Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 41

39Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Since God has let you know all this, there is no one as understanding and wise as you.   לטוַיֹּ֤אמֶר פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף אַֽחֲרֵ֨י הוֹדִ֧יעַ אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֽוֹתְךָ֖ אֶת־כָּל־זֹ֑את אֵֽין־נָב֥וֹן וְחָכָ֖ם כָּמֽוֹךָ:
there is no one as understanding and wise as you: To seek an understanding and wise man as you said, we will not [be able to] find anyone like you.   אֵֽין־נָבוֹן וְחָכָם כָּמֽוֹךָ: לְבַקֵּשׁ אִישׁ נָבוֹן וְחָכָם שֶׁאָמַרְתָּ, לֹא נִמְצָא כָמוֹךָ:
40You shall be [appointed] over my household, and through your command all my people shall be nourished; only [with] the throne will I be greater than you."   מאַתָּה֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה עַל־בֵּיתִ֔י וְעַל־פִּ֖יךָ יִשַּׁ֣ק כָּל־עַמִּ֑י רַ֥ק הַכִּסֵּ֖א אֶגְדַּ֥ל מִמֶּֽךָּ:
shall be nourished: Heb. יִשַׁק [Onkelos renders:] יִתְּזַּן, shall be nourished, shall be sustained. All my people’s necessities shall be provided through you, similar to “the steward of my household (בֶּן מֶשֶׁק)” (Gen. 15:2), and “Arm yourselves (נַשְׁקוּ) with purity” (Ps. 2:12), garnis(s) on in Old French, provision.   יִשַּׁק: יִתְּזַן, יִתְפַּרְנֵס – כָּל צָרְכֵי עַמִּי יִהְיוּ נַעֲשִׂים עַל יָדְךָ, כְּמוֹ נַשְּׁקוּ בַר (תהילים ב'), גרני"שון בְּלַעַז:
only [with] the throne: That I will be called king.   רַק הַכִּסֵּא: שֶׁיִּהְיוּ קוֹרִין לִי מֶלֶךְ:
the throne: A term denoting the kingship, like “and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord, King [David]” (I Kings 1:37).   כסא: לְשׁוֹן שֵׁם הַמְּלוּכָה, כְּמוֹ וִיגַדֵּל אֶת כִּסְאוֹ מִכִּסֵּא אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ (מלכים א א'):
41So Pharaoh said to Joseph, "Look, I have appointed you over the entire land of Egypt."   מאוַיֹּ֥אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֖ה אֶל־יוֹסֵ֑ף רְאֵה֙ נָתַ֣תִּי אֹֽתְךָ֔ עַ֖ל כָּל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
I have appointed you: Heb. נָתַתִּי אֹת‏ְ. [Onkelos renders:] מַנֵיתִי יָת‏ָ, I have appointed you. It is nevertheless an expression of placing (lit., giving), like “and to place you (לְתִתּ‏ְ) above” (Deut. 26:19). Whether for greatness or lowliness, the term נְתִינָה is appropriate, like “I, [too,] have made you (נָתַתִּי אֶתְכֶם) contemptible and low” (Mal. 2:9).   נָתַתִּי אֹֽתְךָ: מַנֵּיתִי יָתָךְ, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵּן לְשׁוֹן נְתִינָה הוּא, כְּמוֹ וּלְתִתְּךָ עֶלְיוֹן (דברים כ"ו); בֵּין לִגְדֻלָּה בֵּין לְשִׁפְלוּת נוֹפֵל לְשׁוֹן נְתִינָה עָלָיו, כְּמוֹ נָתַתִּי אֶתְכֶם נִבְזִים וּשְׁפָלִים (מלאכי ב'):
42And Pharaoh removed his ring from his hand and placed it on Joseph's hand, and he attired him [with] raiment of fine linen, and he placed the golden chain around his neck.   מבוַיָּ֨סַר פַּרְעֹ֤ה אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ֙ מֵעַ֣ל יָד֔וֹ וַיִּתֵּ֥ן אֹתָ֖הּ עַל־יַ֣ד יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיַּלְבֵּ֤שׁ אֹתוֹ֙ בִּגְדֵי־שֵׁ֔שׁ וַיָּ֛שֶׂם רְבִ֥ד הַזָּהָ֖ב עַל־צַוָּארֽוֹ:
And Pharaoh removed his ring: [The] giving [of] the king’s ring is a sign to the one to whom it is given [that he is] to be second to him in greatness [rank].   וַיָּסַר פַּרְעֹה אֶת־טַבַּעְתּוֹ: נְתִינַת טַבַּעַת הַמֶּלֶךְ הִיא אוֹת לְמִי שֶׁנּוֹתְנָהּ לוֹ לִהְיוֹת שֵׁנִי לוֹ לִגְדֻלָּה:
raiment of fine linen: This is an item of value in Egypt.   בִּגְדֵי־שֵׁשׁ: דְּבַר חֲשִׁיבוּת הוּא בְּמִצְרַיִם:
chain: Heb. רְבִד, a chain, and because it consists of links placed in a row, it is called רְבִד, and similarly, “I have decked (רָבַדְתִּי) my couch” (Prov. 7:16). I have decked my couch with rows of ornaments. In the language of the Mishnah: “surrounded by rows (רוֹבְדִין) of stone” (Middoth 1:8); “on the row of stones (רוֹבֶד) in the forecourt” (Yoma 43b), which is the pavement.   רביד: עֲנָק, וְעַל שֶׁהוּא רָצוּף בְּטַבָּעוֹת קָרוּי רְבִיד וְכֵן מַרְבַדִּים רָבַדְתִּי עַרְשִׂי (משלי ז') – רִצַּפְתִּי עַרְשִׂי מַרְצָפוֹת, בִּלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה מֻקָּף רוֹבְדִין שֶׁל אֶבֶן, עַל הָרֹבֶד שֶׁבָּעֲזָרָה, וְהִיא רִצְפָּה:
43And he had him ride in his chariot of second rank, and they called out before him, "[This is] the king's patron," appointing him over the entire land of Egypt.   מגוַיַּרְכֵּ֣ב אֹת֗וֹ בְּמִרְכֶּ֤בֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה֙ אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ וַיִּקְרְא֥וּ לְפָנָ֖יו אַבְרֵ֑ךְ וְנָת֣וֹן אֹת֔וֹ עַ֖ל כָּל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
in his chariot of second rank: Heb. מִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִשְׁנֶה. The one second to his chariot, which goes next to his.   בְּמִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה: הַשְּׁנִיָּה לְמֶרְכַּבְתּוֹ, הַמְהַלֶּכֶת אֵצֶל שֶׁלּוֹ:
the king’s patron: Heb. ‏ֵאַבְר, as the Targum renders: This is the patron of the king. [The word] ר‏ֵ in Aramaic means “king.” In [the chapter entitled] “The partners” (Baba Bathra 4a), he (Herod) is neither a king (רֵיכָא) nor the son of a king (בַּר רֵיכָא). [Thus, ר‏ֵ like rex in Latin, means king.] In the Aggadah (Sifrei Deut. 1), Rabbi Judah expounded: אַבְר‏ֵ refers to Joseph, who was a father (אָב) in wisdom, and tender (ר‏ַ) in years. Ben Durmaskith said to him, “How long will you pervert the Scriptures for us? אַבְר‏ֵ is only a term denoting knees (בִּרְכַּיִם), for all would enter and exit under his hand, as the matter that is stated: ”appointing him, etc."   אַבְרֵךְ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "דֵּין אַבָּא לְמַלְכָּא", רֵךְ בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי (נ"א רוֹמִי) מֶלֶךְ; בְּהַשֻּׁתָּפִין לָא רֵיכָא וְלֹא בַּר רֵיכָא, וּבְדִבְרֵי אַגָּדָה דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אַבְרֵךְ זֶה יוֹסֵף שֶׁהוּא אָב בְּחָכְמָה וְרַךְ בַּשָּׁנִים, אָמַר לוֹ רַ' יוֹסֵי בֶּן דֻּרְמַסְקִית עַד מָתַי אַתָּה מְעַוֵּת עָלֵינוּ אֶת הַכְּתוּבִים? אֵין אַבְרֵךְ אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן בִּרְכַּיִם, שֶׁהַכֹּל הָיוּ נִכְנָסִין וְיוֹצְאִין תַּחַת יָדוֹ, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וְנָתוֹן אוֹתוֹ וְגוֹ':
44And Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I am Pharaoh, and besides you, no one may lift his hand or his foot in the entire land of Egypt."   מדוַיֹּ֧אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֛ה אֶל־יוֹסֵ֖ף אֲנִ֣י פַרְעֹ֑ה וּבִלְעָדֶ֗יךָ לֹֽא־יָרִ֨ים אִ֧ישׁ אֶת־יָד֛וֹ וְאֶת־רַגְל֖וֹ בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
I am Pharaoh: I have the power to enact a decree upon my kingdom, and I decree that no one should raise his hand, etc.   אֲנִי פַּרְעֹה: שֶׁיֵּשׁ יְכֹלֶת בְּיָדִי לִגְזֹר גְּזֵרָה עַל מַלְכוּתִי, וַאֲנִי גּוֹזֵר שֶׁלֹּא יָרִים אִישׁ יָדוֹ:
and besides you: [I.e.,] without your permission. Another interpretation: I shall be the king, and besides you, etc. This is parallel to “only [with] the throne” (verse 40). - [from Gen. Rabbah 90:2] [I.e., although I give you the exclusive power to raise your hand and foot, as explained below I am still the supreme ruler over the land.]   בִלְעָדֶיךָ: שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר אֲנִי פַרְעֹה, אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה מֶלֶךְ, וּבִלְעָדֶיךָ וְגוֹ' וְזֶהוּ דֻּגְמַת רַק הַכִּסֵּא:
his hand or his foot: As the Targum renders [no man shall raise his hand to bear arms or his foot to ride a horse.]   אֶת־יָדוֹ וְאֶת־רַגְלוֹ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
45And Pharaoh named Joseph Zaphenath Pa'neach, and he gave him Asenath the daughter of Poti phera, the governor of On, for a wife, and Joseph went forth over the land of Egypt.   מהוַיִּקְרָ֨א פַרְעֹ֥ה שֵֽׁם־יוֹסֵף֘ צָֽפְנַ֣ת פַּעְנֵ֒חַ֒ וַיִּתֶּן־ל֣וֹ אֶת־אָֽסְנַ֗ת בַּת־פּ֥וֹטִי פֶ֛רַע כֹּהֵ֥ן אֹ֖ן לְאִשָּׁ֑ה וַיֵּצֵ֥א יוֹסֵ֖ף עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
Zaphenath-Pa’neach: He who explains hidden things, and Pa’neach has no parallel in Scripture. — [from Targum Onkelos]   צָֽפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ: מְפָרֵשׁ הַצְּפוּנוֹת; וְאֵין לְפַעְנֵחַ דִּמְיוֹן בַּמִּקְרָא:
Poti-phera: He is Potiphar, but he was called Poti-phera because he became emasculated since he desired Joseph for homosexual relations. — [from Sotah 13b]   פוטיפרע: הוּא פּוֹטִיפַר, וְנִקְרָא פּוֹטִיפֶרַע עַל שֶׁנִּסְתָּרֵס מֵאֵלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁחָמַד אֶת יוֹסֵף לְמִשְׁכַּב זָכָר (סוטה י"ג):
46And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and Joseph went out from before Pharaoh and passed through the entire land of Egypt.   מווְיוֹסֵף֙ בֶּן־שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה בְּעָמְד֕וֹ לִפְנֵ֖י פַּרְעֹ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרָ֑יִם וַיֵּצֵ֤א יוֹסֵף֙ מִלִּפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה וַיַּֽעֲבֹ֖ר בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
47And in the seven years of plenty, [the inhabitants of] the land gathered [food] by handfuls.   מזוַתַּ֣עַשׂ הָאָ֔רֶץ בְּשֶׁ֖בַע שְׁנֵ֣י הַשָּׂבָ֑ע לִקְמָצִֽים:
And…[the inhabitants of] the land gathered: Heb. וַתַּעַשׂ הָאָרֶץ, lit., and the land made. [This is to be understood] as the Targum renders: “And…the inhabitants of the land gathered.” The language, however, does not lose its meaning of making.   וַתַּעַשׂ הָאָרֶץ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, וְאֵין הַלָּשׁוֹן נֶעֱקָר מִלְּשׁוֹן עֲשִׂיָּה:
by handfuls: Heb. לִקְמָצִים. Handful over handful, hand over hand, they were storing it.   לִקְמָצִֽים: קֹמֶץ עַל קֹמֶץ, יָד עַל יָד, הָיוּ אוֹצְרִים:
48And he collected all the food of the seven years that was in the land of Egypt, and he placed food in the cities, the food of the field surrounding the city, he put within it.   מחוַיִּקְבֹּ֞ץ אֶת־כָּל־אֹ֣כֶל | שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָיוּ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּתֶּן־אֹ֖כֶל בֶּֽעָרִ֑ים אֹ֧כֶל שְׂדֵֽה־הָעִ֛יר אֲשֶׁ֥ר סְבִֽיבֹתֶ֖יהָ נָתַ֥ן בְּתוֹכָֽהּ:
the food of the field surrounding the city, he put within it: Because each land preserves its own produce, and they would put into the grain some of the soil of the place, and it would preserve the grain [and prevent it] from decaying. - [from Gen. Rabbah 90:5]   אֹכֶל שְׂדֵֽה־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר סְבִֽיבֹתֶיהָ נָתַן בְּתוֹכָֽהּ: שֶׁכָּל אֶרֶץ וְאֶרֶץ מַעֲמֶדֶת פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ, וְנוֹתְנִין בַּתְּבוּאָה מֵעֲפַר הַמָּקוֹם, וּמַעֲמִיד אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה מִלִּרְקֹב:
49And Joseph gathered grain like the sand of the sea, in great abundance, until [one] stopped counting, because there was no number.   מטוַיִּצְבֹּ֨ר יוֹסֵ֥ף בָּ֛ר כְּח֥וֹל הַיָּ֖ם הַרְבֵּ֣ה מְאֹ֑ד עַ֛ד כִּֽי־חָדַ֥ל לִסְפֹּ֖ר כִּי־אֵ֥ין מִסְפָּֽר:
until [one] stopped counting: Until the one who counted stopped counting. This is an elliptical verse. [The subject of חָדַל is missing.]   עַד כִּֽי־חָדַל לִסְפֹּר: עַד כִּי חָדַל לוֹ הַסּוֹפֵר לִסְפֹּר, וַהֲרֵי זֶה מִקְרָא קָצָר:
because there was no number: Heb. כִּי because there was no number, and here כִּי is used as an expression of “because.”   כִּֽי־אֵין מִסְפָּֽר: לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מִסְפָּר, וַהֲרֵי כִי מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּלְשׁוֹן דְּהָא:
50And to Joseph were born two sons before the year of the famine set in, whom Asenath the daughter of Poti phera, the governor of On, bore to him.   נוּלְיוֹסֵ֤ף יֻלָּד֙ שְׁנֵ֣י בָנִ֔ים בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּב֖וֹא שְׁנַ֣ת הָֽרָעָ֑ב אֲשֶׁ֤ר יָֽלְדָה־לּוֹ֙ אָֽסְנַ֔ת בַּת־פּ֥וֹטִי פֶ֖רַע כֹּהֵ֥ן אֽוֹן:
before the year of the famine set in: From here is derived that a person may not engage in marital relations during years of famine. — [from Ta’anith 11a]   בְּטֶרֶם תבא שְׁנַת הָֽרָעָב: מִכָּאן שֶׁאָדָם אָסוּר לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ בִּשְׁנֵי רְעָבוֹן (תענית י"א):
51And Joseph named the firstborn Manasseh, for "God has caused me to forget all my toil and all my father's house."   נאוַיִּקְרָ֥א יוֹסֵ֛ף אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם הַבְּכ֖וֹר מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה כִּֽי־נַשַּׁ֤נִי אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־כָּל־עֲמָלִ֔י וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽי:
52And the second one he named Ephraim, for "God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction."   נבוְאֵ֛ת שֵׁ֥ם הַשֵּׁנִ֖י קָרָ֣א אֶפְרָ֑יִם כִּֽי־הִפְרַ֥נִי אֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּאֶ֥רֶץ עָנְיִֽי: