Exodus Chapter 17

1The entire community of the children of Israel journeyed from the desert of Sin to their travels by the mandate of the Lord. They encamped in Rephidim, and there was no water for the people to drink.   אוַ֠יִּסְע֠וּ כָּל־עֲדַ֨ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל מִמִּדְבַּר־סִ֛ין לְמַסְעֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־פִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנוּ֙ בִּרְפִידִ֔ים וְאֵ֥ין מַ֖יִם לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת הָעָֽם:
2So the people quarreled with Moses, and they said, Give us water that we may drink Moses said to them, Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you test the Lord?   בוַיָּ֤רֶב הָעָם֙ עִם־משֶׁ֔ה וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ תְּנוּ־לָ֥נוּ מַ֖יִם וְנִשְׁתֶּ֑ה וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ משֶׁ֔ה מַה־תְּרִיבוּן֙ עִמָּדִ֔י מַה־תְּנַסּ֖וּן אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
Why do you test the Lord: saying, “Can He give water in an arid land?”   מַה־תְּנַסּוּן: לוֹמַר הֲיוּכַל לָתֵת מַיִם בְּאֶרֶץ צִיָּה?:
3The people thirsted there for water, and the people complained against Moses, and they said, Why have you brought us up from Egypt to make me and my children and my livestock die of thirst?   גוַיִּצְמָ֨א שָׁ֤ם הָעָם֙ לַמַּ֔יִם וַיָּ֥לֶן הָעָ֖ם עַל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ הֶֽעֱלִיתָ֣נוּ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם לְהָמִ֥ית אֹתִ֛י וְאֶת־בָּנַ֥י וְאֶת־מִקְנַ֖י בַּצָּמָֽא:
4Moses cried out to the Lord, saying, What shall I do for this people? Just a little longer and they will stone me!   דוַיִּצְעַ֤ק משֶׁה֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֣ה לֵאמֹ֔ר מָ֥ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה ע֥וֹד מְעַ֖ט וּסְקָלֻֽנִי:
Just a little longer: If I wait just a little longer, they will stone me.   עוֹד מְעַט: אִם אַמְתִּין עוֹד מְעַט וסקלני:
5And the Lord said to Moses, Pass before the people and take with you [some] of the elders of Israel, and take into your hand your staff, with which you struck the Nile, and go.   הוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה עֲבֹר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הָעָ֔ם וְקַ֥ח אִתְּךָ֖ מִזִּקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּמַטְּךָ֗ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכִּ֤יתָ בּוֹ֙ אֶת־הַיְאֹ֔ר קַ֥ח בְּיָֽדְךָ֖ וְהָלָֽכְתָּ:
Pass before the people: And see whether they stone you. Why have you slandered My children?-[from Tanchuma Beshallach 22]   עבור לִפְנֵי הָעָם: וּרְאֵה אִם יִסְקְלוּךָ, לָמָּה הוֹצֵאתָ לַעַז עַל בָּנַי? (שמות רבה):
and take with you [some] of the elders of Israel: for testimony, so that they shall witness that through you the water comes out of the rock, and they [the Israelites] will not say that there were water fountains there from days of yore. — [from Mechilta]   וְקַח אִתְּךָ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: לְעֵדוּת, שֶׁיִּרְאוּ שֶׁעַל יָדְךָ מַיִם יוֹצְאִים מִן הַצּוּר, וְלֹא יֹאמְרוּ מַעְיָנוֹת הָיוּ שָׁם מִימֵי קֶדֶם:
your staff, with which you struck the Nile: Why must Scripture state "with which you struck the Nile"? [To point out what] the Israelites were saying about the staff, [namely] that it was ready only for retribution. With it, Pharaoh and the Egyptians were smitten with many plagues, both in Egypt and by the sea. Therefore, it is stated: “with which you struck the Nile.” Now they will see that it [the staff] is ready for good as well. — [from Mechilta, Exod. Rabbah 26:2]   וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת־הַיְאֹר: מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת הַיְאֹר"? אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים עַל הַמַּטֶּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוּכָן אֶלָּא לְפֻרְעָנוּת – בּוֹ לָקָה פַרְעֹה וּמִצְרַיִם כַּמָּה מַכּוֹת בְּמִצְרַיִם וְעַל הַיָּם – לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת הַיְאֹר, יִרְאוּ עַתָּה שֶׁאַף לְטוֹבָה הוּא מוּכָן (מכילתא):
6Behold, I shall stand there before you on the rock in Horeb, and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, and the people will drink Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of Israel.   והִנְנִ֣י עֹמֵד֩ לְפָנֶ֨יךָ שָּׁ֥ם | עַל־הַצּוּר֘ בְּחֹרֵב֒ וְהִכִּ֣יתָ בַצּ֗וּר וְיָֽצְא֥וּ מִמֶּ֛נּוּ מַ֖יִם וְשָׁתָ֣ה הָעָ֑ם וַיַּ֤עַשׂ כֵּן֙ משֶׁ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and you shall strike the rock: Heb. וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר. It does not say עַל-הַצּוּר, upon the rock, but בַצּוּר, [lit., into the rock]. From here [we deduce] that the staff was of a hard substance called sapphire, and the rock was split by it. — [from Mechilta]   וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר: עַל הַצּוּר לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא בַצּוּר, מִכָּאן שֶׁהַמַּטֶּה הָיָה שֶׁל מִין דָּבָר חָזָק וּשְׁמוֹ סַנְפִּירִינוֹן, וְהַצּוּר נִבְקַע מִפָּנָיו (שם):
7He named the place Massah [testing] and Meribah [quarreling] because of the quarrel of the children of Israel and because of their testing the Lord, saying, Is the Lord in our midst or not?   זוַיִּקְרָא֙ שֵׁ֣ם הַמָּק֔וֹם מַסָּ֖ה וּמְרִיבָ֑ה עַל־רִ֣יב | בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְעַ֨ל נַסֹּתָ֤ם אֶת־יְהֹוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הֲיֵ֧שׁ יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּקִרְבֵּ֖נוּ אִם־אָֽיִן:
8Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim.   חוַיָּבֹ֖א עֲמָלֵ֑ק וַיִּלָּ֥חֶם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בִּרְפִידִֽם:
Amalek came, etc.: He [God] juxtaposed this section to this verse, ["Is the Lord in our midst or not? "] implying: “I am always among you, and [I am] always prepared for all your necessities, but you say, Is the Lord in our midst or not?’ By your life, the dog will come and bite you, and you will cry out to Me, and [then] you will know where I am ” This can be compared to a man who mounted his son on his shoulder and set out on the road. Whenever his son saw something, he would say, “Father, take that thing and give it to me,” and he [the father] would give it to him. They met a man, and the son said to him, “Have you seen my father?” So his father said to him, “You don’t know where I am?” He threw him [his son] down off him, and a dog came and bit him [the son]. — [from Tanchuma, Yithro 3; Exod. Rabbah 26:2]   וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק וגו': סָמַךְ פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ לְמִקְרָא זֶה, לוֹמַר, תָּמִיד אֲנִי בֵינֵיכֶם וּמְזֻמָּן לְכָל צָרְכֵּיכֶם וְאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים הֲיֵשׁ ה' בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ אִם אָיִן, חַיֵּיכֶם שֶׁהַכֶּלֶב בָּא וְנוֹשֵׁךְ אֶתְכֶם וְאַתֶּם צוֹעֲקִים לִי וְתֵדְעוּ הֵיכָן אֲנִי? מָשָׁל לְאָדָם שֶׁהִרְכִּיב בְּנוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְיָצָא לַדֶּרֶךְ, הָיָה אוֹתוֹ הַבֵּן רוֹאֶה חֵפֶץ וְאוֹמֵר, אַבָּא טֹל חֵפֶץ זֶה וְתֵן לִי וְהוּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ, וְכֵן שְׁנִיָּה, וְכֵן שְׁלִישִׁית, פָּגְעוּ בְאָדָם אֶחָד אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַבֵּן, רָאִיתָ אֶת אַבָּא? אָמַר לוֹ אָבִיו, אֵינְךָ יוֹדֵעַ הֵיכָן אֲנִי? הִשְׁלִיכוֹ מֵעָלָיו וּבָא הַכֶּלֶב וּנְשָׁכוֹ (תנחומא יתרו):
9So Moses said to Joshua, Pick men for us, and go out and fight against Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand   טוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֤ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֨עַ֙ בְּחַר־לָ֣נוּ אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְצֵ֖א הִלָּחֵ֣ם בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מָחָ֗ר אָֽנֹכִ֤י נִצָּב֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַגִּבְעָ֔ה וּמַטֵּ֥ה הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּיָדִֽי:
Pick…for us: For me and for you. From here the Sages stated: “Your disciple’s honor shall be as dear to you as your own honor” (Avoth 4:12). How do we know that you should honor your peer as you revere your mentor? For it is said: “Aaron said to Moses, I beseech you, my lord’ ” (Num. 12:11). Now was Aaron not older than Moses? Yet he [Aaron] considers his peer as his mentor. And how do we know that one must revere his mentor as he reveres Heaven? For it is said: “My lord, Moses, destroy them” (Num. 11:28). Destroy them [Eldad and Medad] from the world. They deserve to be annihilated because they are rebelling against you, [which is] tantamount to having rebelled against the Holy One, blessed be He. — [from Mechilta; Tanchuma, Beshallach 26]   בְּחַר־לָנוּ: לִי וּלְךָ – הִשְׁוָהוּ לוֹ; מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים יְהִי כְבוֹד תַּלְמִידְךָ חָבִיב עָלֶיךָ כְּשֶׁלָּךְ; וּכְבוֹד חֲבֵרְךָ כְּמוֹרָא רַבָּךְ מִנַּיִן? שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיֹּאמֶר אַהֲרֹן אֶל מֹשֶׁה בִּי אֲדֹנִי", וַהֲלֹא אַהֲרֹן גָּדוֹל מֵאָחִיו הָיָה וְעוֹשֶׂה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ כְּרַבּוֹ. וּמוֹרָא רַבָּךְ כְּמוֹרָא שָׁמַיִם מִנַּיִן? שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אֲדֹנִי מֹשֶׁה כְּלָאֵם" – כַּלֵּם מִן הָעוֹלָם, חַיָּבִין הֵם כְּלָיָה, הַמּוֹרְדִים בְּךָ כְּאִלּוּ מָרְדוּ בְּהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:
and go out and fight: Go out of the cloud and fight with them. — [from Mechilta and Exod. Rabbah, end of Beshallach]   וְצֵא הִלָּחֵם: צֵא מִן הֶעָנָן וְהִלָּחֵם בּוֹ:
Tomorrow: At the time of the battle, I will stand.   מָחָר: בְּעֵת הַמִּלְחָמָה, אָנֹכִי נִצָּב:
Pick men for us: Heb. אִנָשִׁים, mighty men, and God-fearing [men] so that their merit will help us (Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 44, Yalkut Shimoni, Jonathan). Another explanation: who know how to counteract witchcraft, because the Amalekites were sorcerers.   בְּחַר־לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים: גִּבּוֹרִים וְיִרְאֵי חֵטְא שֶׁתְּהֵא זְכוּתָן מְסַיַּעְתָּן. דָּבָר אַחֵר – בְּחַר לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁיּוֹדְעִין לְבַטֵּל כְּשָׁפִים, לְפִי שֶׁבְּנֵי עֲמָלֵק מְכַשְּׁפִין הָיוּ:
10Joshua did as Moses had told him, to fight against Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur ascended to the top of the hill.   יוַיַּ֣עַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁ֗עַ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר אָֽמַר־לוֹ֙ משֶׁ֔ה לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק וּמשֶׁה֙ אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן וְח֔וּר עָל֖וּ רֹ֥אשׁ הַגִּבְעָֽה:
and Moses, Aaron, and Hur: From here [we deduce] that on a fast day, three people are required to go before the ark [to lead the prayers], for they were fasting. — [from Mechilta]   וּמשֶׁה אַֽהֲרֹן וְחוּר: מִכָּאן לְתַעֲנִית שֶׁצְּרִיכִים שְׁלֹשָׁה לַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, שֶׁבְּתַעֲנִית הָיוּ שְׁרוּיִים (מכילתא):
Hur: He was the son of Miriam, and Caleb, her husband. — [from Sotah 11b]   חור: בְּנָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם הָיָה וְכָלֵב בַּעְלָהּ (סוטה י"א):
11It came to pass that when Moses would raise his hand, Israel would prevail, and when he would lay down his hand, Amalek would prevail.   יאוְהָיָ֗ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יָרִ֥ים משֶׁ֛ה יָד֖וֹ וְגָבַ֣ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְכַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָנִ֛יחַ יָד֖וֹ וְגָבַ֥ר עֲמָלֵֽק:
when Moses would raise his hand: Did Moses’ hands then make them victorious in battle, etc.? [Rather this is to tell you that when the Israelites looked up and subjugated their hearts to their Father in heaven, they would prevail, and if not, they would fall,] as is found in Rosh Hashanah (29a).   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יָרִים משֶׁה יָדוֹ: וְכִי יָדָיו שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה נוֹצְחוֹת הָיוּ הַמִּלְחָמָה וְכוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה:
12Now Moses hands were heavy; so they took a stone and placed it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur supported his hands, one from this [side], and one from that [side]; so he was with his hands in faith until sunset.   יבוִידֵ֤י משֶׁה֙ כְּבֵדִ֔ים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶ֛בֶן וַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ תַחְתָּ֖יו וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב עָלֶ֑יהָ וְאַֽהֲרֹ֨ן וְח֜וּר תָּֽמְכ֣וּ בְיָדָ֗יו מִזֶּ֤ה אֶחָד֙ וּמִזֶּ֣ה אֶחָ֔ד וַיְהִ֥י יָדָ֛יו אֱמוּנָ֖ה עַד־בֹּ֥א הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ:
Now Moses’ hands were heavy: Since he had been lax in [the performance of] the commandment [of warring against Amalek] and had appointed someone else in his stead, his hands became heavy. — [from Mechilta]   וִידֵי משֶׁה כְּבֵדִים: בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁנִּתְעַצֵּל בַּמִּצְוָה וּמִנָּה אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, נִתְיַקְּרוּ יָדָיו:
so they took: [I.e.,] Aaron and Hur.   וַיִּקְחוּ־: אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר:
a stone and placed it under him: But he [Moses] did not sit on a mattress or on a pillow, [because] he said, "Israel is in a state of pain. I too will be with them in pain."-[from Ta’anith 11a]   אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו: וְלֹא יָשַׁב לוֹ עַל כַּר וָכֶסֶת. אָמַר: יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁרוּיִין בְּצַעַר, אַף אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּהֶם בְּצַעַר (תענית י"א):
so he was with his hands in faith: And Moses was with his hands in faith, spread out toward heaven in a faithful and proper prayer.   וַיְהִי יָדָיו אֱמוּנָה: וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה יָדָיו בֶּאֱמוּנָה, פְּרוּשׂוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם בִּתְפִלָּה נֶאֱמָנָה וּנְכוֹנָה:
until sunset: For the Amalekites calculated the hours [i.e., the time] with their astrology [to determine] in what hour they would be victorious, but Moses caused the sun to stand still and confused the hours. — [from Tanchuma 28]   עַד־בֹּא הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ: שֶׁהָיוּ עֲמָלֵקִים מְחַשְּׁבִין אֶת הַשָּׁעוֹת בָּאִיצְטְרוּלוֹגִיאָה, בְּאֵיזוֹ שָׁעָה הֵם נוֹצְחִים, וְהֶעֱמִיד לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה חַמָּה וְעִרְבֵּב אֶת הַשָּׁעוֹת (תנחומא):
13Joshua weakened Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.   יגוַיַּֽחֲל֧שׁ יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֥ק וְאֶת־עַמּ֖וֹ לְפִי־חָֽרֶב:
Joshua weakened: He decapitated their [the Amalekites’] strongest warriors, and he left over only the weak among them, but he did not slay them all. From here we learn that he did this according to the mandate of the Shechinah. — [from Mechilta]   וַיַּֽחֲלשׁ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ: חָתַךְ רָאשֵׁי גִבּוֹרָיו וְלֹא הִשְׁאִיר אֶלָּא חַלָּשִׁים שֶׁבָּהֶם, וְלֹא הֲרָגָם כֻּלָּם, מִכָּאן אָנוּ לְמֵדִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ עַל פִּי הַדִּבּוּר שֶׁל שְׁכִינָה (שם):
14The Lord said to Moses, Inscribe this [as] a memorial in the book, and recite it into Joshua's ears, that I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens   ידוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־ משֶׁ֗ה כְּתֹ֨ב זֹ֤את זִכָּרוֹן֙ בַּסֵּ֔פֶר וְשִׂ֖ים בְּאָזְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כִּֽי־מָחֹ֤ה אֶמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
Inscribe this [as] a memorial: namely that Amalek came to attack the Israelites before all [other] nations [dared to do so].   כְּתֹב זֹאת זִכָּרוֹן: שֶׁבָּא עֲמָלֵק לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לְיִשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם לְכָל הָאֻמּוֹת:
and recite it into Joshua’s ears: [Joshua] was destined to bring Israel into the land [of Israel and] to pay him [Amalek] his recompense. Here it was hinted to Moses that Joshua would bring Israel into the land. — [from Tanchuma 28, Mechilta]   וְשִׂים בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ: הַמַּכְנִיס אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ, שֶׁיְּצַוֶּה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ אֶת גְּמוּלוֹ; כָּאן נִרְמַז לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה שֶׁיְּהוֹשֻׁעַ מַכְנִיס אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ (שם):
I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Therefore, I admonish you in this manner, because I want to obliterate him.   כִּֽי־מָחֹה אֶמְחֶה: לְכָךְ אֲנִי מַזְהִירְךָ כֵּן, כִּי חָפֵץ אֲנִי לִמְחוֹתוֹ:
15Then Moses built an altar, and he named it The Lord is my miracle   טווַיִּ֥בֶן משֶׁ֖ה מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יְהֹוָ֥ה | נִסִּֽי:
and he named it: The altar. —   וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ: שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ:
“The Lord is my miracle”: Heb. ה נִסִּי. The Holy One, blessed be He, wrought a great miracle for us here. Not that the altar is called “The Lord,” but whoever mentions the name of the altar remembers the miracle that the Omnipresent performed: The Lord is our miracle. — [from Mechilta]   ה' נִסִּֽי: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָשָׂה לָנוּ כָּאן נֵס. לֹא שֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ קָרוּי ה', אֶלָּא הַמַּזְכִּיר שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ זוֹכֵר אֶת הַנֵּס שֶׁעָשָׂה הַמָּקוֹם – ה' הוּא נֵס שֶׁלָּנוּ:
16And he said, For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal, [that there shall be] a war for the Lord against Amalek from generation to generation.   טזוַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּי־יָד֙ עַל־כֵּ֣ס יָ֔הּ מִלְחָמָ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מִדֹּ֖ר דֹּֽר:
And he said: [I.e.,] Moses [said].   וַיֹּאמֶר: מֹשֶׁה:
For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal: Heb. כִּי-יָד עַל כֵּס יָ-הּ. The hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, was raised to swear by His throne, to have a war and [bear] hatred against Amalek for eternity. Now what is the meaning of כֵּס [as opposed to כִּסֵא and also [why is] the Divine Name divided in half? [I.e., why is the Name יָ-הּ used instead of י-ה-ו-ה ?] [The answer is that] the Holy One, blessed be He, swore that His Name will not be complete and His throne will not be complete until the name of Amalek is completely obliterated. And when his name is obliterated, the Divine Name will be complete, and the throne will be complete, as it is said: “The enemy has been destroyed; swords exist forever (לָנֶצַח)” (Ps. 9:7); this [who they are referring to] is Amalek, about whom it is written: “and kept their fury forever (נֶצַח)” (Amos 1:11). "And You have uprooted the cities-their remembrance is lost" (Ps. 9:7) [i.e., Amalek’s obliteration]. What does it say afterwards? “And the Lord (וַיהוה) shall sit forever” (Ps. 9:8); thus [after Amalek is obliterated] the Name is complete. "He has established His throne (כִּסְאוֹ) for judgment" (Ps. 9:8). Thus the throne is complete [i.e., thus the throne, here spelled with an “aleph,” is now complete]. — [from Midrash Tanchuma, end of Ki Theitzei]   כִּי־יָד עַל־כֵּס יָהּ: יָדוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוּרְמָה לִשָּׁבַע בְּכִסְאוֹ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ מִלְחָמָה וְאֵיבָה בַעֲמָלֵק עוֹלָמִית, וּמַהוּ כֵּס וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר כִּסֵּא? וְאַף הַשֵּׁם נֶחֱלַק לְחֶצְיוֹ? נִשְׁבַּע הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאֵין שְׁמוֹ שָׁלֵם וְאֵין כִּסְאוֹ שָׁלֵם עַד שֶׁיִּמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל עֲמָלֵק כֻּלּוֹ, וּכְשֶׁיִּמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ יִהְיֶה הַשֵּׁם שָׁלֵם וְהַכִּסֵּא שָׁלֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "הָאוֹיֵב תַּמּוּ חֳרָבוֹת לָנֶצַח" (תהלים ט'), זֶהוּ עֲמָלֵק שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ "וְעֶבְרָתוֹ שְׁמָרָה נֶצַח" (עמוס א'), "וְעָרִים נָתַשְׁתָּ אָבַד זִכְרָם הֵמָּה" (תהלים שם), מַהוּ אוֹמֵר אַחֲרָיו? "וַה' לְעוֹלָם יֵשֵׁב" — הֲרֵי הַשֵּׁם שָׁלֵם, "כּוֹנֵן לַמִּשְׁפָּט כִּסְאוֹ" — הֲרֵי כִּסְּאוֹ שָׁלֵם: