Exodus Chapter 11

4Moses said, "So said the Lord, At the dividing point of the night, I will go out into the midst of Egypt,   דוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֔ה כֹּ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה כַּֽחֲצֹ֣ת הַלַּ֔יְלָה אֲנִ֥י יוֹצֵ֖א בְּת֥וֹךְ מִצְרָֽיִם:
Moses said, So said the Lord: When he stood before Pharaoh, this prophecy was said to him, for after he [Moses] left his [Pharaoh’s] presence, he did not see his face [again]. — [from Exod. Rabbah 18:1, Mishnath Rabbi Eliezer ch. 19]   וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה כֹּה אָמַר ה': בְּעָמְדוֹ לִפְנֵי פַרְעֹה נֶאֶמְרָה לוֹ נְבוּאָה זוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מִשֶּׁיָּצָא מִלְּפָנָיו לֹא הוֹסִיף רְאוֹת פָּנָיו:
At the dividing point of the night: Heb. כַּחֲצֹת הַלַיְלָה, when the night is divided. כַּחֲצֹת is like “when the meal offering was offered up (כַּעֲלוֹת)” (II Kings 3:20); [and like] “when their anger was kindled (בַּחֲרוֹת) against us” (Ps. 124:3). This is its simple meaning, which fits its context that חֲצֹת is not a noun denoting a half. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted it like כַּחֲצִי הַלַיְלָה, at about midnight [lit., half the night], and they said that Moses said כַּחִצֹת, about midnight, meaning near it [midnight], either before it or after it, but he did not say בַּחֲצֹת, at midnight, lest Pharaoh’s astrologers err and [then] say, “Moses is a liar,” but the Holy One, blessed be He, Who knows His times and His seconds, said בַּחִצוֹת, at midnight. — [from Ber. 3b]   כַּֽחֲצֹת הַלַּיְלָה: כְּהֵחָלֵק הַלַּיְלָה, כַּֽחֲצֹת כְּמוֹ "בַּעֲלוֹת" (מלכים א י"ח), "בַּחֲרוֹת אַפָּם בָּנוּ" (תהילים קכ"ד), זֶהוּ פְּשׁוּטוֹ לְיַשְּׁבוֹ עַל אָפְנָיו, שֶׁאֵין חֲצוֹת שֵׁם דָּבָר שֶׁל חֲצִי. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דְרָשׁוּהוּ כְּמוֹ כַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה, וְאָמְרוּ שֶׁאָמַר מֹשֶׁה "כַּחֲצוֹת", שֶׁמַּשְׁמַע סָמוּךְ לוֹ, אוֹ לְפָנָיו אוֹ לְאַחֲרָיו, וְלֹא אָמַר "בַּחֲצוֹת", שֶׁמָּא יִטְעוּ אִצְטַגְנִינֵי פַרְעֹה וְיֹאמְרוּ מֹשֶׁה בַּדַּאי הוּא (ברכות ד'):
5and every firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the slave woman who is behind the millstones, and every firstborn animal.   הוּמֵ֣ת כָּל־בְּכוֹר֘ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֒יִם֒ מִבְּכ֤וֹר פַּרְעֹה֙ הַיּשֵׁ֣ב עַל־כִּסְא֔וֹ עַ֚ד בְּכ֣וֹר הַשִּׁפְחָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר אַחַ֣ר הָֽרֵחָ֑יִם וְכֹ֖ל בְּכ֥וֹר בְּהֵמָֽה:
to the firstborn of the captive: Why were the captives smitten? So that they would not say, “Our deity has demanded [vengeance] for their [our] degradation, and brought retribution upon Egypt.” -[from Mechilta, Bo, on Exod. 12:29]   עַד בְּכוֹר השבי: לָמָּה לָקוּ הַשְּׁבוּיִים? כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ, יִרְאָתָם תָּבְעָה עֶלְבּוֹנָם וְהֵבִיאָה פֻּרְעָנוּת עַל מִצְרַיִם:
from the firstborn of Pharaoh… to the firstborn of the slave woman: All those inferior to the Pharaoh’s firstborn and superior to the slave woman’s firstborn were included. Why were the sons of the slave women smitten? Because they too were enslaving them [the Israelites] and were happy about their misfortune. — [from Pesikta Rabbathi, ch. 17]   מִבְּכוֹר פַּרְעֹה עַד בְּכוֹר הַשִּׁפְחָה: כָּל הַפְּחוּתִים מִבְּכוֹר פַּרְעֹה וַחֲשׁוּבִים מִבְּכוֹר הַשִּׁפְחָה הָיוּ בִּכְלָל; וְלָמָּה לָקוּ בְּנֵי הַשְּׁפָחוֹת? שֶׁאַף הֵם הָיוּ מְשַׁעְבְּדִים בָּהֶם וּשְׂמֵחִים בְּצָרָתָם:
and every firstborn animal: Because they [the Egyptians] worshipped it, and when the Holy One, blessed be He, punishes any nation, He punishes its deity. — [from Mechilta, Bo, on Exod. 12:29]   וְכֹל בְּכוֹר בְּהֵמָֽה: לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹבְדִין לָהּ. כְּשֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִפְרָע מִן הָאֻמָּה, נִפְרָע מֵאֱלֹהֶיהָ:
6And there will be a great cry throughout the entire land of Egypt, such as there never has been and such as there shall never be again.   ווְהָֽיְתָ֛ה צְעָקָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר כָּמֹ֨הוּ֙ לֹ֣א נִֽהְיָ֔תָה וְכָמֹ֖הוּ לֹ֥א תֹסִֽף:
7But to all the children of Israel, not one dog will whet its tongue against either man or beast, in order that you shall know that the Lord will separate between the Egyptians and between Israel.   זוּלְכֹ֣ל | בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לֹ֤א יֶֽחֱרַץ־כֶּ֨לֶב֙ לְשֹׁנ֔וֹ לְמֵאִ֖ישׁ וְעַד־בְּהֵמָ֑ה לְמַ֨עַן֙ תֵּֽדְע֔וּן אֲשֶׁר֙ יַפְלֶ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה בֵּ֥ין מִצְרַ֖יִם וּבֵ֥ין יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
not one dog will whet its tongue: I say that is a term meaning sharp. Similarly "his tongue towards any man of the B'nei Yisroel." {Joshua 10:21} He did not sharpen. "Then you will utter a sharp sound. 60 {II Samuel 5:24} [or:] ---"A sharp thresher." [or:] "{Isaiah 41:14} "The thoughts of a sharp one" {Proverbs 21:5} [ meaning:] a sharp and clever person. {Proverbs 10:4} [or:] You bring wealth to the hand of the clever ones---sharp merchants.   לֹא יֶֽחֱרַץ־כֶּלֶב לשונו: אוֹמֵר אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן שִׁנּוּן – לֹא יְשַׁנֵּן, וְכֵן "לֹא חָרַץ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאִישׁ אֶת לְשׁוֹנוֹ" (יהושע י') – לֹא שִׁנֵּן, "אָז תֶּחֱרַץ" (שמואל ב ה׳:כ״ד) – תִּשְׁתַּנֵּן, "לְמוֹרַג חָרוּץ" (ישעיהו מ"א) – שָׁנוּן, "מַחְשְׁבוֹת חָרוּץ" (משלי כ"א) – אָדָם חָרִיף וְשָׁנוּן, "וְיַד חֲרוּצִים תַּעֲשִׁיר" (שם י') – חֲרִיפִים, סוֹחֲרִים שְׁנוּנִים:
will separate: Heb. יַפְלֶה, will divide. — [from Onkelos, Jonathan] See the commentary on Exod. 8:18.   אֲשֶׁר יַפְלֶה: יַבְדִּיל:
8And all these servants of yours will come down to me and prostrate themselves to me, saying, 'Go out, you and all the people who are at your feet,' and afterwards I will go out." [Then] he [Moses] exited from Pharaoh with burning anger.   חוְיָֽרְד֣וּ כָל־עֲבָדֶ֩יךָ֩ אֵ֨לֶּה אֵלַ֜י וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲווּ־לִ֣י לֵאמֹ֗ר צֵ֤א אַתָּה֙ וְכָל־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־בְּרַגְלֶ֔יךָ וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן אֵצֵ֑א וַיֵּצֵ֥א מֵֽעִם־פַּרְעֹ֖ה בָּֽחֳרִי־אָֽף:
And all these servants of yours will come down: [By using this phrase,] he [Moses] showed respect for the throne, because eventually Pharaoh himself went down to him at night and said, “Get up and get out from among my people” (Exod. 12:31), although Moses had not originally said, “You will come down to me and prostrate yourself to me.” -[from Exod. Rabbah 7:3; Mechilta, Bo 13]   וְיָֽרְדוּ כָל־עֲבָדֶיךָ: חָלַק כָּבוֹד לַמַּלְכוּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי בַּסּוֹף יָרַד פַּרְעֹה בְּעַצְמוֹ אֵלָיו בַּלַּיְלָה "וַיֹּאמֶר קוּמוּ צְּאוּ מִתּוֹךְ עַמִּי" (שמות י"ב), וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה מִתְּחִלָּה וְיָרַדְתָּ אֵלַי וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לִי:
who are at your feet: Who follow your advice and your way.   אֲשֶׁר־בְּרַגְלֶיךָ: הַהוֹלְכִים אַחַר עֲצָתְךָ וְהִלּוּכְךָ:
and afterwards I will go out: with all the people from your land.   וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵן אֵצֵא: עִם כָּל הָעָם מֵאַרְצְךָ:
he exited from Pharaoh: After he had completed his words, he went out from before him.   וַיֵּצֵא מֵֽעִם־פַּרְעֹה: כְּשֶׁגָּמַר דְּבָרָיו, יָצָא מִלְּפָנָיו:
with burning anger: because he [Pharaoh] had said to him, “You shall no longer see my face” (Exod. 10:28)   בָּֽחֳרִי־אָֽף: עַל שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ "אַל תֹּסֶף רְאוֹת פָּנַי" (שמות י'):
9The Lord said to Moses, "Pharaoh will not heed you, in order to increase My miracles in the land of Egypt."   טוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה לֹֽא־יִשְׁמַ֥ע אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם פַּרְעֹ֑ה לְמַ֛עַן רְב֥וֹת מֽוֹפְתַ֖י בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
in order to increase My miracles in the land of Egypt-: (“My miracles” denotes two; “to increase” denotes three.) They are the plague of the firstborn, the splitting of the Red Sea, and the stirring of the Egyptians [into the sea].   לְמַעַן רְבוֹת מֽוֹפְתַי: מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת וּקְרִיעַת יַם סוּף וּלְנַעֵר אֶת מִצְרַיִם:
10Moses and Aaron had performed all these miracles before Pharaoh, but the Lord strengthened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the children of Israel out of his land.   יוּמשֶׁ֣ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֗ן עָשׂ֛וּ אֶת־כָּל־הַמֹּֽפְתִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה לִפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֑ה וַיְחַזֵּ֤ק יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹֽא־שִׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵֽאַרְצֽוֹ:
Moses and Aaron had performed, etc.: It has already been written for us in reference to all the miracles, and it [Scripture] did not repeat it here except to juxtapose it to the following section [i.e., Exod. 12]. See Rashi’s commentary on the following verse.   משה וְאַֽהֲרֹן עָשׂוּ וגו': כְּבָר כָּתַב לָנוּ זֹאת בְּכָל הַמּוֹפְתִים, וְלֹא שְׁנָאָהּ כָּאן אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל לְסָמְכָהּ לַפָּרָשָׁה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ:

Exodus Chapter 12

1The Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,   אוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֣ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לֵאמֹֽר:
The Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron: Since Aaron had worked and toiled with miracles just like Moses, He accorded him this honor at the first commandment by including him with Moses in [His] speech. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Bo 8; Mechilta] In early editions of Rashi, this paragraph is part of the above paragraph, the comment on 11:10. Indeed, that is how it appears in Tanchuma Buber.   וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל־משֶׁה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹן: בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁאַהֲרֹן עָשָׂה וְטָרַח בַּמּוֹפְתִים כְּמֹשֶׁה, חָלַק לוֹ כָּבוֹד זֶה בְּמִצְוָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁכְּלָלוֹ עִם מֹשֶׁה בַּדִּבּוּר:
in the land of Egypt: [I.e.,] outside the city. Or perhaps it means only within the city? Therefore, Scripture states: “When I leave the city, [I will spread my hands to the Lord]” (Exod. 9:29). Now, if [even a] prayer, which is of minor importance, he [Moses] did not pray within the city, a divine communication, which is of major importance, how much more so [would God not deliver it to Moses within the city]? Indeed, why did He not speak with him within the city? Because it was full of idols. — [from Mechilta]   בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם: חוּץ לַכְּרַךְ, אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּרַךְ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר (לעיל ט כט) "כְּצֵאתִי אֶת הָעִיר וְגוֹ'", וּמַה תְּפִלָּה קַלָּה לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּרַךְ, דִּבּוּר חָמוּר לֹא כָּל שֶׁכֵּן. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא נִדְבַּר עִמּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּרַךְ? לְפִי שֶׁהָיְתָה מְלֵאָה גִלּוּלִים:
2This month shall be to you the head of the months; to you it shall be the first of the months of the year.   בהַחֹ֧דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם רֹ֣אשׁ חֳדָשִׁ֑ים רִאשׁ֥וֹן הוּא֙ לָכֶ֔ם לְחָדְשֵׁ֖י הַשָּׁנָֽה:
This month: Heb. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶה, lit., this renewal. He [God] showed him [Moses] the moon in its renewal and said to him, “When the moon renews itself, you will have a new month” (Mechilta). Nevertheless, [despite this rendering,] a biblical verse does not lose its simple meaning (Shab. 63a). Concerning the month of Nissan, He said to him, “This shall be the first of the order of the number of the months, so Iyar shall be called the second [month], and Sivan the third [month].”   הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה: הֶרְאָהוּ לְבָנָה בְּחִדּוּשָׁהּ וְאָמַר לוֹ כְּשֶׁהַיָּרֵחַ מִתְחַדֵּשׁ יִהְיֶה לְךָ רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ (מכילתא). וְאֵין מִקְרָא יוֹצֵא מִידֵי פְשׁוּטוֹ, עַל חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן אָמַר לוֹ, זֶה יִהְיֶה רֹאשׁ לְסֵדֶר מִנְיַן הֶחֳדָשִׁים, שֶׁיְּהֵא אִיָּר קָרוּי שֵׁנִי, סִיוָן שְׁלִישִׁי:
This: Moses found difficulty [determining] the [precise moment of the] renewal of the moon, in what size it should appear before it is fit for sanctification. So He showed him with His finger the moon in the sky and said to him, “You must see a moon like this and sanctify [the month].” Now how did He show it to him? Did He not speak to him only by day, as it says: “Now it came to pass on the day that the Lord spoke” (Exod. 6:28); “on the day He commanded” (Lev. 7:38); “from the day that the Lord commanded and on” (Num. 15:23)? Rather, just before sunset, this chapter was said to him, and He showed him [the moon] when it became dark. — [from Mechilta]   הַזֶּה: נִתְקַשָּׁה מֹשֶׁה עַל מוֹלַד הַלְּבָנָה, בְּאֵיזוֹ שִׁעוּר תֵּרָאֶה וְתִהְיֶה רְאוּיָה לְקַדֵּשׁ, וְהֶרְאָה לוֹ בְּאֶצְבַּע אֶת הַלְּבָנָה בָּרָקִיעַ וְאָמַר לוֹ כָּזֶה רְאֵה וְקַדֵּשׁ (שם). וְכֵיצַד הֶרְאָהוּ? וַהֲלֹא לֹא הָיָה נִדְבָּר עִמּוֹ אֶלָּא בַּיּוֹם? שֶׁנֶּ' "וַיְהִי בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר ה'" (שמות ו'), "בְּיוֹם צַוֹּתוֹ" (ויקרא ז'), "מִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה ה' וָהָלְאָה" (במדבר ט"ו)? אֶלָּא סָמוּךְ לִשְׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּה נֶאֶמְרָה לוֹ פָרָשָׁה זוֹ וְהֶרְאָהוּ עִם חֲשֵׁכָה:
3Speak to the entire community of Israel, saying, "On the tenth of this month, let each one take a lamb for each parental home, a lamb for each household.   גדַּבְּר֗וּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בֶּֽעָשׂ֖ר לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֑ה וְיִקְח֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם אִ֛ישׁ שֶׂ֥ה לְבֵֽית־אָבֹ֖ת שֶׂ֥ה לַבָּֽיִת:
Speak to the entire community: Heb. דַּבְּרוּ, [the plural form]. Now did Aaron speak? Was it not already stated [to Moses]: “You shall speak” (Exod. 7: 2) “and you speak to the children of Israel, saying” (Exod. 31:13)]? But they [Moses and Aaron] would show respect to each other and say to each other, “Teach me [what to say],” and the speech would emanate from between them [and it would sound] as if they both were speaking. — [from Mechilta]   דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת: וְכִי אַהֲרֹן מְדַבֵּר? וַהֲלֹא כְּבָר נֶאֱמַר אַתָּה תְדַבֵּר? אֶלָּא חוֹלְקִין כָּבוֹד זֶה לָזֶה, וְאוֹמְרִים זֶה לָזֶה לַמְּדֵנִי, וְהַדִּבּוּר יוֹצֵא מִבֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּאִלּוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מְדַבְּרִים (מכילתא):
to the entire community of Israel, saying, “On the tenth of… month” -: Speak today on Rosh Chodesh [the New Moon] that they should take it [the lamb] on the tenth of the month. — [From Mechilta]   דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּֽעָשׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ: דַּבְּרוּ הַיּוֹם, בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁיִּקָּחוּהוּ בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ:
this: The Passover sacrifice of Egypt had to be taken on the tenth, but not the Passover sacrifice of later generations. — [from Mechilta, Pes. 96a]   הַזֶּה: פֶּסַח מִצְרַיִם מִקְחוֹ בֶעָשׂוֹר, וְלֹא פֶּסַח דּוֹרוֹת (פסחים צ"ו):
a lamb for each parental home: [I.e., a lamb] for one family. If [the family members] were numerous, I would think that one lamb would suffice for all of them. Therefore, the Torah says: “a lamb for a household.” -[from Mechilta]   שֶׂה לְבֵֽית־אָבֹת: לְמִשְׁפָּחָה אַחַת; הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיוּ מְרֻבִּין, יָכוֹל שֶׂה אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "שֶׂה לַבָּיִת" (מכילתא):
4But if the household is too small for a lamb, then he and his neighbor who is nearest to his house shall take [one] according to the number of people, each one according to one's ability to eat, shall you be counted for the lamb.   דוְאִם־יִמְעַ֣ט הַבַּ֘יִת֘ מִֽהְי֣וֹת מִשֶּׂה֒ וְלָקַ֣ח ה֗וּא וּשְׁכֵנ֛וֹ הַקָּרֹ֥ב אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ בְּמִכְסַ֣ת נְפָשֹׁ֑ת אִ֚ישׁ לְפִ֣י אָכְל֔וֹ תָּכֹ֖סּוּ עַל־הַשֶֽׂה:
But if the household is too small for a lamb: And if they are too few to have one lamb, for they cannot eat it [all], and it will become left over (see verse 10), “then he and his neighbor… shall take.” This is the apparent meaning according to its simple interpretation. There is, however, also a midrashic interpretation, [namely that this verse comes] to teach us that after they were counted on it, [i.e., after they registered for a certain lamb,] they may diminish their number and withdraw from it and be counted on another lamb. If, however, they wish to withdraw and diminish their number, [they must do it] מִהְיוֹתמִשֶׂה [lit., from the being of the lamb]. They must diminish their number while the lamb still exists, while it is still alive, and not after it has been slaughtered. — [from Mechilta, Pes. 98a]   וְאִם־יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִֽהְיוֹת מִשֶּׂה: וְאִם יִהְיוּ מוּעָטִים מִהְיוֹת מִשֶּׂה אֶחָד, שֶׁאֵין יְכוֹלִין לְאָכְלוֹ וְיָבֹא לִידֵי נוֹתָר, וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ וגו' זֶהוּ מַשְׁמָעוֹ לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ. וְעוֹד יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִדְרָשׁ: לְלַמֵּד, שֶׁאַחַר שֶׁנִּמְנוּ עָלָיו, יְכוֹלִין לְהִתְמַעֵט וְלִמְשֹׁךְ יְדֵיהֶם הֵימֶנּוּ וּלְהִמָּנוֹת עַל שֶׂה אַחֵר; אַךְ אִם בָּאוּ לִמְשֹׁךְ יְדֵיהֶם וּלְהִתְמַעֵט, מהיות משה, יִתְמַעֲטוּ בְּעוֹד הַשֶּׂה קַיָּם, בִּהְיוֹתוֹ בַחַיִּים וְלֹא מִשֶּׁנִּשְׁחַט (פסחים פ"ט):
according to the number of: -Heb. בְּמִכְסַת, amount, and so “the amount of (מִכְסַת) your valuation:” (Lev. 27:23).   בְּמִכְסַת: חֶשְׁבּוֹן, וְכֵן "מִכְסַת הָעֶרְכְּךָ" (ויקרא כ"ז):
according to one’s ability to eat: [This indicates that only] one who is fit to eat-which excludes the sick and aged-who cannot eat an olive-sized portion [can be counted among the group for whom the sacrifice is killed]. — [from Mechilta]   לְפִי אָכְלוֹ: הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה, פְּרָט לְחוֹלֶה וּלְזָקֵן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכֹל כַּזַּיִת (מכילתא):
shall you be counted: Heb. תָּכֹסוּ [Onkelos renders:] תִּתְמְנוּן, you shall be counted.   תָּכֹסּוּ: "תִּתְמְנוּן":
5You shall have a perfect male lamb in its [first] year; you may take it either from the sheep or from the goats.   השֶׂ֧ה תָמִ֛ים זָכָ֥ר בֶּן־שָׁנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם מִן־הַכְּבָשִׂ֥ים וּמִן־הָֽעִזִּ֖ים תִּקָּֽחוּ:
perfect: without a blemish. — [from Mechilta]   תָמִים: בְּלֹא מוּם:
in its [first] year: Heb. בֶּן-שָׁנָה For its entire first year it is called בֶּן-שָׁנָה, meaning that it was born during this year. — [from Mechilta]   בֶּן־שָׁנָה: כָּל שְׁנָתוֹ קָרוּי בֶּן שָׁנָה, כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁנּוֹלַד בְּשָׁנָה זוֹ:
either from the sheep or from the goats: Either from this [species] or from that [species], for a goat is also called שֶׂה, as it is written: “and a kid (שֶׂה עִזִים)” (Deut. 14:4). — [from Mechilta]   מִן־הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן־הָֽעִזִּים: אוֹ מִזֶּה אוֹ מִזֶּה, שֶׁאַף עֵז קָרוּי שֶׂה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְשֵׂה עִזִּים" (דברים י"ד):
6And you shall keep it for inspection until the fourteenth day of this month, and the entire congregation of the community of Israel shall slaughter it in the afternoon.   ווְהָיָ֤ה לָכֶם֙ לְמִשְׁמֶ֔רֶת עַ֣ד אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר י֖וֹם לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֑ה וְשָֽׁחֲט֣וּ אֹת֗וֹ כֹּ֛ל קְהַ֥ל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בֵּ֥ין הָֽעַרְבָּֽיִם:
And you shall keep it for inspection: Heb. לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת. This is an expression of inspection, that it [the animal] requires an inspection for a blemish four days before its slaughter. Now why was it [the designated animal] to be taken four days before its slaughter, something not required in the Passover sacrifice of later generations? Rabbi Mathia the son of Charash used to say [in response]: Behold He [God] says: “And I passed by you and saw you, and behold your time was the time of love” (Ezek. 16:8). The [time for the fulfillment of the] oath that I swore to Abraham that I would redeem his children has arrived. But they [the Children of Israel] had no commandments in their hands with which to occupy themselves in order that they be redeemed, as it is said: “but you were naked and bare” (Ezek. 16:7). So He gave them two mitzvoth, the blood of the Passover and the blood of the circumcision. They circumcised themselves on that night, as it is said: “downtrodden with your blood (בְּדָמָיִךְ‏)” (ibid., verse 6), with the two [types of] blood. He [God] states also: “You, too-with the blood of your covenant I have freed your prisoners from a pit in which there was no water” (Zech. 9:11). Moreover, they [the Israelites] were passionately fond of idolatry. [Moses] said to them, “Withdraw and take for yourselves” (Exod. 12:21). [He meant:] withdraw from idolatry and take for yourselves sheep for the mitzvah. — [from Mechilta, here and on verse 21] Note that on verse 21, Rashi explains that differently.   וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת: זֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן בִּקּוּר, שֶׁטָּעוּן בִּקּוּר מִמּוּם אַרְבָּעָה יָמִים קֹדֶם שְׁחִיטָה (פסחים צ"ו). וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הִקְדִּים לְקִיחָתוֹ לִשְׁחִיטָתוֹ אַרְבָּעָה יָמִים, מַה שֶּׁלֹּא צִוָּה כֵן בְּפֶסַח דּוֹרוֹת? הָיָה רַ' מַתְיָא בֶּן חָרָשׁ אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר "וָאֶעֱבֹר עָלַיִךְ וָאֶרְאֵךְ וְהִנֵּה עִתֵּךְ עֵת דּוֹדִים" (יחזקאל ט"ז) – הִגִּיעָה שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם שֶׁאֶגְאַל אֶת בָּנָיו, וְלֹא הָיוּ בְיָדָם מִצְווֹת לְהִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּגָּאֲלוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְאַתְּ עֵרוֹם וְעֶרְיָה" (שם), וְנָתַן לָהֶם שְׁתֵּי מִצְווֹת, דַּם פֶּסַח וְדַם מִילָה, שֶׁמָּלוּ בְאוֹתוֹ הַלַּיְלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "מִתְבּוֹסֶסֶת בְּדָמָיִךְ" (שם) – בִּשְׁנֵי דָּמִים, וְאוֹמֵר "גַּם אַתְּ בְּדַם בְּרִיתֵךְ שִׁלַּחְתִּי אֲסִירַיִךְ מִבּוֹר אֵין מַיִם בּוֹ" (זכריה ט'); וּלְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁטוּפִין בֶּאֱלִילִים אָמַר לָהֶם משכו וקחו לכם, מִשְׁכוּ יְדֵיכֶם מֵאֱלִילִים, וּקְחוּ לָכֶם צֹאן שֶׁל מִצְוָה (מכילתא):
shall slaughter it: Now do they all slaughter [it]? Rather, from here we can deduce that a person’s agent is like himself. — [from Mechilta, Kid. 41b] [Therefore, it is considered as if all the Israelites slaughtered the sacrifice.]   וְשָֽׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ וגו': וְכִי כֻּלָּן שׁוֹחֲטִין? אֶלָּא מִכָּאן שֶׁשְּׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתוֹ (קידושין מלכים א):
the entire congregation of the community of Israel: [This means] the congregation, the community, and Israel. From here, they [the Rabbis] said: The communal Passover sacrifices are slaughtered in three [distinct] groups, one after the other. [Once] the first group entered, the doors of the Temple court were locked [until the group finished; they were followed by the second group, etc.,] as is stated in Pesachim (64b).   קְהַל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵל: קָהָל וְעֵדָה וְיִשְׂרָאֵל; מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ, פִּסְחֵי צִבּוּר נִשְׁחָטִין בְּשָׁלוֹשׁ כִּתּוֹת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ, נִכְנְסָה כַת רִאשׁוֹנָה נִנְעֲלוּ דַּלְתוֹת הָעֲזָרָה וְכוּ'. כִּדְאִיתָא בִּפְסָחִים (דף ס"ד):
in the afternoon: Heb. בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם From six hours [after sunrise] and onward is called בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם, literally, between the two evenings, for the sun is inclined toward the place where it sets to become darkened. It seems to me that the expression בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם denotes those hours between the darkening of the day and the darkening of the night. The darkening of the day is at the beginning of the seventh hour, when the shadows of evening decline, and the darkening of the night at the beginning of the night. עֶרֶב is an expression of evening and darkness, like “all joy is darkened (וְעָרְבָה) ” (Isa. 24:11). — [from Mechilta]   בֵּין הָֽעַרְבָּֽיִם: מִשֵּׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וּלְמַעְלָה קָרוּי בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם, שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נוֹטֶה לְבֵית מְבוֹאוֹ לַעֲרֹב; וּלְשׁוֹן בין הערבים נִרְאֶה בְעֵינַי אוֹתָן שָׁעוֹת שֶׁבֵּין עֲרִיבַת הַיּוֹם לַעֲרִיבַת הַלַּיְלָה, עֲרִיבַת הַיּוֹם בִּתְחִלַּת ז' שָׁעוֹת מִכִּי יִנָּטוּ צִלְלֵי עֶרֶב, וַעֲרִיבַת הַלַּיְלָה בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה. ערב לְשׁוֹן נֶשֶׁף וְחֹשֶׁךְ, כְּמוֹ "עָרְבָה כָּל שִׂמְחָה" (ישעיהו כ"ד):
7And they shall take [some] of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel, on the houses in which they will eat it.   זוְלָֽקְחוּ֙ מִן־הַדָּ֔ם וְנָֽתְנ֛וּ עַל־שְׁתֵּ֥י הַמְּזוּזֹ֖ת וְעַל־הַמַּשְׁק֑וֹף עַ֚ל הַבָּ֣תִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־יֹֽאכְל֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ בָּהֶֽם:
And they shall take [some] of the blood: This is the receiving of the blood [from the animal’s neck immediately after the slaughtering]. I would think that it was to be received in the hand. Therefore, Scripture says: “that is in the basin” (below, verse 22), [specifying that the blood is to be received in a vessel]. — [from Mechilta]   וְלָֽקְחוּ מִן־הַדָּם: זוֹ קַבָּלַת הַדָּם, יָכוֹל בַּיָּד? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אשר בסף (מכילתא):
the… door posts: They are the upright posts, one from this side of the entrance and one from that side. — [from Kid. 22b]   הַמְּזוּזֹת: הֵם הַזְּקוּפוֹת אַחַת מִכָּאן לַפֶּתַח וְאַחַת מִכָּאן:
the lintel: Heb. הַמַשְׁקוֹף. That is the upper [beam], against which the door strikes (שׁוֹקֵף) when it is being closed, lintel in Old French. The term שְׁקִיפָה means striking, like [in the phrase] “the sound of a rattling leaf” (Lev. 26:36), [which Onkelos renders:] טַרְפָּא דְֹּשָקִיף, “bruise” (Exod. 21:25), [which Onkelos renders:] מַשְׁקוֹפֵי. — [based on Jonathan]   הַמַּשְׁקוֹף: הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁהַדֶּלֶת שׁוֹקֵף עָלָיו כְּשֶׁסּוֹגְרִין אוֹתוֹ, לינטי"ל בְּלַעַז; וּלְשׁוֹן שְׁקִיפָה חֲבָטָה, כְּמוֹ "קוֹל עָלֶה נִדָּף" (ויקרא כ"ו) – דְשָׁקִיף, חַבּוּרָה – מַשְׁקוֹפֵי:
on the houses in which they will eat it: But not on the lintel and the doorposts of a house [used] for [storing] straw or a house [used] for cattle, in which nobody lives. — [based on Mechilta]   עַל־הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר־יֹֽאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ בָּהֶֽם: וְלֹא עַל מַשְׁקוֹף וּמְזוּזוֹת שֶׁבְּבֵית הַתֶּבֶן וּבֵית הַבָּקָר, שֶׁאֵין דָּרִין בְּתוֹכוֹ (ע' מכילתא):
8And on this night, they shall eat the flesh, roasted over the fire, and unleavened cakes; with bitter herbs they shall eat it.   חוְאָֽכְל֥וּ אֶת־הַבָּשָׂ֖ר בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַזֶּ֑ה צְלִי־אֵ֣שׁ וּמַצּ֔וֹת עַל־מְרֹרִ֖ים יֹאכְלֻֽהוּ:
the flesh: but not sinews or bones. — [from Mechilta]   אֶת־הַבָּשָׂר: וְלֹא גִּידִים וַעֲצָמוֹת (שם):
and unleavened cakes; with bitter herbs: Every bitter herb is called מָרוֹר, and He commanded them to eat bitters in commemoration of “And they embittered their lives” (Exod. 1:14). — [from Pes. 39a, 116b]   וּמַצּוֹת עַל־מְרֹרִים: כָּל עֵשֶׂב מַר נִקְרָא מָרוֹר; וְצִוָּם לֶאֱכֹל מַר זֵכֶר לְ"וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת חַיֵּיהֶם" (שמות א'):
9You shall not eat it rare or boiled in water, except roasted over the fire its head with its legs and with its innards.   טאַל־תֹּֽאכְל֤וּ מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ נָ֔א וּבָשֵׁ֥ל מְבֻשָּׁ֖ל בַּמָּ֑יִם כִּ֣י אִם־צְלִי־אֵ֔שׁ רֹאשׁ֥וֹ עַל־כְּרָעָ֖יו וְעַל־קִרְבּֽוֹ:
You shall not eat it rare: Heb. נָא Something not roasted sufficiently is called נָא in Arabic.   אַל־תֹּֽאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ נָא: שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָלוּי כָּל צָרְכּוֹ קוֹרְאוֹ נָא בְלָשׁוֹן עֲרָבִי:
or boiled: All this is included in the prohibition of You shall not eat it. — [from Pes. 41b]   וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל: כָּל זֶה בְּאַזְהָרַת אל תאכלו:
in water: How do we know that [it is also prohibited to cook it] in other liquids? Therefore, Scripture states: וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָׁל, [meaning boiled] in any manner. — [from Pes. 41a]   בַּמָּיִם: מִנַּיִן לִשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם (פסחים מ"א):
except roasted over the fire: Above (verse 8), He decreed upon it [the animal sacrifice] with a positive commandment, and here He added to it a negative [commandment]: “You shall not eat it except roasted over the fire.” -[from Pes. 41b]   כִּי אִם־צְלִי־אֵשׁ: לְמַעְלָה גָּזַר עָלָיו בְּמִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה, וְכָאן הוֹסִיף עָלָיו לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, אל תאכלו ממנו … כי אם צלי אש:
its head with its legs: One should roast it completely as one, with its head and with its legs and with its innards, and one must place its intestines inside it after they have been rinsed (Pes. 74a). The expression עַל כְּרָעָיו וְעַל-קִרְבּוֹ is similar to the expression “with their hosts (עַל-צִבְאֹתָם) ” (Exod. 6:26), [which is] like בְּצִבְאֹתָם, as they are, this too means [they should roast the animal] as it is, all its flesh complete.   רֹאשׁוֹ עַל־כְּרָעָיו: צוֹלֵהוּ כֻּלּוֹ כְאֶחָד עִם רֹאשׁוֹ וְעִם כְּרָעָיו וְעִם קִרְבּוֹ, וּבְנֵי מֵעָיו נוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ אַחַר הֲדָחָתָן (שם ע"ד); וּלְשׁוֹן על קרבו כִּלְשׁוֹן "עַל צִבְאוֹתָם" (שמות ו'), כְּמוֹ בְּצִבְאוֹתָם – כְּמוֹת שֶׁהֵן, אַף זֶה כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא – כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ מִשָּׁלֵם:
10And you shall not leave over any of it until morning, and whatever is left over of it until morning, you shall burn in fire.   יוְלֹֽא־תוֹתִ֥ירוּ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּ֑קֶר וְהַנֹּתָ֥ר מִמֶּ֛נּוּ עַד־בֹּ֖קֶר בָּאֵ֥שׁ תִּשְׂרֹֽפוּ:
and whatever is left over of it until morning-: What is the meaning of “until morning” a second time? [This implies] adding one morning to another morning, for morning starts with sunrise, and this verse is here to make it [the prohibition] earlier, [i.e.,] that it is forbidden to eat it [the leftover flesh] from dawn. This is according to its apparent meaning. Another midrashic interpretation is that this teaches that it may not be burnt on Yom Tov but on the next day, and this is how it is to be interpreted: and what is left over from it on the first morning you shall wait until the second morning and burn it. — [from Shab. 24b]   וְהַנֹּתָר מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר: מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר עד בקר פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה? לִתֵּן בֹּקֶר עַל בֹּקֶר, שֶׁהַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁמָעוֹ מִשְּׁעַת הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, וּבָא הַכָּתוּב לְהַקְדִּים שֶׁאָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה מֵעֲלוֹת הַשַּׁחַר, זֶהוּ לְפִי מַשְׁמָעוֹ. וְעוֹד מִדְרָשׁ אַחֵר, לִמֵּד שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִשְׂרָף בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא מִמָּחֳרָת, וְכָךְ תִּדְרְשֶׁנּוּ: וְהַנּוֹתָר מִמֶּנּוּ בְּבֹקֶר רִאשׁוֹן, עַד בֹּקֶר שֵׁנִי תַעֲמֹד וְתִשְׂרְפֶנּוּ (מכילתא):
11And this is how you shall eat it: your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste it is a Passover sacrifice to the Lord.   יאוְכָ֘כָה֘ תֹּֽאכְל֣וּ אֹתוֹ֒ מָתְנֵיכֶ֣ם חֲגֻרִ֔ים נַֽעֲלֵיכֶם֙ בְּרַגְלֵיכֶ֔ם וּמַקֶּלְכֶ֖ם בְּיֶדְכֶ֑ם וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם אֹתוֹ֙ בְּחִפָּז֔וֹן פֶּ֥סַח ה֖וּא לַיהֹוָֽה:
your loins girded: Ready for the way [i.e., for travel]. — [from Mechilta]   מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים: מְזֻמָּנִים לַדֶּרֶךְ:
in haste: Heb. בְּחִפָּזוֹן, a term denoting haste and speed, like “and David was hastening (נֶחְפָז) ” (I Sam. 23:26); that the Arameans had cast off in their haste (בְּחָפְזָם) (II Kings 7:15). — [from Onkelos]   בְּחִפָּזוֹן: לְשׁוֹן בֶּהָלָה וּמְהִירוּת, כְּמוֹ "וַיְהִי דָּוִד נֶחְפָּז לָלֶכֶת" (שמואל א' כ"ג), "אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁלִיכוּ אֲרָם בְּחָפְזָם" (מלכים ב' ז'):
it is a Passover sacrifice to the Lord: Heb. פֶּסַח. The sacrifice is called פֶּסַח because of the skipping and the jumping over, which the Holy One, blessed be He, skipped over the Israelites’ houses that were between the Egyptians houses. He jumped from one Egyptian to another Egyptian, and the Israelite in between was saved. [“To the Lord” thus implies] you shall perform all the components of its service in the name of Heaven. (Another explanation:) [You should perform the service] in the manner of skipping and jumping, [i.e., in haste] in commemoration of its name, which is called Passover (פֶּסַח), and also [in old French] pasche, pasque, pasca, an expression of striding over. — [from Mishnah Pes. 116a,b; Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, verse 27; Mechilta on this verse]   פֶּסַח הוּא לה': הַקָּרְבָּן קָרוּי פסח עַל שֵׁם הַדִּלּוּג וְהַפְּסִיחָה, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָיָה מְדַלֵּג בָּתֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבֵּין בָּתֵּי מִצְרַיִם וְקוֹפֵץ מִמִּצְרִי לְמִצְרִי וְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶמְצָעִי נִמְלָט; וְאַתֶּם עֲשׂוּ כָל עֲבוֹדוֹתָיו לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם, דֶּרֶךְ דִּלּוּג וּקְפִיצָה, זֵכֶר לִשְׁמוֹ שֶׁקָּרוּי פסח; וְגַם פשק"א לְשׁוֹן פְּסִיעָה:
12I will pass through the land of Egypt on this night, and I will smite every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast, and upon all the gods of Egypt will I wreak judgments I, the Lord.   יבוְעָֽבַרְתִּ֣י בְאֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַ֘יִם֘ בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַזֶּה֒ וְהִכֵּיתִ֤י כָל־בְּכוֹר֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מֵֽאָדָ֖ם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָ֑ה וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵ֥י מִצְרַ֛יִם אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֥ה שְׁפָטִ֖ים אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
I will pass: like a king who passes from place to place, and with one passing and in one moment they are all smitten. — [from Mechilta]   וְעָֽבַרְתִּי: כְּמֶלֶךְ הָעוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם (מכילתא), וּבְהַעֲבָרָה אַחַת וּבְרֶגַע אֶחָד כֻּלָּן לוֹקִים:
every firstborn in the land of Egypt: Even other firstborn who are in Egypt [will die]. Now how do we know that even the firstborn of the Egyptians who are in other places [will die]? Therefore, Scripture states: “To Him Who smote the Egyptians with their firstborn” (Ps. 136:10). — [from Mechilta]   כָל־בְּכוֹר בְאֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם: אַף בְּכוֹרוֹת אֲחֵרִים וְהֵם בְּמִצְרַיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בְּכוֹרֵי מִצְרַיִם שֶׁבִּמְקוֹמוֹת אֲחֵרִים? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "לְמַכֵּה מִצְרַיִם בִּבְכוֹרֵיהֶם" (תהלים קל"ו):
both man and beast: [I.e., first man and then beast.] He who started to sin first from him the retribution starts. — [from Mechilta]   מֵֽאָדָם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָה: מִי שֶׁהִתְחִיל בַּעֲבֵרָה מִמֶּנּוּ מַתְחֶלֶת הַפֻּרְעָנוּת (מכילתא):
and upon all the gods of Egypt-: The one made of wood will rot, and the one made of metal will melt and flow to the ground. — [from Mechilta]   וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵי מִצְרַיִם: שֶׁל עֵץ נִרְקֶבֶת וְשֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת נִמְסֵת וְנִתֶּכֶת לָאָרֶץ (שם):
will I wreak judgments-I The Lord: I by Myself and not through a messenger. — [from Passover Haggadah]   אֶֽעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים אֲנִי ה': אֲנִי בְעַצְמִי, וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי שָׁלִיחַ:
13And the blood will be for you for a sign upon the houses where you will be, and I will see the blood and skip over you, and there will be no plague to destroy [you] when I smite the [people of the] land of Egypt.   יגוְהָיָה֩ הַדָּ֨ם לָכֶ֜ם לְאֹ֗ת עַ֤ל הַבָּתִּים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתֶּ֣ם שָׁ֔ם וְרָאִ֨יתִי֙ אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וּפָֽסַחְתִּ֖י עֲלֵכֶ֑ם וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה בָכֶ֥ם נֶ֨גֶף֙ לְמַשְׁחִ֔ית בְּהַכֹּתִ֖י בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
And the blood will be for you for a sign: [The blood will be] for you a sign but not a sign for others. From here, it is derived that they put the blood only on the inside. — [from Mechilta 11]   וְהָיָה הַדָּם לָכֶם לְאֹת: לָכֶם לְאוֹת וְלֹא לַאֲחֵרִים לְאוֹת (שם). מִכָּאן שֶׁלֹּא נָתְנוּ הַדָּם אֶלָּא מִבִּפְנִים:
and I will see the blood: [In fact,] everything is revealed to Him. [Why then does the Torah mention that God will see the blood?] Rather, the Holy One, blessed be He, said, “I will focus My attention to see that you are engaged in My commandments, and I will skip over you.” -[from Mechilta]   וְרָאִיתִי אֶת־הַדָּם: הַכֹּל גָּלוּי לְפָנָיו, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, נוֹתֵן אֲנִי אֶת עֵינַי לִרְאוֹת שֶׁאַתֶּם עֲסוּקִים בְּמִצְווֹתַי, וּפוֹסֵחַ אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם (שם):
and skip over: Heb. וּפָסַחְתִּי [is rendered] and I will have pity, and similar to it: “sparing פָּסוֹחַ and rescuing” (Isa. 31:5). I say, however, that every [expression of] פְּסִיחָה is an expression of skipping and jumping. [Hence,] וּפָסַחְתִּי [means that] He was skipping from the houses of the Israelites to the houses of the Egyptians, for they were living one in the midst of the other. Similarly, “skipping between (פֹּסְחִים) two ideas” (I Kings 18:21). Similarly, the lame (פִּסְחִים) walk as if jumping. Similarly, פָּסוֹחַ וְהִמְלִיט means: jumping over him and rescuing him from among the slain. — [from Mechilta] Both views are found in Mechilta. The first view is also that of Onkelos.   וּפָֽסַחְתִּי: וְחָמַלְתִּי, וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ "פָּסֹחַ וְהִמְלִיט" (ישעיהו ל"א). וַאֲנִי אוֹמֵר, כָּל פְּסִיחָה לְשׁוֹן דִּלּוּג וּקְפִיצָה. ופסחתי, מְדַלֵּג הָיָה מִבָּתֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבָתֵּי מִצְרִיִּים, שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁרוּיִים זֶה בְּתוֹךְ זֶה, וְכֵן "פּוֹסְחִים עַל שְׁתֵּי הַסְּעִפִּים" (מלכים א י"ח), וְכֵן כָּל הַפִּסְּחִים – הוֹלְכִים כְּקוֹפְצִים, וְכֵן "פָּסֹחַ וְהִמְלִיט" – מְדַלְּגוֹ וּמְמַלְּטוֹ מִבֵּין הַמּוּמָתִים:
and there will be no plague to destroy [you]: But there will be [a plague] upon the Egyptians. Let us say that an Egyptian was in an Israelite’s house. I would think that he would escape. Therefore, Scripture states: “and there will be no plague upon you,” but there will be [a plague] upon the Egyptians in your houses. Let us say that an Israelite was in an Egyptian’s house. I would think that he would be smitten like him. Therefore, Scripture states: “and there will be no plague upon you.” -[from Mechilta]   וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף: אֲבָל הוֶֹה הוּא בַּמִּצְרִים. הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיָה מִצְרִי בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, יָכוֹל יִמָּלֵט? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף", אֲבָל הֹוֶה בַּמִּצְרִים שֶׁבְּבָתֵּיכֶם. הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיָה יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל מִצְרִי, שׁוֹמֵעַ אֲנִי יִלְקֶה כְמוֹתוֹ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף" (מכילתא):
14And this day shall be for you as a memorial, and you shall celebrate it as a festival for the Lord; throughout your generations, you shall celebrate it as an everlasting statute.   ידוְהָיָה֩ הַיּ֨וֹם הַזֶּ֤ה לָכֶם֙ לְזִכָּר֔וֹן וְחַגֹּתֶ֥ם אֹת֖וֹ חַ֣ג לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם תְּחָגֻּֽהוּ:
as a memorial: for generations.   לְזִכָּרוֹן: לְדוֹרוֹת:
and you shall celebrate it: The day that is a memorial for you-you shall celebrate it. But we have not yet heard which is the day of memorial. Therefore, Scripture states: “Remember this day, when you went out of Egypt” (Exod. 13: 3). we learn that the day of the Exodus is the day of memorial. Now on what day did they go out [of Egypt]? Therefore, Scripture states: “On the day after the Passover, they went out” (Num. 33:3). I must therefore say that the fifteenth of Nissan is the day of the festival, because the night of the fifteenth they ate the Passover sacrifice, and in the morning they went out.   וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ: יוֹם שֶׁהוּא לְךָ לְזִכָּרוֹן אַתָּה חוֹגְגוֹ. וַעֲדַיִן לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֵיזֶהוּ יוֹם הַזִּכָּרוֹן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "זָכוֹר אֶת הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר יְצָאתֶם" (שמות י"ג), לִמְּדָנוּ, שֶׁיּוֹם הַיְצִיאָה הוּא יוֹם שֶׁל זִכָּרוֹן. וְאֵי זֶה יוֹם יָצְאוּ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח יָצְאוּ" (במדבר ל"ג), הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר יוֹם חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן הוּא שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֵיל חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָֹר אָכְלוּ אֶת הַפֶּסַח וְלַבֹּקֶר יָצְאוּ (מכילתא):
throughout your generations: I understand [this to mean] the smallest number of generations, [namely only] two. Therefore, Scripture states: “you shall celebrate it as an everlasting statute.” -[from Mechilta]   לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וגו': שׁוֹמֵעַ אֲנִי מִעוּט דּוֹרוֹת שְׁנַיִם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תְּחָגֻּהוּ" (שם):
15For seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes, but on the preceding day you shall clear away all leaven from your houses, for whoever eats leaven from the first day until the seventh day that soul shall be cut off from Israel.   טושִׁבְעַ֤ת יָמִים֙ מַצּ֣וֹת תֹּאכֵ֔לוּ אַ֚ךְ בַּיּ֣וֹם הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן תַּשְׁבִּ֥יתוּ שְּׂאֹ֖ר מִבָּֽתֵּיכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י | כָּל־אֹכֵ֣ל חָמֵ֗ץ וְנִכְרְתָ֞ה הַנֶּ֤פֶשׁ הַהִוא֙ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִיּ֥וֹם הָֽרִאשֹׁ֖ן עַד־י֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִעִֽי:
For seven days: Heb. שִׁבְעַתיָמִים, seteyne of days, i.e., a group of seven days. [See Rashi on Exod. 10:22.]   שִׁבְעַת יָמִים: שטיינ"א שֶׁל יָמִים:
For seven days you shall eat unleavened cakes-: But elsewhere it says: “For six days you shall eat unleavened cakes” (Deut. 16:8). This teaches [us] regarding the seventh day of Passover, that it is not obligatory to eat matzah, as long as one does not eat chametz. How do we know that [the first] six [days] are also optional [concerning eating matzah]? This is a principle in [interpreting] the Torah: Anything that was included in a generalization [in the Torah] and was excluded from that generalization [in the Torah] to teach [something] it was not excluded to teach [only] about itself, but it was excluded to teach about the entire generalization. [In this case it means that] just as [on] the seventh day [eating matzah] is optional, so is it optional in [the first] six [days]. I might think that [on] the first night it is also optional. Therefore, Scripture states: “in the evening, you shall eat unleavened cakes” (Exod. 12:18). The text established it as an obligation. — [from Mechilta]   שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מַצּוֹת תֹּאכֵלוּ: וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר "שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת" (דברים ט"ז) לִמֵּד עַל שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ חוֹבָה לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל חָמֵץ; מִנַּיִן אַף שִׁשָּׁה רְשׁוּת? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים". זוֹ מִדָּה בַתּוֹרָה, דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה בִּכְלָל וְיָצָא מִן הַכְּלָל לְלַמֵּד, לֹא לְלַמֵּד עַל עַצְמוֹ בִּלְבַד יָצָא, אֶלָּא לְלַמֵּד עַל הַכְּלָל כֻּלּוֹ יָצָא, מַה שְּׁבִיעִי רְשׁוּת אַף שִׁשָּׁה רְשׁוּת; יָכוֹל אַף הַלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן רְשׁוּת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "בָּעֶרֶב תֹּאכְלוּ מַצֹּת" – הַכָּתוּב קְבָעוֹ חוֹבָה (פסחים ק"כ):
but on the preceding day you shall clear away all leaven: Heb. בַּיוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן. On the day before the holiday; it is called the first [day], because it is before the seven; [i.e., it is not the first of the seven days]. Indeed, we find [anything that is] the preceding one [is] called רִאשׁוֹן, e.g., הִרִאשׁוֹן אָדָם תִּוָלֵד, “Were you born before Adam?” (Job 15:7). Or perhaps it means only the first of the seven [days of Passover]. Therefore, Scripture states: “You shall not slaughter with leaven [the blood of My sacrifice]” (Exod. 34:25). You shall not slaughter the Passover sacrifice as long as the leaven still exists. — [from Mechilta, Pes. 5a] [Since the Passover sacrifice may be slaughtered immediately after noon on the fourteenth day of Nissan, clearly the leaven must be removed before that time. Hence the expression בַּיוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן must refer to the day preceding the festival.]   אַךְ בַּיּוֹם הָֽרִאשׁוֹן תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שאור: מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְקָרוּי רִאשׁוֹן לְפִי שֶׁהוּא לִפְנֵי הַשִּׁבְעָה; וּמָצִינוּ מֻקְדָּם קָרוּי רִאשׁוֹן, "הֲרִאישׁוֹן אָדָם תִּוָּלֵד" (איוב ט"ו) – הֲלִפְנֵי אָדָם נוֹלַדְתָּ; אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל שִׁבְעָה? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "לֹא תִשְׁחַט עַל חָמֵץ וְגוֹ'" (שמות ל"ד) – לֹא תִשְׁחַט הַפֶּסַח וַעֲדַיִן חָמֵץ קַיָּם (פסחים ה'):
that soul: When he [(the person) eats the leaven while he] is with his soul and his knowledge; this excludes one who commits the sin under coercion. — [from Mechilta, Kid. 43a]   הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא: כְּשֶׁהִיא בְנַפְשָׁהּ וּבְדַעְתָּהּ – פְּרָט לְאָנוּס (מכילתא):
from Israel: I [could] understand that it [the soul] will be cut off from Israel and will [be able to] go to another people. Therefore, [to avoid this error] Scripture states elsewhere: “from before Me” (Lev. 22:3), meaning: from every place which is My domain. — [from Mechilta]   מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל: שׁוֹמֵעַ אֲנִי תִּכָּרֵת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְתֵלֶךְ לָהּ לְעַם אַחֵר, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר "מִלְּפָנַי" (ויקרא כ"ב) – בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּתִי:
16And on the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day you shall have a holy convocation; no work may be performed on them, but what is eaten by any soul that alone may be performed for you.   טזוּבַיּ֤וֹם הָֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ מִקְרָא־קֹ֔דֶשׁ וּבַיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מִקְרָא־קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלָאכָה֙ לֹא־יֵֽעָשֶׂ֣ה בָהֶ֔ם אַ֚ךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֣ל לְכָל־נֶ֔פֶשׁ ה֥וּא לְבַדּ֖וֹ יֵֽעָשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶֽם:
a holy convocation: Heb. מִקְרָא מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ is a noun. Call it [the day] holy with regard to eating, drinking, and clothing. — [from Mechilta]   מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ: מקרא שֵׁם דָּבָר; קְרָא אוֹתוֹ קדש לַאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה וּכְסוּת (מכילתא):
no work may be performed on them: even through others. — [from Mechilta]   לֹא־יֵֽעָשֶׂה בָהֶם: אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים (שם):
that alone: [I.e., the necessary work for food preparation.] (I would think that even for gentiles [it is allowed]. Therefore, Scripture states: “that alone may be performed for you,” for you but not for gentiles.) That [the work needed for food] but not its preparations that can be done on the eve of the festival [e.g., repairing a spit for roasting, or a stove for cooking]. — [from Beitzah 28b]   הוּא לְבַדּוֹ: "הוּא" וְלֹא מַכְשִׁירָיו שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב (ביצה כ"ח):
by any soul: Even for animals. I would think that even for gentiles. Therefore, Scripture states: “for you.” -[from Beitzah 21b, Mechilta] Another version: Therefore, Scripture states: “but,” which makes a distinction. — [from Mechilta].   לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ: אֲפִלּוּ לִבְהֵמָה; יָכוֹל אַף לַגּוֹיִם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר לָכֶם (מכילתא):
17And you shall watch over the unleavened cakes, for on this very day I have taken your legions out of the land of Egypt, and you shall observe this day throughout your generations, [as] an everlasting statute.   יזוּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֘ אֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת֒ כִּ֗י בְּעֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֶת־צִבְאֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֞ם אֶת־הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֛ה לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָֽם:
And you shall watch over the unleavened cakes: that they should not become leavened. From here they [the Rabbis] derived that if [the dough] started to swell, she [the woman rolling it out] must moisten it with cold water. Rabbi Josiah says: Do not read:, אֶת-הַמַצּוֹת, the unleavened cakes, אֶת-הַמִצְוֹת, the commandments. Just as we may not permit the matzoth to become leavened, so may we not permit the commandments to become leavened [i.e., to wait too long before we perform them], but if it [a commandment] comes into your hand, perform it immediately. — [from Mechilta]   וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת: שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לִידֵי חִמּוּץ; מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ תָּפַח תִּלְטֹשׁ בְּצוֹנֵן, רַבִּי יֹאשִׁיָּה אוֹמֵר אַל תְּהִי קוֹרֵא אֶת הַמַּצּוֹת, אֶלָּא אֶת הַמִּצְווֹת – כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאֵין מַחֲמִיצִין אֶת הַמַּצָּה, כָּךְ אֵין מַחֲמִיצִין אֶת הַמִּצְוָה, אֶלָּא אִם בָּאָה לְיָדְךָ, עֲשֵׂה אוֹתָהּ מִיָּד (שם):
and you shall observe this day: from [performing] work.   וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה: מִמְּלָאכָה:
throughout your generations, [as] an everlasting statute: Since “generations” and “an everlasting statute” were not stated regarding the [prohibition of doing] work, but only regarding the celebration [sacrifice], the text repeats it here, so that you will not say that the warning of: “no work may be performed” was not said for [later] generations, but only for that generation [of the Exodus].   לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָֽם: לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר דורות וְחקת עולם עַל הַמְּלָאכָה אֶלָּא עַל הַחֲגִיגָה, לְכָךְ חָזַר וּשְׁנָאוֹ כָּאן, שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר אַזְהָרַת כל מלאכה לא יעשה לֹא לְדוֹרוֹת נֶאֶמְרָה אֶלָּא לְאוֹתוֹ הַדּוֹר:
18In the first [month], on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening, you shall eat unleavened cakes, until the twenty first day of the month in the evening.   יחבָּֽרִאשֹׁ֡ן בְּאַרְבָּעָה֩ עָשָׂ֨ר י֤וֹם לַחֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב תֹּֽאכְל֖וּ מַצֹּ֑ת עַ֠ד י֣וֹם הָֽאֶחָ֧ד וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ בָּעָֽרֶב:
until the twenty-first day: Why was this stated? Was it not already stated: “Seven days?” Since it says “days,” how do we know “nights” [are included in the mitzvah or commandment]? Therefore, Scripture states: “until the twenty-first day, etc.” -[from Mechilta]   עַד יוֹם הָֽאֶחָד וְעֶשְׂרִים: לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר? וַהֲלֹא כְּבָר נֶאֱמַר "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים"? לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר יָמִים, לֵילוֹת מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר עד יום האחד ועשרים וגו' (מכילתא):
19For seven days, leavening shall not be found in your houses, for whoever eats leavening that soul shall be cut off from the community of Israel, both among the strangers and the native born of the land.   יטשִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים שְׂאֹ֕ר לֹ֥א יִמָּצֵ֖א בְּבָֽתֵּיכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י | כָּל־אֹכֵ֣ל מַחְמֶ֗צֶת וְנִכְרְתָ֞ה הַנֶּ֤פֶשׁ הַהִוא֙ מֵֽעֲדַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּגֵּ֖ר וּבְאֶזְרַ֥ח הָאָֽרֶץ:
shall not be found in your houses: How do we know [that the same ruling applies] to [leavening found within] the borders [outside the house]? Therefore, Scripture states: “throughout all of your borders” (Exod. 13:7). Why, then, did Scripture state: “in your houses?” [To teach us that] just as your house is in your domain, so [the prohibition against possessing leaven in] your borders [means only what is] in your domain. This excludes leaven belonging to a gentile which is in a Jew’s possession, and for which he [the Jew] did not accept responsibility. — [from Mechilta]   לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְּבָֽתֵּיכֶם: מִנַּיִן לַגְּבוּלִין? תַּלְמוּד לֹוֹמַר "בְּכָל גְּבוּלֶךָ" (שמות י"ג); מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר בְּבָתֵּיכֶם? מַה בֵּיתְךָ בִּרְשׁוּתְךָ, אַף גְּבוּלְךָ שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּתְךָ, יָצָא חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁהוּא אֵצֶל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת (מכילתא):
for whoever eats leavening: [This passage comes] to punish with “kareth” [premature death by the hands of Heaven] for [eating] leavening. But did He not already [give the] punishment for eating leaven? But [this verse is necessary] so that you should not say that [only] for [eating] leaven, which is edible, did He punish, but for [eating] leavening, which is not edible, He would not punish. [On the other hand,] if He punished [also] for [eating] leavening and did not [state that] He punished for [eating] leaven, I would say that [only] for [eating] leavening, which causes others to become leavened did He punish, [but] for [eating] leaven, which does not leaven others, He would not punish. Therefore, both of them had to be stated. — [from Mechilta, Beitzah 7b]   כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל מַחְמֶצֶת: לַעֲנֹשׁ כָּרֵת עַל הַשְּׂאוֹר, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר עָנַשׁ עַל הֶחָמֵץ? אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר חָמֵץ שֶׁרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה עָנַשׁ עָלָיו, שְׂאוֹר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה לֹא יֵעָנֵשׁ עָלָיו; וְאִם עָנַשׁ עַל הַשְּׂאוֹר וְלֹא עָנַשׁ עַל הֶחָמֵץ, הָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר, שְׂאוֹר שֶׁהוּא מְחַמֵּץ אֲחֵרִים עָנַשׁ עָלָיו, חָמֵץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחַמֵּץ אֲחֵרִים לֹא יֵעָנשׁ עָלָיו, לְכָךְ נֶאֶמְרוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם (מכילתא):
both among the strangers and the native born of the land: Since the miracle [of the Exodus] was performed for Israel, it was necessary to [explicitly] include the strangers [who were proselytized but are not descended from Israelite stock]. — [from Mechilta]   בַּגֵּר וּבְאֶזְרַח הָאָֽרֶץ: לְפִי שֶׁהַנֵּס נַעֲשָׂה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, הֻצְרַךְ לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַגֵּרִים (שם):
20You shall not eat any leavening; throughout all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened cakes."   ככָּל־מַחְמֶ֖צֶת לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ בְּכֹל֙ מֽוֹשְׁבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם תֹּֽאכְל֖וּ מַצּֽוֹת:
You shall not eat… leavening: [This is] a warning against eating leavening.   מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ: אַזְהָרָה עַל אֲכִילַת שְׂאוֹר:
any leavening: This comes to include its mixture [namely that one may not eat a mixture of chametz and other foods]. — [from Mechilta]   כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת: לְהָבִיא אֶת תַּעֲרָבְתּוֹ:
throughout all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened cakes: This comes to teach that it [the matzah] must be fit to be eaten in all your dwelling places. This excludes the second tithe and the matzah loaves that accompany a thanksgiving offering, [which are not fit to be eaten in all dwelling places, but only in Jerusalem]. [This insert may be Rashi’s or the work of an earlier printer or copyist.]-[from Mechilta]   בְּכֹל מֽוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹאכֵלוּ מַצּֽוֹת: זֶה בָא לְלַמֵּד שֶׁתְּהֵא רְאוּיָה לְהֵאָכֵל בְּכָל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם, פְּרָט לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְחַלּוֹת תּוֹדָה (מכילתא):