Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 1

1And He called to Moses, and the Lord spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting, saying,   אוַיִּקְרָ֖א אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֵלָ֔יו מֵאֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד לֵאמֹֽר:
And He called to Moses: Every [time God communicated with Moses, whether it was represented by the expression] וַיְדַבֵּר, “And He spoke,” or וַיֹּאמֶר; “and He said,” or וַיְצַו, “and He commanded,” it was always preceded by [God] calling [to Moses by name] (Torath Kohanim 1:2-3). [קְרִיאָה] is an expression of affection, the [same] expression employed by the ministering angels [when addressing each other], as it says, “And one called (וְקָרָא) to the other…” (Isa. 6:3). To the prophets of the nations of the world, however, He revealed Himself through expressions denoting coincidence and impurity, as the verse says, “and God happened to [meet] (וַיִּקָּר) Balaam” (Num. 23:4). - [Bemidbar Rabbah 52:5] [The expression וַיִּקָּר has the meaning of a coincidental happening, and also alludes to impurity. [See Deut. 23:11, regarding the expression מִקְרֵה לַיְלָה.]   וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־משֶׁה: לְכָל דִּבְּרוֹת וּלְכָל אֲמִירוֹת וּלְכָל צִוּוּיִים קָדְמָה קְרִיאָה, לְשׁוֹן חִבָּה, לָשׁוֹן שֶׁמַּלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל זֶה (ישעיהו ו'), אֲבָל לִנְבִיאֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם נִגְלָה עֲלֵיהֶן בִּלְשׁוֹן עֲרָאִי וְטֻמְאָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיִּקָּר אֱלֹהִים אֶל בִּלְעָם (במדבר כ"ג):
And He called to Moses: The [Divine] voice emanated and reached Moses’ ears, while all [the rest] of Israel did not hear it. One might think that for each new section [representing a new topic], there was also [such] a call. Scripture, therefore, states, “and [the Lord] spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) [to him],” [denoting that] only for speech, [i.e., when God “spoke” to Moses, or “said” to him, or “commanded” him,] was there a call, but not at the subsections. [For when these expressions are employed, they demarcate the beginning of major sections, i.e., when God first called to Moses and then proceeded with the prophecy at hand, unlike the beginning of each separate subsection, when God simply continued His communication to Moses without “calling” him anew. Now, if each subsection in the Torah does not represent a new beckoning from God to Moses, ushering in a new prophecy, then] what is the purpose of these subsections? To give Moses a pause, to contemplate between one passage and the next, and between one subject and another. [And if this pause for contemplation was given to the great Moses when being taught by God, then] how much more [necessary is it] for an ordinary man learning [Torah] from another ordinary man [to be allowed pauses between sections and subjects, to carefully contemplate and understand the material being learned]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:3]   וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־משֶׁה: הַקּוֹל הוֹלֵךְ וּמַגִּיעַ לְאָזְנָיו וְכָל יִשְֹרָאֵל לֹא שׁוֹמְעִין; יָכוֹל אַף לְהַפְסָקוֹת הָיְתָה קְרִיאָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וַיְדַבֵּר — לְדִבּוּר הָיְתָה קְרִיאָה וְלֹא לְהַפְסָקוֹת, וּמֶה הָיוּ הַפְסָקוֹת מְשַׁמְּשׁוֹת? לִתֵּן רֶוַח לְמֹשֶׁה לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בֵּין פָּרָשָׁה לְפָרָשָׁה וּבֵין עִנְיָן לְעִנְיָן; קַל וָחֹמֶר לְהֶדְיוֹט הַלּוֹמֵד מִן הַהֶדְיוֹט:
to him: Heb. אֵלָיו [That is, God spoke only to Moses. This phrase comes] to exclude Aaron. Rabbi Judah [Ben Betheira] says: “Thirteen times in the Torah, God spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) to both Moses and Aaron together, and, corresponding to them were thirteen [other] occasions [when God spoke only to Moses] precluding [Aaron], to teach you that they were not said [directly] to Aaron, but to Moses, that he should say them to Aaron. These are the thirteen cases where [Aaron was] precluded: (1) ”To speak with him…,“ (2) ”…speaking to him…,“ (3) ”…and He spoke to him“ (Num. 7:89); (4) ”I will meet with you [there at set times], etc. …“ (Exod. 25:22) All of them can be found [in the above dictum of Rabbi Judah] in Torath Kohanim (1:4). Now, [even though it was Moses who exclusively heard the prophecies,] one might think that they [i.e., the rest of Israel, nevertheless] heard the sound [of God] ”calling“ [to Moses preceding the prophecy]. Scripture therefore, says: [not ”He heard] the voice [speaking] to him (לוֹ),“ [but] ”[he heard] the voice [speaking right up] to him (אֵלָיו)“ (Num. 7:89). [This verse could have used the word לוֹ, ”to him,“ rather than such an exclusive expression as אֵלָיו, ”right up to him." However, it uses this expression in order to teach us that only] Moses heard [the Divine voice calling him], while all [the rest] of Israel did not hear [it]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:4]   אֵלָיו: לְמַעֵט אֶת אַהֲרֹן; רַ' יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר י"ג דִּבְּרוֹת נֶאֶמְרוּ בַּתּוֹרָה לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְאַהֲרֹן וּכְנֶגְדָּן נֶאֶמְרוּ י"ג מִעוּטִין, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁלֹּא לְאַהֲרֹן נֶאֶמְרוּ אֶלָּא לְמֹשֶׁה שֶׁיֹּאמַר לְאַהֲרֹן, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן י"ג מִעוּטִין: לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ, מִדַּבֵּר אֵלָיו, וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו (במדבר ז'), וְנוֹעַדְתִּי לְךָ (שמות כ"ה) — כֻּלָּן בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים. יָכוֹל יִשְׁמְעוּ אֶת קוֹל הַדִּבּוּר תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר קוֹל לוֹ, קוֹל אֵלָיו, מֹשֶׁה שׁוֹמֵעַ וְכָל יִשְֹרָאֵל לֹא שָׁמְעוּ:
from the Tent of Meeting: This teaches us that the [Divine] voice stopped and did not project itself beyond the Tent [of Meeting]. One might think that this was because the voice was low. Scripture therefore says, “[And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting, he heard] the voice” (Num. 7:89). What is the meaning of “the voice” [with the definite article]? It is the voice referred to in Psalms (29:4-5): “The voice of the Lord is in strength; the voice of the Lord is in beauty. The voice of the Lord breaks cedars.” If so, why does it say, “[and the Lord spoke to him] from the Tent of Meeting” ? [To inform us] that the [Divine] voice stopped. A case similar to this [where a powerful sound uttered within the Holy Temple was not heard outside,] is: “And the sound of the cherubim’s wings was heard up to the outer courtyard…” (Ezek. 10:5). One might think that the sound was low. Scripture therefore states [further in that verse]: “…as the voice of the Almighty God when He speaks!” Why then does the verse say, “[the sound…was heard] up to the outer courtyard” [and not further, if this sound was indeed so mighty]? Because when it reached there, it stopped. — [Torath Kohanim 1:5]   מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה הַקּוֹל נִפְסָק וְלֹא הָיָה יוֹצֵא חוּץ לָאֹהֶל; יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַקּוֹל נָמוּךְ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אֶת הַקּוֹל, מַהוּ הַקּוֹל? הוּא הַקּוֹל הַמְפֹרָשׁ בִּתְהִלִּים קוֹל ה' בַּכֹּחַ קוֹל ה' בֶּהָדָר קוֹל ה' שֹׁבֵר אֲרָזִים (תהילים כ"ט), אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד? מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה הַקּוֹל נִפְסָק. כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה (יחזקאל י'), יָכוֹל שֶׁהַקּוֹל נָמוּךְ תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר כְּקוֹל אֵל שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ, אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר עַד הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה? שֶׁכֵּוָּן שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ שָׁם הָיָה נִפְסָק:
[And the Lord spoke to him] from the Tent of Meeting, saying: One might think [that God spoke to Moses] from the entire house [that is, that the Divine voice emanated from the entire Tent of Meeting]. Scripture therefore states, “[and he heard the voice speaking to him] from above the ark cover” (Num. 7:89). [If so,] one might think [the voice emanated] from the entire ark cover. Scripture therefore states [further in that verse], “from between the two cherubim.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:5]   מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹֽר: יָכוֹל מִכָּל הַבַּיִת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת, יָכוֹל מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת כֻּלָּהּ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר מִבֵּין שְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים:
saying: [God told Moses:] Go forth and say to them [the children of Israel] captivating words, [namely:] “For your sake God communicates with me. ” Indeed, we find this is so for all the thirty-eight years that the Israelites were in the desert, placed under a ban, [i.e.,] from the incident involving the spies and onwards, the [Divine] speech was not addressed especially to Moses, for it says, “So it was, when all the men of war had finished dying from among the people, that the Lord spoke to me saying …” (Deut. 2: 16-17). [Only then was] the Divine speech [again] addressed specifically to me. Another explanation [of לֵאמֹר is that God says to Moses]: “Go forth and tell them My commandments, and bring Me back word whether they will accept them,” as the verse says, “and Moses reported the words of the people back to the Lord” (Exod. 19:8). - [Torath Kohanim 1:6]   לֵאמֹֽר: צֵא וֶאֱמֹר לָהֶם דִּבְרֵי כִּבּוּשִׁין — בִּשְׁבִילְכֶם הוּא נִדְבָּר עִמִּי; שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ שֶׁכָּל ל"ח שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְֹרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּמְנֻדִּים, מִן הַמְרַגְּלִים וָאֵילַךְ, לֹא נִתְיַחֵד הַדִּבּוּר עִם מֹשֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיְהִי כַאֲשֶׁר תַּמּוּ כָּל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה לָמוּת … וַיְדַבֵּר ה' אֵלַי לֵאמֹר (דברים ב'), אֵלַי הָיָה הַדִּבּוּר. דָּבָר אַחֵר צֵא וֶאֱמֹר לָהֶן דְּבָרַי וַהֲשִׁיבֵנִי אִם יְקַבְּלוּם, כְּמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיָּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶת דִּבְרֵי הָעָם וְגוֹ' (שמות י"ט):
2Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: When a man from [among] you brings a sacrifice to the Lord; from animals, from cattle or from the flock you shall bring your sacrifice.   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אָדָ֗ם כִּי־יַקְרִ֥יב מִכֶּ֛ם קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה מִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה מִן־הַבָּקָר֙ וּמִן־הַצֹּ֔אן תַּקְרִ֖יבוּ אֶת־קָרְבַּנְכֶֽם:
When a man from [among] you brings a sacrifice: Heb. יַקְרִיב כִּי, when he brings. [That is, Scripture is not dealing here with an obligatory sacrifice, in which case it would have said, “a man shall bring ….” Rather,] Scripture is speaking here of voluntary sacrifices [and thus says, “When a man …brings a sacrifice”]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:12]   אָדָם כִּי־יַקְרִיב מִכֶּם: כְּשֶׁיַּקְרִיב; בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת נְדָבָה דִּבֵּר הָעִנְיָן:
a man: Heb. אָדָם. Why is this term used here [as opposed to “ אָיש ”]? [It alludes to Adam, the first man on earth, and teaches us:] Just as Adam, the first man, never offered sacrifices from stolen property, since everything was his, so too, you must not offer sacrifices from stolen property. — [Vayikra Rabbah 2:7]   אָדָם: לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר? מָה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לֹא הִקְרִיב מִן הַגָּזֵל — שֶׁהַכֹּל הָיָה שֶׁלּוֹ — אַף אַתֶּם לֹא תַּקְרִיבוּ מִן הַגָּזֵל (ויקרא רבה):
animals: Heb. מִן הַבְּהֵמָה. One might think that wild beasts are also included [since sometimes wild beasts are included in this term, and therefore may be offered up as sacrifices]. Scripture therefore states [here], “from cattle or from the flock.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:16]   הַבְּהֵמָה: יָכוֹל אַף חַיָּה בִּכְלָל, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר בָּקָר וָצֹאן:
from animals: but not all of them. [The phrase therefore comes] to exclude the case of animals that have cohabited with a human, as an active or a passive party. - [Torath Kohanim 1:17]   מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה: וְלֹא כֻּלָּהּ — לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הָרוֹבֵעַ וְאֶת הַנִּרְבָּע:
from cattle: Heb. מִן הַבָּקָר [The phrase “from cattle” comes] to exclude an animal that has been worshipped [as a deity].   מִן־הַבָּקָר: לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַנֶּעֱבָד:
or from the flock: Heb. וּמִן הַצֹּאן [This phrase comes] to exclude an animal set aside [i.e., designated for sacrifice to pagan deities]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:18]   מִן־הַצֹּאן: לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַמֻּקְצָה:
or from the flock: [The extra “vav” at the beginning of this phrase comes] to exclude the case of a goring animal that has killed [a man]. Now, when [Scripture] states below (verse 3): מִן הַבָּקָר, “of cattle,” [the word מִן] need not have been used, since Scripture has already [taught us the exclusions here. Therefore, this extra word comes] to exclude a טְרֵפָה [an animal with a terminal disease or injury]. - [Torath Kohanim 1:17]   וּמִן־הַצֹּאן: לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַנּוֹגֵחַ שֶׁהֵמִית; כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר לְמַטָּה מִן הָעִנְיָן מִן הַבָּקָר — שֶׁאֵין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר — לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַטְּרֵפָה (ספרא):
you shall bring: Heb. תַּקְרִיבוּ [The plural form of the verb] teaches [us] that two people may donate a voluntary burnt offering in partnership. — [Torath Kohanim 1:19]   תַּקְרִיבוּ: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁשְּׁנַיִם מִתְנַדְּבִים עוֹלָה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת:
your sacrifice: Heb. קָרְבַּנְכֶם [The plural form] teaches us that [a burnt offering] may also be offered as a voluntary gift from the community (Torath Kohanim 1:20). This sacrifice was called עוֹלַת קַיִץ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, “the burnt-offering which was provision for the altar.” [Every year, each twenty-year old male was taxed to give a silver half-shekel for communal sacrifices. See Exod. 30:11-16. This voluntary sacrifice] was purchased with any money remaining [from the previous year’s collection of half-shekels, and was offered as a communal burnt offering when there were no individual offerings brought, in order to prevent the altar from being bereft of sacrifices. Thus, the name “provision for the altar”]. — [Shev. 12a]   קָרְבַּנְכֶֽם: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהִיא בָּאָה נִדְבַת צִבּוּר, הִיא עוֹלַת קַיִץ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, הַבָּאָה מִן הַמּוֹתָרוֹת (שבועות י"ב):
3If his sacrifice is a burnt offering from cattle, an unblemished male he shall bring it. He shall bring it willingly to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord.   גאִם־עֹלָ֤ה קָרְבָּנוֹ֙ מִן־הַבָּקָ֔ר זָכָ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶ֑נּוּ אֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ יַקְרִ֣יב אֹת֔וֹ לִרְצֹנ֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
male: but not a female. When Scripture repeats later (verse 10) [that the burnt-offering must be] “a male [animal],” it appears unnecessary to state that [since Scripture has already taught us that it must be a male animal and not a female. Therefore, this repetition of the word “male,” comes to teach us that a sacrifice must consist of a completely] male [animal], not an animal of indeterminate gender or a hermaphrodite. — [Bech. 41b]   זָכָר: וְלֹא נְקֵבָה; כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר זָכָר לְמַטָּה — שֶׁאֵין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר — זָכָר וְלֹא טֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס:
unblemished: Heb. תָּמִים, perfect, without a blemish.   תָּמִים: בְּלֹא מוּם:
[He shall bring it …] to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting: He [himself] must attend to bringing it up to the courtyard [of the Temple] (Torath Kohanim 1: 24). Why does the verse repeat the word “bring” here [when it says, “he shall bring…He shall bring it?” This repetition teaches us that] even in the case of Reuben’s burnt offering [animal] being mixed up with Simeon’s burnt offering [animal, and the animals cannot be identified], nevertheless, each one of them must be offered up in the name of [its rightful owner] whoever that may be. Similarly, if [an animal designated for] a burnt offering has been mixed up with non-consecrated animals, the non-consecrated animals must be sold to those who need burnt offerings, and thus all of these animals are now [designated to become] burnt offerings. [Accordingly] each animal is now brought in the name of [its rightful owner] whoever that may be. Now, one might think that this must be done even if [an animal designated to become] a burnt offering became mixed up with animals unfit for sacrifice or with [animals designated to become] different kinds of sacrifices [e.g., a sin offering, a guilt offering, etc.]. Scripture therefore says here: יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ, [meaning, “he must bring it.” This teaches us that only an animal fit for and specifically designated as a burnt offering must be brought here]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:25]   אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: מְטַפֵּל בַּהֲבָאָתוֹ עַד הָעֲזָרָה; מַהוּ אוֹמֵר יַקְרִיב יַקְרִיב? אֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרְבָה עוֹלַת רְאוּבֵן בְּעוֹלַת שִׁמְעוֹן יַקְרִיב כָּל אֶחָד לְשֵׁם מִי שֶׁהוּא, וְכֵן עוֹלָה בְּחֻלִּין, יִמָּכְרוּ הַחֻלִּין לְצָרְכֵי עוֹלוֹת, וַהֲרֵי הֵן כֻּלָּן עוֹלוֹת, וְתִקְרַב כָּל אֶחָד לְשֵׁם מִי שֶׁהוּא; יָכוֹל אֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרְבָה בִּפְסוּלִין אוֹ בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ" (ספרא):
He shall bring it: [This clause] teaches us that the person is coerced [to bring the offering if he is remiss in bringing the sacrifice he had promised]. One might think that this means that they should force him against his will [to bring the offering]! Scripture therefore says: “[He shall bring it] willingly (לִרְצֹנוֹ).” How is this possible [that on one hand he should be forced, yet on the other, he must bring the offering willingly? The explanation is that] they must coerce him until he says “I am willing.” - [R.H. 6a, Torath Kohanim 3:15].   יַקְרִיב אֹתוֹ: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ, יָכוֹל בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר "לִרְצוֹנוֹ", הָא כֵּיצַד? כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר רוֹצֶה אֲנִי (שם):
Before the Lord…And he shall lean: [The procedure of] leaning [the hands upon sacrifices] does not apply to a high place [a private altar. These high places were permitted to be used before the permanent Temple was built when the Mishkan was in Gilgal, Nob, and Gibeon. Certain sacrifices could be offered up on them. We learn this from the continuity of these two verses that only “before the Lord” -that is, in the sanctuary precincts-one “should lean his hand upon” the head of sacrifices, but not on a high place outside the sanctuary precincts.]- [Torath Kohanim 1:27]   לִפְנֵי ה' וסמך: אֵין סְמִיכָה בְּבָמָה (שם):
4And he shall lean his hand [forcefully] upon the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted for him to atone for him.   דוְסָמַ֣ךְ יָד֔וֹ עַ֖ל רֹ֣אשׁ הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְנִרְצָ֥ה ל֖וֹ לְכַפֵּ֥ר עָלָֽיו:
upon the head of the burnt offering: [The text could have simply said “upon its head.” However, it adds “burnt offering”] to include [any sacrifice that is called a “burnt offering,” namely,] (1) an obligatory burnt offering, that it too requires סְמִיכָה [leaning the hands on its head. Since this section deals with voluntary burnt offerings, this case requires an extra word to include it. See commentary on verse 2]; also included is (2) a burnt offering from the flock [that it too must have סְמִיכָה, for this is not specified in the verses dealing with the burnt offering from the flock. See verses 10-13]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:30]   עַל רֹאשׁ הָֽעֹלָה: לְהָבִיא עוֹלַת חוֹבָה לִסְמִיכָה וּלְהָבִיא עוֹלַת הַצֹּאן (שם):
the burnt offering: [The use of the definite article here teaches us that the verse is referring to “the” burnt offering, i.e., the one mentioned earlier, where it says, “from cattle or from the flock” (verse 2). Thus] excluding the burnt offering from birds. — [Torath Kohanim 1:30]   הָֽעֹלָה: פְּרָט לְעוֹלַת הָעוֹף (שם):
and it will be accepted for him: For which [sins] will [the sacrifice] be accepted for him [thereby atoning for them]? If you say that [the offering is accepted and thereby the person is atoned for] sins which incur the penalty of excision, the death penalty through the court, the death penalty through the heaven[ly court], or lashes, their punishments are [expressly] stated, [and thus, the person must undergo the respective punishment to receive atonement for those sins]. Thereby, we determine that it is accepted only for [failure to perform] a positive commandment [for which the punishment is not expressly stated in the Torah, or [violation of] a negative commandment that is attached to a positive commandment. [I.e., some negative commandments are attached to a positive commandment that relates to the same matter. An example of this is the law of the Passover lamb. The Torah states: “And you shall not leave over any of it until morning, and whatever is left over of it until morning, you shall burn in fire” (Exod. 12:10). Here, the negative commandment is “attached” to the positive commandment. How so? If someone has transgressed the negative commandment and left over some of the Passover lamb until the following morning, he may exonerate himself from the punishment he has just incurred by fulfilling the positive commandment attached, namely by burning the remainder in fire. That is an example of “a negative commandment that is attached to a positive commandment.” See Mak. 4b.]- [Torath Kohanim 1:31]   וְנִרְצָה לוֹ: עַל מָה הוּא מְרַצֶּה לוֹ? אִם תֹּאמַר עַל כָּרֵתוֹת וּמִיתוֹת בֵּית דִּין אוֹ מִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם אוֹ מַלְקוּת, הֲרֵי עָנְשָׁן אָמוּר, הָא אֵינוֹ מְרַצֶּה אֶלָּא עַל עֲשֵֹה וְעַל לָאו שֶׁנִּתַּק לַעֲשֵֹה (שם):
5And he shall slaughter the young bull before the Lord. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall bring the blood, and dash the blood upon the altar, around [the altar] which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   הוְשָׁחַ֛ט אֶת־בֶּ֥ן הַבָּקָ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְ֠הִקְרִ֠יבוּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וְזָֽרְק֨וּ אֶת־הַדָּ֤ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ סָבִ֔יב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
And he shall slaughter…And…the kohanim shall bring [the blood] : [Since the word kohanim is mentioned only in reference to receiving the blood, and not before, we learn that all procedures in a sacrifice] from receiving [the blood in a vessel] and onwards are the duty of the kehunah [as opposed to non- kohanim]. This teaches regarding the slaughtering [which precedes receiving the blood], that it is valid [even if performed] by a stranger [i.e., a non- kohen].-[Zev. 32a]   וְשָׁחַט וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִים: מִקַּבָּלָה וָאֵילַךְ מִצְוַת כְּהֻנָּה — לִמֵּד עַל הַשְּׁחִיטָה שֶׁכְּשֵׁרָה בְּזָר (שם):
before the Lord: in the courtyard [of the Holy Temple].   לִפְנֵי ה': בַּעֲזָרָה:
and […the kohanim] shall bring [the blood]: [Although וְהִקְרִיבוּ literally means “bringing,” here,] it means “receiving” [the blood in a vessel], which is the first [procedure immediately following the slaughtering]. However, it literally means “bringing” [the blood to the altar]. [Consequently,] we learn that both these procedures are the duties of Aaron’s descendants [i.e., the kohanim]. — [Chag. 11a]   וְהִקְרִיבוּ: זוֹ קַבָּלָה, שֶׁהִיא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּמַשְׁמָעָהּ לְשׁוֹן הוֹלָכָה, לָמַדְנוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן:
Aaron’s descendants: One might think [that these duties may be performed as well by Aaron’s descendants who are] חִלָלִים, kohanim whose lineage invalidates them for kehunah [e.g., if the mother was divorced before marrying the kohen]. Scripture therefore adds: “the kohanim ” [indicating that these duties may be performed only by kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:38]   בְּנֵי אַֽהֲרֹן: יָכוֹל חֲלָלִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר הַכֹּהֲנִים:
[The kohanim, shall bring] the blood, and dash the blood: Why does Scripture say, “blood, blood” here twice? To include [the cases of blood from a burnt offering,] that was mixed up with the same type [of blood, i.e., the blood of burnt offerings from two different people being mixed up, and [blood from a burnt offering] that was mixed up with a different type [of blood, i.e., from another type of sacrifice]. One might think that this would also include [the case that the blood was mixed up with blood of] an unfit sacrifice, or [blood from] inner sin offerings [the blood of which is to be sprinkled on the inner altar] or [blood from] outer sin offerings [the blood of which is to be sprinkled on the outer altar] even though [the latter, have their blood dashed] above [the chut hasikra , the red line, of the altar], while this [the burnt offering has its blood dashed] below [the chut hasikra of the altar]. Scripture [therefore] states [regarding a burnt offering] in another place: “its blood” (verses 11 and 15). [This expression teaches us that only cases in which the blood of a burnt offering is mixed up with the blood of another sacrifice which is also to be dashed below the chut hasikra on the altar, no problems arise, and these bloods can both be dashed at that level of the altar. This excludes the case of inner sin offerings whose blood is sprinkled inside and outer sin offerings whose blood must be dashed above the chut hasikra]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:39]   אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָֽרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם: מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר דָּם דָּם שְׁנֵי פְּעָמִים? לְהָבִיא אֶת שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמִינוֹ אוֹ בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ, יָכוֹל אַף בִּפְסוּלִים אוֹ בְּחַטָּאוֹת הַפְּנִימִיּוֹת אוֹ בְּחַטָּאוֹת הַחִיצוֹנִיּוֹת, שֶׁאֵלּוּ לְמַעְלָה וְהִיא לְמַטָּה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר דָּמוֹ (זבחים פ"א):
And […the kohanim,shall…] dash [the blood…around]: [The kohen] must stand below [i.e., on the ground], and dash [the blood] from the vessel [in which it was received] onto the wall of the altar below the chut hasikra , towards the corners [of the altar. Meaning, from the ground he approaches the northeastern corner of the altar and dashes some of the blood from its receptacle onto the corner ridge where the northern wall and the eastern wall of the altar meet, below the red line. In this way, the blood dashes onto both the northern and eastern sides of the altar with one motion by the kohen. That motion is thus referred to as “one application (of blood) which is two,” i.e., one dashing motion, which applies the blood to two faces of the altar. The kohen then proceeds to the southwestern corner of the altar and again performs this procedure, thereby applying the blood to both the southern and western walls of the altar in one motion. Thus, in a total of two dashing motions, the blood has been applied to the four faces of the altar. These dashes are referred to as “two applications (of blood) which are four.”] Therefore, it says “around,” namely that [with these prescribed dashing motions] the blood is to be applied to the four sides of the altar. Now, one might think that [when the verse says that the kohen must dash the blood around the altar, this means that] he must encircle it [the altar with blood] like a thread. Scripture therefore says: “[the kohanim] shall…dash [the blood],” and it is impossible to apply it [as a continuous line] around the altar through a “dashing” motion. Alternatively, one might think that “shall…dash” refers to one dashing motion. Scripture therefore says: “around” [and it is impossible to apply the blood all around the altar with one dashing motion]. How then [should the blood be applied to the altar]? The kohen must make “two applications, which are four.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:40]   וְזָֽרְקוּ: עוֹמֵד לְמַטָּה וְזוֹרֵק מִן הַכְּלִי לְכֹתֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְמַטָּה מִחוּט הַסִּקְרָא כְּנֶגֶד הַזָּוִיּוֹת, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר סָבִיב — שֶׁיְּהֵא הַדָּם נָתוּן בְּאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ; אוֹ יָכוֹל יַקִּיפֶנּוּ כְּחוּט, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וְזָרְקוּ וְאִי אֶפְשַׁר לְהַקִּיף בִּזְרִיקָה, אִי וְזָרְקוּ יָכוֹל בִּזְרִיקָה אַחַת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר סָבִיב, הָא כֵּיצַד? נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע (ספרא):
[the altar] which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting: But not when [the Tent of Meeting] is disassembled [even though the altar itself may be standing, since at such a time the altar is not “at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting”]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:44]   אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵֽד: וְלֹא בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא מְפֹרָק (שם):
6And he shall skin the burnt offering, and cut it into its [prescribed] sections.   ווְהִפְשִׁ֖יט אֶת־הָֽעֹלָ֑ה וְנִתַּ֥ח אֹתָ֖הּ לִנְתָחֶֽיהָ:
And he shall skin [the burnt offering]: Why does the verse say “the burnt offering” ? To include every [kind of] burnt offering [not just this one in the procedure of] skinning and cutting up [in the prescribed manner]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:45]   וְהִפְשִׁיט וגו': מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר הָעוֹלָה? לְרַבּוֹת אֶת כָּל הָעוֹלוֹת לְהֶפְשֵׁט וְנִתּוּחַ:
its [prescribed] sections: [The verse does not state that the animal is cut into pieces, but rather “into its pieces,” implying that it must be cut into specific prescribed pieces] and not [to cut] its [prescribed] pieces into [smaller] pieces. — [Torath Kohanim 1:47; Chul. 11a]   אֹתָהּ לִנְתָחֶֽיהָ: וְלֹא נְתָחֶיהָ לִנְתָחִים (ספרא):
7And the descendants of Aaron the kohen shall place fire on the altar, and arrange wood on the fire.   זוְ֠נָֽתְנ֠וּ בְּנֵ֨י אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֵ֖שׁ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וְעָֽרְכ֥וּ עֵצִ֖ים עַל־הָאֵֽשׁ:
shall place fire [on the altar]: Even though the fire descended [miraculously] from heaven [onto the altar, to consume the sacrifices], it was [nevertheless] a mitzvah for a mortal to bring [his fire to the altar. — [Torath Kohanim 1: 49; Zev. 18a]   וְנָֽתְנוּ … אֵשׁ: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאֵשׁ יוֹרֶדֶת מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם מִצְוָה לְהָבִיא מִן הַהֶדְיוֹט (שם):
the descendants of Aaron the Kohen: [But we know that Aaron was a Kohen Gadol ! So what does “the Kohen ” come to teach us? It teaches us that the Kohen Gadol may perform the sacrificial service only] when he is [invested] in his kehunah [i.e., wearing the proper eight garments of the Kohen Gadol]. If, however, he officiated wearing the raiment of an ordinary kohen, his service is rendered invalid. — [Torath Kohanim 1:49]   בְּנֵי אַֽהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן: כְּשֶׁהוּא בְּכִהוּנוֹ, הָא אִם עָבַד בְּבִגְדֵי כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט עֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה:
8And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall then arrange the pieces, the head and the fat, on top of the wood which is on the fire that is on the altar.   חוְעָֽרְכ֗וּ בְּנֵ֤י אַֽהֲרֹן֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים אֵ֚ת הַנְּתָחִ֔ים אֶת־הָרֹ֖אשׁ וְאֶת־הַפָּ֑דֶר עַל־הָֽעֵצִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
Aaron’s descendants, the kohanim: [But we know that Aaron’s descendants are kohanim! So what does “the kohanim” come to teach us?] The [ordinary] kohanim must be functioning in their kehunah [i.e., the proper four garments of the ordinary kohanim]. If an ordinary kohen officiated wearing the “eight garments” [of a Kohen Gadol], however, his service is rendered invalid.   בְּנֵי אַֽהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים: כְּשֶׁהֵם בְּכִהוּנָם, הָא כֹּהֵן הֶדְיוֹט שֶׁעָבַד בִּשְׁמוֹנָה בְּגָדִים עֲבוֹדָתוֹ פְּסוּלָה (זבחים י"ח):
the pieces, the head: Since the head is not included in the skinning and cutting up [procedures], since it was detached by the slaughtering, the Torah had to count it individually [to inform us that it was to be placed on the altar as it is, even though it is not skinned.] - [Chul. 27a]   אֵת הַנְּתָחִים אֶת־הָרֹאשׁ: לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הָרֹאשׁ בִּכְלַל הֶפְשֵׁט, שֶׁכְּבָר הֻתַּז בִּשְׁחִיטָה, לְפִיכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לִמְנוֹתוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ (חולין כ"ז):
and the fat: Why is [the fat] mentioned [separately]? To teach you that the kohen must bring it up [onto the altar together] with the head, and that with it he covers the area where [the animal] was slaughtered. This was done in deference to the honor of God on high [because the cut throat is soiled with the blood of the head] (Rashi, Yoma 26a). - [Chul. 27a]   וְאֶת־הַפָּדֶר: לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר? לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁמַּעֲלֵהוּ עִם הָרֹאשׁ וּמְכַסֶּה בּוֹ אֶת בֵּית הַשְּׁחִיטָה, וְזֶהוּ דֶּרֶךְ כָּבוֹד שֶׁל מַעְלָה (שם):
[the wood] which is on the altar: The logs of wood must not project beyond the [area of the arranged] woodpile [constituting one square cubit. This is so that the kohanim would not be disturbed by protruding pieces of wood when they go around the altar]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:54]   אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ: שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַגְּזִירִין יוֹצְאִין חוּץ לַמַּעֲרָכָה (ספרא):
9And its innards and its legs, he shall wash with water. Then, the kohen shall cause to [go up in] smoke all [of the animal] on the altar, as a burnt offering, a fire offering, [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   טוְקִרְבּ֥וֹ וּכְרָעָ֖יו יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וְהִקְטִ֨יר הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַכֹּל֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֛ה אִשֵּׁ֥ה רֵֽיחַ־נִיח֖וֹחַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
as a burnt offering: [I.e., the kohen] must burn the animal with the [specific] intention that it is a burnt offering. — [Torath Kohanim 1:58]   עֹלָה: לְשֵׁם עוֹלָה יַקְטִירֶנּוּ:
a fire offering: Heb. אִשֵּׁה. When he slaughters [the animal], he must slaughter it with the [specific] intention [to burn it completely in] fire. Every [instance of the word] אִשֶּׁה in Scripture, is an expression related to [the word] אֵשׁ, “fire,” foyere in Old French.   אִשֵּׁה: כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁחֲטֶנּוּ יְהֵי שׁוֹחֲטוֹ לְשֵׁם הָאֵשׁ; וְכָל אִשֶּׁה לְשׁוֹן אֵשׁ, פוש"ייר בְּלַעַז:
pleasing: Heb. נִיחוֹחַ [This word stems from the same root as the expression נַחַת רוּחַ, “contentment.” God says: “This sacrifice] gives Me contentment, for I said [My commandment], and My will was fulfilled!”   נִיחוֹחַ: נַחַת רוּחַ לְפָנַי, שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי וְנַעֲשָֹה רְצוֹנִי (שם):
10And if his offering is [brought] from the flock from sheep or from goats as a burnt offering he shall sacrifice it an unblemished male.   יוְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּ֨אן קָרְבָּנ֧וֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִ֛ים א֥וֹ מִן־הָֽעִזִּ֖ים לְעֹלָ֑ה זָכָ֥ר תָּמִ֖ים יַקְרִיבֶֽנּוּ:
And if…from the flock: The “vav” [meaning “and” here demonstrates that this section concerning voluntary burnt offerings from the flock] is a continuation from the previous subject [those from cattle, and is thereby connected in that the laws of each are common to both]. But why was it separated [by a paragraph]? In order to give Moses a pause, so that he could contemplate between one passage and the next. — [Torath Kohanim 1:59]   וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן: וי"ו מוֹסִיף עַל עִנְיָן רִאשׁוֹן, וְלָמָּה הֻפְסַק? לִתֵּן רֶוַח לְמֹשֶׁה לְהִתְבּוֹנֵן בֵּין פָּרָשָׁה לְפָרָשָׁה (שם):
from the flock…from sheep…from goats: [The word “from” tells us that one cannot take all the animals of these classes, rather only “from” them, thereby disqualifying certain animals from being brought for a sacrifice.] These [three mentions of the word “from”] are three exclusions [from being offered as a sacrifice], excluding an aged [animal], a sick [animal] and a foul smelling [animal]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:60]   מִן־הַצֹּאן מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִים מִן־הָֽעִזִּים: הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ ג' מִעוּטִין — פְּרָט לְזָקֵן וּלְחוֹלֶה וְלִמְזֹהָם (שם):
11And he shall slaughter it on the northern side of the altar, before the Lord. And Aaron's descendants, the kohanim, shall dash its blood upon the altar, around.   יאוְשָׁחַ֨ט אֹת֜וֹ עַ֣ל יֶ֧רֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ צָפֹ֖נָה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְזָֽרְק֡וּ בְּנֵי֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים אֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
on the…side of the altar: Heb. הַמִזְבֵּח יֶרֶךְ , “on the…side of the altar.”   עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: עַל צַד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
[And he shall slaughter it] on the northern [side of the altar], before the Lord: [The law of] slaughtering on the northern side does not apply [when sacrificing an animal] on a high place [See above on verse 4]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:27] [We learn this from this verse that a burnt offering must be slaughtered “on the northern side of the altar” only if it is “before the Lord,” i.e., in the sanctuary precincts, but not outside them.]   צָפֹנָה לִפְנֵי ה': וְאֵין צָפוֹן בְּבָמָה (שם):
12And he shall cut it into its [prescribed] sections, with its head and its fat, and the kohen shall arrange them on top of the wood which is on the fire that is on the altar.   יבוְנִתַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ לִנְתָחָ֔יו וְאֶת־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְאֶת־פִּדְר֑וֹ וְעָרַ֤ךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔ם עַל־הָֽעֵצִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָאֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
13And the innards and the legs, he shall wash with water. Then, the kohen shall offer up all [of the animal], and cause it to [go up in] smoke on the altar. It is a burnt offering, a fire offering [with] a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   יגוְהַקֶּ֥רֶב וְהַכְּרָעַ֖יִם יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וְהִקְרִ֨יב הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַכֹּל֙ וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֣ה ה֗וּא אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה: