Genesis Chapter 1

1In the beginning of God's creation of the heavens and the earth.   אבְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
In the beginning: Said Rabbi Isaac: It was not necessary to begin the Torah except from “This month is to you,” (Exod. 12:2) which is the first commandment that the Israelites were commanded, (for the main purpose of the Torah is its commandments, and although several commandments are found in Genesis, e.g., circumcision and the prohibition of eating the thigh sinew, they could have been included together with the other commandments). Now for what reason did He commence with “In the beginning?” Because of [the verse] “The strength of His works He related to His people, to give them the inheritance of the nations” (Ps. 111:6). For if the nations of the world should say to Israel, “You are robbers, for you conquered by force the lands of the seven nations [of Canaan],” they will reply, "The entire earth belongs to the Holy One, blessed be He; He created it (this we learn from the story of the Creation) and gave it to whomever He deemed proper When He wished, He gave it to them, and when He wished, He took it away from them and gave it to us.   בְּרֵאשִׁית: אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק לֹֹֹֹֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לְהַתְחִיל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מֵהַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם, שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ בָּהּ יִשׂרָאֵל, וּמַה טַּעַם פָּתַח בִּבְרֵאשִׁית? מִשׁוּם כֹּחַ מַעֲשָׂיו הִגִּיד לְעַמּוֹ לָתֵת לָהֶם נַחֲלַת גּוֹיִם (תהילים קי"א), שֶׁאִם יֹאמְרוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְיִשְׁרָאֵל לִסְטִים אַתֶּם, שֶׁכְּבַשְׁתֶּם אַרְצוֹת שִׁבְעָה גוֹיִם, הֵם אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם כָּל הָאָרֶץ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הִיא, הוּא בְרָאָהּ וּנְתָנָהּ לַאֲשֶׁר יָשַׁר בְּעֵינָיו, בִּרְצוֹנוֹ נְתָנָהּ לָהֶם, וּבִרְצוֹנוֹ נְטָלָהּ מֵהֶם וּנְתָנָהּ לָנוּ:
In the beginning of God’s creation of: Heb. בְּרֵאשִית בָּרָא. This verse calls for a midrashic interpretation [because according to its simple interpretation, the vowelization of the word בָּרָא, should be different, as Rashi explains further]. It teaches us that the sequence of the Creation as written is impossible, as is written immediately below] as our Rabbis stated (Letters of R. Akiva , letter “beth” ; Gen. Rabbah 1:6; Lev. Rabbah 36:4): [God created the world] for the sake of the Torah, which is called (Prov. 8:22): “the beginning of His way,” and for the sake of Israel, who are called (Jer. 2:3) “the first of His grain.” But if you wish to explain it according to its simple meaning, explain it thus: “At the beginning of the creation of heaven and earth, the earth was astonishing with emptiness, and darkness…and God said, ‘Let there be light.’” But Scripture did not come to teach the sequence of the Creation, to say that these came first, for if it came to teach this, it should have written:“At first (בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה) He created the heavens and the earth,” for there is no רֵאשִׁית in Scripture that is not connected to the following word, [i.e., in the construct state] like (ibid. 27:1):“In the beginning of (בְּרֵאשִית) the reign of Jehoiakim” ; (below 10:10)“the beginning of (רֵאשִׁית) his reign” ; (Deut. 18:4)“the first (רֵאשִׁית) of your corn.” Here too, you say בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אלֹהִים, like בְּרֵאשִׁית בְּרֹא, in the beginning of creating. And similar to this is,“At the beginning of the Lord’s speaking (דִּבֶּר) to Hosea,” (Hos. 1:2), i.e., at the beginning of the speaking (דִּבּוּרוֹ) of the Holy One, Blessed be He, to Hosea, “the Lord said to Hosea, etc.” Now if you say that it came to teach that these (i.e., heaven and earth) were created first, and that its meaning is: In the beginning of all, He created these-and that there are elliptical verses that omit one word, like (Job 3:10): “For [He] did not shut the doors of my [mother’s] womb,” and it does not explain who it was who shut [the womb]; and like (Isa. 8:4): “he will carry off the wealth of Damascus,” and it does not explain who will carry it off; and like (Amos 6:12): “or will one plow with cattle,” and it does not explain: “if a man will plow with cattle” ; and like (Isa. 46: 10): “telling the end from the beginning,” and it does not explain that [it means] telling the end of a matter from the beginning of a matter-if so, [if you say that Scripture indicates the order of creation] be astounded at yourself, for the water preceded, as it is written: “and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the water,” and Scripture did not yet disclose when the creation of water took place! From this you learn that the water preceded the earth. Moreover, the heavens were created from fire and water. Perforce, you must admit that Scripture did not teach us anything about the sequence of the earlier and the later [acts of creation].   בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא: אֵין הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה אוֹמֵר אֶלָּא דָּרְשֵׁנִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁדְּרָשׁוּהוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בִּשְׁבִיל הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנִקְרֵאת רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ (משלי ח'), וּבִשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנִקְרְאוּ רֵאשִׁית תְּבוּאָתוֹ (ירמיה ב'); וְאִם בָּאתָ לְפָרְשׁוֹ כִּפְשׁוּטוֹ, כָּךְ פָּרְשֵׁהוּ בְּרֵאשִׁית בְּרִיאַת שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וְלֹא בָא הַמִּקְרָא לְהוֹרוֹת סֵדֶר הַבְּרִיאָה לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵלּוּ קָדְמוּ, שֶׁאִם בָּא לְהוֹרוֹת כָּךְ, הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה בָּרָא אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְגוֹ' שֶׁאֵין לְךָ רֵאשִׁית בַּמִּקְרָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ דָבוּק לַתֵּבָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, כְּמוֹ בְּרֵאשִׁית מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוֹיָקִים (שׁם כ"ז), רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ (בראשית י'), רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ (דברים י"ח, ד'), – אַף כָּאן אַתָּה אוֹמֵר בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים וְגוֹ', כְּמוֹ בְּרֵאשִׁית בְּרֹא; וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ תְּחִלַּת דִּבֶּר ה' בְּהוֹשֵׁעַ (הושע א'), כְּלוֹמַר תְּחִלַת דִּבּוּרוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּהוֹשֵׁעַ, וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל הוֹשֵׁעַ וְגוֹ'. וְאִם תֹּאמַר לְהוֹרוֹת בָּא שֶׁאֵלּוּ תְּחִלָּה נִבְרְאוּ, וּפֵרוּשׁוֹ בְּרֵאשִׁית הַכֹּל בָּרָא אֵלוּ – וְֵישׁ לְךָ מִקְרָאוֹת שֶׁמְּקַצְּרִים לְשׁוֹנָם וּמְמַעֲטִים תֵּבָה אַחַת, כְּמוֹ כִּי לֹא סָגַר דַּלְתֵי בִטְנִי (איוב ג'), וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ מִי הַסּוֹגֵר וּכְמוֹ יִשָּׂא אֶת חֵיל דַּמֶּשֶׂק (ישעיהו ח'), וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ מִי יִשָּׂאֶנּוּ; וּכְמוֹ אִם יַחֲרוֹשׁ בַּבְּקָרִים (עמוס ו'), וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ אִם יַחֲרוֹשׁ אָדָם בַּבְּקָרִים, וּכְמוֹ מַגִּיד מֵרֵאשִׁית אַחֲרִית (ישעיהו מ"ו), וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ מַגִּיד מֵרֵאשִׁית דָּבָר אַחֲרִית דָּבָר – אִם כֵּן, תְּמַהּ עַל עַצְמְךָ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמַּיִם קָדְמוּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְתִיב וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, וְעַדַיִין לֹא גִלָּה הַמִּקְרָא, בְּרִיאַת הַמַּיִם מָתַי הָיְתָה, הָא לָמַדְתָּ, שֶׁקָּדְמוּ הַמַּיִם לָאָרֶץ, וְעוֹד, שֶׁהַשָּׁמַיִם מֵאֵשׁ וּמַיִם נִבְרְאוּ, עַל כָּרְחֲךָ לֹא לִמֵּד הַמִּקְרָא סֵדֶר הַמֻּקְדָמִים וְהַמְאֻחָרִים כְּלוּם:
God’s creation of the heavens and the earth: But it does not say “of the Lord’s creation of” (i.e., it should say “of the Lord God’s creation of” as below 2:4 “on the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven”) for in the beginning it was His intention to create it with the Divine Standard of Justice, but he perceived that the world would not endure; so He preceded it with the Divine Standard of Mercy, allying it with the Divine Standard of Justice, and that is the reason it is written:“on the day the Lord God made earth and heaven.”   בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים: וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר בָּרָא ה', שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה עָלָה בְמַחֲשָׁבָה לִבְרֹאתוֹ בְּמִדַּת הַדִּין, רָאָה שֶׁאֵין הָעוֹלָם מִתְקַיֵּם, הִקְדִּים מִדַּת רַחֲמִים וְשִׁתְּפָהּ לְמִידַת הַדִּין, וְהַיְינוּ דִּכְתִיב בְּיוֹם עֲשׂוֹת ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָיִם:
2Now the earth was astonishingly empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep, and the spirit of God was hovering over the face of the water.   בוְהָאָ֗רֶץ הָֽיְתָ֥ה תֹ֨הוּ֙ וָבֹ֔הוּ וְח֖שֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י תְה֑וֹם וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַמָּֽיִם:
astonishingly empty: Heb. תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ. The word תֹהוּ is an expression of astonishment and desolation, that a person wonders and is astonished at the emptiness therein.   תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ: תֹּהוּ לְשׁוֹן תֵּמַהּ וְשִׁמָּמוֹן, שֶׁאָדָם תּוֹהֵא וּמִשְׁתּוֹמֵם עַל בֹּהוּ שֶׁבָּהּ:
astonishingly empty: Astordison in Old French; [étourdissement in modern French], astonishment. בֹהוּ an expression of emptiness and desolation. (This does not appear in all editions.)   תֹהוּ: אשטורדי"שון בְּלַעַ"ז:
בֹהוּ: an expression of emptiness and desolation. (This does not appear in all editions.)   בהו: לְשׁוֹן רֵקוּת וְצָדוּ:
on the face of the deep: on the face of the waters which were on the earth.   עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם: עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל הָאָרֶץ:
and the spirit of God was hovering: The Throne of Glory was suspended in the air and hovered over the face of the water with the breath of the mouth of the Holy One, blessed be He and with His word, like a dove, which hovers over the nest, acoveter in Old French, to cover, hover over.   וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת: כִּסֵא הַכָּבוֹד עוֹמֵד בָּאֲוִיר וּמְרַחֵף עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם בְּרוּחַ פִּיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וּבְמַאֲמָרוֹ, כְּיוֹנָה הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל הַקֵּן, אקוב"טיר בְּלַעַ"ז:
3And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.   גוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים יְהִי־א֑וֹר וַֽיְהִי־אֽוֹר:
4And God saw the light that it was good, and God separated between the light and between the darkness.   דוַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָא֖וֹר כִּי־ט֑וֹב וַיַּבְדֵּ֣ל אֱלֹהִ֔ים בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֥ין הַחֽשֶׁךְ:
And God saw the light that it was good, and God separated: Here too, we need the words of the Aggadah: He saw it that it was not proper for the wicked to use it; so He separated it for the righteous in the future. According to its simple meaning, explain it as follows: He saw it that it was good, and it was unseemly that it [light] and darkness should serve in confusion; so He established for this one its boundary by day, and for that one its boundary by night.   וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל: אַף בָּזֶה אָנוּ צְרִיכִין לְדִבְרֵי אַגַּדָה, רָאָהוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְדַאי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵשׁ בּוֹ רְשָׁעִים, וְהִבְדִּילוֹ לַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא. וּלְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ כָּךְ פָּרְשֵׁהוּ, רָאָהוּ כִּי טוֹב, וְאֵין נָאֶה לוֹ וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בְּעִרְבּוּבְיָא, וְקָבַע לָזֶה תְחוּמוֹ בַּיּוֹם, וְלָזֶה תְחוּמוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה:
5And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night, and it was evening and it was morning, one day.   הוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | לָאוֹר֙ י֔וֹם וְלַח֖שֶׁךְ קָ֣רָא לָ֑יְלָה וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד:
one day: According to the sequence of the language of the chapter, it should have been written, “the first day,” as it is written regarding the other days, “second, third, fourth.” Why did Scripture write“one” ? Because the Holy One, blessed be He, was the only one in His world, for the angels were not created until the second day. [i.e., יוֹם אֶחָד is understood as ‘the day of the only One’] So is it explained in Genesis Rabbah (3:8).   יוֹם אֶחָֽד: לְפִי סֵדֶר לְשׁוֹן הַפָּרָשָׁה הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בִּשְׁאָר הַיָּמִים שֵׁנִי, שְׁלִישִׁי, רְבִיעִי, לָמָּה כָתַב אֶחָד? לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יָחִיד בְּעוֹלָמוֹ, שֶׁלֹא נִבְרְאוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים עַד יוֹם שֵׁנִי, כָּךְ מְפֹרָשׁ בּבְּרֵאשִׁית רַבָּה:
6And God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the water, and let it be a separation between water and water."   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים יְהִ֥י רָקִ֖יעַ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַמָּ֑יִם וִיהִ֣י מַבְדִּ֔יל בֵּ֥ין מַ֖יִם לָמָֽיִם:
Let there be an expanse: Let the expanse be strengthened, for, although the heavens were created on the first day, they were still moist, and they solidified on the second [day] from the rebuke of the Holy One, blessed be He, when He said, “Let there be an expanse.” This is what Scripture says (Job 26:11): “The pillars of the heavens trembled” the entire first day, and on the second day: “They were astonished by His rebuke,” like a person who stands in astonishment because of the rebuke of the one who frightens him. [Genesis Rabbah 12:10]   יְהִי רָקִיעַ: יֶחֱזַק הָרָקִיעַ, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ שָׁמַיִם בְּיוֹם א' עֲדַיִן לַחִים הָיוּ וְקָרְשׁוּ בַשֵּׁנִי מִגַּעֲרַת הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּאָמְרוֹ יְהִי רָקִיעַ, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁכָּתַב (איוב כ"ו) עַמּוּדֵי שָׁמַיִם יְרוֹפָפוּ – כָּל יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, וּבַשֵּׁנִי יִתְמְהוּ מִגַּעֲרָתוֹ, כְּאָדָם שֶׁמִּשְׁתּוֹמֵם וְעוֹמֵד מִגַּעֲרַת הַמְאַיֵּם עָלָיו:
in the midst of the water: In the middle of the water (Targum), for there is a separation between the upper waters and the expanse, as there is between the expanse and the waters that are on the earth. Behold you have learned that they are suspended by the word of the King. — [Gen. Rabbah 4:3]   בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם: בְּאֶמְצַע הַמַּיִם, שֶׁיֵּש הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶליוֹנִים לָרָקִיעַ כְּמוֹ בֵין הָרָקִיעַ לַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל הָאָרֶץ, הָא לָמַדְתָּ, שֶׁהֵם תְּלוּיִים בְּמַאֲמָרוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ:
7And God made the expanse and it separated between the water that was below the expanse and the water that was above the expanse, and it was so.   זוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִים֘ אֶת־הָֽרָקִיעַ֒ וַיַּבְדֵּ֗ל בֵּ֤ין הַמַּ֨יִם֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ מִתַּ֣חַת לָֽרָקִ֔יעַ וּבֵ֣ין הַמַּ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֖ר מֵעַ֣ל לָֽרָקִ֑יעַ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
And God made the expanse: He fixed it upon its base, which is [what is meant by] “making” it; as [in the verse] (Deut. 21:12):“and she shall ‘do’ her nails,” וְעָשְׂתָה.   וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָֽרָקִיעַ: תִּקְּנוֹ עַל עָמְדוֹ, וְהִיא עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ, כְּמוֹ וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת צִפָּרְנֶיהָ (דברים כ"א):
above the expanse: It does not say, “on the expanse,” but “above the expanse,” because they [the waters] are suspended in the air (Mid. Ps. 19:4). Now why does it not say, “that it was good” on the second day? Because the work involving the water was not completed until the third day, although He commenced it on the second day, and an unfinished thing is not in its fullness and its goodness; and on the third day, when He completed the work involving the water and He commenced and completed another work, He repeated therein“that it was good” twice (sic): once for the completion of the work of the second day and once for the completion of the work of that [third] day. — [Gen. Rabbah 4:6]   מֵעַל לָֽרָקִיעַ: עַל הָרָקִיעַ לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן תְּלוּיִין בָּאֲוִיר. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא נֶאֱמַר כִּי טוֹב בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי? לְפִי שֶׁלֹא הָיָה נִגְמָר מְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם עַד יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי, וַהֲרֵי הִתְחִיל בָּהּ בְּשֵׁנִי, וְדָבָר שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמַר אֵינוֹ בִּמְלוֹאוֹ וְטוּבוֹ; וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁנִּגְמַר מְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם וְהִתְחִיל וְגָמַר מְלָאכָה אֲחֶרֶת, כָּפַל בּוֹ כִּי טוֹב שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים, אַחַת לִגְמַר מְלֶאכֶת הַשֵּׁנִי וְאַחַת לִגְמַר מְלֶאכֶת הַיּוֹם:
8And God called the expanse Heaven, and it was evening, and it was morning, a second day.   חוַיִּקְרָ֧א אֱלֹהִ֛ים לָֽרָקִ֖יעַ שָׁמָ֑יִם וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם שֵׁנִֽי:
And God called the expanse heaven: Heb. שָׁמַיִם [This is a combination of the words מַיִם שָׂא, bear water (Gen. Rabbah 4:7); שָׁם מַיִם, there is water; אֵשׁ וּמַיִם, fire and water. He mingled them with one another and made the heavens from them (Chag. 12a).   וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָֽרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם: שָׂא מַיִם, שָׁם מַיִם, אֵשׁ וּמַיִם, שֶׁעֵרְבָן זֶה בָזֶה וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶם שָׁמַיִם:
9And God said, "Let the water that is beneath the heavens gather into one place, and let the dry land appear," and it was so.   טוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים יִקָּו֨וּ הַמַּ֜יִם מִתַּ֤חַת הַשָּׁמַ֨יִם֙ אֶל־מָק֣וֹם אֶחָ֔ד וְתֵֽרָאֶ֖ה הַיַּבָּשָׁ֑ה וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the water…gather: They were spread out over the surface of the entire earth, and He gathered them in the ocean, [the Mediterranean], which is the largest of all the seas. — [from Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 5; Gen. Rabbah 5:2]   יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם: שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁטוּחִין עַל פְּנֵי כָל הָאָרֶץ וְהִקְוָם בָּאוֹקְיָנוֹס הוּא הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבְּכָל הַיַּמִּים:
10And God called the dry land earth, and the gathering of the waters He called seas, and God saw that it was good.   יוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | לַיַּבָּשָׁה֙ אֶ֔רֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵ֥ה הַמַּ֖יִם קָרָ֣א יַמִּ֑ים וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
He called seas: But is it not one sea? However, the flavor of a fish that comes up from the sea in Acre differs from the flavor of a fish that comes up from the sea in Spain. — [from Ekev 39]   קָרָא יַמִּים: וַהֲלֹא יָם אֶחָד הוּא? אֶלָּא אֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה טַעַם דָּג הָעוֹלֶה מִן הַיָּם בְּעַכּוֹ לְטַעַם דָּג הָעוֹלֶה מִן הַיָּם בְּאַסְפַּמְיָא:
11And God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation, seed yielding herbs and fruit trees producing fruit according to its kind in which its seed is found, on the earth," and it was so.   יאוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים תַּדְשֵׁ֤א הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ דֶּ֗שֶׁא עֵ֚שֶׂב מַזְרִ֣יעַ זֶ֔רַע עֵ֣ץ פְּרִ֞י עֹ֤שֶׂה פְּרִי֙ לְמִינ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר זַרְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the earth sprout vegetation, seed yielding herbs: דֶּשֶׁא does not have the same meaning as עֵשֶׂב, and עֵשֶׂב does not have the same meaning as דֶּשֶׁא. And it would have been inappropriate for the Scriptural text to use the expression, תַּעֲשִׂיב הָאָרֶץ (let the earth bring forth herbs), for there are various species of דֶּשֶׁא, each one by itself which is called a particular עֵשֶׂב. And it would not be the correct term for the speaker to say, “such-and-such a דֶּשֶׁא,” because the term דֶּשֶׁא applies to the earth’s covering, when it is filled with vegetation.   תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב: לֹא דֶּשֶׁא לְשׁוֹן עֵשֶׂב וְלֹא עֵשֶׂב לְשׁוֹן דֶּשֶׁא, וְלֹא הָיָה לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא לוֹמַר תַּעֲשִׂיב הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁמִינֵי דְּשָׁאִים מְחֻלָּקִין, כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ נִקְרָא עֵשֶׂב פְּלוֹנִי, וְאֵין לָשׁוֹן לַמְדַבֵּר לוֹמַר דֶּשֶׁא פְּלוֹנִי, שֶׁלְּשׁוֹן דֶּשֶׁא הוּא לְבִישַׁת הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהִיא מִתְמַלֵּאת בִּדְשָׁאִים:
Let the earth sprout: Let it be filled and covered with a mantle of herbs. In Old French, דֶשֶׁא is called erbediz, herbage, all in a mixture, whereas each root individually is called עֵשֶׂב.   תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ: תִּתְמַלֵּא וְתִתְכַּסֶּה לְבוּשׁ עֲשָׂבִים. בִּלְשׁוֹן לַעַז נִקְרָא דֶּשֶׁא ארבריץ, כֻּלָן בְּעִרְבּוּבְיָא, וְכָל שֹׁרֶשׁ לְעַצְמוֹ נִקְרָא עֵשֶׂב:
seed-yielding: That its seeds should grow in it from which to sow elsewhere.   מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע: שֶׁיְּגַדֵּל בּוֹ זַרְעוֹ לִזְרֹעַ מִמֶּנוּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר:
fruit trees: That the taste of the tree should be like the taste of the fruit. It [the earth] did not do so, however, but“the earth gave forth, etc., trees producing fruit,” but the trees themselves were not fruit. Therefore, when man was cursed because of his iniquity, it [the earth] too was punished for its iniquity (and was cursed-not in all editions). - [from Gen. Rabbah 5:9]   עֵץ פְּרִי: שֶׁיְּהֵא טַעַם הָעֵץ כְּטַעַם הַפְּרִי, וְהִיא לֹא עָשְׂתָה כֵן, אֶלָּא וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ עֵץ עוֹשֶׂה פְּרִי וְלֹא הָעֵץ פְּרִי, לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁנִּתְקַלֵּל אָדָם עַל עֲוֹנוֹ נִפְקְדָה גַם הִיא עַל עֲוֹנָהּ וְנִתְקַלְּלָה:
in which its seed is found: These are the kernels of every fruit, from which the tree grows when it is planted.   אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ: הֵן גַרְעִינֵי כָל פְּרִי שֶׁמֵּהֶן הָאִילָן צוֹמֵחַ כְּשֶׁנּוֹטְעִין אוֹתוֹ:
12And the earth gave forth vegetation, seed yielding herbs according to its kind, and trees producing fruit, in which its seed is found, according to its kind, and God saw that it was good.   יבוַתּוֹצֵ֨א הָאָ֜רֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵ֣שֶׂב מַזְרִ֤יעַ זֶ֨רַע֙ לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וְעֵ֧ץ עֹֽשֶׂה־פְּרִ֛י אֲשֶׁ֥ר זַרְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
And the earth gave forth, etc.: Even though לְמִינֵהוּ.“according to its kind,” was not said regarding the herbs when they were commanded [to grow], they heard that the trees were commanded thus, and they applied an a fortiori argument to themselves, [a קַל וָחוֹמֶר -from the minor to the major], as is explained in the Aggadah of Tractate Chullin (60a).   וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו': אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר לְמִינֵהוּ בַּדְּשָׁאִין בְּצִוּוּיֵיהֶן, שָׁמְעוּ שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ הָאִילָנוֹת עַל כָּךְ, נָשְׂאוּ קַל וָחֹמֶר בְּעַצְמָן, כַּמְּפֹרָשׁ בָּאַגָּדָה בִּשְׁחִיטַת חֻלִּין:
13And it was evening, and it was morning, a third day.   יגוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם שְׁלִישִֽׁי:
14And God said, "Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heavens, to separate between the day and between the night, and they shall be for signs and for appointed seasons and for days and years.   ידוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים יְהִ֤י מְאֹרֹת֙ בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם לְהַבְדִּ֕יל בֵּ֥ין הַיּ֖וֹם וּבֵ֣ין הַלָּ֑יְלָה וְהָי֤וּ לְאֹתֹת֙ וּלְמ֣וֹעֲדִ֔ים וּלְיָמִ֖ים וְשָׁנִֽים:
Let there be luminaries, etc.: They were created on the first day, and on the fourth day, He commanded them to be suspended in the sky, and likewise, all the creations of heaven and earth were created on the first day, and each one was fixed in its proper place on the day that was decreed upon it. That is why it is written:“with the heavens (אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם) to include their products,”and with the earth (וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ)," to include its products. — [Gen. Rabbah 1:14]   יְהִי מְאֹרֹת וגו': מִיֹּום רִאשׁוֹן נִבְרְאוּ וּבָרְבִיעִי צִוָּה עֲלֵיהֶם לְהִתָּלוֹת בָּרָקִיעַ, וְכֵן כָּל תּוֹלְדוֹת שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ נִבְרְאוּ מִיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד נִקְבַּע בַּיוֹם שֶׁנִּגְזַר עָלָיו, הוּא שֶׁכָּתוּב אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם, לְרַבּוֹת תּוֹלְדוֹתֵיהֶם, וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, לְרַבּוֹת תּוֹלְדוֹתֶיהָ:
Let there be luminaries: Heb., יְהִי מְאֹרֹת It [the word, מְאֹרֹת is written without a“vav,” [thus, the word can be מְאֵרֹת meaning curses] because it [the fourth day] is a cursed day when children become ill with croup. This is what we learned (Ta’anith 27b): “on the fourth day [of the week], they [the men of the ma’amad] would fast so that children should not become ill with croup.”   יְהִי מְאֹרֹת: חָסֵר וָי"ו כְּתִיב, עַל שֶׁהוּא יוֹם מְאֵרָה לִפֹּל אַסְכָּרָה בַּתִּינוֹקוֹת, הוּא שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְּד' הָיוּ מִתְעַנִּים עַל אַסְכָּרָה שֶׁלֹּא תִפֹּל בַּתִּינוֹקוֹת:
to separate between the day and between the night: (This happened) after the first light was hidden away, but during the seven (another reading: during the three) days of Creation, the primordial light and darkness served together, both by day and by night. — [Medrah Yelammedenu , as quoted in Yalkut Shim’oni] According to the Ramban and early editions of Rashi , it appears that the reading, “during the seven days of Creation,” is the authentic reading. Ramban , however quotes the Genesis Rabbah , which states that the original primordial light served only during the first three days, until the sun and the moon were suspended in the sky. After that, the primordial light was hidden away, as in Rashi to verse 4. Note also that several early manuscripts and printed editions of Rashi read: “but in the seven days of Creation, the primordial light and darkness served, this one by day and this one by night.” This is also the reading of Mizrachi , and it appears more accurate than our reading, because, in fact, the light and the darkness did not serve together, as Rashi explains in verse 4.]   לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה: מִשֶּׁנִּגְנַז הָאוֹר הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֲבָל בְּשִׁבְעַת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית שִׁמְּשׁוּ הָאוֹר וְהַחֹשֶׁךְ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים יַחַד בֵּין בַּיּוֹם וּבֵין בַּלַּיְלָה:
and they shall be for signs: When the luminaries are eclipsed, it is an unfavorable omen for the world, as it is said (Jer. 10:2): “and from the signs of the heaven be not dismayed, etc.” When you perform the will of the Holy One, blessed be He, you need not fear retribution. — [from Succah 29a]   וְהָיוּ לאותות: כְּשֶׁהַמְּאוֹרוֹת לוֹקִין, סִימָן רַע הוּא לָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר מֵאֹתוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם אַל תֵּחָתּוּ (ירמיה י'), בַּעֲשׂוֹתְכֶם רְצוֹן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵין אַתֶּם צְרִיכִין לִדְאֹג מִן הַפֻּרְעָנוּת:
and for appointed seasons: This refers to the future, when the Israelites are destined to be commanded concerning the festivals and they [the festivals] are reckoned from the first phase of the moon. — [from Gen. Rabbah 6:1].   וּלְמוֹעֲדִים: עַל שֵׁם הֶעָתִיד, שֶׁעֲתִידִים יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהִצְטַוּוֹת עַל הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת וְהֵם נִמְנִים לְמוֹלַד הַלְּבָנָה:
and for days: The sun serves for half a day, and the moon for half of it, so that you have a full day.   וּלְיָמִים: שִׁמּוּשׁ הַחַמָּה חֲצִי יוֹם וְשִׁמּוּשׁ הַלְּבָנָה חֶצְיוֹ, הֲרֵי יוֹם שָׁלֵם:
and years: At the end of 365 days (other editions: and a 1/4 of a day) they complete their revolution through the twelve constellations of the zodiac, which serve them, and that constitutes a year. (Other editions read: and that is 365 and 1/4 days), and they return and start a second time to revolve on the sphere like their first revolution.   וְשָׁנִֽים: לְסוֹף שס"ה יָמִים (ס"א וּרְבִיעַ יוֹם), יִגְמְרוּ מַהֲלָכָתָם בְּי"ב מַזָּלוֹת הַמְשָׁרְתִים אוֹתָם, וְהִיא שָׁנָה, וְחוֹזְרִים וּמַתְחִילִים פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה לְסַבֵּב בַּגַּלְגַּל כְּמַהֲלָכָן הָרִאשׁוֹן:
15And they shall be for luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to shed light upon the earth." And it was so.   טווְהָי֤וּ לִמְאוֹרֹת֙ בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם לְהָאִ֖יר עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
And they shall be for luminaries: In addition, they will serve in this function, viz. to shed light upon the world.   וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת: עוֹד זֹאת יְשַׁמְּשׁוּ, שֶׁיָּאִירוּ לָעוֹלָם:
16And God made the two great luminaries: the great luminary to rule the day and the lesser luminary to rule the night, and the stars.   טזוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־שְׁנֵ֥י הַמְּאֹרֹ֖ת הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים אֶת־הַמָּא֤וֹר הַגָּדֹל֙ לְמֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת הַיּ֔וֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּא֤וֹר הַקָּטֹן֙ לְמֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת הַלַּ֔יְלָה וְאֵ֖ת הַכּֽוֹכָבִֽים:
the two great luminaries: They were created equal, but the moon was made smaller because it brought charges and said, “It is impossible for two kings to use the same crown.” - [from Chullin 60b] Rashi (ad loc.) explains that this derash is based on the discrepancy of the two expressions, “the two great luminaries,” which intimates that the moon was a great luminary, and“the lesser luminary,” which intimates that the moon was smaller than the sun. To reconcile this difference, the Rabbis asserted that the moon was originally created equal to the sun, but, because of its complaint that the sun wielded the same power that it wielded, it was forced to relinquish that power.   הַמְּאֹרֹת הגדולים: שָׁוִים נִבְרְאוּ וְנִתְמַעֲטָה הַלְּבָנָה עַל שֶׁקִּטְרְגָה וְאָמְרָה אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁנֵי מְלָכִים שֶׁיִשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בְכֶתֶר אֶחָד:
and the stars: Because He diminished the moon, He increased its hosts, to appease it. - [from Gen. Rabbah 46:4 and Chullin 60b] i.e., The stars serve as the entourage of the moon. When it comes out, they accompany it, and when it sets, they too set. [Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   וְאֶת־הַכּֽוֹכָבִֽים: עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמִּעֵט אֶת הַלְּבָנָה הִרְבָּה צְבָאָיהָ לְהָפִיס דַּעְתָּהּ:
17And God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to shed light upon the earth.   יזוַיִּתֵּ֥ן אֹתָ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בִּרְקִ֣יעַ הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לְהָאִ֖יר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
18And to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate between the light and between the darkness, and God saw that it was good.   יחוְלִמְשֹׁל֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם וּבַלַּ֔יְלָה וּֽלֲהַבְדִּ֔יל בֵּ֥ין הָא֖וֹר וּבֵ֣ין הַח֑שֶׁךְ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
19And it was evening, and it was morning, a fourth day.   יטוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם רְבִיעִֽי:
20And God said, "Let the waters swarm a swarming of living creatures, and let fowl fly over the earth, across the expanse of the heavens."   כוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים יִשְׁרְצ֣וּ הַמַּ֔יִם שֶׁ֖רֶץ נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֑ה וְעוֹף֙ יְעוֹפֵ֣ף עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ עַל־פְּנֵ֖י רְקִ֥יעַ הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
living creatures: That there should be life in them.   נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה: שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהּ חַיּוּת:
a swarming: Heb. שֶׁרֶץ. Every living thing that is not much higher than the earth is שֶׁרֶץ; among the winged creatures, such as flies; among the insects, such as ants, beetles, and worms; and among the [larger] creatures, such as the weasel, the mouse, the lizard, and their like, and so [among] the fishes. [Note that in most early editions and mss., the reading is וְכָל הַדָּגִים, and all the fishes (and not וְכֵן הַדגָּים).]   שֶׁרֶץ: כָּל דָּבָר חַי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ מִן הָאָרֶץ קָרוּי שֶׁרֶץ: בָּעוֹף, כְּגוֹן זְבוּבִים, בַּשְּׁקָצִים, כְּגוֹן נְמָלִים וְחִפּוּשִׁים וְתוֹלָעִים, בַּבְּרִיּוֹת, כְּגוֹן חֹלֶד וְעַכְבָּר וְחֹמֶט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, וְכָל הַדָּגִים:
21And God created the great sea monsters, and every living creature that crawls, with which the waters swarmed, according to their kind, and every winged fowl, according to its kind, and God saw that it was good.   כאוַיִּבְרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִ֖ם הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים וְאֵ֣ת כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֣ה | הָֽרֹמֶ֡שֶׂת אֲשֶׁר֩ שָֽׁרְצ֨וּ הַמַּ֜יִם לְמִֽינֵהֶ֗ם וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־ע֤וֹף כָּנָף֙ לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
the…sea monsters: The great fish in the sea, and in the words of the Aggadah (B.B. 74b), this refers to the Leviathan and its mate, for He created them male and female, and He slew the female and salted her away for the righteous in the future, for if they would propagate, the world could not exist because of them. הַתַּנִינִם is written. [I.e., the final “yud,” which denotes the plural, is missing, hence the implication that the Leviathan did not remain two, but that its number was reduced to one.]- [from Gen. Rabbah 7:4, Midrash Chaseroth V’Yetheroth, Batei Midrashoth, vol 2, p. 225].   הַתַּנִּינִם: דָּגִים גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁבַּיָּם, וּבְדִבְרֵי אַגָּדָה הוּא לִוְיָתָן וּבֶן זוּגוֹ שֶׁבְּרָאָם זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה וְהָרַג אֶת הַנְּקֵבָה וּמְלָחָהּ לַצַּדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא, שֶׁאִם יִפְרוּ וְיִרְבּוּ לֹא יִתְקַיֵּם הָעוֹלָם בִּפְנֵיהֶם:
living creature: a creature in which there is life.   נֶפֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּה: שֶׁיֵּש בָּהּ חַיּוּת:
22And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters of the seas, and let the fowl multiply upon the earth."   כבוַיְבָ֧רֶךְ אֹתָ֛ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר פְּר֣וּ וּרְב֗וּ וּמִלְא֤וּ אֶת־הַמַּ֨יִם֙ בַּיַּמִּ֔ים וְהָע֖וֹף יִ֥רֶב בָּאָֽרֶץ:
And…blessed them: Because [people] decimate them and hunt them and eat them, they required a blessing; and the beasts also required a blessing, but because the serpent was destined to be cursed, He did not bless them, lest he [the serpent] be included. — [from Gen. Rabbah 11:3, Midrash Tadshe 1]   וַיְבָרֶךְ אותם: לְפִי שֶׁמְּחַסְּרִים אוֹתָם וְצָדִין מֵהֶם וְאוֹכְלִין אוֹתָם, הֻצְרְכוּ לִבְרָכָה, וְאַף הַחַיּוֹת הֻצְרְכוּ לִבְרָכָה, אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי הַנָּחָשׁ שֶׁעָתִיד לִקְלָלָה, לְכָךְ לֹא בֵרְכָן, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הוּא בִכְלָל:
Be fruitful: [The word פְּרוּ is derived from פְּרִי, fruit, meaning produce fruits.   פְּרוּ: לְ' פְּרִי כְּלוֹ' עֲשׁוּ פֵּרוֹת:
and multiply: If He had said only, “Be fruitful,” one would beget one and no more.“And multiply” was therefore said so that one could beget many.   וּרְבוּ: אִם לֹא אָמַר אֶלָּא פְּרוּ, הָיָה אֶחָד מוֹלִיד אֶחָד וְלֹא יוֹתֵר, וּבָא וּרְבוּ שֶׁאֶחָד מוֹלִיד הַרְבֵּה:
23And it was evening, and it was morning, a fifth day.   כגוַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם חֲמִישִֽׁי:
24And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kind, cattle and creeping things and the beasts of the earth according to their kind," and it was so.   כדוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים תּוֹצֵ֨א הָאָ֜רֶץ נֶ֤פֶשׁ חַיָּה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ בְּהֵמָ֥ה וָרֶ֛מֶשׂ וְחַֽיְתוֹ־אֶ֖רֶץ לְמִינָ֑הּ וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
Let the earth bring forth: That is what I explained [verse 14] that everything was created on the first [day], and they required only to be brought forth. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Bereishith 1]   תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ: הוּא שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי שֶׁהַכֹּל נִבְרָא מִיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, וְלֹא הֻצְרְכוּ אֶלָּא לְהוֹצִיאָם:
living creatures: which have life. (See above, verse 20.)   נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה: שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ חַיּוּת:
and creeping things: These are the creeping things, which are low and crawl upon the earth and appear as if they are dragging along, because their movement is not discernible. Every expression of רֶמֶשׁ or שֶׁרֶץ [is translated] in our language [Old French] as conmovres , crawling creatures.   וָרֶמֶשׂ: הֵם שְׁרָצִים, שֶׁהֵם נְמוּכִים וְרוֹמְשִׂים עַל הָאָרֶץ וְנִרְאִים כְּאִלּוּ נִגְרָרִים שֶׁאֵין הִלוּכָן נִכָּר. כָּל לְשׁוֹן רֶמֶשׂ וְשֶׁרֶץ בִּלְשׁוֹנֵנוּ קונמו"בריש בלע"ז:
25And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kind and the cattle according to their kind, and all the creeping things of the ground according to their kind, and God saw that it was good.   כהוַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִים֩ אֶת־חַיַּ֨ת הָאָ֜רֶץ לְמִינָ֗הּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה֙ לְמִינָ֔הּ וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־רֶ֥מֶשׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֖ה לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים כִּי־טֽוֹב:
And… made: He fixed them in their complete form, and in their full stature. — [from Rosh Hashanah 11a, Chullin 60a]   וַיַּעַשׂ: תִּקְּנָם בְּצִבְיוֹנָם וּבְקוֹמָתָן:
26And God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and they shall rule over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the heaven and over the animals and over all the earth and over all the creeping things that creep upon the earth."   כווַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֔ים נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אָדָ֛ם בְּצַלְמֵ֖נוּ כִּדְמוּתֵ֑נוּ וְיִרְדּוּ֩ בִדְגַ֨ת הַיָּ֜ם וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֗יִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבְכָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶ֖מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Let us make man: From here we learn the humility of the Holy One, blessed be He. Since man was created in the likeness of the angels, and they would envy him, He consulted them. And when He judges kings, He consults with His Heavenly household, for so we find regarding Ahab, that Micah said to him, (I Kings 22:19): “I saw the Lord seated on His throne, and all the host of heaven were standing by Him, on His right and on His left.” Now do “left” or “right” apply to Him ?! But rather, [the passage means that] these [angels] were standing on the right to defend, and these [angels] were standing on the left to prosecute. Likewise, (Dan. 4:14): “By the decree of the destructive angels is the matter, and by the word of the holy ones is the edict.” Here too, He took counsel with His heavenly household. He said to them, “Among the heavenly beings, there are some in My likeness. If there are none in My likeness among the earthly beings, there will be envy among the creatures of the Creation. ” - [from Tanchuma, Shemoth 18; Gen. Rabbah 8:11, 14:13]   נַֽעֲשֶׂה אָדָם: עַנְוְתָנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לָמַדְנוּ מִכָּאן, לְפִי שֶׁאָדָם הוּא בִּדְמוּת הַמַּלְאָכִים וְיִתְקַנְּאוּ בוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ נִמְלַךְ בָּהֶם, וּכְשֶׁהוּא דָן אֶת הַמְּלָכִים הוּא נִמְלָךְ בְּפָמַלְיָא שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְאַחְאָב, שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ מִיכָה רָאִיתִי אֶת ה' יֹשֵׁב עַל כִּסְאוֹ וְכָל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם עוֹמְדִים עָלָיו מִימִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ (מלכים א כ"ב), וְכִי יֵש יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל לְפָנָיו? אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ מַיְמִינִים לִזְכוּת וְאֵלוּ מַשְׂמְאִילִים לְחוֹבָה, וְכֵן בִּגְזֵרַת עִירִין פִּתְגָמָא וּבְמֵאמַר קַדִּישִׁין שְׁאֵלְתָא (דניאל ד'), אַף כָּאן בְּפָמַלְיָא שֶׁלוֹ נָטַל רְשׁוּת, אָמַר לָהֶם יֵשׁ בָּעֶלְיוֹנִים כִּדְמוּתִי; אִם אֵין כִּדְמוּתִי בַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הֲרֵי יֵשׁ קִנְאָה בְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית:
Let us make man: Even though they [the angels] did not assist Him in His creation, and there is an opportunity for the heretics to rebel (to misconstrue the plural as a basis for their heresies), Scripture did not hesitate to teach proper conduct and the trait of humility, that a great person should consult with and receive permission from a smaller one. Had it been written: “I shall make man,” we would not have learned that He was speaking with His tribunal, but to Himself. And the refutation to the heretics is written alongside it [i. e., in the following verse:]“And God created (וַיִּבְרָא) ,” and it does not say,“and they created וַיִּבְרְאוּ.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 8:9]   נַֽעֲשֶׂה אָדָם: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא סִיְּעוּהוּ בִיצִירָתוֹ וְיֵשׁ מָקוֹם לַמִּינִים לִרְדּוֹת, לֹא נִמְנַע הַכָּתוּב מִלְּלַמֵּד דֶרֶך אֶרֶץ וּמִדַּת עֲנָוָה שֶׁיְּהֵא הַגָּדוֹל נִמְלָךְ וְנוֹטֵל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן; וְאִם כָּתַב אֶעֱשֶׂה אָדָם, לֹא לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא מְדַבֵּר עִם בֵּית דִינוֹ, אֶלָּא עִם עַצְמוֹ, וּתְשׁוּבַת הַמִּינִים כָּתַב בְּצִדּוֹ, וַיִּבְרָא אֶת הָאָדָם, וְלֹא כָתַב וַיִּבְרְאוּ:
in our image: in our form.   בְּצַלְמֵנוּ: בִּדְפוּס שֶׁלָּנוּ:
after our likeness: to understand and to discern.   כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ: לְהָבִין וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל:
and they shall rule over the fish: Heb. וְיִרְדּוּ This expression contains both the meaning of ruling and the meaning of subservience. If he merits, he rules over the beasts and over the cattle. If he does not merit, he becomes subservient to them, and the beast rules over him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 8:12]   וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם: יֵשׁ בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה לְשׁוֹן רִדּוּי וּלְשׁוֹן יְרִידָה; זָכָה, רוֹדֶה בַחַיּוֹת וּבַבְּהֵמוֹת, לֹא זָכָה, נַעֲשֶׂה יָרוּד לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהַחַיָּה מוֹשֶׁלֶת בּוֹ:
27And God created man in His image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.   כזוַיִּבְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ בְּצַלְמ֔וֹ בְּצֶ֥לֶם אֱלֹהִ֖ים בָּרָ֣א אֹת֑וֹ זָכָ֥ר וּנְקֵבָ֖ה בָּרָ֥א אֹתָֽם:
And God created man in His image: In the form that was made for him, for everything [else] was created with a command, whereas he [man] was created with the hands (of God), as it is written (Ps. 139:5): “and You placed Your hand upon me.” Man was made with a die, like a coin, which is made by means of a die, which is called coin in Old French. And so Scripture states (Job 38:14): “The die changes like clay.” - [from Letters of Rabbi Akiva , second version; Mid. Ps. 139:5; Sanh. 38a]   וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָֽאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ: בִּדְפוּס הֶעָשׂוּי לוֹ, שֶׁהַכֹּל נִבְרָא בְּמַאֲמָר וְהוּא נִבְרָא בַּיָּדַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה (תהילים קל"ט); נַעֲשָׂה בְחוֹתָם כְּמַטְבֵּעַ הָעֲשׂוּיָה עַל יְדֵי רֹשֶׁם שֶׁקּוֹרִין קוי"ן בלע"ז וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר תִּתְהַפֵּךְ כְּחֹמֶר חוֹתָם (איוב ל"ח):
in the image of God He created him: It explains to you that the image that was prepared for him was the image of the likeness of his Creator. — [from B.B. 58a]   בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אותו: פֵּרֵשׁ לְךָ שֶׁאוֹתוֹ צֶלֶם הַמְתֻקָּן לוֹ, צֶלֶם דְּיוֹקַן יוֹצְרוֹ הוּא:
male and female He created them: Yet further (2:21) Scripture states: “And He took one of his ribs, etc.” The Midrash Aggadah (Gen. Rabbah 8:1, Ber. 61a, Eruvin 18a) explains that He originally created him with two faces, and afterwards, He divided him. The simple meaning of the verse is that here Scripture informs you that they were both created on the sixth [day], but it does not explain to you how they were created, and it explains [that] to you elsewhere. — [from Baraitha of the Thirty Two Methods , Method 13]   זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אותם: וּלְהַלָּן הוּא אוֹמֵר וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וגו' (בראשית ב')? מִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה שֶׁבְּרָאוֹ שְׁנֵי פַרְצוּפִים בִּבְרִיאָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ חֲלָקוֹ. וּפְשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא, כָּאן הוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם בַּשִּׁשִּׁי וְלֹא פֵי' לְךָ כֵּיצַד בְּרִיָּתָן, וּפֵרֵשׁ לְךָ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר:
28And God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and rule over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the sky and over all the beasts that tread upon the earth. "   כחוַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֹתָם֘ אֱלֹהִים֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר לָהֶ֜ם אֱלֹהִ֗ים פְּר֥וּ וּרְב֛וּ וּמִלְא֥וּ אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁ֑הָ וּרְד֞וּ בִּדְגַ֤ת הַיָּם֙ וּבְע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּ֖ה הָֽרֹמֶ֥שֶׂת עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
and subdue it: The“vav” [in וְכִבְשֻׁהָ is missing, [allowing the word to be read וְכִבְשָׁה, the masculine singular imperative] to teach you that the male subdues the female that she should not be a gadabout (Gen. Rabbah 8:12), and it is also meant to teach you that the man, whose way it is to subdue, is commanded to propagate, but not the woman (Yev. Yev. 65b).   וְכִבְשֻׁהָ: חָסֵר וָי"ו לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁהַזָּכָר כּוֹבֵשׁ אֶת הַנְּקֵבָה, שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא יַצְאָנִית, וְעוֹד לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁהָאִישׁ שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לִכְבֹּשׁ מְצֻוֶּה עַל פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה וְלֹא הָאִשָּׁה:
29And God said, "Behold, I have given you every seed bearing herb, which is upon the surface of the entire earth, and every tree that has seed bearing fruit; it will be yours for food.   כטוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֗ים הִנֵּה֩ נָתַ֨תִּי לָכֶ֜ם אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב | זֹרֵ֣עַ זֶ֗רַע אֲשֶׁר֙ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעֵ֛ץ אֲשֶׁר־בּ֥וֹ פְרִי־עֵ֖ץ זֹרֵ֣עַ זָ֑רַע לָכֶ֥ם יִֽהְיֶ֖ה לְאָכְלָֽה:
30And to all the beasts of the earth and to all the fowl of the heavens, and to everything that moves upon the earth, in which there is a living spirit, every green herb to eat," and it was so.   לוּלְכָל־חַיַּ֣ת הָ֠אָ֠רֶץ וּלְכָל־ע֨וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם וּלְכֹ֣ל | רוֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ חַיָּ֔ה אֶת־כָּל־יֶ֥רֶק עֵ֖שֶׂב לְאָכְלָ֑ה וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן:
it will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth: He equated cattle and the beasts to them [to man] regarding the food [that they were permitted to eat]. He did not permit Adam and his wife to kill a creature and to eat its flesh; only every green herb they were all permitted to eat equally. When the sons of Noah came, He permitted them to eat flesh, as it is said (below 9:3): “Every creeping thing that is alive, etc.” Like the green herbs, which I permitted to the first man, I have given you everything. — [from Sanh. 59b]   לכם יהיה לְאָכְלָה וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ: הִשְׁוָה לָהֶם בְּהֵמוֹת וְחַיּוֹת לְמַאֲכָל, וְלֹא הִרְשָׁה לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ לְהָמִית בְּרִיָּה וְלֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר, אַךְ כָּל יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב יֹאכְלוּ יַחַד כֻּלָם, וּכְשֶׁבָּאוּ בְנֵי נֹחַ הִתִּיר לָהֶם בָּשָׂר, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר כָּל רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא חַי וְגוֹ' כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב שֶׁהִתַּרְתִּי לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת כֹּל:
31And God saw all that He had made, and behold it was very good, and it was evening and it was morning, the sixth day.   לאוַיַּ֤רְא אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וְהִנֵּה־ט֖וֹב מְאֹ֑ד וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם הַשִּׁשִּֽׁי:
the sixth day: Scripture added a “hey” on the sixth [day], at the completion of the Creation, to tell us that He stipulated with them, [“you were created] on the condition that Israel accept the Five Books of the Torah.” [The numerical value of the “hey” is five.] (Tanchuma Bereishith 1). Another explanation for “the sixth day” : They [the works of creation] were all suspended until the “sixth day,” referring to the sixth day of Sivan, which was prepared for the giving of the Torah (Shab. 88a). [The“hey” is the definite article, alluding to the well-known sixth day, the sixth day of Sivan, when the Torah was given (ad loc.).]   יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּֽׁי: הוֹסִיף ה' בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בִגְמַר מַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, לוֹמַר שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמָּהֶם, עַל מְנָת שֶׁיְּקַבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲמִשָּׁה חֻמְּשֵׁי תוֹרָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי, כֻּלָּם תְּלוּיִם וְעוֹמְדִים עַד יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי, הוּא ו' בְּסִיוָן הַמּוּכָן לְמַתַּן תּוֹרָה:

Genesis Chapter 2

1Now the heavens and the earth were completed and all their host.   אוַיְכֻלּ֛וּ הַשָּׁמַ֥יִם וְהָאָ֖רֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָֽם:
2And God completed on the seventh day His work that He did, and He abstained on the seventh day from all His work that He did.   בוַיְכַ֤ל אֱלֹהִים֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֽׂה:
And God completed on the seventh day: Rabbi Shimon said: [A human being of] flesh and blood, who cannot [exactly] know his times and his moments, must add from the profane to the holy [i.e., he must add some time to the Sabbath.] The Holy One, blessed be He, Who knows His times and His moments [exactly], entered it [the Sabbath] within a hairbreadth, and it therefore appeared as if He completed it [His work] on that day. Another explanation: What was the world lacking? Rest. The Sabbath came, and so came rest. The work was completed and finished. — [from Gen. Rabbah 10:9]   וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי: ר' שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר בָּשָׂר וָדָם, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ עִתָּיו וּרְגָעָיו צָרִיך לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֹל עַל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ עִתָּיו וּרְגָעָיו, נִכְנָס בֹּו כְּחוּט הַשַּׂעֲרָה, וְנִרְאֶה כְאִלּוּ כִלָּה בוֹ בַיֹּום. דָּבָר אַחֵר מֶה הָיָה הָעוֹלָם חָסֵר? מְנוּחָה, בָּאת שַׁבָּת בָּאת מְנוּחָה, כָּלְתָה וְנִגְמְרָה הַמְּלָאכָה:
3And God blessed the seventh day and He hallowed it, for thereon He abstained from all His work that God created to do.   גוַיְבָ֤רֶךְ אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־י֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וַיְקַדֵּ֖שׁ אֹת֑וֹ כִּ֣י ב֤וֹ שָׁבַת֙ מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:
And…blessed…and hallowed: He blessed it with manna, for on all the days of the week, it descended for them [in the amount of] an omer per person, whereas on the sixth day,[each one received] a double portion. And He hallowed it with manna, that it did not descend at all on the Sabbath. This verse is written with reference to the future. — [from Gen. Rabbah 11:2]   וַיְבָרֶךְ וַיְקַדֵּשׁ: בֵּרְכוֹ בַּמָּן, שֶׁכָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁבוּעַ יוֹרֵד לָהֶם עֹמֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת, וּבַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה, וְקִדְּשׁוֹ בַּמָּן, שֶׁלֹּא יָרַד כְּלָל בְּשַׁבָּת, וְהַמִּקְרָא כָּתוּב עַל הֶעָתִיד:
that God created to do: The work that was fit to be done on the Sabbath, He doubled up and did it on the sixth [day], as is explained in Genesis Rabbah (11:9).   אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת: הַמְּלָאכָה שֶׁהָיְתָה רְאוּיָה לֵעָשׂוֹת בַּשַּׁבָּת, כָּפַל וַעֲשָׂאָהּ בַּשִּׁשִּׁי כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בּבְּרֵאשִׁית רַבָּה: