Genesis Chapter 40

1Now it came about after these events that the cupbearer of the king of Egypt and the baker sinned against their master, against the king of Egypt.   אוַיְהִ֗י אַחַר֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה חָֽטְא֛וּ מַשְׁקֵ֥ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֖יִם וְהָֽאֹפֶ֑ה לַֽאֲדֹֽנֵיהֶ֖ם לְמֶ֥לֶךְ מִצְרָֽיִם:
Now it came about after these events: Because that cursed woman (Potiphar’s wife) had accustomed the people to talk [badly] about the righteous man (Joseph), therefore the Holy One, blessed be He, brought to them [the Egyptians] the sin of these [men], so that they would turn [their attention] to them [the two chamberlains] and not to him (Joseph), and also so that relief would come to the righteous man through them. [From Gen. Rabbah 88:1, 88:3]   אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה: לְפִי שֶׁהִרְגִּילָה אוֹתָהּ אֲרוּרָה אֶת הַצַּדִּיק בְּפִי כֻלָּם לְדַבֵּר בּוֹ וּלְגַנּוֹתוֹ, הֵבִיא לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא סֻרְחָנָם שֶׁל אֵלּוּ, שֶׁיִּפְנוּ אֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא אֵלָיו, וְעוֹד שֶׁתָּבֹא הָרְוָחָה לַצַּדִּיק עַל יְדֵיהֶם:
sinned: [Regarding] this one (the cupbearer) a fly was found in his goblet, and [concerning] that one (the baker) a pebble was found in his bread. [From Gen. Rabbah 88:2]   חָֽטְאוּ: זֶה נִמְצָא זְבוּב בְּפַיְילִי פּוֹטֵירִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְזֶה נִמְצָא צְרוֹר בִּגְלוּסְקִין שֶׁלּוֹ:
and the baker: of the king’s bread. The expression of baking (אִפִיָה) applies only to bread, pesto(u)r or pistor in Old French, kneader, baker.   וְהָֽאֹפֶה: אֶת פַּת הַמֶּלֶךְ, וְאֵין לְשׁוֹן אֲפִיָּה אֶלָּא בְּפַת, וּבְלַעַז פישטו"ר:
2And Pharaoh became incensed at his two chamberlains, at the chief cupbearer and at the chief baker.   בוַיִּקְצֹ֣ף פַּרְעֹ֔ה עַ֖ל שְׁנֵ֣י סָֽרִיסָ֑יו עַ֚ל שַׂ֣ר הַמַּשְׁקִ֔ים וְעַ֖ל שַׂ֥ר הָֽאוֹפִֽים:
3And he placed them in the prison of the house of the chief of the slaughterers, into the prison, the place where Joseph was imprisoned.   גוַיִּתֵּ֨ן אֹתָ֜ם בְּמִשְׁמַ֗ר בֵּ֛ית שַׂ֥ר הַטַּבָּחִ֖ים אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַסֹּ֑הַר מְק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוֹסֵ֖ף אָס֥וּר שָֽׁם:
4And the chief of the slaughterers appointed Joseph [to be] with them, and he served them, and they were a year in prison.   דוַ֠יִּפְקֹ֠ד שַׂ֣ר הַטַּבָּחִ֧ים אֶת־יוֹסֵ֛ף אִתָּ֖ם וַיְשָׁ֣רֶת אֹתָ֑ם וַיִּֽהְי֥וּ יָמִ֖ים בְּמִשְׁמָֽר:
And the chief of the slaughterers appointed, etc.: to be with them.   וַיִּפְקֹד שַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים אֶת־יוֹסֵף: לִהְיוֹת אִתָּם:
and they were a year in prison: Heb. יָמִים, twelve months.   וַיִּֽהְיוּ יָמִים בְּמִשְׁמָֽר: שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ:
5Now both of them dreamed a dream, each one his dream on the same night, each man according to the interpretation of his dream, the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were confined in the prison.   הוַיַּֽחַלְמוּ֩ חֲל֨וֹם שְׁנֵיהֶ֜ם אִ֤ישׁ חֲלֹמוֹ֙ בְּלַ֣יְלָה אֶחָ֔ד אִ֖ישׁ כְּפִתְר֣וֹן חֲלֹמ֑וֹ הַמַּשְׁקֶ֣ה וְהָֽאֹפֶ֗ה אֲשֶׁר֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲסוּרִ֖ים בְּבֵ֥ית הַסֹּֽהַר:
Now both of them dreamed a dream: Heb. וַיַחַלְמוּ חִלוֹם שְׁנֵיהֶם, and both of them dreamed a dream. This is its simple meaning, but its midrashic meaning is that each dreamed both dreams, meaning that each dreamed his own dream and the interpretation of his companion’s dream. That is the meaning of what is stated: “Now the chief baker saw that he had interpreted well” (verse 16). [From Gen. Rabbah 88:4, Ber. 55b]   וַיַּֽחַלְמוּ חֲלוֹם שְׁנֵיהֶם: וַיַּחַלְמוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם חֲלוֹם, זֶהוּ פְשׁוּטוֹ, וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ כָּל א' חָלַם חֲלוֹם שְׁנֵיהֶם – שֶׁחָלַם אֶת חֲלוֹמוֹ וּפִתְרוֹן חֲבֵרוֹ, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּרְא שַׂר הָאֹפִים כִּי טוֹב פָּתָר:
each man according to the interpretation of his dream: Each one dreamed a dream similar to the interpretation destined to befall them.   אִישׁ כְּפִתְרוֹן חלומו: כָּל אֶחָד חָלַם חֲלוֹם הַדּוֹמֶה לְפִתְרוֹן הֶעָתִיד לָבֹא עֲלֵיהֶם:
6And Joseph came to them in the morning, and he saw them and behold, they were troubled.   ווַיָּבֹ֧א אֲלֵיהֶ֛ם יוֹסֵ֖ף בַּבֹּ֑קֶר וַיַּ֣רְא אֹתָ֔ם וְהִנָּ֖ם זֹֽעֲפִֽים:
troubled: Heb. זֹעִפִים, sad, similar to “sad and upset (וְזָעֵף)” (I Kings 20:43); “I will bear the fury (זַעַף) of the Lord” (Micah 7:9). [From Targum Onkelos]   זֹֽעֲפִֽים: עֲצֵבִים כְּמוֹ סַר וְזָעֵף (מלכים א כ'), זַעַף ה' אֶשָּׂא (מיכה ז'):
7And he asked Pharaoh's chamberlains who were with him in the prison of his master's house, saying, "Why are your faces sad today?"   זוַיִּשְׁאַ֞ל אֶת־סְרִיסֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אִתּ֧וֹ בְמִשְׁמַ֛ר בֵּ֥ית אֲדֹנָ֖יו לֵאמֹ֑ר מַדּ֛וּעַ פְּנֵיכֶ֥ם רָעִ֖ים הַיּֽוֹם:
8And they said to him, "We have dreamed a dream, and there is no interpreter for it." Joseph said to them, "Don't interpretations belong to God? Tell [them] to me now."   חוַיֹּֽאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֔יו חֲל֣וֹם חָלַ֔מְנוּ וּפֹתֵ֖ר אֵ֣ין אֹת֑וֹ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֜ם יוֹסֵ֗ף הֲל֤וֹא לֵֽאלֹהִים֙ פִּתְרֹנִ֔ים סַפְּרוּ־נָ֖א לִֽי:
9So the chief cupbearer related his dream to Joseph, and he said to him, "In my dream, behold, a vine is before me.   טוַיְסַפֵּ֧ר שַׂר־הַמַּשְׁקִ֛ים אֶת־חֲלֹמ֖וֹ לְיוֹסֵ֑ף וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ בַּֽחֲלוֹמִ֕י וְהִנֵּה־גֶ֖פֶן לְפָנָֽי:
10And on the vine are three tendrils, and it seemed to be blossoming, and its buds came out; [then] its clusters ripened into grapes.   יוּבַגֶּ֖פֶן שְׁלשָׁ֣ה שָֽׂרִיגִ֑ם וְהִ֤וא כְפֹרַ֨חַת֙ עָֽלְתָ֣ה נִצָּ֔הּ הִבְשִׁ֥ילוּ אַשְׁכְּלֹתֶ֖יהָ עֲנָבִֽים:
tendrils: Heb. שָׂרִיגִם, long branches, known [in Old French] as vidiz, vine-shoots.   שָֽׂרִיגִם: זְמוֹרוֹת אֲרוּכוֹת, שֶׁקּוֹרִין ווידי"ץ בְּלַעַז:
and it seemed to be blossoming: Heb. וְהִוא כְפֹרַחַת, meaning it resembled blossoming. וְהִוא כְפֹרַחַת It seemed to me in my dream as if it were blossoming, and after the blossom, its buds came up, and they became tiny grapes, aspanir in Old French, and afterwards they ripened. [Onkelos renders וְהִוא כְפֹרַחַת:] “and it was as if blossoming, it brought forth blossoms;” until here is the Targum for פֹּרַחַת. [The word] נֵץ [denotes a stage of grapes] larger than פֶּרַח, the blossom, as it is written: “and the buds (נִצָה) turn into ripening grapes” (Isa. 18:5), and it is also written: “had blossomed פֶרַח) (וַיֹצֵא,” and afterwards, “it had put forth a bud (וַיָצֵץ צִיץ)” (Num. 17:23).   וְהִוא כְפֹרַחַת: דּוֹמֶה לְפוֹרַחַת וְהִיא כְפוֹרַחַת – נִדְמָה לִי בַּחֲלוֹמִי כְאִלּוּ הִיא פוֹרַחַת, וְאַחַר הַפֶּרַח עָלְתָה נִצָּה, וְנַעֲשׂוּ סְמָדַר, אשפנ"יר בְּלַעַז, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִבְשִׁילוּ, וְהִיא כַּד אַפְרַחַת אַפֵּקַת לַבְלְבִין עַד כָּאן תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל פּוֹרַחַת נֵץ גָּדוֹל מִפֶּרַח כְּדִכְתִיב וּבֹסֶר גֹּמֵל יִהְיֶה נִצָּה (ישעיהו י"ח), וּכְתִיב וַיֹּצֵא פֶרַח, וַהֲדַר וַיָּצֵץ צִיץ (במדבר י"ז):
11And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes and squeezed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I placed the cup on Pharaoh's palm."   יאוְכ֥וֹס פַּרְעֹ֖ה בְּיָדִ֑י וָֽאֶקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָֽעֲנָבִ֗ים וָֽאֶשְׂחַ֤ט אֹתָם֙ אֶל־כּ֣וֹס פַּרְעֹ֔ה וָֽאֶתֵּ֥ן אֶת־הַכּ֖וֹס עַל־כַּ֥ף פַּרְעֹֽה:
and squeezed: Heb. וָאֶשְׂחַט, as the Targum renders וַעִצָרִית. There are many instances [of this word] in the language of the Mishnah.   וָֽאֶשְׂחַט: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ וַעֲצָרִית, וְהַרְבֵּה יֵשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה:
12And Joseph said to him, "This is its meaning: the three tendrils are three days.   יבוַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ יוֹסֵ֔ף זֶ֖ה פִּתְרֹנ֑וֹ שְׁל֨שֶׁת֙ הַשָּׂ֣רִגִ֔ים שְׁל֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים הֵֽם:
are three days: For you they symbolize three days, and there are many midrashic interpretations (Chullin 92a, Gen. Rabbah 88:5, targumim).   שְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים הֵֽם: סִימָן הֵם לְךָ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים, וְיֵשׁ מִדְרְשֵׁי אַגָּדָה הַרְבֵּה (חולין צ"ב):
13In another three days, Pharaoh will number you [with the other officers], and he will restore you to your position, and you will place Pharaoh's cup into his hand, according to [your] previous custom, when you were his cupbearer.   יגבְּע֣וֹד | שְׁל֣שֶׁת יָמִ֗ים יִשָּׂ֤א פַרְעֹה֙ אֶת־רֹאשֶׁ֔ךָ וַֽהֲשִֽׁיבְךָ֖ עַל־כַּנֶּ֑ךָ וְנָֽתַתָּ֤ כוֹס־פַּרְעֹה֙ בְּיָד֔וֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט֙ הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיִ֖יתָ מַשְׁקֵֽהוּ:
Pharaoh will number you: Heb. יִשָׂא פַרְעֹה אֶת-רֹאשׁך, lit., will raise your head, an expression of numbering. When he counts the rest of his servants to serve him at the feast, he will count you along with them.   יִשָּׂא פַרְעֹה אֶת־רֹאשֶׁךָ: לְ' חֶשְׁבּוֹן, כְּשֶׁיִּפְקֹד שְׁאָר עֲבָדָיו לְשָׁרֵת לְפָנָיו בַּסְּעוּדָה, יִמְנֶה אוֹתְךָ עִמָּהֶם:
your position: Heb. כַּנּ‏ֶ, your base and your seat.   כַּנֶּךָ: בָּסִיס שֶׁלְּךָ וּמוֹשָׁבְךָ:
14But remember me when things go well with you, and please do me a favor and mention me to Pharaoh, and you will get me out of this house.   ידכִּ֧י אִם־זְכַרְתַּ֣נִי אִתְּךָ֗ כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וְעָשִֽׂיתָ־נָּ֥א עִמָּדִ֖י חָ֑סֶד וְהִזְכַּרְתַּ֨נִי֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְהֽוֹצֵאתַ֖נִי מִן־הַבַּ֥יִת הַזֶּֽה:
But remember me: But keep me in mind, since it will go well with you as I have interpreted.   כִּי אִם־זְכַרְתַּנִי אִתְּךָ: אֲשֶׁר אִם זְכַרְתַּנִי אִתְּךָ, מֵאַחַר שֶׁיִּיטַב לְךָ כְּפִתְרוֹנִי:
and please do me a favor: Heb. נָא. נָא is only an expression of pleading.   וְעָשִֽׂיתָ־נָּא עִמָּדִי חָסֶד: אֵין נָא אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה:
15For I was stolen from the land of the Hebrews, and here too, I have done nothing, for which they have put me into the dungeon."   טוכִּֽי־גֻנֹּ֣ב גֻּנַּ֔בְתִּי מֵאֶ֖רֶץ הָֽעִבְרִ֑ים וְגַם־פֹּה֙ לֹֽא־עָשִׂ֣יתִי מְא֔וּמָה כִּֽי־שָׂמ֥וּ אֹתִ֖י בַּבּֽוֹר:
16Now the chief baker saw that he had interpreted well. So he said to Joseph, "Me too! In my dream, behold, there were three wicker baskets on my head.   טזוַיַּ֥רְא שַׂר־הָֽאֹפִ֖ים כִּ֣י ט֣וֹב פָּתָ֑ר וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֔ף אַף־אֲנִי֙ בַּֽחֲלוֹמִ֔י וְהִנֵּ֗ה שְׁלשָׁ֛ה סַלֵּ֥י חֹרִ֖י עַל־רֹאשִֽׁי:
wicker baskets: Heb. סַלֵי חֹרִי, baskets of peeled willows, made with many holes (חוֹרִין חוֹרִין). In our country (France) there are many [such baskets], and it is the custom of the venders of hollow wafers, known as o(u) blies, to put them into such baskets.   סַלֵּי חורי: סַלִּים שֶׁל נְצָרִים קְלוּפִים חוֹרִין חוֹרִין, וּבִמְקוֹמֵנוּ יֵשׁ הַרְבֵּה, וְדֶרֶךְ מוֹכְרֵי פַת כִּסָּנִין, שֶׁקּוֹרִין אובל"יש בְּלַעַז, לְתִתָּם בְּאוֹתָם סַלִּים:
17And in the topmost basket were all kinds of Pharaoh's food, the work of a baker, and the birds were eating them from the basket atop my head."   יזוּבַסַּ֣ל הָֽעֶלְי֗וֹן מִכֹּ֛ל מַֽאֲכַ֥ל פַּרְעֹ֖ה מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה אֹפֶ֑ה וְהָע֗וֹף אֹכֵ֥ל אֹתָ֛ם מִן־הַסַּ֖ל מֵעַ֥ל רֹאשִֽׁי:
18And Joseph replied and said, "This is its meaning: the three baskets represent three days.   יחוַיַּ֤עַן יוֹסֵף֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר זֶ֖ה פִּתְרֹנ֑וֹ שְׁל֨שֶׁת֙ הַסַּלִּ֔ים שְׁל֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים הֵֽם:
19In another three days, Pharaoh will remove your head from you and hang you on a gallows, and the birds will eat your flesh off you."   יטבְּע֣וֹד | שְׁל֣שֶׁת יָמִ֗ים יִשָּׂ֨א פַרְעֹ֤ה אֶת־רֹֽאשְׁךָ֙ מֵֽעָלֶ֔יךָ וְתָלָ֥ה אֽוֹתְךָ֖ עַל־עֵ֑ץ וְאָכַ֥ל הָע֛וֹף אֶת־בְּשָֽׂרְךָ֖ מֵֽעָלֶֽיךָ:
20Now it came about on the third day, Pharaoh's birthday, that Pharaoh made a feast for all his servants, and he counted the chief cupbearer and chief baker among his servants.   כוַיְהִ֣י | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י י֚וֹם הֻלֶּ֣דֶת אֶת־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַיַּ֥עַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּ֖ה לְכָל־עֲבָדָ֑יו וַיִּשָּׂ֞א אֶת־רֹ֣אשׁ | שַׂ֣ר הַמַּשְׁקִ֗ים וְאֶת־רֹ֛אשׁ שַׂ֥ר הָֽאֹפִ֖ים בְּת֥וֹךְ עֲבָדָֽיו:
Pharaoh’s birthday: Heb. יוֹם הֻלֶדֶת, the day of his birth, and it is called “ginusia” day [in Greek]. The expression הֻלֶדֶת [the “hoph’al” which is the passive of the“hiph’il” the causative] is used because the fetus is born only through [the assistance of] others, for the midwife assists the woman in giving birth. It is for this reason that the midwife is called מְיַלֶדֶת, [one who causes to deliver], and likewise, “And as for your birth (מוֹלְדוֹתַיך), on the day you were born (הוּלֶדֶת אוֹתך)” (Ezek. 16:4), and similarly, “after the mark was washed (הֻכַּבֵּס)” (Lev. 13:55), for the washing is done by others. [From Gen. Rabbah 88:6]   יוֹם הֻלֶּדֶת אֶת־פַּרְעֹה: יוֹם לֵידָתוֹ, וְקוֹרִין לוֹ יוֹם גֵּינוּסְיָא. וּלְשׁוֹן הֻלֶּדֶת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַוָּלָד נוֹצָר אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, שֶׁהַחַיָּה מְיַלֶּדֶת אֶת הָאִשָּׁה, וְעַל כֵּן הַחַיָּה נִקְרֵאת מְיַלֶּדֶת, וְכֵן וּמוֹלְדוֹתַיִךְ בְּיוֹם הוּלֶּדֶת אוֹתָךְ (יחזקאל ט"ז) וְכֵן אַחֲרֵי הֻכַּבֵּס אֶת הַנֶּגַע (ויקרא י"ג), שֶׁכִּבּוּסוֹ עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים:
he counted, etc.: Heb. וַיִשָׂא אֶת רֹאשׁ. He counted them with the rest of his servants, for he was counting the servants who would serve him in his feast, and he remembered these among them. [וַיִשָׂא אֶת-רֹאשׁ is] similar to “Take the count (שְׂאוּ אֶת-רֹאשׁ)” (Num. 1:2), an expression of counting.   וַיִּשָּׂא אֶת־רֹאשׁ וגו': מְנָאָם עִם שְׁאָר עֲבָדָיו, שֶׁהָיָה מוֹנֶה הַמְּשָׁרְתִים שֶׁיְּשָׁרְתוּ לוֹ בִּסְעוּדָתוֹ וְזָכַר אֶת אֵלּוּ בְתוֹכָם, כְּמוֹ שְׂאוּ אֶת רֹאשׁ (במדבר א'), לְשׁוֹן מִנְיָן:
21And he restored the chief cupbearer to his [position as] cupbearer, and he placed the cup on Pharaoh's palm.   כאוַיָּ֛שֶׁב אֶת־שַׂ֥ר הַמַּשְׁקִ֖ים עַל־מַשְׁקֵ֑הוּ וַיִּתֵּ֥ן הַכּ֖וֹס עַל־כַּ֥ף פַּרְעֹֽה:
22And the chief baker he hanged, as Joseph had interpreted to them.   כבוְאֵ֛ת שַׂ֥ר הָֽאֹפִ֖ים תָּלָ֑ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר פָּתַ֛ר לָהֶ֖ם יוֹסֵֽף:
23But the chief cupbearer did not remember Joseph, and he forgot him.   כגוְלֹֽא־זָכַ֧ר שַׂר־הַמַּשְׁקִ֛ים אֶת־יוֹסֵ֖ף וַיִּשְׁכָּחֵֽהוּ:
But the chief cupbearer did not remember: on that day.   וְלֹֽא־זָכַר שַׂר־הַמַּשְׁקִים: בּוֹ בַיּוֹם:
and he forgot him: afterwards. Because Joseph relied on him to remember him, he was compelled to be confined for two years, as it is said: “Praiseworthy is the man who made the Lord his trust and did not turn to the haughty (רְהָבִים)” (Ps. 40:5). He did not turn to the Egyptians, who are called רַהַב, haughty. [From Gen. Rabbah 89:3]   וַיִּשְׁכָּחֵֽהוּ: לְאַחַר מִכָּאן. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁתָּלָה בוֹ יוֹסֵף לְזָכְרוֹ, הֻזְקַק לִהְיוֹת אָסוּר שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אַשְׁרֵי הַגֶּבֶר אֲשֶׁר שָׂם ה' מִבְטַחוֹ וְלֹא פָנָה אֶל רְהָבִים (תהילים מ') – וְלֹא בָטַח עַל מִצְרִים, הַקְּרוּיִים רַהַב: