעוֹ דָּבָר נָמוּךְ שֶׁרוֹחֵשׁ וְנָד עַל הָאָרֶץ:
11And they shall be an abomination for you. You shall not eat of their flesh, and their dead bodies you shall hold in abomination.   יאוְשֶׁ֖קֶץ יִֽהְי֣וּ לָכֶ֑ם מִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָ֖ם תְּשַׁקֵּֽצוּ:
And they shall be an abomination: [The statement is repeated] to prohibit their mixtures [i.e., if the flesh of an unclean water creature was mixed with food of another type,] if there is enough [unclean flesh] to impart its taste [to the mixture]. — [See Torath Kohanim 11:82]   וְשֶׁקֶץ יִֽהְיוּ: לֶאֱסֹר אֶת עֵרוּבֵיהֶן אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם (ספרא):
[You shall not eat] of their flesh: [Only their flesh is prohibited,] but one is not prohibited [to eat] the fins or the bones. — [Torath Kohanim 11:82]   מִבְּשָׂרָם: אֵינוֹ מוּזְהָר עַל הַסְּנַפִּירִים וְעַל הָעֲצָמוֹת (שם):
and their dead bodies you shall hold in abomination: [This clause comes] to include midges (יַבְחוּשִׁין) that he has filtered out [of water or other liquids. One may ingest these creatures together with water, but once they have been separated from their original source, they are prohibited]. יַבְחוּשִׁין are moucherons in French, midges. — [Torath Kohanim 11:83]   וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָם תְּשַׁקֵּֽצוּ: לְרַבּוֹת יַבְחוּשִׁין שֶׁסִּנְּנָן; יַבְחוּשִׁין מושיירונ"ש בלע"ז (חולין ס"ז):
12Any [creature] that does not have fins and scales in the water is an abomination for you.   יבכֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽין־ל֛וֹ סְנַפִּ֥יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֖שֶׂת בַּמָּ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
Any [(creature)] that does not have [fins and scales in the water is an abomination for you]: What does Scripture come to teach us here? [In verse 10, Scripture has already stated, “any (creatures) that do not have fins and scales…are an abomination for you.” However, without this verse] I might think that [a water creature] is permitted only if it brings up its signs [of cleanness, namely fins and scales,] onto dry land; but if [it sheds them in the water, how do we know [that the creature is still permitted]? Scripture therefore, says here, “Any [creature] that does not have fins and scales in the water….,” but if it had them while in the water, even if it shed them in its emergence [onto dry land], it is permitted. — [Torath Kohanim 11:84]   כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֵֽין־לוֹ וגו': מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר? שֶׁיָּכוֹל אֵין לִי שֶׁיְּהֵא מֻתָּר אֶלָּא הַמַּעֲלֶה סִימָנִין שֶׁלּוֹ לַיַּבָּשָׁה, הִשִּׁירָן בַּמַּיִם מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֵין לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמַּיִם, הָא אִם הָיוּ לוֹ בַּמַּיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִשִּׁירָן בַּעֲלִיָּתוֹ מֻתָּר (ספרא):
13And among birds, you shall hold these in abomination; they shall not be eaten; they are an abomination: The eagle [or the griffin vulture], the kite, the osprey,   יגוְאֶת־אֵ֨לֶּה֙ תְּשַׁקְּצ֣וּ מִן־הָע֔וֹף לֹ֥א יֵאָֽכְל֖וּ שֶׁ֣קֶץ הֵ֑ם אֶת־הַנֶּ֨שֶׁר֙ וְאֶת־הַפֶּ֔רֶס וְאֵ֖ת הָֽעָזְנִיָּֽה:
They shall not be eaten: Heb. לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ. [Scripture is telling us that] one may not feed them to minors. [We derive this from the passive voice, “be eaten,”] meaning that these birds may not “be eaten” through you. Or perhaps it is not so, but [it is telling us that in addition to not eating them,] one may not derive any benefit from them? Scripture, therefore, states: “you shall not eat (לֹא תֹּאכְלוּ),” (Deut. 14:12) [in the active voice to teach us that] one is prohibited to eat them but permitted to derive benefit from them. Now, in every [mention of] birds where Scripture says לְמִינָהּ, לְמִינוֹ, לְמִינֵהוּ [“ to its…species,” it does so because] within that species, there are some that resemble each other neither in appearance nor in name, but they are [nevertheless] all one species.   לֹא יֵאָֽכְלוּ: לְחַיֵּב אֶת הַמַּאֲכִילָן לִקְטַנִּים, שֶׁכָּךְ מַשְׁמָעוֹ לֹא יְהוּ נֶאֱכָלִין עַל יָדְךָ, אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְאָסְרָן בַּהֲנָאָה? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר לֹא תֹאכְלוּם — בַּאֲכִילָה אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה מֻתָּרִין; כָּל עוֹף שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ לְמִינָהּ, לְמִינוֹ, לְמִינֵהוּ, יֵשׁ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין שֶאֵין דּוֹמִין זֶה לָזֶה לֹא בְמַרְאֵיהֶם וְלֹא בִשְׁמוֹתָם וְכֻלָּן מִין אֶחָד:
14the kestrel, and the vulture after its species,   ידוְאֶת־הַ֨דָּאָ֔ה וְאֶת־הָֽאַיָּ֖ה לְמִינָֽהּ:
15and the raven after its species,   טואֵ֥ת כָּל־עֹרֵ֖ב לְמִינֽוֹ:
16the ostrich, the jay, and the sparrow hawk, and the goshawk after its species;   טזוְאֵת֙ בַּ֣ת הַיַּֽעֲנָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָ֖ס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁ֑חַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּ֖ץ לְמִינֵֽהוּ:
the sparrow hawk: הַנֵּץ, esprevier in Old French, [epervier in modern French]. [Note that, according to some editions of Rashi , the reading is ostor, which is translated by Greenberg as goshawk, vautour in modern French. This is corroborated by other editions that render הַשָּׁחַף in verse 16 as esprevier..]   הַנֵּץ: אשפר"ויר:
17The owl, the gull, the little owl;   יזוְאֶת־הַכּ֥וֹס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָ֖ךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשֽׁוּף:
the gull: Heb. הַשָּׁלָךְ Our Rabbis explained: “The שָׁלָךְ is a bird that draws up (שׁוֹלָה) fish out of the sea” (Chul. 63a). And this is the meaning of Onkelos’ translation of שָׁלָךְ: וְשַׁלֵינוּנָא, “fish catcher.”   שלך: פֵּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זֶה הַשּׁוֹלֶה דָגִים מִן הַיָּם, וְזֶה שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס וְשָׁלֵי נוּנָא (חולין ס"ג):
The owl… and the little owl: Heb. כּוֹס וְיַנְשׁוּף. These are chouettes [in French, i.e., “owls”] that shriek at night, which have cheeks like those of a human. There is another [bird] similar to it called hibou [in French].   כוס וינשוף: הֵם צואי"טש הַצּוֹעֲקִים בַּלַּיְלָה, וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם לְסָתוֹת כְּאָדָם, וְעוֹד אַחֵר דּוֹמֶה לוֹ שֶׁקּוֹרִין יי"בו:
18The bat, the starling, the magpie;   יחוְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁ֥מֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָ֖ת וְאֶת־הָֽרָחָֽם:
The bat: Heb. הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת. That is calve soriz [in Old French, chauve-souris in modern French]. It resembles a mouse and flies about at night. The תִּנְשֶׁמֶת mentioned among the creeping animals (verse 30), resembles this one, insofar as it has no eyes. That [one] is called talpe [in Old French, taupe in modern French, mole in English].   תנשמת: הִיא קלב"א ש"וריץ, וְדוֹמָה לְעַכְבָּר הַפּוֹרַחַת בַּלַּיְלָה, וְתִנְשֶׁמֶת הָאֲמוּרָה בַּשְּׁרָצִים הִיא דוֹמָה לָהּ וְאֵין לָהּ עֵינַיִם, וְקוֹרִין לָהּ טלפ"א:
19the stork, the heron after its species; the hoopoe and the atalef [bat?];   יטוְאֵת֙ הַֽחֲסִידָ֔ה הָֽאֲנָפָ֖ה לְמִינָ֑הּ וְאֶת־הַדּֽוּכִיפַ֖ת וְאֶת־הָֽעֲטַלֵּֽף:
The stork: Heb. הַחֲסִידָה. This is a white dayah, [called] zigoyne [in Old French, cigogne in modern French]. And why is it called חֲסִידָה ? Because it does kindness (חִסִידוּת) with its fellow birds [by sharing] its food (Chul. 63a).   הַֽחֲסִידָה: זוֹ דַיָּה לְבָנָה, ציגוני"א, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ חֲסִידָה? שֶׁעוֹשָֹׁה חֲסִידוּת עִם חַבְרוֹתֶיהָ בִּמְזוֹנוֹת (שם):
the heron: Heb. הָאֲנָפָה. This is the hot-tempered dayah (Chul.. 63a), and it appears to me that this is the bird called héyron [in Old French, heron in modern French, heron in English].   הָֽאֲנָפָה: הִיא דַיָּה רַגְזָנִית, וְנִרְאֶה לִי שֶׁקּוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ הי"רון:
the hoopoe: Heb. הַדּוּכִיפַת, the wild-rooster, which has a doubled crest. [It is called] herupe [in Old French]. And why is it called דּוּכִיפַת ? Because its glory (הוֹדוֹ), namely its crest, is bound up (כָּפוּת). [I.e., its comb is double and appears to be folded into the head and bound up there (Rashi, Chul. 63a) [Onkelos renders it:] נַגַּר טוּרָא, “mountain carpenter,” named so for what it does, as explained by our rabbis in Tractate Gittin, chapter 7, entitled מִי שֶׁאֲחָזוֹ (folio 68b).   הַדּֽוּכִיפַת: תַּרְנְגוֹל הַבָּר, וְכַרְבָּלְתּוֹ כְפוּלָה, וּבְלַעַז הרופ"א, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ דּוּכִיפַת? שֶׁ"הוֹדוֹ כָפוּת" וְזוֹ הִיא כַּרְבָּלְתוֹ, וְנַגַּר טוּרָא נִקְרָא עַל שֵׁם מַעֲשָׂיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בְּמַסֶּכֶת גִּטִּין בְּפֶרֶק מִי שֶׁאֲחָזוֹ (גיטין דף ס"ח):
20Any flying insect that walks on four, is an abomination for you.   ככֹּ֚ל שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף הַֽהֹלֵ֖ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֑ע שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
among all the flying insects: These are the delicate and small creatures that crawl on the ground, like flies, hornets, mosquitoes, and locusts.   שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף: הֵם הַדַּקִּים הַנְּמוּכִים הָרוֹחֲשִׁין עַל הָאָרֶץ, כְּגוֹן זְבוּבִים וּצְרָעִין וְיַתּוּשִׁין וַחֲגָבִים:
21However, among all the flying insects that walk on four [legs], you may eat [from] those that have jointed [leg like] extensions above its [regular] legs, with which they hop on the ground.   כאאַ֤ךְ אֶת־זֶה֙ תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף הַֽהֹלֵ֖ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֑ע אֲשֶׁר־ל֤וֹ (כתיב אשׁר־לא) כְרָעַ֨יִם֙ מִמַּ֣עַל לְרַגְלָ֔יו לְנַתֵּ֥ר בָּהֵ֖ן עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
on four: on four legs.   עַל־אַרְבַּע: עַל אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיִם:
above its [regular] legs: [“Above,” meaning high up on the creature’s body, namely] near its neck, it has two leg-like extensions besides its [regular] four legs. When it wishes to fly or hop from the ground, it bolsters itself firmly with these appendages and flies. [In our regions,] we have many of this sort [of flying creature] called langouste [in Old French] (sea-locusts), but we are no [longer] proficient [in identifying] which ones [are clean and which are unclean. And what is the specific problem we have with this identification?] There are four signs of cleanness enumerated regarding these creatures: a) four legs, b) four wings, c) קַרְסוּלִים, which are the jointed leg-like extensions described above, and d) wings that cover the majority of its body (Chul. 59a; Torath Kohanim 11:91). All of these signs are indeed found in the creatures among us today, but some [creatures] have long heads and some do not have tails, [according to Maharsha (Chul. 66a), the reading is, “and some have tails”] and they must bear the name חָגָב (Chul. 65b). Concerning this [requirement namely, which type is officially called חָגָב and which is not], we no longer know how to distinguish between them.   מִמַּעַל לְרַגְלָיו: סָמוּךְ לְצַוָּארוֹ יֵשׁ לוֹ כְּמִין שְׁתֵּי רַגְלַיִם לְבַד אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיו, וּכְשֶׁרוֹצֶה לָעוּף וְלִקְפֹּץ מִן הָאָרֶץ מִתְחַזֵּק בְּאוֹתָן שְׁנֵי כְרָעַיִם וּפוֹרֵחַ, וְיֵשׁ הַרְבֵּה — כְּאוֹתָן שֶׁקּוֹרִין לנגו"שטא — אֲבָל אֵין אָנוּ בְקִיאִין בָּהֶן, שֶׁאַרְבָּעָה סִימָנֵי טָהֳרָה נֶאֶמְרוּ בָהֶם אַרְבַּע רַגְלַיִם וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם וְקַרְסוּלִין — אֵלּוּ כְרָעַיִם הַכְּתוּבִים כָּאן — וּכְנָפָיו חוֹפִין אֶת רֻבּוֹ, וְכָל סִימָנִין הַלָּלוּ מְצוּיִים בְּאוֹתָן שֶׁבֵּינוֹתֵינוּ, אֲבָל יֵשׁ שֶׁרֹאשָׁן אָרֹךְ וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם זָנָב, וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא שְׁמוֹ חָגָב, וּבָזֶה אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּינֵיהֶן:
22From this [locust] category, you may eat the following: The red locust after its species, the yellow locust after its species, the spotted gray locust after its species and the white locust after its species.   כבאֶת־אֵ֤לֶּה מֵהֶם֙ תֹּאכֵ֔לוּ אֶת־הָֽאַרְבֶּ֣ה לְמִינ֔וֹ וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָ֖ם לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וְאֶת־הַֽחַרְגֹּ֣ל לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וְאֶת־הֶֽחָגָ֖ב לְמִינֵֽהוּ:
23But any [other] flying insect that has four legs, is an abomination for you.   כגוְכֹל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף אֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אַרְבַּ֣ע רַגְלָ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
But any [other] flying insect [that has four legs is an abomination for you]: [In verse 20, it already says, “Any flying insect that walks on four is an abomination for you.” Why is this repeated here?] It comes to teach us that if it has five [legs], it is clean.   וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף וגו': בָּא וְלִמֵּד שֶׁאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ חָמֵשׁ טָהוֹר (ספרא):
24And through these you will become unclean; anyone who touches their dead bodies will be unclean until evening;   כדוּלְאֵ֖לֶּה תִּטַּמָּ֑אוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
through these: [I.e., you will become unclean] through those animals that are to be enumerated below. — [Torath Kohanim 11:95]   וּלְאֵלֶּה: הָעֲתִידִין לֵאָמֵר בָּעִנְיָן לְמַטָּה.
you will become unclean: I.e., in touching them, there is uncleanness [not that you are commanded to become unclean].   תִּטַּמָּאוּ: כְּלוֹמַר בִּנְגִיעָתָם יֵשׁ טֻמְאָה:
25And anyone who carries their carcass shall immerse his garments, and he shall be unclean until evening:   כהוְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂ֖א מִנִּבְלָתָ֑ם יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And anyone who carries their carcass: Any place in Scripture that mentions טֻמְאַת מַשָּׂא [uncleanness acquired by carrying (נוֹשֵׂא) an unclean item], it is more stringent than טֻמְאַת מַגָּע [uncleanness acquired by touching (נֹגֵע) an unclean item], insofar as it requires immersion of the garments [in a mikvah, in addition to the immersion of the person].   וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם: כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרָה טֻמְאַת מַשָּׂא, חֲמוּרָה מִטֻּמְאַת מַגָּע, שֶׁהִיא טְעוּנָה כִבּוּס בְּגָדִים (ספרא):
26Any animal that has a cloven hoof that is not completely split, and which does not bring up its cud, is unclean for you. Anyone who touches them shall become unclean.   כולְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָ֡ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִוא֩ מַפְרֶ֨סֶת פַּרְסָ֜ה וְשֶׁ֣סַע | אֵינֶ֣נָּה שֹׁסַ֗עַת וְגֵרָה֙ אֵינֶ֣נָּה מַֽעֲלָ֔ה טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּהֶ֖ם יִטְמָֽא:
[Any animal that has] a cloven hoof that is not completely split: for instance, a camel, whose hoof is split on the top, but on the bottom it is connected. Here [Scripture] teaches you that the carcass of an unclean animal defiles, while in the section at the end of this parashah (verse 39), [Scripture] explains [that a carcass of] a clean animal [defiles as well. However, Scripture deals with these separately since there is a difference between the two: in the case of a clean animal, its carcass defiles only if it dies, but if it was slaughtered properly, even if it was a טְרֵפָה, i.e., it had a fatal disease or injury, its carcass does not defile. This is derived from verse 39, which reads, “If an animal that you (normally) eat dies…” i.e., only when it dies, its carcass defiles].   מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֶׁסַע אֵינֶנָּה שֹׁסַעַת: כְּגוֹן גָּמָל, שֶׁפַּרְסָתוֹ סְדוּקָה לְמַעְלָה אֲבָל לְמַטָּה הִיא מְחֻבֶּרֶת, כָּאן לִמֶּדְךָ שֶׁנִּבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה מְטַמְּאָה, וּבָעִנְיָן שֶׁבְּסוֹף הַפָּרָשָׁה פֵּרֵשׁ עַל בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה:
27And among all the animals that walk on four legs, any [animal] that walks on its paws is unclean for you. Anyone who touches their carcass will be unclean until evening.   כזוְכֹ֣ל | הוֹלֵ֣ךְ עַל־כַּפָּ֗יו בְּכָל־הַֽחַיָּה֙ הַֽהֹלֶ֣כֶת עַל־אַרְבַּ֔ע טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
on its paws: such as a dog, a bear, or a cat.   עַל־כַּפָּיו: כְּגוֹן כֶּלֶב וְדֹב וְחָתוּל:
are unclean for you: i.e., to touch.   טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם: לְמַגָּע:
28And one who carries their carcass shall immerse his garments, and he will be unclean until evening. They are unclean for you.   כחוְהַנֹּשֵׂא֙ אֶת־נִבְלָתָ֔ם יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֣א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖מָּה לָכֶֽם:
29And this is unclean for you among creeping creatures that creep on the ground: The weasel, the mouse, and the toad after its species;   כטוְזֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ הַטָּמֵ֔א בַּשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ הַחֹ֥לֶד וְהָֽעַכְבָּ֖ר וְהַצָּ֥ב לְמִינֵֽהוּ:
And this is unclean for you: All these statements of uncleanness are not referring to the prohibition of eating, but rather, to actual uncleanness, i.e., that [the person] will become unclean by touching them, and he will [consequently] be prohibited from eating terumah [the portion of one’s produce given to the kohen] and holy [sacrifices], and from entering the sanctuary.   וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא: כָּל טֻמְאוֹת הַלָּלוּ אֵינָן לְאִסּוּר אֲכִילָה אֶלָּא לְטֻמְאָה מַמָּשׁ — לִהְיוֹת טָמֵא בְּמַגָּעָן, וְנֶאֱסַר לֶאֱכֹל תְּרוּמָה וְקָדָשִׁים וְלִכָּנֵס בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ:
The weasel: Heb. הַחֹלֶד, moustele [in Old French], weasel, beach-marten.   הַחֹלֶד: מוש"טילא:
and the toad: Heb. וְהַצָּב, bot [in Old French], which resembles a frog. [Rashi in Mikraoth Gedoloth reads: froit, which, according to Rashi on Niddah 56a, is the same as bot. According to Berliner and Greenberg, this is a ferret. According to Gukevitzky and Catane, it is a toad. In view of Rashi 's comment that it resembles a frog, this appears to be the correct translation.]   וְהַצָּב: פויי"ט שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לִצְפַרְדֵּעַ:
30The hedgehog, the chameleon, the lizard, the snail, and the mole.   לוְהָֽאֲנָקָ֥ה וְהַכֹּ֖חַ וְהַלְּטָאָ֑ה וְהַחֹ֖מֶט וְהַתִּנְשָֽׁמֶת:
the hedgehog: Heb. הָאֲנָקָה, herisson [in French].   אנקה: הרי"ון:
and the lizard: Heb. וְהַלְּטָאָה, lezard [in French].   הלטאה: לישרד"ה:
and the snail: Heb. וְהַחֹמֶט, limace [in French].   חמט: לימצ"א:
and the mole: וְהַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת, talpe [in Old French, taupe in modern French].   תנשמת: טל"פא:
31These are the ones that are unclean for you, among all creeping creatures; anyone who touches them when they are dead will be unclean until evening.   לאאֵ֛לֶּה הַטְּמֵאִ֥ים לָכֶ֖ם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁ֑רֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֧עַ בָּהֶ֛ם בְּמֹתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
32And if any of these dead [creatures] falls upon anything, it will become unclean, whether it is any wooden vessel, garment, hide or sack, any vessel with which work is done; it shall be immersed in water, but will remain unclean until evening, and it will become clean.   לבוְכֹ֣ל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֣ל־עָלָיו֩ מֵהֶ֨ם | בְּמֹתָ֜ם יִטְמָ֗א מִכָּל־כְּלִי־עֵץ֙ א֣וֹ בֶ֤גֶד אוֹ־עוֹר֙ א֣וֹ שָׂ֔ק כָּל־כְּלִ֕י אֲשֶׁר־יֵֽעָשֶׂ֥ה מְלָאכָ֖ה בָּהֶ֑ם בַּמַּ֧יִם יוּבָ֛א וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב וְטָהֵֽר:
it shall be immersed in water: Even after its immersion, the item remains unclean for [coming into contact with] terumah.   בַּמַּיִם יוּבָא: וְאַף לְאַחַר טְבִילָתוֹ טָמֵא הוּא לִתְרוּמָה:
until evening: And afterwards,   עַד־הָעֶרֶב: וְאֲחַר כַּךְ:
it will become clean: when the sun sets. — [Yev. 75a]   וְטָהֵר: בְּהַעֲרֵב הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ:

Seventh Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 11

33But any earthenware vessel, into whose interior any of them falls, whatever is inside it shall become unclean, and you shall break [the vessel] itself.   לגוְכָ֨ל־כְּלִי־חֶ֔רֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֥ל מֵהֶ֖ם אֶל־תּוֹכ֑וֹ כֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁ֧ר בְּתוֹכ֛וֹ יִטְמָ֖א וְאֹת֥וֹ תִשְׁבֹּֽרוּ:
into whose interior: An earthenware vessel becomes unclean only through [the defiling item entering] its inner space [even if it does not touch the vessel wall. If it touches the outer wall, however, the vessel does not become unclean]. — [Chul. 24b]   אֶל־תּוֹכוֹ: אֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִטַּמֵּא אֶלָּא מֵאֲוִירוֹ (חולין כ"ד):
whatever is inside it becomes unclean: The vessel in turn defiles whatever is in its inner space (other editions: in its interior).   כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא: הַכְּלִי חוֹזֵר וּמְטַמֵּא מַה שֶּׁבַּאֲוִירוֹ:
and you shall break [the vessel] itself: This teaches us that it [an earthenware vessel] cannot be purified in a mikvah. [Consequently, if you wish to use it, you must break it so that it cannot be used for its original use.]- [Torath Kohanim 11:132]   וְאֹתוֹ תִשְׁבֹּֽרוּ: לִמֵּד שֶׁאֵין לוֹ טָהֳרָה בַּמִּקְוֶה:
34Of any food that is [usually] eaten, upon which water comes will become unclean, and any beverage that is [usually] drunk, which is in any vessel, shall become unclean.   לדמִכָּל־הָאֹ֜כֶל אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָב֥וֹא עָלָ֛יו מַ֖יִם יִטְמָ֑א וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשָּׁתֶ֔ה בְּכָל־כְּלִ֖י יִטְמָֽא:
Of any food that is [usually] eaten: This refers back to the preceding verse, [as if to say]: whatever is inside it shall become unclean… of any food that is [usually] eaten, upon which water comes-if it is inside an unclean earthenware vessel-will become unclean. Likewise, any liquid that is [usually] drunk, in any vessel, meaning that it is in the inner space of an unclean earthenware vessel, will become unclean. From here we learn many things. We learn that food becomes predisposed and prepared to contract uncleanness only if water had, at one time, come upon it. And once water has come upon it, the food can contract uncleanness forever, even if it is dry. Wine, oil, and whatever is called a beverage (מַשְׁקֶה) predisposes seeds to receive uncleanness, just as water [does] (Torath Kohanim 11:135). [The liquids that fall under the category of מַשְׁקֶה are: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee-honey.] For our verse [here] is to be expounded as follows: “upon which water comes will become unclean, or any beverage that is [usually] drunk, which is in any vessel, it shall become unclean.” [I.e.] the food [will become unclean]. Our rabbis also learned from this verse that an item with a secondary degree of uncleanness does not defile vessels, for we learned (Shab. 138b): One might think that all vessels would become defiled [when they enter] the inner space of an [unclean] earthenware vessel; Scripture, therefore, says (verses 33-34): כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא [lit., “anything inside it becomes unclean]… מִכָּל הָאֹכֶל [lit., of any food]”; i.e., food and liquid are defiled by the inner space of an [unclean] earthenware vessel, but [other] vessels do not become defiled by the inner space of an [unclean] earthenware vessel. Because a שֶׁרֶץ is a primary source of uncleanness (אָב הַטֻּמְאָה), and the vessel that becomes defiled by it is a secondary source of uncleanness (וְלָד הַטֻּמְאָה). Consequently, it does not in turn defile [other] vessels contained within it. We also learned [from this verse] that if a שֶׁרֶץ fell into the inner space of an [earthenware] oven that contained bread, and the שֶׁרֶץ did not touch the bread, the oven becomes [defiled with] first degree [uncleanness], while the bread is [defiled with] second degree [uncleanness. In this case,] we do not say that the oven is perceived as though it were “filled with uncleanness,” so that the bread contained within becomes [defiled as well with] first degree [uncleanness], for if we were to say so, no vessel would be excluded from becoming defiled by the inner space of an earthenware vessel since uncleanness itself has directly touched the surface of this second vessel (Shab. 138b). We also learned [from this verse] about the contact of water [with food]-that this predisposes seeds [to receive uncleanness] only if the water wetted the seeds after they had been detached from the earth. For, if one were to say that they become predisposed [to contract uncleanness] while still attached [to the ground], there is [no food produce] upon which no water has come [at one time or another]. In that case, why would [Scripture] tell us: “upon which water comes”? [It must therefore mean: after it has been detached from the earth] (Torath Kohanim 11:150). We also learned [from this verse] that [unclean] food will defile other items only if the food has a [minimum] volume equal to a [hen’s] egg, as it is said, “[Any food] that is [usually] eaten,” meaning: [the amount of] food that can be eaten at one time. And our Sages estimated that the pharynx cannot hold more than [the volume of] a hen’s egg" (Yoma 80a).   מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵֽאָכֵל: מוּסָב עַל מִקְרָא הָעֶלְיוֹן: "כל אשר בתוכו יטמא מִכָּל הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל" אֲשֶׁר בָּאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם וְהוּא בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא יִטְמָא (וְכֵן כָּל מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל כְּלִי וְהוּא בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חֶרֶס הַטָּמֵא יִטְמָא). לָמַדְנוּ מִכָּאן דְּבָרִים הַרְבֵּה, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁאֵין אֹכֶל מֻכְשָׁר וּמְתֻקָּן לְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם פַּעַם אַחַת, וּמִשֶּׁבָּאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם פַּעַם אַחַת מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה לְעוֹלָם וַאֲפִלוּ נָגוּב, וְהַיַּיִן וְהַשֶּׁמֶן וְכָל הַנִּקְרָא מַשְׁקֶה מַכְשִׁיר זְרָעִים לְטֻמְאָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁכָּךְ יֵשׁ לִדְרֹשׁ הַמִּקְרָא: אֲשֶׁר יָבֹא עָלָיו מַיִם אוֹ כָל מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל כְּלִי, יִטְמָא הָאֹכֶל, וְעוֹד לָמְדוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין וְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה מְטַמֵּא כֵלִים שֶׁכָּךְ שָׁנִינוּ (פסחים פ'), יָכוֹל יְהוּ כָל הַכֵּלִים מִטַּמְּאִין מֵאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא מִכָּל הָאֹכֶל — אֹכֶל (וּמַשְׁקֶה) מִטַּמֵּא מֵאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס וְאֵין כָּל הַכֵּלִים מִטַּמְּאִין מֵאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס — לְפִי שֶׁהַשֶּׁרֶץ אַב הַטֻּמְאָה וְהַכְּלִי שֶׁנִּטְמָא מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה, לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמְטַמֵּא כֵלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, וְלָמַדְנוּ עוֹד שֶׁהַשֶּׁרֶץ שֶׁנָּפַל לַאֲוִיר הַתַּנּוּר וְהַפַּת בְּתוֹכוֹ וְלֹא נָגַע הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּפַּת, הַתַּנּוּר רִאשׁוֹן וְהַפַּת שְׁנִיָּה, וְלֹא נֹאמַר רוֹאִין אֶת הַתַּנּוּר כְּאִלּוּ מָלֵא טֻמְאָה וּתְהֵא הַפַּת תְּחִלָּה, שֶׁאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר כֵּן, לֹא נִתְמַעֲטוּ כָל הַכֵּלִים מִלִּטַּמֵּא מֵאֲוִיר כְּלִי חֶרֶס, שֶׁהֲרֵי טֻמְאָה עַצְמָהּ נָגְעָה בָּהֶן מִגַּבָּן, וְלָמַדְנוּ עוֹד עַל בִּיאַת מַיִם שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַכְשֶׁרֶת זְרָעִים אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָפְלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן מִשֶּׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ, שֶׁאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר מְקַבְּלִין הֶכְשֵׁר בִּמְחֻבָּר, אֵין לְךָ שֶׁלֹּא בָאוּ עָלָיו מַיִם, וּמַהוּ אוֹמֵר אֲשֶׁר יָבֹא עָלָיו מַיִם? וְלָמַדְנוּ עוֹד שֶׁאֵין אֹכֶל מְטַמֵּא אֲחֵרִים אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ כַּבֵּיצָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אֲשֶׁר "יֵאָכֵל" — אֹכֶל הַנֶּאֱכָל בְּבַת אֶחָת, וְשִׁעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים אֵין בֵּית הַבְּלִיעָה מַחֲזִיק יוֹתֵר מִבֵּיצַת תַּרְנְגֹלֶת (ספרא; יומא פ'):
35And anything upon which any of their carcasses of these [animals] fall, will become unclean. [Thus,] an oven or stove shall be demolished; they are unclean, and, they shall be unclean for you.   להוְכֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֨ל מִנִּבְלָתָ֥ם | עָלָיו֘ יִטְמָא֒ תַּנּ֧וּר וְכִירַ֛יִם יֻתָּ֖ץ טְמֵאִ֣ים הֵ֑ם וּטְמֵאִ֖ים יִֽהְי֥וּ לָכֶֽם:
oven or stove: They are movable objects, made of earthenware, and they have a hollow inside [i.e., an inner space]; and one places the pot over the opening of the cavity. Both have their openings on the top [rather than on the side. See Shab. 38b.]   תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם: כֵּלִים הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין הֵם, וְהֵן שֶׁל חֶרֶס וְיֵשׁ לָהֶן תָּוֶךְ, וְשׁוֹפֵת עַל נֶקֶב הֶחָלָל אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם פִּיהֶם לְמַעְלָה:
shall be demolished: Because an earthenware vessel cannot be purified by immersion [in a mikvah].   יֻתָּץ: שֶׁאֵין לִכְלֵי חֶרֶס טָהֳרָה בִּטְבִילָה:
and they shall be unclean for you: Lest you say, “I am commanded to demolish them,” Scripture says, “they shall be unclean for you” [meaning that] if you wish to keep them in their unclean state, you are permitted [to do so]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:142]   וּטְמֵאִים יִֽהְיוּ לָכֶֽם: שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר מְצֻוֶּה אֲנִי לְנָתְצָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וּטְמֵאִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם — אִם רָצָה לְקַיְּמָן בְּטֻמְאָתָן רַשַּׁאי:
36But a spring or a cistern, a gathering of water remains clean. However, one who touches their carcass shall become unclean.   לואַ֣ךְ מַעְיָ֥ן וּב֛וֹר מִקְוֵה־מַ֖יִם יִֽהְיֶ֣ה טָה֑וֹר וְנֹגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָֽא:
But a spring or a cistern, a gathering of water: which are attached to the ground, do not contract uncleanness. We also learn from the phrase יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר [lit., “he will be clean”] that anyone who immerses in these [collections of water] “will become clean” from his uncleanness. — [see Pes. 16a]   אַךְ מַעְיָן וּבוֹר מִקְוֵה־מַיִם: הַמְחֻבָּרִים לַקַּרְקַע אֵין מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה, וְעוֹד יֵשׁ לְךָ לִלְמֹד, יהיה טהור — הַטּוֹבֵל בָּהֶם מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ:
However, one who touches their carcass shall become unclean: If someone touches the uncleanness [of their carcasses] even while he is inside a spring or a cistern, he becomes unclean. Lest you say, [It can be derived from a] kal vachomer : “If [these collections of water] purify defiled [people] from their uncleanness, how much more so should they prevent a clean [person standing inside them] from becoming defiled!” Therefore, [Scripture] says, “ one who touches their carcass shall become unclean.” - [Torath Kohanim 11:146]   וְנֹגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָֽא: אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּתוֹךְ מַעְיָן וּבוֹר וְנוֹגֵעַ בְּטֻמְאָתָם יִטְמָא; שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר קַל וָחֹמֶר: אִם מְטַהֵר אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים מִטֻּמְאָתָם קַל וָחֹמֶר שֶׁיַּצִּיל אֶת הַטָּהוֹר מִלִּטַּמֵּא לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר וְנֹגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא (נדרים ע"ה):
37And if of their carcass falls upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it remains clean.   לזוְכִ֤י יִפֹּל֙ מִנִּבְלָתָ֔ם עַל־כָּל־זֶ֥רַע זֵר֖וּעַ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִזָּרֵ֑עַ טָה֖וֹר הֽוּא:
a sowing seed which is to be sown: [This refers to] the sowing of [various] kinds of seeds (זֵרוּעַ). [The word] זֵרוּעַ [lit., “something which is planted,”] is a noun, as in the verse, “and let them give us some pulse (הַזֵּרֹעִים) ” (Dan. 1:12).   זֶרַע זֵרוּעַ: זְרִיעָה שֶׁל מִינֵי זֵרְעוֹנִין; זֵרוּעַ שֵׁם דָּבָר הוּא, כְּמוֹ וְיִתְּנוּ לָנוּ מִן הַזֵּרֹעִים (דניאל א'):
it remains clean: Scripture teaches you that it is not predisposed and prepared to be regarded as “food [fit] to receive uncleanness” until water has come upon it.   טָהוֹר הֽוּא: לִמֶּדְךָ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁלֹּא הֻכְשַׁר וְנִתְקַן לִקָּרוֹת אֹכֶל לְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹאוּ עָלָיו מָיִם:
38But if water is put upon seeds, and any of their carcass falls on them, they are unclean for you.   לחוְכִ֤י יֻתַּן־מַ֨יִם֙ עַל־זֶ֔רַע וְנָפַ֥ל מִנִּבְלָתָ֖ם עָלָ֑יו טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
But if water is put upon seeds: after they have been detached [from the ground]. For if you say that [produce] attached [to the ground] can become predisposed [to receive uncleanness], then there would be no seed that would remain unprepared [to receive uncleanness, since all plants are watered]. — [Chul. 118b]   וְכִי יֻתַּן־מַיִם עַל־זֶרַע: לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְלַשׁ, שֶׁאִם תֹּאמַר יֵשׁ הֶכְשֵׁר בִּמְחֻבָּר, אֵין לְךָ זֶרַע שֶׁלֹּא הֻכְשָׁר (חולין קי"ח):
water…upon seeds: [The law applies] both to water and to other beverages, whether they fell on the seed or the seed fell into them. All this is expounded on in Torath Kohanim (11:151, 152).   מַיִם עַל־זֶרַע: בֵּין מַיִם בֵּין שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין, בֵּין הֵם עַל הַזֶּרַע בֵּין זֶרַע נוֹפֵל לְתוֹכָן, הַכֹּל נִדְרָשׁ בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים:
and any of their carcass falls on them: even if they have dried, for the Torah was particular only it should be regarded as “food,” then as soon as it has become predisposed to contract uncleanness once [by becoming wet], this predisposition can never be removed from it.   וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו: אַף מִשֶּׁנֻּגַּב מִן הַמַּיִם, שֶׁלֹּא הִקְפִּידָה תוֹרָה אֶלָּא לִהְיוֹת עָלָיו שֵׁם אֹכֶל, וּמִשֶּׁיָּרַד לוֹ הֶכְשֵׁר קַבָּלַת טֻמְאָה פַּעַם אַחַת, שׁוּב אֵינוֹ נֶעֱקָר הֵימֶנּוּ:
39If an animal that you [normally] eat, dies, one who touches its carcass shall be unclean until evening.   לטוְכִ֤י יָמוּת֙ מִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־הִ֥יא לָכֶ֖ם לְאָכְלָ֑ה הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖הּ יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
[one who touches] its carcass: [but] not its bones or its sinews, nor its horns, hooves or hide [unless they are attached to the carcass]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:159]   בְּנִבְלָתָהּ: וְלֹא בָעֲצָמוֹת וְגִידִין וְלֹא בַקַּרְנַיִם וּטְלָפַיִם וְלֹא בָעוֹר (ספרא):
40And one who eats of its carcass shall immerse his garments, and he shall be unclean until evening. And one who carries its carcass shall immerse his garments, and he shall be unclean until evening.   מוְהָֽאֹכֵל֙ מִנִּבְלָתָ֔הּ יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא֙ אֶת־נִבְלָתָ֔הּ יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And one who carries its carcass: טֻמְאַת מַשָּׂא [uncleanness resulting from lifting up an unclean item, even without touching it, e.g., by lifting it up with a stick,] is more stringent than טֻמְאַת מַגָּע [uncleanness resulting from touching an unclean item], for one who lifts [a carcass, in addition to becoming unclean himself, also] defiles his garments, but one who [merely] touches it does not defile his garments, for regarding him it does not say, “he shall immerse his garments.”   וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ: חֲמוּרָה טֻמְאַת מַשָּׂא מִטֻּמְאַת מַגָּע, שֶׁהַנּוֹשֵׂא מְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים, וְהַנּוֹגֵעַ אֵין בְּגָדָיו טְמֵאִין, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו:
And one who eats of its carcass: One might think that his eating renders him unclean. However, when [Scripture] says, regarding the carcass of a clean bird, “He shall not eat carrion or one stricken by a fatal disease or injury, to be defiled through it” (Lev. 22:8), [the seemingly superfluous word] בָהּ [“through it,” is explained as follows]: One defiles his garments “through it,” [i.e.,] through eating it, but the carcass of an animal does not defile if one eats it without lifting it up. For example, if someone else forced it down his pharynx. If so, why does it say, “And one who eats [of its carcass]”? To specify the [minimum] volume [needed to render someone unclean] through his touching or lifting up [an unclean carcass], namely, the volume that one [normally] eats [at a time], namely, the size of an olive," [half the volume of a hen’s egg] (Torath Kohanim 11:16). [One should note that, for food to defile other items, it must have a minimum volume possibly edible at one time, namely, equal to that of a hen’s egg. See Rashi on Lev. 11:34].   וְהָֽאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ: יָכוֹל תְּטַמְּאֶנּוּ אֲכִילָתוֹ? כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר בְּנִבְלַת עוֹף טָהוֹר (ויקרא כ"ב) "נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא יֹאכַל לְטָמְאָה בָהּ", בָהּ — אוֹתָהּ מְטַמָּא בְגָדִים בַּאֲכִילָתָהּ וְאֵין נִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה מְטַמָּא בְגָדִים בַּאֲכִילָתָהּ בְּלֹא מַשָּׂא, כְּגוֹן אִם תְּחָבָהּ לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ בְּבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה, אִם כֵּן מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר הָאֹכֵל? לִתֵּן שִׁעוּר לַנּוֹשֵׂא וְלַנּוֹגֵעַ כְּדֵי אֲכִילָה, וְהוּא כַּזַּיִת (ספרא; נדה מ"ב):
and he shall be unclean until evening: Even though he has already immersed himself, he requires sunset [in order to be completely clean].   וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטָּבַל צָרִיךְ הַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ:
41And any creeping creature that creeps on the ground is an abomination; it shall not be eaten.   מאוְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לֹ֥א יֵֽאָכֵֽל:
that creeps on the ground: This comes to exclude mites founds in chickpeas and in beans, and the pea-beetles found in lentils, since they did not creep on the ground but within the food [which was already detached from the ground]. However, when they exit into the air and creep, they become prohibited [because they fall into the category of שֶׁרֶץ, those that “creep on the ground”]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:161]   הַשֶּׁרֶץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ: לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַיַּתּוּשִׁין שֶׁבַּכְּלִיסִין וְשֶׁבַּפּוֹלִין, וְאֶת הַזִּיזִין שֶׁבָּעֲדָשִׁים, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא שָׁרְצוּ עַל הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל, אֲבָל מִשֶּׁיָּצְאוּ לָאֲוִיר וְשָׁרְצוּ הֲרֵי נֶאֱסְרוּ (ספרא; חולין ס"ז):
it shall not be eaten: [This phrase comes] to render guilty someone who feeds a person [with the flesh of a creeping animal] just as if he would have eaten it [himself] (Torath Kohanim 11:162). A שֶׁרֶץ means a low, short-legged creature, which appears [in its motion] only as if slithering and moving.   לֹא יֵֽאָכֵֽל: לְחַיֵּב עַל הַמַּאֲכִיל כָּאוֹכֵל; וְאֵין קָרוּי שֶׁרֶץ אֶלָּא דָּבָר נָמוּךְ, קְצַר רַגְלַיִם, שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה אֶלָּא כְּרוֹחֵשׁ וְנָד:
42Any [creature] that goes on its belly, and any [creature] that walks on four [legs] to any [creature] that has many legs, among all creeping creatures that creep on the ground, you shall not eat, for they are an abomination.   מבכֹּל֩ הוֹלֵ֨ךְ עַל־גָּח֜וֹן וְכֹ֣ל | הוֹלֵ֣ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֗ע עַ֚ד כָּל־מַרְבֵּ֣ה רַגְלַ֔יִם לְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ לֹ֥א תֹֽאכְל֖וּם כִּי־שֶׁ֥קֶץ הֵֽם:
that goes on its belly: This is the snake (Torath Kohanim 11:163). The word גָּחוֹן denotes “bending low” [and it is used to describe the snake] because it moves while bent a prostrated posture, prostrated on its belly.   הוֹלֵךְ עַל־גָּחוֹן: זֶה נָחָשׁ, וּלְשׁוֹן גָּחוֹן שְׁחִיָּה, שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ שָׁח וְנוֹפֵל עַל מֵעָיו:
Any [creature] that goes: [This comes] to include earthworms and what resembles those that resemble them [i.e., that have tiny legs, but nevertheless slither like a worm on their bellies]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:163]   כֹּל הוֹלֵךְ: לְהָבִיא הַשִּׁלְשׁוּלִין וְאֶת הַדּוֹמֶה לַדּוֹמֶה:
that walks on four [legs]: This [refers to] a scorpion. — [Torath Kohanim 11:163]   הוֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע: זֶה עַקְרָב:
any [creature]: [This word comes] to include the beetle, called escarbot in French, and what resembles those that resemble them. — [Torath Kohanim 11:163]   כֹּל: לְהָבִיא אֶת הַחִפּוּשִׁית, אשקר"בוט בְּלַעַז, וְאֶת הַדּוֹמֶה לַדּוֹמֶה:
any [creature] that has many legs: This is the centipede, a creature with legs from its head to its tail, on either side, called centipede [in French]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:163]   מַרְבֵּה רַגְלַיִם: זֶה נַדָּל, שֶׁרֶץ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ רַגְלַיִם מֵרֹאשׁוֹ וְעַד זְנָבוֹ לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, וְקוֹרִין צינטפי"דש (ספרא):
43You shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping creature that creeps, and you shall not defile yourselves with them, that you should become unclean through them.   מגאַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ֙ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֑ץ וְלֹ֤א תִטַּמְּאוּ֙ בָּהֶ֔ם וְנִטְמֵתֶ֖ם בָּֽם:
You shall not make [yourselves] abominable: By eating them, for it says: נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם, “your souls” [lit., “Do not make your souls abominable”], and merely touching [an unclean item] does not cause “abomination of the soul” [whereas eating it does. See Me’ilah 16b, Rashi there]; similarly, “and you shall not defile yourselves” [means] by eating them.   אַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ: בַּאֲכִילָתָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּתִיב נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְאֵין שִׁקּוּץ נֶפֶשׁ בְּמַגָּע, וְכֵן וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ בַּאֲכִילָתָם:
that you should become unclean through them: [God says:] “If you defile yourselves through these [creatures] on earth, I too will defile you in the world to come and in the heavenly academy.” - [Yoma 39a]   וְנִטְמֵתֶם בָּֽם: אִם אַתֶּם מִטַּמְּאִין בָּהֶם בָּאָרֶץ, אַף אֲנִי מְטַמֵּא אֶתְכֶם בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא וּבִישִׁיבַת מַעְלָה (יומא ל"ט):
44For I am the Lord your God, and you shall sanctify yourselves and be holy, because I am holy, and you shall not defile yourselves through any creeping creature that crawls on the ground.   מדכִּ֣י אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָה֘ אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֒ וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם֙ וִֽהְיִיתֶ֣ם קְדשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אָ֑נִי וְלֹ֤א תְטַמְּאוּ֙ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
For I am the Lord your God: Just as I am holy, for I am the Lord your God, so too, you shall make yourselves holy, [i.e.,] sanctify yourselves below [on earth]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:168]   כִּי אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֲנִי קָדוֹשׁ שֶׁאֲנִי ה' אֱלֹהֵיכֶם, כָּךְ וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם — קַדְּשׁוּ עַצְמְכֶם לְמַטָּה:
and be holy: before Me, for I will make you holy above and in the world to come. — [Yoma 39a]   וִֽהְיִיתֶם קְדשִׁים: לְפִי שֶׁאֲנִי אֲקַדֵּשׁ אֶתְכֶם לְמַעְלָה וּבָעוֹלָם הַבָּא:
and you shall not defile yourselves: [This prohibition is written to make a transgressor guilty of] transgressing many negative commandments. And for [the transgression of] each negative commandment, [the perpetrator receives] lashes. This is what [the Sages said in the Talmud (Mak. 16): “If one eats a פּוּטִיתָא [a small unclean aquatic creature], one receives four series of lashes [i.e., four separate series of lashes for the four negative commandments transgressed by eating that one creature]; if one eats an ant, one receives five series of lashes; if one eats a hornet, [he receives] six series of lashes” (Mak. 16b).   וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ וגו': לַעֲבֹר עֲלֵיהֶם בְּלָאוִין הַרְבֵּה, וְכָל לָאו מַלְקוּת, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמְרוּ בַּתַּלְמוּד (מכות ט"ז:), אָכַל פּוּטִיתָא לוֹקֶה אַרְבַּע, נְמָלָה לוֹקֶה חָמֵשׁ, צִרְעָה לוֹקֶה שֵׁשׁ:
45For I am the Lord Who has brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God. Thus, you shall be holy, because I am holy.   מהכִּ֣י | אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה הַמַּֽעֲלֶ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִֽהְיֹ֥ת לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים וִֽהְיִיתֶ֣ם קְדשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אָֽנִי:
For I am the Lord Who has brought you up: On the condition that you accept My commandments, I have brought you up [out of Egypt] (Torath Kohanim 11:170). Another explanation of “For I am the Lord Who has brought you up” : Everywhere [Scripture] says, “Who has brought [you] out(הוֹצֵאתִי) [of the land of Egypt],” while here it says, “Who has brought [you] up (הַמַּעֲלֶה).” [What is the meaning of the unusual expression here of bringing up?] the school of Rabbi Ishmael taught: [God says,] “If I had brought up Israel from Egypt only so that they would not defile themselves with creeping creatures like the other nations, it would have been sufficient for them, and this is an exaltation for them.” This, then, explains [the use of] the expression הַמַּעֲלֶה - [B.M. 61b]   כִּי אֲנִי ה' הַמַּֽעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם: עַל מְנָת שֶׁתְּקַבְּלוּ מִצְוֹתַי הֶעֱלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם; דָּבָר אַחֵר, כִּי אֲנִי ה' הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם: בְּכֻלָּן כְּתִיב "הוֹצֵאתִי" וְכָאן כְּתִיב "הַמַּעֲלֶה", תָּנָא דְבֵי רַ' יִשְׁמָעֵאל אִלְּמָלֵי לֹא הֶעֱלֵיתִי אֶת יִשְֹרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֵין מִטַּמְּאִין בִּשְׁרָצִים כִּשְׁאָר אֻמּוֹת דַּיָּם, וּמַעַלְיוּתָא הִיא גַּבַּיְהוּ, זֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן מַעֲלָה:
46This is the law regarding animals, birds, all living creatures that move in water and all creatures that creep on the ground,   מוזֹ֣את תּוֹרַ֤ת הַבְּהֵמָה֙ וְהָע֔וֹף וְכֹל֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֔ה הָֽרֹמֶ֖שֶׂת בַּמָּ֑יִם וּלְכָל־נֶ֖פֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶ֥צֶת עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
47to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, and between the animal that may be eaten and the animal that may not be eaten.   מזלְהַבְדִּ֕יל בֵּ֥ין הַטָּמֵ֖א וּבֵ֣ין הַטָּהֹ֑ר וּבֵ֤ין הַֽחַיָּה֙ הַנֶּֽאֱכֶ֔לֶת וּבֵין֙ הַֽחַיָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א תֵֽאָכֵֽל:
to distinguish: Not only must you learn [these laws concerning prohibited creatures in order to know the laws for the sake of knowing Torah], but also you shall know and recognize [these creatures], and be proficient [in identifying] them.   לְהַבְדִּיל: לֹא בִּלְבַד הַשּׁוֹנֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁתְּהֵא יוֹדֵעַ וּמַכִּיר וּבָקִי בָּהֶן (ספרא):
between the unclean and the clean: But is it necessary [for Scripture] to state [that we should know] the difference between [kosher and non-kosher animals such as] a donkey and a cow, when these [differences] have already been explained? Rather, [what is meant here, is to distinguish] between what is unclean because of you and what is clean because of you, namely between [an animal] whose trachea was slaughtered halfway through [which is considered “unclean” and may not be eaten], and [an animal] who had most of its trachea slaughtered, [rendering the animal “clean” and it may be eaten]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:173:7]   בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר: צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בֵּין חֲמוֹר לְפָרָה, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר מְפֹרָשִׁים הֵם? אֶלָּא בֵּין טְמֵאָה לְךָ לִטְהוֹרָה לְךָ — בֵּין נִשְׁחַט חֶצְיוֹ שֶׁל קָנֶה לְנִשְׁחַט רֻבּוֹ:
and between the animal that may be eaten: Does [Scripture] have to tell us [that one must be able to distinguish] between a deer and a wild donkey? Are they not already delineated? Rather, [to distinguish] between [an animal] in which signs of a treifah have developed, and it is nevertheless kosher [such as an animal whose injury does not render it treifah], and an animal in which signs of a treifah have developed, and it is not kosher. - [Torath Kohanim 11:173:8]   וּבֵין הַֽחַיָּה הַנֶּֽאֱכֶלֶת: צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בֵּין צְבִי לְעָרוֹד וַהֲלֹא כְבָר מְפֹרָשִׁים הֵם? אֶלָּא בֵּין שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ בָהּ סִימָנֵי טְרֵפָה כְּשֵׁרָה לְנוֹלְדוּ בָהּ סִימָנֵי טְרֵפָה פְּסוּלָה (ספרא):

Maftir Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 11

45For I am the Lord Who has brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God. Thus, you shall be holy, because I am holy.   מהכִּ֣י | אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה הַמַּֽעֲלֶ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִֽהְיֹ֥ת לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים וִֽהְיִיתֶ֣ם קְדשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אָֽנִי:
For I am the Lord Who has brought you up: On the condition that you accept My commandments, I have brought you up [out of Egypt] (Torath Kohanim 11:170). Another explanation of “For I am the Lord Who has brought you up” : Everywhere [Scripture] says, “Who has brought [you] out(הוֹצֵאתִי) [of the land of Egypt],” while here it says, “Who has brought [you] up (הַמַּעֲלֶה).” [What is the meaning of the unusual expression here of bringing up?] the school of Rabbi Ishmael taught: [God says,] “If I had brought up Israel from Egypt only so that they would not defile themselves with creeping creatures like the other nations, it would have been sufficient for them, and this is an exaltation for them.” This, then, explains [the use of] the expression הַמַּעֲלֶה - [B.M. 61b]   כִּי אֲנִי ה' הַמַּֽעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם: עַל מְנָת שֶׁתְּקַבְּלוּ מִצְוֹתַי הֶעֱלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם; דָּבָר אַחֵר, כִּי אֲנִי ה' הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם: בְּכֻלָּן כְּתִיב "הוֹצֵאתִי" וְכָאן כְּתִיב "הַמַּעֲלֶה", תָּנָא דְבֵי רַ' יִשְׁמָעֵאל אִלְּמָלֵי לֹא הֶעֱלֵיתִי אֶת יִשְֹרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאֵין מִטַּמְּאִין בִּשְׁרָצִים כִּשְׁאָר אֻמּוֹת דַּיָּם, וּמַעַלְיוּתָא הִיא גַּבַּיְהוּ, זֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן מַעֲלָה:
46This is the law regarding animals, birds, all living creatures that move in water and all creatures that creep on the ground,   מוזֹ֣את תּוֹרַ֤ת הַבְּהֵמָה֙ וְהָע֔וֹף וְכֹל֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֔ה הָֽרֹמֶ֖שֶׂת בַּמָּ֑יִם וּלְכָל־נֶ֖פֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶ֥צֶת עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
47to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, and between the animal that may be eaten and the animal that may not be eaten.   מזלְהַבְדִּ֕יל בֵּ֥ין הַטָּמֵ֖א וּבֵ֣ין הַטָּהֹ֑ר וּבֵ֤ין הַֽחַיָּה֙ הַנֶּֽאֱכֶ֔לֶת וּבֵין֙ הַֽחַיָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א תֵֽאָכֵֽל:
to distinguish: Not only must you learn [these laws concerning prohibited creatures in order to know the laws for the sake of knowing Torah], but also you shall know and recognize [these creatures], and be proficient [in identifying] them.   לְהַבְדִּיל: לֹא בִּלְבַד הַשּׁוֹנֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁתְּהֵא יוֹדֵעַ וּמַכִּיר וּבָקִי בָּהֶן (ספרא):
between the unclean and the clean: But is it necessary [for Scripture] to state [that we should know] the difference between [kosher and non-kosher animals such as] a donkey and a cow, when these [differences] have already been explained? Rather, [what is meant here, is to distinguish] between what is unclean because of you and what is clean because of you, namely between [an animal] whose trachea was slaughtered halfway through [which is considered “unclean” and may not be eaten], and [an animal] who had most of its trachea slaughtered, [rendering the animal “clean” and it may be eaten]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:173:7]   בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר: צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בֵּין חֲמוֹר לְפָרָה, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר מְפֹרָשִׁים הֵם? אֶלָּא בֵּין טְמֵאָה לְךָ לִטְהוֹרָה לְךָ — בֵּין נִשְׁחַט חֶצְיוֹ שֶׁל קָנֶה לְנִשְׁחַט רֻבּוֹ:
and between the animal that may be eaten: Does [Scripture] have to tell us [that one must be able to distinguish] between a deer and a wild donkey? Are they not already delineated? Rather, [to distinguish] between [an animal] in which signs of a treifah have developed, and it is nevertheless kosher [such as an animal whose injury does not render it treifah], and an animal in which signs of a treifah have developed, and it is not kosher. - [Torath Kohanim 11:173:8]   וּבֵין הַֽחַיָּה הַנֶּֽאֱכֶלֶת: צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בֵּין צְבִי לְעָרוֹד וַהֲלֹא כְבָר מְפֹרָשִׁים הֵם? אֶלָּא בֵּין שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ בָהּ סִימָנֵי טְרֵפָה כְּשֵׁרָה לְנוֹלְדוּ בָהּ סִימָנֵי טְרֵפָה פְּסוּלָה (ספרא):


Shmuel II (II Samuel) Chapter 6

1And David continued [to gather] all the chosen of Israel, thirty thousand.   אוַיֹּ֨סֶף ע֥וֹד דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־כָּל־בָּח֥וּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים אָֽלֶף:
And David continued: to gather.   ויוסף עוד דוד: לאסוף:
All the chosen men of Israel, thirty thousand: Since they had gathered to him when they coronated him in Hebron, and this being a second gathering, it states; “And David continued again.”   את כל בחור בישראל שלשים אלף: לפי שנאספו עליו כשהמליכוהו בחברון, וזו היתה אסיפה שניה, לכך נאמר ויוסף עוד:
2And David arose and went with all the people that were with him, from Baale-Judah, to bring up from there the ark of God, which is called a name, the name of the Lord of Hosts who dwell upon the cherubim [being] upon it.   בוַיָּ֣קָם | וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד וְכָל־הָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ מִֽבַּעֲלֵ֖י יְהוּדָ֑ה לְהַעֲל֣וֹת מִשָּׁ֗ם אֵ֚ת אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָ֣א שֵׁ֗ם שֵׁ֣ם יְהֹוָ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת ישֵׁ֥ב הַכְּרֻבִ֖ים עָלָֽיו:
from Baale-judah: which is Kiriath-jearim as it is stated in Josh.; “And the border circled to Baaleh which is Kiriath- jearim” (Josh. 15:9). Similarly in Chron. “And David and all of Israel went up to Baalah which is Kiriath-jearim (I Chron. 13:6).” Now ‘Baal’ is a plain.   מבעלי יהודה: היא קרית יערים ; כמו שנאמר ביהושע (טו ט): ותאר הגבול ועלה בעלה היא קרית יערים, וכן בדברי הימים (יג ו): ויעל דוד וכל ישראל בעלתה היא קרית יערים. ו'בעל' לשון 'מישור':
and David arose and went… from Baale-Judah: for they had gathered there to carry up from there the ark, etc.   ויקם וילך דוד וגו' מבעלי יהודה: שנאספו שם להעלות משם את הארון וגו':
Which is called a name, the name…: which is called to it (To the ark) a name. And what is the name? That the name of the Lord of Hosts was upon it.   אשר נקרא שם שם: אשר נקרא לו לארון שם, ומהו השם, שהיה שם ה' צבאות עליו:
3And they set the ark of God upon a new cart, and they carried it from the house of Avinadav that was on the hill; and Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Avinadav, drove the new cart.   גוַיַּרְכִּ֜בוּ אֶת־אֲר֚וֹן הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל־עֲגָלָ֣ה חֲדָשָׁ֔ה וַיִּשָּׂאֻ֔הוּ מִבֵּ֥ית אֲבִינָדָ֖ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּגִּבְעָ֑ה וְעֻזָּ֣א וְאַחְי֗וֹ בְּנֵי֙ אֲבִ֣ינָדָ֔ב נֹהֲגִ֖ים אֶת־הָעֲגָלָ֥ה חֲדָשָֽׁה:
upon a new cart: He erred in a matter that even school children know: “Because the service of the holy things belonged unto them, they shall bear them upon their shoulders” (Num. 7:9). But since he had remarked “Your Statues have been like songs unto me in the house of my sojournings” (Ps. 119:54) he was punished (for exhibiting undue confidence in his knowledge of Torah) by way of coming to this, and Uzzah died because of him. Therefore, when they brought it (the ark) from the house of Oved-Edom, they brought it upon their shoulders; as it is stated (in I Chron. 15:12); “And he said unto them, You are the chief of the fathers of the Levites; sanctify yourselves and your brethren and you shall bring up the ark… for [because] at first you did not [lift it], the Lord our God caused a breach in us, for at first we sought him not in a proper manner.”   אל עגלה חדשה: טעה בדבר שאפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו, כי עבודת הקדש עליהם בכתף ישאו (במדבר ז ט), ולפי שאמר (תהלים קיט נד): זמירות היו לי חקיך בבית מגורי, נענש לבא לידי כך, ומת עוזא על ידו, לפיכך כשהביאו מבית עובד, הביאו בכתף, שנאמר (בדברי הימים א טו יב יג): ויאמר להם אתם ראשי האבות ללוים התקדשו אתם ואחיכם והעליתם את ארון וגו'. כי למבראשונה לא אתם פרץ ה' אלהינו בנו כי לא דרשנוהו כמשפט:
4And they brought it out of the house of Avinadav, which was on the hill, with the ark of God, and Achyo went before the ark.   דוַיִּשָּׂאֻ֗הוּ מִבֵּ֚ית אֲבִֽינָדָב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּגִּבְעָ֔ה עִ֖ם אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְאַחְי֕וֹ הֹלֵ֖ךְ לִפְנֵ֥י הָאָרֽוֹן:
with the ark of God: This is an abbreviated verse which is to be taken as: ‘And they came with the ark of God.’   עם ארון האלהים: הרי זה מקרא קצר, והם באים עם ארון האלהים:
5And David and all the house of Israel made merry with all [manner of instruments of] cypress wood, and with harps, and with psalteries, and with timbrels, and with sistra, and with cymbals.   הוְדָוִ֣ד | וְכָל־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל מְשַֹֽחֲקִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּכֹ֖ל עֲצֵ֣י בְרוֹשִׁ֑ים וּבְכִנֹּר֚וֹת וּבִנְבָלִים֙ וּבְתֻפִּ֔ים וּבִמְנַֽעַנְעִ֖ים וּֽבְצֶלְצֶלִֽים:
with all manners of cypress wood: From which musical instruments are constructed.   בבל עצי ברושים: שמתקנים מהם כלי זמר:
6And they came to Goren-Nachon, and Uzzah put forth [his hand] to the ark of God, and grasped hold of it, for the oxen swayed it.   ווַיָּבֹ֖אוּ עַד־גֹּ֣רֶן נָכ֑וֹן וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח עֻזָּ֜א אֶל־אֲר֚וֹן הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ וַיֹּ֣אחֶז בּ֔וֹ כִּ֥י שָׁמְט֖וּ הַבָּקָֽר:
the oxen swayed it: for the oxen swayed it and shook it. Now Jonathan also translates it in this manner; ‘For the oxen caused it to sway’ paralleling his translation of: “And his hand strokes with the axe” (Deut. 19:5) as: And his hand swayed with the iron.   כי שמטו הבקר: כי שמטוהו הבקר ונענעוהו, וכן תרגם יונתן: ארי מרגוהי תוריא ; כמו שמתרגם (דברים יט ה): ונדחה ידו בגרזן, ותתמריג ידיה בפרזלא:
7And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzzah; and God struck him down there for his error; and there he died by the ark of God.   זוַיִּֽחַר־אַ֚ף יְהֹוָה֙ בְּעֻזָּ֔ה וַיַּכֵּ֥הוּ שָׁ֛ם הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים עַל־הַשַּׁ֑ל וַיָּ֣מָת שָׁ֔ם עִ֖ם אֲר֥וֹן הָאֱלֹהִֽים:
for his error: for his mistake for he should have concluded ‘a fortiori’: If it lifted its bearers over the Jordan certainly it was able to lift itself.   על השל: על השגגה, שהיה לו לדרוש קל וחומר, נושאיו נשא בירדן, הוא עצמו לא כל שכן:
8And David was angered, because the Lord had made a breach upon Uzzah; and he called that place Peretz-Uzzah, unto this day.   חוַיִּ֣חַר לְדָוִ֔ד עַל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר פָּרַ֧ץ יְהֹוָ֛ה פֶּ֖רֶץ בְּעֻזָּ֑ה וַיִּקְרָ֞א לַמָּק֚וֹם הַהוּא֙ פֶּ֣רֶץ עֻזָּ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
9And David was afraid of the Lord that day; and he said: 'How can the ark of the Lord come to me?'   טוַיִּרָ֥א דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־יְהֹוָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֵ֛יךְ יָב֥וֹא אֵלַ֖י אֲר֥וֹן יְהֹוָֽה:
10And David did not want to remove unto him the ark of the Lord, into the city of David; and David took it aside to the house of Oved-Edom the Gittite.   יוְלֹֽא־אָבָ֣ה דָוִ֗ד לְהָסִ֥יר אֵלָ֛יו אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן יְהֹוָ֖ה עַל־עִ֣יר דָּוִ֑ד וַיַּטֵּ֣הוּ דָוִ֔ד בֵּ֥ית עֹבֵֽד־אֱד֖וֹם הַגִּתִּֽי:
Oved-Edom: He was a Levite (as stated in I Chronicles 26:4); one of the gatekeepers.   עובד אדום: לוי היה, כמו שכתוב בדברי הימים (א טו יח), ומן השוערים היה (שם):
11And the ark of the Lord dwelled in the house of Oved-Edom the Gittite three months; and the Lord blessed Oved-Edom, and all his household.   יאוַיֵּשֶׁב֩ אֲר֨וֹן יְהֹוָ֜ה בֵּ֣ית עֹבֵ֥ד אֱדֹ֛ם הַגִּתִּ֖י שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה חֳדָשִׁ֑ים וַיְבָ֧רֶךְ יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־עֹבֵ֥ד אֱדֹ֖ם וְאֶת־כָּל־בֵּיתֽוֹ:
and the Lord blessed… all his household: His wife and eight daughters-in-law gave birth to sextuplets as it is written: “Peulthai the eighth (son), etc. Threescore and two were of Oved edom” (I Chron. 26:5).   ויברך ה' וגו': אשתו ושמונה כלותיה ילדו ששה בנים בכרס אחד, שנאמר (דברי הימים-א כו ו ח): ופעלתי השמיני ; ששים ושנים לעובד אדום:
12And it was told to King David saying: 'The Lord has blessed the house of Oved-Edom, and all that belongs to him, because of the ark of the Lord. And David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Oved-Edom into the city of David with joy.   יבוַיֻּגַּ֗ד לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִד֘ לֵאמֹר֒ בֵּרַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶת־בֵּ֨ית עֹבֵ֚ד אֱדֹם֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ בַּעֲב֖וּר אֲר֣וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד וַיַּעַל֩ אֶת־אֲר֨וֹן הָאֱלֹהִ֜ים מִבֵּ֨ית עֹבֵ֥ד אֱדֹ֛ם עִ֥יר דָּוִ֖ד בְּשִׂמְחָֽה:
13And it was when the bearers of the ark of God had trodden six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling.   יגוַיְהִ֗י כִּ֧י צָעֲד֛וּ נֹשְׂאֵ֥י אֲרוֹן־יְהֹוָ֖ה שִׁשָּׁ֣ה צְעָדִ֑ים וַיִּזְבַּ֥ח שׁ֖וֹר וּמְרִֽיא:
14And David danced with all his might before the Lord; and David was girded with a linen ephod.   ידוְדָוִ֛ד מְכַרְכֵּ֥ר בְּכָל־עֹ֖ז לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְדָוִ֕ד חָג֖וּר אֵפ֥וֹד בָּֽד:
danced: a dance.   מכרכר: מרקד:
a linen ephod: a linen robe, ‘porceint’ in French. Jonathan translates it ‘a sleeved tunic,’ just as he interprets the robes of Tamar the sister of Absalam to have been sleeved tunics (II Sam. 13:18).   אפוד בד: מעיל בוץ, פורציינ"ט בלע"ז, ויונתן תרגם: כרדוט ; וכן תרגם יונתן 'מעילים' דתמר אחות אבשלום (לקמן יג יח), כרדוטין:
15And David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of the Lord with shouting and with the sound of [the] shofar.   טווְדָוִד֙ וְכָל־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מַעֲלִ֖ים אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהֹוָ֑ה בִּתְרוּעָ֖ה וּבְק֥וֹל שׁוֹפָֽר:
16And [as] the ark of the Lord came [into] the city of David, Michal the daughter of Saul peered through the window, and she saw the king David hopping and dancing before the Lord; and she loathed him in her heart.   טזוְהָיָה֙ אֲר֣וֹן יְהֹוָ֔ה בָּ֖א עִ֣יר דָּוִ֑ד וּמִיכַ֨ל בַּת־שָׁא֜וּל נִשְׁקְפָ֣ה | בְּעַ֣ד הַחַלּ֗וֹן וַתֵּ֨רֶא אֶת־הַמֶּ֚לֶךְ דָּוִד֙ מְפַזֵּ֚ז וּמְכַרְכֵּר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וַתִּ֥בֶז ל֖וֹ בְּלִבָּֽהּ:
17And they brought the ark of the Lord, and they set it in its place, inside the tent that David had pitched for it; and David offered burnt-offerings before the Lord and peace-offerings.   יזוַיָּבִ֜אוּ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהֹוָ֗ה וַיַּצִּ֚גוּ אֹתוֹ֙ בִּמְקוֹמ֔וֹ בְּת֣וֹךְ הָאֹ֔הֶל אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָטָה־ל֖וֹ דָּוִ֑ד וַיַּ֨עַל דָּוִ֥ד עֹל֛וֹת לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה וּשְׁלָמִֽים:
18And David finished offering the burnt-offering and the peace-offerings, and he blessed the people in the name of the Lord of Hosts.   יחוַיְכַ֣ל דָּוִ֔ד מֵהַעֲל֥וֹת הָעוֹלָ֖ה וְהַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם בְּשֵׁ֖ם יְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת:
19And he distributed to all the people, to the whole multitude of Israel, both to men and women, to each individual a loaf of bread, and a portion of meat, and a barrel of wine. And all the people departed, every one to his home.   יטוַיְחַלֵּ֨ק לְכָל־הָעָ֜ם לְכָל־הֲמ֣וֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לְמֵאִ֣ישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה֒ לְאִ֗ישׁ חַלַּ֥ת לֶ֙חֶם֙ אַחַ֔ת וְאֶשְׁפָּ֣ר אֶחָ֔ד וַאֲשִׁישָׁ֖ה אֶחָ֑ת וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אִ֥ישׁ לְבֵיתֽוֹ:
and a portion of meat: one sixth of a bullock.   ואשפר: אחד מששה בפר (פסחים לו ב):
a barrel of wine: (containing one ephah)   אשישה אחת: גרבא דחמרא (שם):
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