Here's a great tip:
Enter your email address and we'll send you our weekly magazine by email with fresh, exciting and thoughtful content that will enrich your inbox and your life, week after week. And it's free.
Oh, and don't forget to like our facebook page too!

Torah Reading for Mishpatim

Parshat Mishpatim
Shabbat, 29 Shevat, 5777
25 February, 2017
Select a portion:
Complete: (Exodus 21:1 - 24:18; Exodus 30:11-16; Kings II 11:17 - 12:17; Samuel I 20:18; Samuel I 20:42)
Show content in:

First Portion

Exodus Chapter 21

1And these are the ordinances that you shall set before them.   אוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּשִׂ֖ים לִפְנֵיהֶֽם:
And these are the ordinances: Wherever it says, “these” [in the Torah,] it [(this word) is used to] separate from what has been stated previously. [Where it says,] “And these,” [it means that] it is adding to what has been previously stated (Tanchuma Mishpatim 3). [Thus] just as what has been previously stated [namely the Ten Commandments,] were from Sinai, these too were from Sinai. Now why was the section dealing with laws juxtaposed to the section dealing with the altar? To tell you that you shall place the Sanhedrin adjacent to the Beth Hamikdash (other editions: the altar). — [From Mechilta]   ואלה המשפטים: כל מקום שנאמר אלה פסל את הראשונים, ואלה מוסיף על הראשונים, מה הראשונים מסיני, אף אלו מסיני. ולמה נסמכה פרשת דינין לפרשת מזבח, לומר לך שתשים סנהדרין אצל המקדש [המזבח]:
that you shall set before them: The Holy One, blessed is He, said to Moses: Do not think of saying, “I will teach them the chapter or the law [both terms seemingly refer to the Oral Torah] two or three times until they know it well, as it was taught, but I will not trouble myself to enable them to understand the reasons for the matter and its explanation.” Therefore, it is said: “you shall set before them,” like a table, set [with food] and prepared to eat from, [placed] before someone. — [From Mechilta, Eruvin 54b]   אשר תשים לפניהם: אמר לו הקב"ה למשה לא תעלה על דעתך לומר אשנה להם הפרק וההלכה ב' או ג' פעמים עד שתהא סדורה בפיהם כמשנתה, ואיני מטריח עצמי להבינם טעמי הדבר ופירושו, לכך נאמר אשר תשים לפניהם, כשלחן הערוך ומוכן לאכול לפני האדם:
before them: But not before gentiles. Even if you know that they [gentiles] judge a certain law similarly to the laws of Israel, do not bring it to their courts, for one who brings Jewish lawsuits before gentiles profanes the [Divine] Name and honors the name of idols to praise them (other editions: to give them importance), as it is said: “For not like our Rock [God] is their rock, but [yet] our enemies judge [us]” (Deut. 32:31). When [we let] our enemies judge [us], this is testimony to [our] esteem of their deity. — [From Tanchuma 3]   לפניהם: ולא לפני גוים, ואפילו ידעת בדין אחד שהם דנין אותו כדיני ישראל, אל תביאהו בערכאות שלהם, שהמביא דיני ישראל לפני גוים מחלל את השם ומיקר שם עבודה זרה להחשיבה, שנאמר (דברים לב לא) כי לא כצורנו צורם ואויבינו פלילים, כשאויבינו פלילים זהו עדות לעלוי יראתם:
2Should you buy a Hebrew slave, he shall work [for] six years, and in the seventh [year], he shall go out to freedom without charge.   בכִּ֤י תִקְנֶה֙ עֶ֣בֶד עִבְרִ֔י שֵׁ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים יַֽעֲבֹ֑ד וּבַ֨שְּׁבִעִ֔ת יֵצֵ֥א לַֽחָפְשִׁ֖י חִנָּֽם:
Should you buy a Hebrew slave: A slave who is himself a Hebrew. Or perhaps it means only a slave of a Hebrew, a Canaanite [servant] whom you bought from a Hebrew. And concerning him, he [the Torah] says, “he shall work [for] six years.” How [then] can I apply the [law in the following] verse, “and you shall bequeath them” (Lev. 25:46) ? [Does this verse apply] concerning one [a servant] purchased from a non-Jew, but one [a servant] purchased from an Israelite goes free after six years? Therefore, the Torah states: “Should your brother, a Hebrew man… be sold to you, [he shall serve you for six years]” (Deut. 15:12). [This is the clarification that] I [God] said this only regarding your brother. — [From Mechilta]   כי תקנה עבד עברי: עבד שהוא עברי, או אינו אלא עבדו של עברי, עבד כנעני שלקחתו מישראל, ועליו הוא אומר שש שנים יעבוד, ומה אני מקיים (ויקרא כה מו) והתנחלתם אתם, בלקוח מן הגוי, אבל בלקוח מישראל יצא בשש, תלמוד לומר (דברים טו יב) כי ימכר לך אחיך העברי, לא אמרתי אלא באחיך:
Should you buy: from the hand of the court, who sold him [into servitude] because of his theft, as it is said: “If he has no [money], he shall be sold for his theft” (Exod. 22:2). Or perhaps it refers only to one who sold oneself [into servitude] because of poverty, but if the court sold him, he does not go free after six [years]? When he [the Torah] says: “And if your brother becomes impoverished beside you and is sold to you” (Lev. 25:39), one who sells oneself because of poverty is mentioned [here]. So [to avoid repetition,] how do I apply “Should you buy” ? [By understanding that this is] concerning one sold by the court.   כי תקנה: מיד בית דין שמכרוהו בגנבתו כמו שנאמר (שמות כב ב) אם אין לו ונמכר בגנבתו. או אינו אלא במוכר עצמו מפני דוחקו, אבל מכרוהו בית דין לא יצא בשש, כשהוא אומר (ויקרא כה לט) וכי ימוך אחיך עמך ונמכר לך, הרי מוכר עצמו מפני דוחקו אמור, ומה אני מקיים כי תקנה, בנמכר בבית דין:
to freedom: Heb. לַחָפְשִׁי, to freedom.   לחפשי: לחירות:
3If he comes [in] alone, he shall go out alone; if he is a married man, his wife shall go out with him.   גאִם־בְּגַפּ֥וֹ יָבֹ֖א בְּגַפּ֣וֹ יֵצֵ֑א אִם־בַּ֤עַל אִשָּׁה֙ ה֔וּא וְיָֽצְאָ֥ה אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ עִמּֽוֹ:
If he comes [in] alone: Heb. בְּגַפּוֹ, meaning that he was not married, as the Targum renders: אִם בִּלְחוֹדוֹהִי. The expression בְּגַפּוֹ means “with his skirt,” [i.e., the skirt of his cloak, meaning] that he came only as he was, alone within his clothing, in the skirt of his garment.   אם בגפו יבא: שלא היה נשוי אשה כתרגומו אם בלחודוהי. ולשון בגפו בכנפו, שלא בא אלא כמות שהוא, יחידי, בתוך לבושו בכנף בגדו:
he shall go out alone: [This] tells [us] that if he was not married at first, his master may not give him a Canaanite maidservant from whom to beget slaves. — [From Kid. 20a] [   בגפו יצא: מגיד שאם לא היה נשוי מתחלה, אין רבו מוסר לו שפחה כנענית להוליד ממנה עבדים:
if he is a married man: [Lit., if he is someone’s husband, meaning] an Israelite [woman]. — [From Mechilta]   אם בעל אשה הוא: ישראלית:
his wife shall go out with him: Now who brought her in that she should go out? Rather, the text informs us that whoever purchases a Hebrew slave is [also] responsible for supporting his wife and his children. [From Mechilta, Kid. 22a]   ויצאה אשתו עמו: וכי מי הכניסה שתצא, אלא מגיד הכתוב, שהקונה עבד עברי חייב במזונות אשתו ובניו:
4If his master gives him a wife, and she bears him sons or daughters, the woman and her children shall belong to her master, and he shall go out alone.   דאִם־אֲדֹנָיו֙ יִתֶּן־ל֣וֹ אִשָּׁ֔ה וְיָֽלְדָה־לּ֥וֹ בָנִ֖ים א֣וֹ בָנ֑וֹת הָֽאִשָּׁ֣ה וִֽילָדֶ֗יהָ תִּֽהְיֶה֙ לַֽאדֹנֶ֔יהָ וְה֖וּא יֵצֵ֥א בְגַפּֽוֹ:
If his master gives him a wife: From here we deduce that his master has the option to give him [the slave] a Canaanite maidservant [in order] to beget slaves from her. Or, perhaps this means only an Israelite woman? Therefore, Scripture says: “The woman and her children shall belong to her master.” Thus, He is speaking only about a Canaanite woman, for a Hebrew woman she, too, goes free after six [years], and even before six [years], when she develops signs [of puberty], she goes free, as it is said: “your brother, a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman [that one shall serve you for six years]” (Deut. 15:12). [This] teaches [us] that a Hebrew [maidservant] also goes free after six [years]. — [From Mechilta, Kid. 14b]   אם א-דניו יתן לו אשה: מכאן שהרשות ביד רבו למסור לו שפחה כנענית להוליד ממנה עבדים. או אינו אלא בישראלית, תלמוד לומר האשה וילדיה תהיה לאדוניה, הא אינו מדבר אלא בכנענית, שהרי העבריה אף היא יוצאה בשש, ואפילו לפני שש אם הביאה סימנין יוצאה, שנאמר (דברים טו יב) אחיך העברי או העבריה, מלמד, שאף העבריה יוצאה בשש:
5But if the slave says, "I love my master, my wife, and my children. I will not go free,"   הוְאִם־אָמֹ֤ר יֹאמַר֙ הָעֶ֔בֶד אָהַ֨בְתִּי֙ אֶת־אֲדֹנִ֔י אֶת־אִשְׁתִּ֖י וְאֶת־בָּנָ֑י לֹ֥א אֵצֵ֖א חָפְשִֽׁי:
my wife: [This refers to] the maidservant.   את אשתי: השפחה:
6his master shall bring him to the judges, and he shall bring him to the door or to the doorpost, and his master shall bore his ear with an awl, and he shall serve him forever.   ווְהִגִּישׁ֤וֹ אֲדֹנָיו֙ אֶל־הָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים וְהִגִּישׁוֹ֙ אֶל־הַדֶּ֔לֶת א֖וֹ אֶל־הַמְּזוּזָ֑ה וְרָצַ֨ע אֲדֹנָ֤יו אֶת־אָזְנוֹ֙ בַּמַּרְצֵ֔עַ וַֽעֲבָד֖וֹ לְעֹלָֽם:
to the judges: Heb. אֶל-הָאֱלֹהִים, to the court to consult his sellers, for they sold him [the slave] to him [to his master]. — [From Mechilta]   אל הא-להים: לבית דין, צריך שימלך במוכריו שמכרוהו לו:
to the door or to the doorpost: I might think that the doorpost is [a] qualified [place] on which to bore [the servant’s ear]. Therefore, Scripture says: “and you shall thrust it into his ear and into the door” (Deut. 15:17), [meaning] “into the door,” but not “into the doorpost.” What then does or to the doorpost mean? [The text is] comparing the door to the doorpost. Just as the doorpost is upright [i.e., attached to the house; otherwise it is not called a doorpost], so is the door upright. [A detached door may not be used for the ritual of ear boring.]-[From Mechilta, Kid. 22b]   אל הדלת או אל המזוזה: יכול שתהא המזוזה כשרה לרצוע עליה, תלמוד לומר (דברים טו יז) ונתתה באזנו ובדלת, בדלת ולא במזוזה, הא מה תלמוד לומר או אל המזוזה, הקיש דלת למזוזה מה מזוזה מעומד אף דלת מעומד:
and his master shall bore his ear: [I.e.,] the right [ear]. Or perhaps it means the left one? Therefore, the Torah states אֹזֶן “ear,” here and אֹזֶן [elsewhere] for [the purpose of making] a גְזֵרָה שָׁוָה, [which means two places having similar wording, which indicates that the rulings pertaining to one situation also apply to the other]. It is stated here: “and his master shall bore his ear,” and it is stated regarding the mezora [person with the disease of zara’ath]: “the cartilage of the right ear of the one who is becoming pure” (Lev. 14:14). Just as there the right [ear] is specified, here too the right [ear] is meant. Now, why was the ear chosen to be bored out of all the organs of the body? Rabban Jochanan ben Zakkai said: The ear that heard on Mount Sinai, “You shall not steal” (Exod. 20:13) and [then] went and stole, shall be bored. And if [the text is referring to] one who sold himself [into servitude, the reason is that] the ear that heard, “For the children of Israel are slaves to Me” (Lev. 25:55) and [then] went and acquired a master for himself, [this ear] shall be bored. Rabbi Shimon used to interpret this verse [in a beautiful manner] like a bundle of pearls [or a great amount of perfume in this way:]-why were the door and the doorpost singled out from all the fixtures in the house? The Holy One, blessed is He, said: The door and the doorpost were witnesses in Egypt when I passed over the lintel and the two doorposts, and I said, “For the children of Israel are slaves to Me; they are My slaves,” but [they are] not slaves to slaves, and [yet] this one went and acquired for himself a master-[his ear] shall be bored before them [for everyone to see]. — [From Kid. 22b]   ורצע א-דניו את אזנו במרצע: הימנית. או אינו אלא של שמאל, תלמוד לומר אזן, אזן לגזרה שוה נאמר כאן ורצע אדוניו את אזנו, ונאמר במצורע (ויקרא יד יד) תנוך אזן המטהר הימנית, מה להלן הימנית, אף כאן הימנית. ומה ראה אזן להרצע מכל שאר אברים שבגוף, אמר רבי יוחנן בן זכאי (קדושין כב ע"ב) אזן זאת ששמעה על הר סיני לא תגנוב, והלך וגנב, תרצע. ואם מוכר עצמו, אזן ששמעה על הר סיני (ויקרא כה נה) כי לי בני ישראל עבדים, והלך וקנה אדון לעצמו, תרצע. ר' שמעון היה דורש מקרא זה כמין חומר מה נשתנו דלת ומזוזה מכל כלים שבבית, אמר הקב"ה דלת ומזוזה שהיו עדים במצרים כשפסחתי על המשקוף ועל שתי המזוזות ואמרתי כי לי בני ישראל עבדים, עבדי הם ולא עבדים לעבדים, והלך זה וקנה אדון לעצמו, ירצע בפניהם:
and he shall serve him forever: Heb. לְעֹלָם, until the Jubilee year [the fiftieth year of the cycle]. Or perhaps it means literally forever, as its apparent meaning? Therefore, the Torah states [in reference to the Jubilee year]: “and each man to his family you shall return” (Lev. 25:10). [This] informs [us] that fifty years are called עֹלָם. But [this does] not [mean] that he must serve him [his master] the entire fifty years, but he must serve him until the Jubilee year, regardless of whether it is near or far off. — [From Mechilta, Kid. 15a]   ועבדו לעלם: עד היובל. או אינו אלא לעולם כמשמעו, תלמוד לומר (ויקרא כה י) ואיש אל משפחתו תשובו, מגיד שחמישים שנה קרוים עולם, ולא שיהא עובדו כל חמשים שנה, אלא עובדו עד היובל בין סמוך בין מופלג:
7Now if a man sells his daughter as a maidservant, she shall not go free as the slaves go free.   זוְכִֽי־יִמְכֹּ֥ר אִ֛ישׁ אֶת־בִּתּ֖וֹ לְאָמָ֑ה לֹ֥א תֵצֵ֖א כְּצֵ֥את הָֽעֲבָדִֽים:
Now if a man sells his daughter as a maidservant: Scripture is referring [here] to a minor girl. I might think that even if she develops signs [of initial puberty, the father may sell her]. [But] you must agree that a kal vachomer [the inference of a major rule from a minor rule] applies here namely if she who is already sold goes free with signs [that is, when she has signs of initial puberty], as it is written: “she shall go out for nothing, without money” (Exod. 21:11), which we interpret as referring to the signs of initial puberty, does it not make sense that she who is not sold [and has initial signs of puberty] should not be sold [at all]? -[From Mechilta, Arachin 29a] [At the moment when a female has two pubic hairs, usually when she is twelve years old, she is no longer considered a minor. She is then called נַעִרָה. She is, however, still under her father’s jurisdiction until six months later, when her breasts have developed to a certain stage. Then she is called בּוֹגֶרֶת, a mature girl. In the case of a Hebrew maidservant, the father may sell her only when she is a minor, not after she has become a נַעִרָה   וכי ימכר איש את בתו לאמה: בקטנה הכתוב מדבר. יכול אפילו הביאה סימנים. אמרת קל וחומר ומה מכורה קודם לכן יוצאה בסימנין, כמו שנאמר (פסוק יא) ויצאה חנם אין כסף, שאנו דורשים אותן לסימני נערות, שאינה מכורה אינו דין שלא תמכר:
she shall not go free as the slaves go free: [I.e.,]-like the emancipation of Canaanite slaves, who go free because of [the loss of] a tooth or an eye. [See below, verses 26, 27.] This one [a Hebrew maidservant], however, will not go free because of [the loss of] a tooth or an eye, but she will work for [her complete] six years or until the Jubilee year or until she develops signs [of initial puberty]. Whichever comes first will be the first [event] to effect her emancipation, and [her master] will reimburse her for the value of her eye or the value of her tooth. Or perhaps this is not so [i.e., the intention of the verse], but “she shall not go free as the [male] slaves go free” [meaning] after six years or in the Jubilee year? Therefore, the Torah states: “Should your brother, a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman, be sold to you…” (Deut. 15:12). This compares the Hebrew woman to the Hebrew man in regard to all the ways he can be emancipated: just as a Hebrew man goes free following six years [of service] or in the Jubilee year, so too does a Hebrew woman go free following six years [of service] or in the Jubilee year. What then is the meaning of “she shall not go free as the slaves go free” ? [This means] she shall not go free with [the loss of] the tips of her limbs, as do the Canaanite slaves. I might think [then] that [only a Hebrew maidservant does not go free due to the loss of the tips of her limbs, but] a Hebrew man does go free with [the loss of] the tips of his limbs. [Therefore, the Torah] compares the Hebrew man to the Hebrew woman: just as the Hebrew woman does not go free with [the loss of] the tips of her limbs, neither does the Hebrew man go free with [the loss of] the tips of his limbs. — [From Mechilta]   לא תצא כצאת העבדים: כיציאת עבדים כנענים שיוצאים בשן ועין, אבל זו לא תצא בשן ועין, אלא עובדת שש או עד היובל, או עד שתביא סימנין, וכל הקודם קודם לחירותה ונותן לה דמי עינה או דמי שינה, או אינו אלא לא תצא כצאת העבדים בשש וביובל, תלמוד לומר (דברים טו יב) כי ימכר לך אחיך העברי או העבריה. מקיש עבריה לעברי לכל יציאותיו מה עברי יוצא בשש וביובל, אף עבריה יוצאה בשש וביובל, ומהו לא תצא כצאת העבדים, לא תצא בראשי אברים כעבדים כנענים. יכול העברי יוצא בראשי אברים, תלמוד לומר העברי או העבריה, מקיש עברי לעבריה מה העבריה אינה יוצאה בראשי אברים, אף הוא אינו יוצא בראשי אברים:
8If she is displeasing to her master, who did not designate her [for himself], then he shall enable her to be redeemed; he shall not rule over her to sell her to another person, when he betrays her.   חאִם־רָעָ֞ה בְּעֵינֵ֧י אֲדֹנֶ֛יהָ אֲשֶׁר־ל֥וֹ (כתיב אשר־לא) יְעָדָ֖הּ וְהֶפְדָּ֑הּ לְעַ֥ם נָכְרִ֛י לֹֽא־יִמְשֹׁ֥ל לְמָכְרָ֖הּ בְּבִגְדוֹ־בָֽהּ:
If she is displeasing to her master: [Meaning] that she does not please him to the extent that he would [want to] marry her. — [From Mechilta]   אם רעה בעיני א-דניה: שלא נשאה חן בעיניו לכונסה:
who did not designate her: For he should have designated her and married her, and the money paid for her purchase is the money of her betrothal. Here Scripture hints that it is a mitzvah [for the master] to perform יִעוּד, designation for marriage, [with the maidservant] and it hints that she would not require any other betrothal. [I.e., neither money nor articles of value would have to be given to the girl’s father in order to marry her. The money the father originally received for selling his daughter now would become the money of betrothal from her master.]-[From Kid. 19b]   אשר לא יעדה: שהיה לו ליעדה ולהכניסה לו לאשה, וכסף קנייתה הוא כסף קידושיה. כאן רמז לך הכתוב שמצוה ביעוד ורמז לך שאינה צריכה קדושין אחרים:
he shall enable her to be redeemed: [This means] he [the master] should give her the opportunity to be redeemed and go free, for he too assists in her redemption. Now what is this opportunity that he gives her? That he deducts from her redemption, according to the number of years that she worked for him, as if she had been hired by him [and was not a slave]. How so? Let us say that he bought her for a maneh [one hundred zuz], and she worked for him for two years. We say to him, “You knew that she would ultimately leave at the end of six years. This means that you bought each year’s work for one-sixth of a maneh, and she has worked for you for two years, which equals one-third of a maneh. Accept two-thirds of a maneh [from her, to pay for the remaining four years] and let her leave you.” -[from Kid. 14b]   והפדה: יתן לה מקום להפדות ולצאת, שאף הוא מסייע בפדיונה ומה הוא מקום שנותן לה, שמגרע מפדיונה כמספר השנים שעשתה אצלו, כאלו היא שכורה אצלו. כיצד, הרי שקנאה במנה ועשתה אצלו שתי שנים אומרים לו יודע היית שעתידה לצאת לסוף שש, נמצא שקנית עבודת כל שנה ושנה בששית המנה, ועשתה אצלך שתי שנים, הרי שלישית המנה, טול שתי שלישיות המנה ותצא מאצלך:
to another person: Heb. לְעַם נָכְרִי. [Meaning] that neither the master nor the father has the right to sell her to anyone else. — [from Kid. 18a]   לעם נכרי לא ימשל למכרה: אינו רשאי למכרה לאחר, לא האדון ולא האב:
when he betrays her: If he [the master] comes to betray her and not fulfill the commandment of designation, and the father, too, since he betrayed her and sold her to this one.   בבגדו בה: אם בא לבגוד בה, שלא לקיים בה מצות ייעוד, וכן אביה, מאחר שבגד בה ומכרה לזה:
9And if he designates her for his son, he shall deal with her according to the law of the daughters [of Israel].   טוְאִם־לִבְנ֖וֹ יִֽיעָדֶ֑נָּה כְּמִשְׁפַּ֥ט הַבָּנ֖וֹת יַֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽהּ:
And if he designates her for his son: [I.e., if] the master [chooses her as a wife for his son]. [This] teaches [us] that his son also stands in his [the master’s] place to designate her if his father so desires, and he does not require another betrothal, but he [can] say to her, “Behold, you are designated to me with the money your father received [originally] for your value.” -[From Kid. 18b]   ואם לבנו ייעדנה: האדון. מלמד, שאף בנו קם תחתיו ליעדה, אם ירצה אביו, ואינו צריך לקדשה קידושין אחרים. אלא אומר לה הרי את מיועדת לי בכסף שקיבל אביך בדמיך:
according to the law of the daughters [of Israel]: Meaning sustenance, clothing, and marital relations. — [From Mechilta]   כמשפט הבנות: שאר, כסות ועונה:
10If he takes another [wife] for himself, he shall not diminish her sustenance, her clothing, or her marital relations.   יאִם־אַחֶ֖רֶת יִקַּח־ל֑וֹ שְׁאֵרָ֛הּ כְּסוּתָ֥הּ וְעֹֽנָתָ֖הּ לֹ֥א יִגְרָֽע:
If he takes another [wife] for himself: in addition to her. — [From Mechilta]   אם אחרת יקח לו: עליה:
he shall not diminish her sustenance, her clothing, or her marital relations: from the maidservant whom he had already designated. — [From Mechilta]   שארה כסותה וענתה לא יגרע: מן האמה שיעד לו כבר:
her sustenance: Heb. שְׁאֵרָהּ, [referring to] food. — [From Mechilta, Keth. 47b]   שארה: מזונות:
her clothing: Heb. כְּסוּתָה, lit., her covering As its apparent meaning [namely her clothing].   כסותה: כמשמעו:
her marital relations: Heb. עֹנָתָה, [meaning physical] intimacy. — [From Mechilta, Keth. 47b]   ענתה: תשמיש:
11And if he does not do these three things for her, she shall go free without charge, without [payment of] money.   יאוְאִ֨ם־שְׁלָשׁ־אֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה לָ֑הּ וְיָֽצְאָ֥ה חִנָּ֖ם אֵ֥ין כָּֽסֶף:
And if he does not do these three things for her: If he does not do any one of these three things for her. Now what are these three things? He should designate her for himself or for his son [as a wife], or he should deduct from the money of her redemption and allow her to go free. But this one [master] designated her neither for himself nor for his son, and she could not afford to redeem herself [even after the deduction]. — [From Mechilta]   ואם שלש אלה לא יעשה לה: אם אחת משלש אלה לא יעשה לה, ומה הן השלש, ייעדנה לו, או לבנו, או יגרע מפדיונה ותצא, וזה לא ייעדה לא לו ולא לבנו, והיא לא היה בידה לפדות את עצמה:
she shall go free without charge: [The text] adds [another means of] emancipation for this [maidservant] beyond what it provided for male slaves. Now what is this [means of] emancipation? וְיָצְאָה חִנָם informs you that she goes free when she shows [initial] signs [of puberty], and she must stay with him until she develops [these] signs. If six years pass before the appearance of these signs, we have already learned that she goes free, as it is said: “Should your brother, a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman [be sold to you, that one] shall serve you for six years” (Deut. 15: 12). What then is the meaning of “she shall go out without charge” ? If the signs [of puberty] precede the [end of] six years, she shall go free because of them. Or perhaps it means only that she goes out when she reaches maturity [i.e., at twelve and a half years]? Therefore, Scripture says: “without [payment of] money,” to include her emancipation at maturity. If both of them [i.e., that she goes free “without charge” and “without money”] were not stated, [and “she shall go out without charge” was stated,] I would say that “she shall go out without charge” refers to [her being freed at] maturity. Therefore, both of them were stated, so that the disputant has no opportunity to differ. -[From Mechilta, Kid. 4a]   ויצאה חנם: ריבה לה יציאה לזו יותר ממה שריבה לעבדים, ומה היא היציאה, ללמדך שתצא בסימנין ותשהה עמו עד שתביא סימנין. ואם הגיעו שש שנים קודם סימנין, כבר למדנו שתצא, שנאמר (דברים טו יב) העברי או העבריה ועבדך שש שנים, ומהו האמור כאן ויצאה חנם, שאם קדמו סימנים לשש שנים תצא בהן, או אינו אומר שתצא אלא בבגרות תלמוד לומר אין כסף לרבות יציאת בגרות ואם לא נאמרו שניהם הייתי אומר ויצאה חנם זו בגרות, לכך נאמרו שניהם, שלא ליתן פתחון פה לבעל הדין לחלוק:
12One who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death.   יבמַכֵּ֥ה אִ֛ישׁ וָמֵ֖ת מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
One who strikes a man so that he dies: Several verses have been written in the section dealing with murderers, and I will explain what I am able to explain [about] why they [these verses] are needed.   מכה איש ומת: כמה כתובים נאמרו בפרשת [במיתת] רוצחין, ומה שבידי לפרש למה באו כולם, אפרש:
One who strikes a man so that he dies: Why was this said? Because it says: “And if a man strikes down any human being, he shall surely be put to death” (Lev. 24:17), I understand [that even if he deals him] a blow without death. Therefore, the Torah says: “He who strikes a man and he dies,” meaning that he is liable only for a blow causing death. If it said: “He who strikes a man,” and it did not say, “And if a man strikes down any human being,” I would say that one is liable only if one strikes a man. If one strikes a woman or a minor, how do we know [that one is liable]? Therefore, the Torah says: “if [a man] strikes down any human being,” referring even to a minor or even a woman. Also, if it said: “He who strikes a man,” I would understand that even a minor who struck and killed [someone] would be liable. Therefore, the Torah [specifically] says: “if a man strikes down,” but not a minor who strikes [someone] down. Also, “if… strikes down any human being” implies even a nonviable infant. Therefore, the Torah [here] says: “He who strikes a man,” implying one is liable only if one strikes a viable infant, one [who is] capable of becoming a man [i.e., an adult]. -[From Mechilta]   מכה איש ומת: למה נאמר, לפי שנאמר (ויקרא כד יז) ואיש כי יכה כל נפש אדם מות יומת, שומע אני בהכאה בלא מיתה, תלמוד לומר מכה איש ומת, אינו חייב אלא בהכאה של מיתה. ואם נאמר מכה איש, ולא נאמר ואיש כי יכה, הייתי אומר אינו חייב עד שיכה איש, היכה את האשה ואת הקטן מנין, תלמוד לומר כי יכה כל נפש אדם, אפילו קטן ואפילו אשה. ועוד אלו נאמר מכה איש, שומע אני, אפילו קטן שהכה והרג יהא חייב, תלמוד לומר ואיש כי יכה, ולא קטן שהכה. ועוד, כי יכה כל נפש אדם, אפילו נפלים במשמע, תלמוד לומר מכה איש, אינו חייב עד שיכה בן קיימא ראוי להיות איש:
13But one who did not stalk [him], but God brought [it] about into his hand, I will make a place for you to which he shall flee.   יגוַֽאֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א צָדָ֔ה וְהָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים אִנָּ֣ה לְיָד֑וֹ וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י לְךָ֙ מָק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָנ֖וּס שָֽׁמָּה:
But one who did not stalk [him]: He did not lie in wait for him, and he did not intend [to kill him]. -[From Sifrei, Num. 35:22]   ואשר לא צדה: לא ארב לו ולא נתכוין:
stalk: Heb. צָדָה, an expression meaning “lie in wait.” And so does Scripture say: “but you are stalking (צֹדֶה) my soul to take it” (I Sam. 24:12). It is, however, impossible to say that צָדָה is an expression [that is] related to [hunting animals as in the following verse:] “the one who hunted game צַיִד) (הַצָּד ” (Gen. 27:33) [and to render: he did not hunt him down], because in [the expression of] hunting beasts, there is no “hey” in its verb, and the noun related to it is צַיִד, whereas the noun in this case is צְדִיָּה (Num. 35:20), and its verb is צוֹדֶה, but the verb of this one [namely hunting] is צָּד. I say, [therefore,] that this is to be interpreted as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: But he who did not stalk [him]. Menachem, however, classified it (Machbereth Menachem, p. 148) in the grouping along with הַצָּד צַיִד, but I disagree with him. If it is at all possible to classify it in one of the groupings of צד [enumerated by Menachem], we may classify it in the grouping of “on the side (צַד) you shall be borne” (Isa. 66:12); “I shall shoot to the side (צִדָּה) ” (I Sam. 20:20); “And he will speak words against [lit., to the side of] (לְצַד) the Most High” (Dan. 7:25). Here, too, אִשֶׁר לֹא צָדָה means that he did not look sideways (צִדֵּד) to find for him some occasion [lit., side] to kill him. This [interpretation] too is questionable. In any case, it is an expression of stalking. [   צדה: לשון ארב, וכן הוא אומר (שמואל א כד יא) ואתה צודה את נפשי לקחתה, ולא יתכן לומר צדה לשון הצד ציד (בראשית כז לג), שצידת חיות אין נופל ה"א בפועל שלה, ושם דבר בה ציד, וזה שם דבר בו צדיה ופועל שלו צודה, וזה פועל שלו צד. ואומר אני פתרונו כתרגומו ודלא כמן ליה. ומנחם חברו בחלק צד ציד, ואין אני מודה לו. ואם יש לחברו באחת ממחלוקת של צד, נחברנו בחלק (ישעיה סו יב) על צד תנשאו, צדה אורה (שמואל א' כ כ), ומלין לצד עלאה ימלל (דניאל ז כה). אף כאן אשר לא צדה לא צדד למצוא לו שום צד מיתה, ואף זה יש להרהר עליו, סוף דבר לשון אורב הוא:
but God brought [it] about into his hand: Heb. אִנָּה, made it ready for his hand, an expression similar to “No harm will be prepared (תְאוּנֶּה) for you” (Ps. 91:10); No wrong shall be prepared (יְאוּנֶּה) (Prov. 12:21); [and] “he is preparing himself (מִתְאַנֶה) against me” (II Kings 5:7), [meaning that] he is preparing himself to find a pretext against me..   והא-להים אנה לידו: זימן לידו, לשון לא תאונה אליך רעה (תהלים צא י), לא יאונה לצדיק כל און (משלי יב כא), מתאנה הוא לי (מלכים ב' ה ז), מזדמן למצוא לי עילה:
but God brought [it] about into his hand: Now why should this go out from before Him? That is what David said, “As the proverb of the Ancient One says, ‘From the wicked comes forth wickedness’” (I Sam. 24:14). The proverb of the Ancient One is the Torah, which is the proverb of the Holy One, blessed is He, Who is the Ancient One of the world. Now where did the Torah say, “From the wicked comes forth wickedness” ? [This refers to:] “but God brought [it] about into his hand.” To what is the text referring? To two people, one who killed unintentionally and one who killed intentionally, but there were no witnesses who would testify to the matter. This one [who killed intentionally] was not executed, and that one [who killed unintentionally] was not exiled [to the refuge cities]. So the Holy One, blessed is He, brings them [both] to one inn. The one who killed intentionally sits under a ladder, and the one who killed unintentionally is ascending the ladder, and he falls on the one who had killed intentionally and kills him, and witnesses testify about him and sentence him to exile. The result is that the one who killed unintentionally is exiled, and the one who killed intentionally was killed. -[From Mechilta, Makkoth 10b]   והא-להים אנה לידו: ולמה תצא זאת מלפניו, הוא שאמר דוד (שמואל א' כד יג) כאשר יאמר משל הקדמוני מרשעים יצא רשע, ומשל הקדמוני היא התורה, שהיא משל הקב"ה שהוא קדמונו של עולם. והיכן אמרה תורה מרשעים יצא רשע, והא-להים אנה לידו. במה הכתוב מדבר, בשני בני אדם, אחד הרג שוגג ואחד הרג מזיד, ולא היו עדים בדבר שיעידו, זה לא נהרג וזה לא גלה, והקב"ה מזמנן לפונדק אחד, זה שהרג במזיד יושב תחת הסולם, וזה שהרג שוגג עולה בסולם ונופל על זה שהרג במזיד והורגו, ועדים מעידים עליו ומחייבים אותו לגלות, נמצא זה שהרג בשוגג גולה, וזה שהרג במזיד נהרג:
I will make a place for you: Even in the desert, where he [the man who has murdered] shall flee, and what place affords him asylum? This is the camp of the Levites. -[From Mechilta, Mak. 12b]   ושמתי לך מקום: אף במדבר, שינוס שמה, ואיזה מקום קולטו, זה מחנה לויה:
14But if a man plots deliberately against his friend to slay him with cunning, [even] from My altar you shall take him to die.   ידוְכִֽי־יָזִ֥ד אִ֛ישׁ עַל־רֵעֵ֖הוּ לְהָרְג֣וֹ בְעָרְמָ֑ה מֵעִ֣ם מִזְבְּחִ֔י תִּקָּחֶ֖נּוּ לָמֽוּת:
But if… plots deliberately: Why was this said? Because it said: “One who strikes [a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death]” (verse 12), I [may] understand [this to apply to] a physician [who killed a patient], the agent of the court who killed by [administering] forty lashes, the father who strikes his son, the teacher who disciplines his pupil, and the unintentional [killer]. Therefore, the Torah states: “But if [a man] plots deliberately,” but not the unintentional [killer]; “to slay him with cunning,” but not the agent of the court, the physician, or the one who disciplines his son or his pupil, for although they are intentional [in striking], they do not act with cunning. -[From Mechilta]   וכי יזיד: למה נאמר, לפי שנאמר מכה איש וגו' שומע אני אפילו גוי, והרופא שהרג ושליח בית דין שהמית במלקות ארבעים, והאב המכה את בנו, והרב הרודה את תלמידו, והשוגג, תלמוד לומר וכי יזיד ולא שוגג על רעהו ולא על גוי. להרגו בערמה - ולא שליח בית דין והרופא והרודה את בנו ותלמידו, שאף על פי שהם מזידין אין מערימין:
[even] from My altar: if he were a kohen and wanted to perform the [sacrificial] service, you shall take him to die. [From Mechilta, Yoma 85a]   מעם מזבחי: אם היה כהן ורוצה לעבוד עבודה, תקחנו למות:
15And one who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.   טווּמַכֵּ֥ה אָבִ֛יו וְאִמּ֖וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
And one who strikes his father or his mother: Since we learned that one who strikes one’s fellow is liable to make monetary compensation (Exod. 21:18, 19, 24, 25), but he is not liable to death, the text had to state that one who strikes his father is liable to the death penalty, but he is not liable except for a blow that causes a wound. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 84b]   ומכה אביו ואמו: לפי שלמדנו על החובל בחבירו שהוא בתשלומין ולא במיתה, הוצרך לומר על החובל באביו שהוא במיתה, ואינו חייב אלא בהכאה שיש בה חבורה:
his father or his mother: Either this one or that one. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 85b]   אביו ואמו: או זה או זה:
shall surely be put to death: by strangulation. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 85b]   מות יומת: בחנק:
16And whoever kidnaps a man and sells him, and he is found in his possession, shall surely be put to death.   טזוְגֹנֵ֨ב אִ֧ישׁ וּמְכָר֛וֹ וְנִמְצָ֥א בְיָד֖וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
And whoever kidnaps a man: Why was this said [here since the law of kidnapping is mentioned elsewhere (Ho’il Moshe)]? Since it says (Deut. 24:7): “Should a man be found stealing a person from among his brothers” [meaning from the children of Israel, and he has worked with him and sold him, that thief shall die, and you shall clear away the evil from your midst]. [From here] I know only [that] a man who kidnapped a person [is liable to death]. How do I know if a woman, one of indeterminate sex, or a hermaphrodite kidnap [a person, that they too are liable to death]? Therefore, the Torah states: “And whoever kidnaps a man and sells him…” And since it says here: “And whoever kidnaps a man,” I know only that one who kidnaps a man [is liable to death]. How do I know that if one kidnaps a woman [he is also liable… to death]? Therefore, the Torah states (Deut. 24: 7): “stealing a person.” Therefore, both of them [both verses] were needed; what one [verse] left out the other [verse] filled in [lit., revealed]. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 85b]   וגנב איש ומכרו: למה נאמר, לפי שנאמר (דברים כד ז) כי ימצא איש גונב נפש מאחיו, אין לי אלא איש שגנב נפש, אשה או טומטום או אנדרוגינוס שגנבו מנין, תלמוד לומר וגונב איש ומכרו. ולפי שנאמר כאן וגונב איש, אין לי אלא גונב איש, גונב אשה מנין, תלמוד לומר (שם) גונב נפש, לכך הוצרכו שניהם, מה שחסר זה גלה זה:
and he is found in his possession: [I.e., this means] that witnesses saw him that he kidnapped him and sold him, and he [the kidnapped man] was found in his hand prior to the sale. -[From Mechilta]   ונמצא בידו: שראוהו עדים שגנבו ומכרו ונמצא בידו כבר קודם מכירה:
shall surely be put to death: By strangulation. Every death penalty mentioned in the Torah without qualification is strangulation (Mechilta, Sanh. 84b). [God] interrupts the subject [of discussing sins against parents] and writes, “and whoever kidnaps a man” between [the verses] “one who strikes his father or his mother” and “one who curses his father or his mother.” It appears to me that that is [the underlying reason for] the controversy [found in Sanh. 85], that one Tannaic master believes that we are comparing striking [someone] to cursing [i.e., just as one is liable only if one curses a person who keeps the commandments as befits a Jew (see Exod. 22:27), so too is one liable only for striking a person who keeps the commandments, but not for striking a Cuthite], and the other master believes that we do not compare cursing to striking [and thus one would be liable for striking a Cuthite even though he does not keep the commandments]. -[Rashi, referring to Sanh. 85b]   מות יומת: בחנק, כל מיתה האמורה בתורה סתם חנק היא. [והפסיק הענין וכתב וגונב איש, בין מכה אביו ואמו למקלל אביו ואמו, ונראה לי היינו פלוגתא, דמר סבר מקשינן הכאה לקללה, ומר סבר לא מקשינן]:
17And one who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.   יזוּמְקַלֵּ֥ל אָבִ֛יו וְאִמּ֖וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
And one who curses his father or his mother: Why was this said? Since [Scripture] says: “any man, any man who curses his father [or his mother shall surely be put to death]” (Lev. 20:9). [From there] I know only that if a man curses his father [he is liable to death]. How do I know that if a woman curses her father [she too is liable to death]? Therefore, Scripture says [here]: “And one who curses his father or his mother….” It makes an unqualified statement, meaning whether it is a man or a woman. If so, why does it say, “any man who curses” ? [In order] to exclude a minor. -[From Mechilta]   ומקלל אביו ואמו: למה נאמר, לפי שהוא אומר (ויקרא כ ט) איש איש אשר יקלל את אביו, אין לי אלא איש שקלל את אביו, אשה שקללה את אביה מנין, תלמוד לומר ומקלל אביו ואמו סתם בין איש ובין אשה. אם כן למה נאמר איש אשר יקלל, להוציא את הקטן:
shall surely be put to death: By stoning. Wherever it says: “his blood is upon him,” [it means that he is to be put to death] by stoning. The model for all of them is “with rocks they shall stone them; their blood is upon them” (Lev. 20:27). Regarding the one who curses his father, it says: “his blood is upon him” (Lev. 20:9). -[From Mechilta; Sanh. 66a; Sifra, end of Kedoshim]   מות יומת: בסקילה, וכל מקום שנאמר דמיו בו, בסקילה ובנין אב לכולם (ויקרא כ כז) באבן ירגמו אותם דמיהם בם, ובמקלל אביו ואמו נאמר דמיו בו (ויקרא כ ט):
18And if men quarrel, and one strikes the other with a stone or with a fist, and he does not die but is confined to [his] bed,   יחוְכִֽי־יְרִיבֻ֣ן אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְהִכָּה־אִישׁ֙ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ בְּאֶ֖בֶן א֣וֹ בְאֶגְרֹ֑ף וְלֹ֥א יָמ֖וּת וְנָפַ֥ל לְמִשְׁכָּֽב:
And if men quarrel: Why was this said? Since it says: “An eye for an eye” (Exod. 21:24), we learn only [that if one assaults his fellow, he must pay] the value of his limbs [which he amputated or rendered permanently useless], but [payment for] idleness and healing we have not [yet] learned. Therefore, this section, [which delineates those payments,] was stated. -[From Mechilta]   וכי יריבן אנשים: למה נאמר, לפי שנאמר (פסוק כד) עין תחת עין, לא למדנו אלא דמי איבריו, אבל שבת ורפוי לא למדנו, לכך נאמרה פרשה זו:
but is confined to [his] bed: Heb. וְנָפַל לְמִשְׁכָּב, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: לְבוּטְלָן, and he falls into idleness, [meaning] into an illness that prevents him from working.   ונפל למשכב: כתרגומו ויפול לבוטלן, לחולי שמבטלו ממלאכתו:
19if he gets up and walks about outside on his support, the assailant shall be cleared; he shall give only [payment] for his [enforced] idleness, and he shall provide for his cure.   יטאִם־יָק֞וּם וְהִתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ בַּח֛וּץ עַל־מִשְׁעַנְתּ֖וֹ וְנִקָּ֣ה הַמַּכֶּ֑ה רַ֥ק שִׁבְתּ֛וֹ יִתֵּ֖ן וְרַפֹּ֥א יְרַפֵּֽא:
on his support: Heb. עַל-מִשְׁעַנְךְתּוֹ, with his health and his strength. -[From Mechilta].   על משענתו: על בוריו וכחו:
the assailant shall be cleared: Now would it enter your mind that one who did not kill should be killed? But rather, [the Torah] teaches you here that they imprison him until it becomes apparent whether this one [the victim] will get well, and this is its meaning: When this one gets up and walks on his support, then the assailant shall be cleared, but before this one [the victim] gets up, the assailant shall not be cleared. -[From Keth. 33b]   ונקה המכה: וכי תעלה על דעתך שיהרג זה שלא הרג, אלא למדך כאן שחובשים אותו, עד שנראה אם יתרפא זה, וכן משמעו כשקם זה והולך על משענתו אז נקה המכה, אבל עד שלא יקום זה לא נקה המכה:
only [payment] for his [enforced] idleness: Heb. שִׁבְךְתּוֹ, the [enforced] idleness from his work due to the illness. If he cut off his hand or his foot, we assess [payment for] the idleness as if he were a watchman of a cucumber field, because even after [recovery from] the illness, he is not fit for work that requires a hand or foot, and he [the assailant] already gave him as payment for his damage the value of his hand and his foot, as it is said: “a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot” (Exod. 21:24). -[From B.K. 83b, 85b, Tosefta B.K. 9:1]   רק שבתו: בטול מלאכתו מחמת החולי, אם קטע ידו או רגלו, רואין בטול מלאכתו מחמת החולי כאילו הוא שומר קשואין, שהרי אף לאחר החולי אינו ראוי למלאכת יד ורגל, והוא כבר נתן לו מחמת נזקו דמי ידו ורגלו, שנאמר (פסוק כד) יד תחת יד רגל תחת רגל:
and he shall provide for his cure: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: and he shall pay the physician’s fee.   ורפא ירפא: כתרגומו, ישלם שכר הרופא:

Second Portion

Exodus Chapter 21

20And should a man strike his manservant or his maidservant with a rod, and [that one] die under his hand, he shall surely be avenged.   כוְכִֽי־יַכֶּה֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּ֜וֹ א֤וֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ֙ בַּשֵּׁ֔בֶט וּמֵ֖ת תַּ֣חַת יָד֑וֹ נָקֹ֖ם יִנָּקֵֽם:
And should a man strike his manservant or his maidservant: The text is referring to a Canaanite slave, or perhaps it is referring only to a Hebrew [slave]? To clarify this, the Torah says: “because he is his property” (verse 21). Just as his property is his permanent acquisition, so is the slave [in question] one who is his permanent acquisition. Now, was he [the one who kills his slave] not included in “He who strikes a man and he dies” (above, verse 12) ? This verse was written [lit., came] to exclude him [the owner of the slave] from the general rule [concerning murder], to be judged with the law of “a day or two days” (verse 21), that if he did not die under his hand but lingered an entire twenty-four-hour period, he is exempt. -[From Mechilta]   וכי יכה איש את עבדו או את אמתו: בעבד כנעני הכתוב מדבר. או אינו אלא בעברי, תלמוד לומר כי כספו הוא, מה כספו קנוי לו עולמית, אף עבד הקנוי לו עולמית. והרי היה בכלל (פסוק יב) מכה איש ומת, אלא בא הכתוב והוציאו מן הכלל, להיות נדון בדין יום או יומים, שאם לא מת תחת ידו ושהה מעת לעת פטור:
with a rod: The verse refers to [a rod] that has sufficient [weight and strength] to kill [someone]. Or perhaps that is not so, but [the master is liable] even if it [the rod] does not have sufficient [weight and strength] to kill? Therefore, the Torah says concerning an Israelite: “Or if he strikes him with a stone that can be held in the hand, from which he may die” (Num. 35:17). (“Or if he strikes him with a wooden instrument that can be held in the hand, from which he may die” ) (Num. 35:18). -[Mizrachi version] Now could the matter not be understood by a kal vachomer [an inference from a major to a minor case], that if [in the case of] an Israelite [victim], [a case] which is treated more stringently, one is not liable unless he struck him [the victim] with an article that has sufficient [weight and strength] to kill and the blow is on an organ which could cause death, how much more should it be so [in the case of] a slave, [a case] which is treated more leniently? -[From Mechilta]   בשבט: כשיש בו כדי להמית הכתוב מדבר. או אינו אלא אפילו אין בו כדי להמית, תלמוד לומר בישראל (במדבר לה יז) ואם באבן יד אשר ימות בה הכהו, והלא דברים קל וחומר מה ישראל חמור אין חייב עליו, אלא אם כן הכהו בדבר שיש בו כדי להמית, ועל אבר שהוא כדי למות בהכאה זו, עבד הקל לא כל שכן:
he shall surely be avenged: [with] death by the sword [decapitation], and so does the Torah say: “a sword avenging the vengeance of the covenant” (Lev. 26:25). -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 52b]   נקם ינקם: מיתת סייף, וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא כו כה) חרב נוקמות נקם ברית:
21But if he survives for a day or for two days, he shall not be avenged, because he is his property.   כאאַ֥ךְ אִם־י֛וֹם א֥וֹ יוֹמַ֖יִם יַֽעֲמֹ֑ד לֹ֣א יֻקַּ֔ם כִּ֥י כַסְפּ֖וֹ הֽוּא:
But if he survives for a day or two he shall not be avenged: If one day[’s survival] exempts him [from punishment], then would not [survival of] two days be even more obvious? [Why then, is the word יומים written?] Rather [it must be that we are speaking of] one day which is as two days, and what [kind of day] is that? A full, twenty-four hour period.   אך אם יום או יומים יעמוד לא יקם: אם על יום אחד הוא פטור, על יומים לא כל שכן, אלא יום שהוא כיומים, ואיזה, זה מעת לעת:
he shall not be avenged, because he is his property: But if someone else struck him, even if he lingered for twenty-four hours before he died, he [the other person] is liable [to incur the death penalty].   לא יקם כי כספו הוא: הא אחר שהכהו, אף על פי ששהה מעת לעת קודם שמת, חייב:
22And should men quarrel and hit a pregnant woman, and she miscarries but there is no fatality, he shall surely be punished, when the woman's husband makes demands of him, and he shall give [restitution] according to the judges' [orders].   כבוְכִֽי־יִנָּצ֣וּ אֲנָשִׁ֗ים וְנָ֨גְפ֜וּ אִשָּׁ֤ה הָרָה֙ וְיָֽצְא֣וּ יְלָדֶ֔יהָ וְלֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶ֖ה אָס֑וֹן עָנ֣וֹשׁ יֵֽעָנֵ֗שׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יָשִׁ֤ית עָלָיו֙ בַּ֣עַל הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה וְנָתַ֖ן בִּפְלִלִֽים:
And should men quarrel: with one another, and [one] intended to strike his fellow, and [instead] struck a woman. [From Sanh. 79a]   וכי ינצו אנשים: זה עם זה, ונתכוין להכות את חבירו והכה את האשה:
and hit a pregnant woman: Heb. נְגִיפָה וְנָגְפוּ is only an expression of pushing and striking, as [in the following phrases:] “lest you strike ךְתִּגֹף your foot with a stone” (Ps. 91:12); “and before your feet are bruised (יִתְנְַָפוּ) ” (Jer. 13:16); “and a stone upon which to dash oneself (נֶגֶף) ” (Isa. 8:14).   ונגפו: אין נגיפה אלא לשון דחיפה והכאה, כמו (תהלים צא יב) פן תגוף באבן רגלך, (ירמיה יג טז) ובטרם יתנגפו רגליכם, (ישעיה ח יד) ולאבן נגף:
but there is no fatality: with the woman. -[From Sanh. 79a, Jonathan]   ולא יהיה אסון: באשה:
he shall surely be punished: to pay the value of the fetuses to the husband. They assess her [for] how much she was valued to be sold in the market, increasing her value because of her pregnancy. -[From B.K. 49a] I. e., the court figures how much she would be worth if sold as a pregnant slave when customers would take into account the prospect of the slaves she would bear, and her value as a slave without the pregnancy. The assailant must pay the difference between these two amounts. -[B.K. 48b, 49a]   ענוש יענש: לשלם דמי ולדות לבעל שמין אותה, כמה היתה ראויה למכר בשוק להעלות בדמיה בשביל הריונה:
he shall surely be punished: Heb. יֵעָנֵשׁ עָנוֹשׁ. They shall collect monetary payment from him, like וְעָנְשׁוּ [in the verse] “And they shall fine (וְעָנְשׁוּ) him one hundred [shekels of] silver” (Deut. 22:19). [From Mechilta]   ענוש יענש: יגבו ממון ממנו, כמו (דברים כב יט) וענשו אותו מאה כסף:
when the woman’s husband makes demands of him: When the husband sues him [the assailant] in court to levy upon him punishment for that.   כאשר ישית עליו וגו': כשיתבנעו הבעל בבית דין להשית עליו עונש על כך:
and he shall give [restitution]: The assailant [shall give] the value of the fetuses.   ונתן: המכה דמי ולדות:
according to the judges: Heb. בִּפְלִלִים, according to the verdict of the judges. -[From Mechilta]   בפלילים: על פי הדיינים:
23But if there is a fatality, you shall give a life for a life,   כגוְאִם־אָס֖וֹן יִֽהְיֶ֑ה וְנָֽתַתָּ֥ה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ:
But if there is a fatality: with the woman.   ואם אסון יהיה: באשה:
you shall give a life for a life: Our Rabbis differ on this matter. Some say [that he must] actually [give up his] life, and some say [that he must pay] money, but not actually a life, and if one intends to kill one person and kills another, he is exempt from the death penalty and must pay his [the victim’s] heirs his value, as [it would be if] he were sold in the marketplace. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 79]   ונתתה נפש תחת נפש: רבותינו חולקין בדבר. יש אומרים נפש ממש, ויש אומרים ממון, אבל לא נפש ממש, שהמתכויון להרוג את זה והרג את זה פטור ממיתה ומשלם ליורשיו דמיו, כמו שהיה נמכר בשוק:
24an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot,   כדעַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת שֵׁ֑ן יָ֚ד תַּ֣חַת יָ֔ד רֶ֖גֶל תַּ֥חַת רָֽגֶל:
an eye for an eye: If [a person] blinds his neighbor’s eye, he must give him the value of his eye, [which is] how much his price to be sold in the marketplace has decreased [without the eye]. So is the meaning of all of them [i.e., all the injuries enumerated in the following verses], but not the actual amputation of a limb, as our Rabbis interpreted it in the chapter entitled הַחוֹבֵל, he who assaults. -[From B.K. 83b, 84a]   עין תחת עין: סימא עין חבירו נותן לו דמי עינו, כמה שפחתו דמיו למכור בשוק, וכן כולם, ולא נטילת אבר ממש, כמו שדרשו רבותינו בפרק החובל (בבא קמא פד א):
25a burn for a burn, a wound for a wound, a bruise for a bruise.   כהכְּוִיָּה֙ תַּ֣חַת כְּוִיָּ֔ה פֶּ֖צַע תַּ֣חַת פָּ֑צַע חַבּוּרָ֕ה תַּ֖חַת חַבּוּרָֽה:
a burn for a burn: Heb. כְּוִיָּה, a burn caused by fire. [Rashi probably alludes to מִכְוַת-אֵשׁ in Lev. 13:24.] Until now [the Torah] spoke of an injury that decreases the value [of the victim], and now of [an injury] that does not decrease the [victim’s] value [as a slave] but causes pain, for instance if he [the assailant] burned him [the victim] on his nails with a spit, they [the judges] compute how much [money] a person like him would be willing to take to endure such pain. -[From B.K. 84a, Mechilta]   כויה תחת כויה: מכות אש, ועד עכשיו דבר בחבלה שיש בה פחת דמים, ועכשיו בשאין בה פחת דמים, אלא צער, כגון כוואו בשפוד על צפרנו אומדים כמה אדם כיוצא בזה רוצה ליטול להיות מצטער כך:
a wound: Heb. פֶּצַע, a wound that bleeds, where he wounded his [victim’s] flesh, navredure in Old French, all according to what it [the wound] is. If it decreases his value, he [the assailant must] pay [for the] damage; if he falls into idleness, he [must] pay for idleness, and for healing, shame, and pain. This verse is superfluous [because there is no difference between a wound and a burn. Whatever damage he inflicts he must pay]. In [the chapter] הַחוֹבֵל (B.K. 84a), our Rabbis interpreted it as making one liable for [the victim’s] pain even where there is [permanent] damage [which he must pay for], because although he pays him [the victim] the value of his hand, we do not exempt him from the [payment compensating for the victim’s] pain, reasoning that since he [the assailant] purchased his [the victim’s] hand [by giving the victim payment for its value], he may amputate it with whatever he wants. We say, however, that he should amputate it with a medication that lessens the pain. However, [if] he cut it off with [an] iron [implement] and caused him pain [he must give the victim compensation]. -[From B.K. 85a]   פצע: היא מכה המוציאה דם, שפצע את בשרו, נברדור"א בלעז, [פציעה] הכל לפי מה שהוא אם יש בו פחת דמים נותן נזק, ואם נפל למשכב נותן שבת ורפוי ובשת וצער. ומקרא זה יתר הוא, ובהחובל דרשוהו רבותינו לחייב על הצער אפילו במקום נזק, שאף על פי שנותן לו דמי ידו, אין פוטרין אותו מן הצער לומר הואיל וקנה ידו יש עליו לחתכה בכל מה שירצה, אלא אומרים יש לו לחתכה בסם, שאינו מצטער כל כך, וזה חתכה בברזל וצערו:
a bruise: Heb. חַבּוּרָה. This is a blow in which blood collects but does not come out. It only reddens the flesh on that spot. The term חַבּוּרָה is equivalent to tache in Old French [meaning] a spot, like “or a leopard its spots (חִבַרְבֻּרֹתָיו) ” (Jer. 13:23). Its Aramaic translation is מַשְׁקוֹפֵי, an expression of beating, batedure in Old French, [meaning] beating, knocking, and so, שְׁדֻפוֹתקָדִּים (Gen. 41:23) [is translated by Onkelos as:] קִדּוּם שְׁקִיפָן, [which means] “beaten by the [east] wind,” and similarly, “on the lintel (עַל הַמַשְׁקוֹף)” (Exod. 12:7), [is given this appellation] because the door bangs against it [the lintel]. [See commentary on Exod. 12:7.]   חבורה: היא מכה שהדם נצרר בה ואינו יוצא, אלא שמאדים הבשר כנגדו ולשון חבורה [טי"א] בלעז [כתם], כמו (ירמיה יג כג) ונמר חברברותיו ותרגומו משקופי, לשון חבטה בטדור"א בלעז [מכה], וכן ושדופת קדים (בראשית מא ו) שקיפן קידום, חבוטות ברוח, וכן על המשקוף (לעיל יב כג) על שם שהדלת נושק עליו:
26And if a man strikes the eye of his manservant or the eye of his maidservant and destroys it, he shall set him free in return for his eye,   כווְכִֽי־יַכֶּ֨ה אִ֜ישׁ אֶת־עֵ֥ין עַבְדּ֛וֹ אֽוֹ־אֶת־עֵ֥ין אֲמָת֖וֹ וְשִֽׁחֲתָ֑הּ לַֽחָפְשִׁ֥י יְשַׁלְּחֶ֖נּוּ תַּ֥חַת עֵינֽוֹ:
the eye of his manservant: [This refers to] a Canaanite, but a Hebrew [slave] does not go out with [the loss of his] tooth or [his] eye as we have stated on “she shall not go out as the slaves go out” (Exod. 21:7).   את עין עבדו: כנעני, אבל עברי אינו יוצא בשן ועין, כמו שאמרנו אצל לא תצא כצאת העבדים (פסוק ז):
in return for his eye: And so it [the law] is with the twenty-four tips of limbs: [i.e.,] the fingers and toes, the two ears and the nose, and the רֹאֹש הַגְּוִיָה, which is the male organ. Why were [both] a tooth and an eye mentioned [when the Torah could have mentioned only one]? Because if it had mentioned an eye and did not mention a tooth, I would say that just as an eye was created with him [at birth], so [does this apply to] everything that is created with him, but a tooth was not created with him [at birth]. [Therefore, I would say that if the master knocked out his slave’s tooth, the slave would not be freed.] If it mentioned a tooth and did not mention an eye, I would say [that] even [if the master knocked out] a baby tooth, which would be replaced [by the natural growth of another tooth, the slave would be freed]. Therefore, it mentions the eye [which cannot be replaced, to teach us that if the master knocks out a baby tooth, the slave is not freed]. -[From Kid. 24a]   תחת עינו: וכן בכ"ד ראשי אברים אצבעות הידים והרגלים. ושתי אזנים והחוטם וראש הגויה, שהוא גיד האמה. ולמה נאמר שן ועין, שאם נאמר עין ולא נאמר שן, הייתי אומר מה עין שנברא עמו אף כל שנברא עמו, והרי שן לא נברא עמו, ועם נאמר שן ולא נאמר עין, הייתי אומר אפילו שן תינוק שיש לה חליפין, לכך נאמר עין:
27and if he knocks out the tooth of his manservant or the tooth of his maidservant, he shall set him free in return for his tooth.   כזוְאִם־שֵׁ֥ן עַבְדּ֛וֹ אוֹ־שֵׁ֥ן אֲמָת֖וֹ יַפִּ֑יל לַֽחָפְשִׁ֥י יְשַׁלְּחֶ֖נּוּ תַּ֥חַת שִׁנּֽוֹ:
28And if a bull gores a man or a woman and [that one] dies, the bull shall surely be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten, and the owner of the bull is clear.   כחוְכִֽי־יִגַּ֨ח שׁ֥וֹר אֶת־אִ֛ישׁ א֥וֹ אֶת־אִשָּׁ֖ה וָמֵ֑ת סָק֨וֹל יִסָּקֵ֜ל הַשּׁ֗וֹר וְלֹ֤א יֵֽאָכֵל֙ אֶת־בְּשָׂר֔וֹ וּבַ֥עַל הַשּׁ֖וֹר נָקִֽי:
And if a bull gores: [This law refers to] either a bull or any domestic animal, beast, or bird, but the text spoke of what usually occurs [i.e., bulls usually gore]. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 54b]   וכי יגח שור: אחד שור ואחד כל בהמה וחיה ועוף אלא שדיבר הכתוב בהווה:
and its flesh shall not be eaten: From the implication of what was stated: “the bull shall surely be stoned,” do I not know that it will become carrion [i.e., meaning not killed according to halachah], and carrion is forbidden to be eaten. For what purpose, then, does the Torah state: “and its flesh shall not be eaten” ? [To inform us] that even if one slaughtered it [according to halachah] after it was sentenced, it is forbidden to be eaten. How do we know that no benefit may be derived from it [this animal sentenced to death]? Therefore, the Torah says: “and the owner of the bull is clean (נָקִי) ”, as one says to his friend, “So-and-so lost his property [lit., was cleaned out (נָקִי) of his property], and he has no benefit at all from it” (B.K. 41a). This is its midrashic meaning. Its simple meaning is as its apparent meaning. Since it says concerning a habitual gorer: “and also its owner shall be put to death,” it had to say that in the case of a tame [bull]: “and the owner of the bull is clean [i.e., clear of any charges].” [The tame bull (ךְתָּם) is the bull that did not gore habitually, but only once or twice. In the case of the bull that killed a person, this bull is put to death, but the owner is clear; i.e., he does not have to pay ransom. Should the bull gore three times, it is called מוּעָד, warned. If the fourth time it gores it kills someone, it is liable to death, and its owner is also liable to death by the hands of Heaven. In order to clear himself of this punishment he must pay ransom, as is delineated in verses 29 and 30.]   ולא יאכל את בשרו: ממשמע שנאמר סקול יסקל השור, איני יודע שהוא נבלה, ונבלה אסורה באכילה, אלא מה תלמוד לומר ולא יאכל את בשרו, שאפילו שחטו לאחר שנגמר דינו, אסור באכילה. בהנאה מנין, תלמוד לומר ובעל השור נקי, כאדם האומר לחבירו יצא פלוני נקי מנכסיו ואין לו בהם הנאה של כלום, זהו מדרשו. ופשוטו כמשמעו לפי שנאמר במועד וגם בעליו יומת, הוצרך לומר בתם ובעל השור נקי:
29But if it is a [habitually] goring bull since yesterday and the day before yesterday, and its owner had been warned, but he did not guard it, and it puts to death a man or a woman, the bull shall be stoned, and also its owner shall be put to death,   כטוְאִ֡ם שׁוֹר֩ נַגָּ֨ח ה֜וּא מִתְּמֹ֣ל שִׁלְשֹׁ֗ם וְהוּעַ֤ד בִּבְעָלָיו֙ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמְרֶ֔נּוּ וְהֵמִ֥ית אִ֖ישׁ א֣וֹ אִשָּׁ֑ה הַשּׁוֹר֙ יִסָּקֵ֔ל וְגַם־בְּעָלָ֖יו יוּמָֽת:
since yesterday and the day before yesterday: This implies [a total of] three gorings. [From Mechilta, B.K. 23b]   מתמל שלשם: הרי שלש נגיחות -:
and its owner has been warned: Heb. וְהוּעַד, a word denoting a warning in front of witnesses (Mechilta, B.K. 24a), like “The man warned us repeatedly (הָעֵד הֵעִד) ” (Gen. 43:3).   והועד בבעליו: - לשון התראה בעדים, כמו (בראשית מג ג) העד העיד בנו האיש:
and it puts to death a man, etc.: Since it stated: “if [a bull] gores,” I know only that [the bull is liable to death] if it kills him [its victim] by goring [with its horns]. If it killed him through biting, shoving, or kicking, how do we know [that it must be killed]? Therefore, the Torah states: “and it puts to death,” [implying that in whatever way it kills its victim, the bull is liable to death]. -[based on Mechilta]   והמית איש וגו': לפי שנאמר וכי יגח, אין לי אלא שהמיתו בנגיחה, המיתו בנשיכה, דחיפה, רביצה, בעיטה מנין, תלמוד לומר והמית [מכל מקום]:
and also its owner shall be put to death: By the hands of Heaven [and not through a court]. I might think that it [this verse] means [that he is liable to death] by the hands of man [i.e., through the court]. Therefore, the Torah states: “The assailant shall surely be put to death; he is a murderer” (Num. 35:21), [implying that] for his [act of] murder you [must] kill him, but you do not kill him [i. e., anyone] for his bull’s [act of] murder. -[From Sanh. 15b]   וגם בעליו יומת: בידי שמים. יכול בידי אדם, תלמוד לומר (במדבר לה כא) מות יומת המכה רוצח הוא, על רציחתו אתה הורגו, ואי אתה הורגו על רציחת שורו:
30insofar as ransom shall be levied upon him, he shall give the redemption of his soul according to all that is levied upon him.   לאִם־כֹּ֖פֶר יוּשַׁ֣ת עָלָ֑יו וְנָתַן֙ פִּדְיֹ֣ן נַפְשׁ֔וֹ כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יוּשַׁ֖ת עָלָֽיו:
insofar as ransom shall be levied upon him: Heb. (אִם). This (אִם) is not [meant as a] conditional, but it is like “When (אִם) you lend money” (Exod. 22:24), a word meaning “that.” His sentence is that the court levy ransom upon him.   אם כפר יושת עליו: אם זה אינו תלוי, והרי הוא כמו (לקמן כב כד) אם כסף תלוה, לשון אשר, זה משפטו, שישיתו עליו בית דין כופר:
he shall give the redemption of his soul: [This means] the value of the victim [as a slave]. This is the view of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: The value of the damager, [i.e., the owner of the goring bull]. -[From Mechilta]   ונתן פדיון נפשו: דמי ניזק, דברי רבי ישמעאל, רבי עקיבא אומר דמי מזיק:
31Or if it gores a young boy or a young girl, according to this ordinance shall be done to him.   לאאוֹ־בֵ֥ן יִגָּח אוֹ־בַ֣ת יִגָּ֑ח כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֥ט הַזֶּ֖ה יֵעָ֥שֶׂה לוֹ:
Or if it gores a young boy: Heb. בֵן, lit., a son A son who is a minor.   או בן יגח: בן שהוא קטן:
or a young girl: Heb. בַת, lit., a daughter who is a minor. Since it says (verse 29): “and it puts to death a man or a woman,” I may think that he (the bull) is liable only for [killing] adults. Therefore, the Torah states: “Or if it gores a young boy, etc.” to make one liable for minors as [for] adults. -[From Mechilta, Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, B.K. 43b, 44a]   או בת: שהיא קטנה. לפי שנאמר והמית איש או אשה, יכול אינו חייב אלא על הגדולים, תלמוד לומר או בן יגח וגו', לחייב על הקטנים כגדולים:
32If the bull gores a manservant or a maidservant, he shall give silver [in the amount of] thirty shekels to his master, and the bull shall be stoned.   לבאִם־עֶ֛בֶד יִגַּ֥ח הַשּׁ֖וֹר א֣וֹ אָמָ֑ה כֶּ֣סֶף | שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שְׁקָלִ֗ים יִתֵּן֙ לַֽאדֹנָ֔יו וְהַשּׁ֖וֹר יִסָּקֵֽל:
…a manservant or a maidservant -: Canaanites. -[From Mechilta]   אם עבד או אמה: כנעניים:
thirty shekels: This is a decree of the Scriptures [that the bull’s owner pay thirty shekels] whether he [the dead slave] was worth a thousand zuz or whether he was worth no more than a dinar. The weight of the shekel is four pieces of gold, which equal half an ounce according to the official weight of Cologne.   שלשים שקלים יתן: גזירת הכתוב הוא, בין שהוא שוה אלף זוז, בין שאינו שוה אלא דינר. והשקל משקלו ארבע זהובים שהם חצי אונקיא למשקל הישר של קולוניי"א:
33And if a person opens a pit, or if a person digs a pit and does not cover it, and a bull or a donkey falls into it,   לגוְכִֽי־יִפְתַּ֨ח אִ֜ישׁ בּ֗וֹר א֠וֹ כִּֽי־יִכְרֶ֥ה אִ֛ישׁ בֹּ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יְכַסֶּ֑נּוּ וְנָֽפַל־שָׁ֥מָּה שּׁ֖וֹר א֥וֹ חֲמֽוֹר:
And if a person opens a pit: which was covered, and he uncovered it.   וכי יפתח איש בור: שהיה מכוסה וגלהו:
or if… digs: Why was this stated? If he is liable for opening [a pit that had already been dug], is it not [true that he would be] even more [guilty] for digging [a new pit]? But this is to include a digger [who digs deeper] after a digger, that he is liable. [I.e., if one digs a pit nine handbreadths deep, which is capable of injuring an animal but not killing it, and another digs one handbreadth more, making the open pit capable of killing an animal, the second digger is liable in all cases.] -[From B.K. 51a]   או כי יכרה: למה נאמר, אם על הפתיחה חייב, על הכרייה לא כל שכן, אלא להביא כורה אחר כורה שהוא חייב:
and does not cover it: intimating that if he covered it, he is exempt [from paying for any damages that could occur], and the text speaks of one who digs in a public domain. -[From B.K. 55b]   ולא יכסנו: הא אם כסהו, פטור, ובחופר ברשות הרבים דבר הכתוב:
and a bull or a donkey: The same applies to all domestic animals and beasts, for wherever it says: “a bull and a donkey,” we [can] derive [that it applies to all domestic animals] through a גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה, similar wording of שׂוֹר שׁוֹר, [which is] from [the law concerning the] Sabbath, as it is stated: “In order that your bull and your donkey rest” (Exod. 23:12). Just as there [referring to the Sabbath] every domestic animal and beast is like the bull [in reference to the law], for it says elsewhere [regarding the Sabbath] (Deut. 5:14) “[…you shall not perform any kind of work, neither you, nor your son…] and all your animals,” here, too, all animals and beasts are like the bull [in reference to the law]. The bull and the donkey are mentioned only [for us to understand that] for a bull [that falls into a pit the owner is liable] but not for a man [who falls into a pit], and [he is liable for] a donkey but not for utensils. -[From B.K. 10b]   שור או חמור: הוא הדין לכל בהמה וחיה, שבכל מקום שנאמר שור וחמור, אנו למדין אותו שור שור משבת, שנאמר למען ינוח שורך וחמורך (שמות כג יב); מה להלן כל בהמה וחיה כשור. שהרי נאמר במקום אחר וכל בהמתך (דברים ה יג) אף כאן, כל בהמה וחיה כשור, ולא נאמר שור וחמור אלא שור, ולא אדם, חמור, ולא כלים:
34the owner of the pit shall pay; he shall return money to its owner, and the dead body shall be his.   לדבַּ֤עַל הַבּוֹר֙ יְשַׁלֵּ֔ם כֶּ֖סֶף יָשִׁ֣יב לִבְעָלָ֑יו וְהַמֵּ֖ת יִֽהְיֶה־לּֽוֹ:
the owner of the pit: [This refers to] the creator of the obstacle [i.e., the pit], although the pit is not his, for he made it in a public domain, Scripture made him its owner, insofar as he is liable for its damages. -[From B.K. 29b]   בעל הבור: בעל התקלה, אף על פי שאין הבור שלו, שעשאו ברשות הרבים, עשאו הכתוב בעליו להתחייב עליו בנזקין:
he shall return money to its owner: Heb. יָשִׁיב. [The word] יָשִׁיב [is written] to include [anything] worth money, even bran. -[From B.K. 7a] (See Exod. 22:4: “the best of his field or the best of his vineyard he shall pay,” which Rashi explains to mean that damages are paid from the best land. Rav Huna the son of Rav Yehoshua in the Talmud (B.K. 7b) solves this apparent discrepancy by concluding that it applies only if the defendant prefers to pay the damages with land, but if he prefers to pay with movable objects, everything is deemed the best, because if it cannot be sold here, it can be sold elsewhere.) [Addendum to Rashi] [It can therefore be easily converted to cash.]   כסף ישיב לבעליו: ישיב, לרבות שוה כסף, ואפילו סובין:
and the dead body shall be his -: [The dead animal will belong to] the one [owner] who sustained the damage. They assess the carcass, and he [the owner] takes it for its value, and the damager pays him in addition to it [the carcass] payment for his damage. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 10b]   והמת יהיה לו: לניזק, שמין את הנבלה ונוטלה בדמים ומשלם לו המזיק עליה תשלומי נזקו:
35And if a man's bull strikes his friend's bull and it dies, they shall sell the live bull and divide the money received for it, and they shall also divide the dead body.   להוְכִֽי־יִגֹּ֧ף שֽׁוֹר־אִ֛ישׁ אֶת־שׁ֥וֹר רֵעֵ֖הוּ וָמֵ֑ת וּמָ֨כְר֜וּ אֶת־הַשּׁ֤וֹר הַחַי֙ וְחָצ֣וּ אֶת־כַּסְפּ֔וֹ וְגַ֥ם אֶת־הַמֵּ֖ת יֶֽחֱצֽוּן:
And if… strikes: Heb. יִגֹּף, shove, either with its horns, or with its feet, or whether he bit him with his teeth All are included in נְגִיפָה, for נְגִיפָה is only an expression of striking. -[From Mechilta]   וכי יגף: ידחוף, בין בקרניו, בין בגופו, בין ברגליו, בין שנשכו בשניו, כולן בכלל נגיפה הם, שאין נגיפה אלא לשון מכה:
a man’s bull: Heb. שׁוֹר-אִישׁ, a bull [belonging to] a man.   שור איש: שור של איש:
they shall sell the live bull, etc.: Scripture speaks of [two bulls] of equal value a bull worth two hundred [zuz] that killed a bull worth two hundred [zuz]. Whether the carcass is worth much or worth little, when this one takes half [the value of] the live [bull] and half [the value of] the dead one, the result is that each one sustains half the damage that death inflicted upon him. We learn that the tame [bull] pays half the damage, for from the equal ones [the bulls of equal value] you learn [how it is with] the unequal ones [bulls of unequal value], for the law of the tame bull is to pay half the damage, not more or less. Or perhaps, even if they were unequal when they were alive, Scripture mandates that they sell them both [and divide the proceeds of the sale between them]? [This cannot be true since] if you say that sometimes the damager would gain very much, or sometimes the victim would receive much more than the amount of the complete damage, for half the value of the damaging bull [may] exceed the entire value of the bull that was damaged. If you say that, the [law regarding the] tame bull is more stringent than the [law regarding the] habitual gorer [which is illogical]. You are compelled to say that Scripture is referring only to the ones [bulls] of equal value. It teaches you that the tame bull pays half the damage, and from the [law concerning] equal ones, you learn about the unequal ones, that for the one who is awarded half the damage they [the court] assess the carcass, and the decrease of its value due to the death, [and] he receives half the depreciation and leaves (B.K. 34a). Now why did Scripture state it in this language? To teach [us] that the tame bull pays only with its body, and if it gored and subsequently died, the one [owner] who sustained the damage receives only the carcass, and if it does not equal half his damage, he has a loss. Or if a bull worth a maneh [one hundred zuz] gored a bull worth five hundred zuz, he [the owner] receives only the bull, for the tame bull did not become obligated to obligate its owner to pay from the best of his property (B.K. 16b).   ומכרו את השור וגו': בשוים הכתוב מדבר, שור שוה מאתיים שהמית שור שוה מאתיים, בין שהנבלה שוה הרבה, בין שהיא שוה מעט, כשנוטל זה חצי החי וחצי המת, וזה חצי החי וחצי המת, נמצא כל אחד מפסיד חצי נזק [שהזיקה המיתה, למדנו שהתם משלם חצי נזק, שמן השוין אתה למד לשאינן שוין] כי דין התם לשלם חצי נזק לא פחות ולא יותר. או יכול אף בשאינן שוין בדמיהן כשהן חיים, אמר הכתוב וחצו את שניהם, אם אמרת כן, פעמים שמזיק משתכר הרבה, כשהנבלה שוה לימכר לנכרים הרבה יותר מדמי שור המזיק, ואי אפשר שיאמר הכתוב, שיהא המזיק נשכר. או פעמים שהניזק נוטל הרבה יותר מדמי נזק שלם, שחצי דמי שור המזיק שוין יותר מכל דמי שור הניזק, ואם אמרת כן, הרי תם חמור ממועד, על כרחך לא דבר הכתוב אלא בשוין. ולמדך שהתם משלם חצי נזק, ומן השוין תלמד לשאינן שוין, שהמשתלם חצי נזקו שמין לו את הנבלה, ומה שפחתו דמיו בשביל המיתה, נוטל חצי הפחת והלך, ולמה אמר הכתוב בלשון הזה ולא אמר ישלם חציו, ללמד שאין התם משלם אלא מגופו, ואם נגח ומת, אין הנזוק נוטל אלא הנבלה, ואם אינה מגעת לחצי נזקו, יפסיד. או שור שוה מנה שנגח שור שוה חמש מאות זוז, אינו נוטל אלא את השור, שלא נתחייב התם לחייב את בעליו לשלם מן העליה:
36Or if it was known that it was a [habitually] goring bull since yesterday and the day before yesterday, and its owner does not watch it, he shall surely pay a bull for a bull, and the dead body shall be his.   לוא֣וֹ נוֹדַ֗ע כִּ֠י שׁ֣וֹר נַגָּ֥ח הוּא֙ מִתְּמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֔ם וְלֹ֥א יִשְׁמְרֶ֖נּוּ בְּעָלָ֑יו שַׁלֵּ֨ם יְשַׁלֵּ֥ם שׁוֹר֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשּׁ֔וֹר וְהַמֵּ֖ת יִֽהְיֶה־לּֽוֹ:
Or if it was known: Or if it was not tame, but it was known that it was a [habitually] goring bull today and from yesterday and the day before yesterday, totaling three gorings. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 23b]   או נודע: או לא היה תם, אלא נודע כי שור נגח הוא היום, ומתמול שלשום, הרי שלש נגיחות:
he shall surely pay a bull: The complete damage. [Midrash Hagadol from Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai]   שלם ישלם שור: נזק שלם:
and the dead body shall be his: [I.e.,] the victim’s, and in addition to that, the damager must complete it until the victim is paid his entire damage [due to him]. -[From B.K. 10b. 53b]   והמת יהיה לו: לניזק, ועליו ישלים המזיק, עד שישתלם ניזק כל נזקו:
37If a man steals a bull or a lamb and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five cattle for the bull or four sheep for the lamb.   לזכִּ֤י יִגְנֹֽב־אִישׁ֙ שׁ֣וֹר אוֹ־שֶׂ֔ה וּטְבָח֖וֹ א֣וֹ מְכָר֑וֹ חֲמִשָּׁ֣ה בָקָ֗ר יְשַׁלֵּם֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשּׁ֔וֹר וְאַרְבַּע־צֹ֖אן תַּ֥חַת הַשֶּֽׂה:
five cattle, etc.: Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai said: The Omnipresent was considerate of people’s honor. [For] a bull, which walks with its [own] feet, and the thief was not disgraced by carrying it on his shoulder, he pays fivefold. [For] a lamb, which he [the thief] carries on his shoulder, he pays [only] fourfold because he was disgraced by it. Rabbi Meir said: Come and see how great the power of work is. [For the theft of] a bull, which caused [the owner] to stop working, he [the thief] pays five. [For the theft of] a lamb, which did not cause [the owner] to stop working, [the thief pays] four. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 79b, Tosefta B.K. 7:3]   חמשה בקר וגו': אמר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חס המקום על כבודן של בריות, שור שהולך ברגליו ולא נתבזה בו הגנב לנושאו על כתפו, משלם חמישה, שה שנושאו על כתפו, משלם ארבעה הואיל ונתבזה בו. אמר רבי מאיר בא וראה כמה גדולה כחה של מלאכה, שור שבטלו ממלאכתו משלם חמשה שה שלא בטלו ממלאכתו ארבעה:
for the bull…for the lamb: Scripture repeated them [i.e., the mentioning of the bull and the lamb] to tell [you] that the rule of fourfold and fivefold payments applies only to a bull and a lamb. [From B.K. 67b]   תחת השור תחת השה: שנאן הכתוב לומר, שאין מדת תשלומי ארבעה וחמשה נוהגת אלא בשור ושה בלבד:

Exodus Chapter 22

1If, while breaking in, the thief is discovered, and he is struck and dies, [it is as if] he has no blood.   אאִם־בַּמַּחְתֶּ֛רֶת יִמָּצֵ֥א הַגַּנָּ֖ב וְהֻכָּ֣ה וָמֵ֑ת אֵ֥ין ל֖וֹ דָּמִֽים:
If, while breaking in: [I.e.,] when he was breaking into the house.   אם במחתרת: כשהיה חותר את הבית:
he has no blood: [This signifies that] this is not [considered] murder. It is as though he [the thief] was [considered] dead from the start. Here the Torah teaches you [the lesson]: If someone comes to kill you, kill him first. And this one [the thief] has come to kill you, because he knows that no one [can] hold himself back and remain silent when he sees people taking his money. Therefore, he [the thief] has come with the acknowledgement that if the owner of the property were to stand up against him, he [the owner] would kill him [the thief]. -[From Sanh. 72a]   אין לו דמים: אין זו רציחה, הרי הוא כמת מעיקרו. כאן למדתך תורה אם בא להרגך, השכם להרגו, וזה להרגך בא שהרי יודע הוא, שאין אדם מעמיד עצמו וראה שנוטלין ממונו בפניו ושותק, לפיכך על מנת כן בא, שאם יעמוד בעל הממון כנגדו יהרגנו:
2If the sun shone upon him, [it is as if] he has blood; he shall surely pay. If he has no [money], he shall be sold for his theft.   באִם־זָֽרְחָ֥ה הַשֶּׁ֛מֶשׁ עָלָ֖יו דָּמִ֣ים ל֑וֹ שַׁלֵּ֣ם יְשַׁלֵּ֔ם אִם־אֵ֣ין ל֔וֹ וְנִמְכַּ֖ר בִּגְנֵֽבָתֽוֹ:
If the sun shone upon him: This is nothing but a metaphor [meaning] if the matter is clear to you that he [the thief] is peaceably disposed toward you-similar to the sun, which represents peace in the world-so it is obvious to you that he has not come to kill [you]. Even if the owner of the money rises against him, for instance, if a father breaks in to steal his son’s property, it is known that the father has mercy on his son, and he has not come with the idea of murdering [him]. -[From Sanh. 72a, Mechilta]   אם זרחה השמש עליו: אין זה אלא כמן משל אם ברור לך הדבר שיש לו שלום עמך, כשמש הזה שהוא שלום בעולם, כך פשוט לך שאינו בא להרוג, אפילו יעמוד בעל הממון כנגדו, כגון אב החותר לגנוב ממון הבן, בידוע שרחמי האב על הבן, ואינו בא על עסקי נפשות:
he has blood: He [the thief] is considered as a live person, and it is [considered] murder if the property owner kills him.   דמים לו: כחי הוא חשוב ורציחה היא, אם יהרגהו בעל הבית:
he shall surely pay: The thief [shall pay] the money he stole, and he is not liable to death. [The thief is considered to have been sentenced to death in cases where the property owner is allowed kill him. In these cases the thief is exempt from any monetary obligation incurred when he dug into the house. In cases where the property owner may not kill him, however, the thief is not considered liable to death, and thus must pay for what he stole.] Onkelos, who rendered: “If the eye of witnesses fell upon him,” adopted another view, saying that if witnesses discovered him [the thief] before the property owner came, and when the property owner came against him, they warned him not to kill him, [the thief is considered as if] he has blood; i.e., he [the owner] is liable for him [the thief] if he kills him, because since [he has committed his crime when] people can see him, this thief has not come with the intention to murder, and he would not kill the property owner.   שלם ישלם: הגנב ממון שגנב, ואינו חייב מיתה. ואונקלוס שתרגם אם עינא דסהדיא נפלת עלוהי, לקח לו שטה אחרת, לומר שאם מצאוהו עדים קודם שבא בעל הבית, וכשבא בעל הבית נגדו, התרו בו, שלא יהרגהו, דמים לו, חייב עליו אם הרגו, שאחר שיש רואים לו, אין הגנב הזה בא על עסקי נפשות, ולא יהרוג את בעל הממון:
3If the stolen article is found in his possession whether a bull, a donkey, or a lamb live ones he shall pay twofold.   גאִם־הִמָּצֵא֩ תִמָּצֵ֨א בְיָד֜וֹ הַגְּנֵבָ֗ה מִשּׁ֧וֹר עַד־חֲמ֛וֹר עַד־שֶׂ֖ה חַיִּ֑ים שְׁנַ֖יִם יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
If the stolen article is found in his possession: Heb. בְיָדוֹ, lit., in his hand, [meaning] in his possession, [meaning] that he neither slaughtered nor sold [it]. -[From Mechilta]   אם המצא תמצא בידו: ברשותו, שלא טבח ולא מכר:
whether a bull, a donkey: Everything is included in the [obligation to make a] twofold payment, whether it is a living thing or something that is not alive, for it says elsewhere (verse 8): “for a lamb, for a garment, for any lost article,… [he] shall pay twofold to his neighbor.” -[From B.K. 62b]   ומשור עד חמור: כל דבר בכלל תשלומי כפל בין שיש בו רוח חיים בין שאין בו רוח חיים, שהרי נאמר במקום אחר (פסוק ח) על שה על שלמה על כל אבדה וגו' ישלם שנים לרעהו:
live ones he shall pay twofold: And he shall not pay him dead ones, but either live ones or the value of live ones. -[From Mechilta]   חיים שנים ישלם: ולא ישלם לו מתים, אלא חיים או דמי חיים:

Third Portion

Exodus Chapter 22

4If a man leads his animals into a field or a vineyard, or lets his animal loose and it eats in another's field, the best of his field or the best of his vineyard he shall pay.   דכִּ֤י יַבְעֶר־אִישׁ֙ שָׂדֶ֣ה אוֹ־כֶ֔רֶם וְשִׁלַּח֙ אֶת־בְּעִיר֔וֹ (כתיב בעירה) וּבִעֵ֖ר בִּשְׂדֵ֣ה אַחֵ֑ר מֵיטַ֥ב שָׂדֵ֛הוּ וּמֵיטַ֥ב כַּרְמ֖וֹ יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
If leads his animals: These terms denote an animal as [it says] (Numbers 20:4) "we and our cattle" אנחנו ובעירנו   כי יבער. את בעירה ובער: כולם לשון בהמה, כמו (במדבר כ ד) אנחנו ובעירנו:
If leads his animals: Heb. יַבְעֶר, [i.e.,] leads his animals into his neighbor’s field or vineyard, and it damages it [the property] in one of these two [ways]: either by sending (שִׁלּוּחַ) his animal or by eating (בִּעוּר). Our Sages explained [that] וְשִׁלַח refers to the damages [made by] the treading of the foot, and וּבִעֵר refers to the damages of the tooth, which eats and destroys [someone’s property]. -[From B.K. 2b]   כי יבער: יוליך בהמותיו בשדה וכרם של חבירו ויזיק אותו באחת משתי אלה או בשלוח בעירה, או בביעור. ופירשו רבותינו שלוח הוא נזקי מדרך כף רגל, ובער הוא נזקי השן האוכלת ומבערת:
in another’s field: Heb. בִּשְׂדֵה אַחֵר, in another person’s field. The vowelization of בִּשְׂדֵה with the sheva under the “sin” denotes the construct state. Hence, it means “in the field of another,” rather than “in another field.” Since the noun is missing, Rashi explains that it means “another person’s field.” -[Mizrachi]   בשדה אחר: בשדה של איש אחר:
the best of his field… he shall pay: They [judges] assess the damage, and if he [the owner of this animal] comes to pay him [the owner of the land] the amount of his damage with land, he must pay him from the best of his fields. If his damage was [worth] a sela, he must give him the value of a sela from the best [land] that he has. Scripture teaches you that for the injured party, they assess [the damage] with the best land. -[From Mechilta, B.K. 6b]   מיטב שדהו ישלם: שמין את הנזק, ואם בא לשלם לו קרקע דמי נזקו, ישלם לו ממיטב שדותיו אם היה נזקו סלע יתן לו שוה סלע מעידית שיש לו. למדך הכתוב, שהניזקין שמין להם בעידית:
5If a fire goes forth and finds thorns, and a stack of grain or standing grain or the field be consumed, the one who ignited the fire shall surely pay.   הכִּֽי־תֵצֵ֨א אֵ֜שׁ וּמָֽצְאָ֤ה קֹצִים֙ וְנֶֽאֱכַ֣ל גָּדִ֔ישׁ א֥וֹ הַקָּמָ֖ה א֣וֹ הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה שַׁלֵּ֣ם יְשַׁלֵּ֔ם הַמַּבְעִ֖ר אֶת־הַבְּעֵרָֽה:
If a fire goes forth: Even by itself. [From B.K. 22b]   כי תצא אש: אפילו מעצמה:
and finds thorns: Heb. קֹצִים, chardons in French, [meaning] thistles.   ומצאה קוצים: קרדונ"ש בלעז [קוצים]:
and a stack of grain… be consumed: That it [the fire] caught onto the thorns until it reached a stack of grain or standing grain still attached to the ground.   ונאכל גדיש: שליחכה בקוצים עד שהגיעה לגדיש או לקמה המחוברת לקרקע:
or the field: That it [the fire] scorched the furrow that he had plowed, and he had to plow it a second time. -[From B.K. 60a]   או השדה: שליחכה את נירו וצריך לניר אותה פעם שנייה:
the one who ignited the fire shall surely pay: Although he ignited it within his own property, and it spread by itself through thorns that it found, he is liable to pay because he did not guard his burning coal so that it would not go forth and inflict damage.   שלם ישלם המבעיר: אף על פי שהדליק בתוך שלו והיא יצאה מעצמה על ידי קוצים שמצאה, חייב לשלם, לפי שלא שמר את גחלתו שלא תצא ותזיק:
6If a man gives his neighbor money or articles for safekeeping, and it is stolen from the man's house, if the thief is found, he shall pay twofold.   וכִּֽי־יִתֵּן֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֜הוּ כֶּ֤סֶף אֽוֹ־כֵלִים֙ לִשְׁמֹ֔ר וְגֻנַּ֖ב מִבֵּ֣ית הָאִ֑ישׁ אִם־יִמָּצֵ֥א הַגַּנָּ֖ב יְשַׁלֵּ֥ם שְׁנָֽיִם:
and it is stolen from the man’s house: According to his words.   וגנב מבית האיש: לפי דבריו:
if the thief is found, he shall pay twofold: The thief shall pay twofold [the value of the object] to its [original] owners. -[From B.K. 63b]   אם ימצא הגנב: ישלם הגנב שנים לבעלים:
7If the thief is not found, the homeowner shall approach the judges, [to swear] that he has not laid his hand upon his neighbor's property.   זאִם־לֹ֤א יִמָּצֵא֙ הַגַּנָּ֔ב וְנִקְרַ֥ב בַּֽעַל־הַבַּ֖יִת אֶל־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים אִם־לֹ֥א שָׁלַ֛ח יָד֖וֹ בִּמְלֶ֥אכֶת רֵעֵֽהוּ:
If the thief is not found: And this custodian, who is the owner of the house, comes.   אם לא ימצא הגנב: ובא השומר הזה שהוא בעל הבית:
approaches -: the judges to litigate with this one [the owner] and to swear to him that he did not lay his hand upon his [property]. -[From B.K. 63b]   ונקרב: אל הדיינין לדון עם זה ולישבע לו שלא שלח ידו בשלו:
8For any sinful word, for a bull, for a donkey, for a lamb, for a garment, for any lost article, concerning which he will say that this is it, the plea[s] of both parties shall come to the judges, [and] whoever the judges declare guilty shall pay twofold to his neighbor.   חעַל־כָּל־דְּבַר־פֶּ֡שַׁע עַל־שׁ֡וֹר עַל־חֲמ֩וֹר֩ עַל־שֶׂ֨ה עַל־שַׂלְמָ֜ה עַל־כָּל־אֲבֵדָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר יֹאמַר֙ כִּי־ה֣וּא זֶ֔ה עַ֚ד הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים יָבֹ֖א דְּבַר־שְׁנֵיהֶ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַרְשִׁיעֻן֙ אֱלֹהִ֔ים יְשַׁלֵּ֥ם שְׁנַ֖יִם לְרֵעֵֽהוּ:
For any sinful word: [i.e.,] that he is found to be lying in his oath, for witnesses testify that he himself stole it, and the judges declare him guilty because of [the testimony of] the witnesses.   על כל דבר פשע: שימצא שקרן בשבועתו, שיעידו עדים שהוא עצמו גנבו, וירשיעוהו א-להים על פי העדים:
shall pay twofold to his neighbor: The text teaches you that if one puts forth a claim concerning an item entrusted to him, saying that it was stolen from him, and it is discovered that he himself stole it, he must make twofold restitution. When [is this so]? Only if he swore [that he did not take it] and afterwards witnesses came [and testified that he had taken it for himself,] for so have our Rabbis, of blessed memory, interpreted: “and the homeowner approaches the judges” (verse 7). This approaching means [to make] an oath [that the custodian swore that the article was stolen]. You say [that he approaches] for an oath, or perhaps it means [he approaches] only for litigation. [In this case, if] he comes to litigate and he denies [any responsibility] by saying that it [the object] was stolen, then is he immediately liable for twofold restitution if witnesses come [and testify] that it is in his possession? [The answer is that since the expression] laying a hand is mentioned here (in verse 7), and below, laying a hand is [also] mentioned: “the oath of the Lord shall be between the two of them provided that he did not lay his hand upon his neighbor’s property.” (verse 10). Just as [“lay his hand” written] further denotes an oath, so does [“laid his hand” written] here denote an oath. -[From Mechilta, B. K. 63b]   ישלם שנים לרעהו: למדך הכתוב, שהטוען בפקדון לומר נגנב הימנו, ונמצא שהוא עצמו גנבו, משלם תשלומי כפל. ואימתי בזמן שנשבע ואחר כך באו עדים, שכך דרשו רבותינו ז"ל ונקרב בעל הבית אל הא-להים, קריבה זו שבועה היא. אתה אומר לשבועה, או אינו אלא לדין, שכיון שבא לדין וכפר לומר נגנבה, מיד יתחייב כפל, אם באו עדים שהוא בידו. נאמר כאן שליחות יד, ונאמר למטה שליחות יד (פסוק י) שבועת ה' תהיה בין שניהם אם לא שלח ידו, מה להלן שבועה אף כאן שבועה:
concerning which he will say that this is it: According to its [the verse’s] simple meaning, concerning which the witness will say that this is it, [i.e., the article] about which you swore [was stolen but really] is in your possession. The pleas of both parties must be brought to the judges and they [the judges] will interrogate the witnesses, and if they [the witnesses] are acceptable and they [the judges] declare this custodian guilty, he must pay twofold [to the owner]. If they declare the witnesses guilty, namely that they were found collusive, they must pay twofold to the custodian. Our Rabbis, of blessed memory, however, interpreted כִּי הוּא זֶה, that this is it, to mean that [the judges] do not demand an oath of him [the custodian] unless he admitted part [of the claim against him], saying, “I owe you this much, but the rest was stolen from me.” -[From B.K. 106b]   אשר יאמר כי הוא זה: לפי פשוטו אשר יאמר העד כי הוא זה שנשבעת עליו הרי הוא אצלך. עד הדיינין יבא דבר שניהם ויחקרו את העדים, ואם כשרים הם וירשיעוהו לשומר זה, ישלם שנים, ואם ירשיעו את העדים, שנמצאו זוממין, ישלמו הם שנים לשומר. ורבותינו ז"ל דרשו כי הוא זה, ללמד שאין מחייבין אותו שבועה אלא אם כן הודה במקצת לומר כך וכך אני חייב לך, והמותר נגנב ממני:
9If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, a bull, a lamb, or any animal for safekeeping, and it dies, breaks a limb, or is captured, and no one sees [it],   טכִּֽי־יִתֵּן֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֜הוּ חֲמ֨וֹר אוֹ־שׁ֥וֹר אוֹ־שֶׂ֛ה וְכָל־בְּהֵמָ֖ה לִשְׁמֹ֑ר וּמֵ֛ת אֽוֹ־נִשְׁבַּ֥ר אֽוֹ־נִשְׁבָּ֖ה אֵ֥ין רֹאֶֽה:
If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, a bull: The first section was stated concerning an unpaid custodian. Therefore, [the Torah] exempted him [the custodian] from theft, as it is written: “and it is stolen from the man’s house… If the thief is not found, the homeowner approaches the judges” (verses 6-7) for an oath. [Thus] you learn that he exempts himself with this oath. This section, [however,] is stated concerning a paid custodian. Therefore, he is not exempt if it [the deposit] was stolen, as it is written: “But if it is stolen from him, he shall pay” (verse 11). But in the case of an accident beyond his control, such as if it [the animal] died by itself or if it broke a limb, or if it was forcibly captured by bandits, and no one [was there to] see it [and] to testify concerning the matter [if he swears that this is the case, then he is exempt]. — [From B.M. 94b]   כי יתן איש אל רעהו חמור או שור: פרשה ראשונה נאמרה בשומר חנם, לפיכך פטר בו את הגנבה, כמו שנאמר (פסוק ו) וגונב מבית האיש, אם לא ימצא הגנב ונקרב בעל הבית לשבועה, למדת שפוטר עצמו בשבועה זו. ופרשה זו אמורה בשומר שכר, לפיכך אינו פטור אם נגנבה, כמו שכתוב (פסוק יא) אם גנוב יגנב מעמו ישלם, אבל על האונס, כגון מת מעצמו, או נשבר או נשבה בחזקה על ידי לסטים, ואין רואה שיעיד בדבר:
10the oath of the Lord shall be between the two of them provided that he did not lay his hand upon his neighbor's property, and its owner shall accept [it], and he shall not pay.   ישְׁבֻעַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֗ה תִּֽהְיֶה֙ בֵּ֣ין שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם אִם־לֹ֥א שָׁלַ֛ח יָד֖וֹ בִּמְלֶ֣אכֶת רֵעֵ֑הוּ וְלָקַ֥ח בְּעָלָ֖יו וְלֹ֥א יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
the oath of the Lord shall be: He must swear that it is so, as he says [that it was beyond his control] and that he did not lay his hand upon it to use it for himself. Because if he laid his hand upon it, and afterwards, something beyond his control happens to it, he is liable for [any damage resulting from] accidents.   שבועת ה' תהיה: ישבע שכן הוא כדבריו, והוא לא שלח בה יד להשתמש בה לעצמו, שאם שלח בה יד, ואחר כך נאנסה, חייב באונסים:
and its owner shall accept: the oath. [from B.K. 106a]   ולקח בעליו: השבועה:
and he shall not pay: The custodian [shall not pay] him anything.   ולא ישלם: לו השומר כלום:
11But if it is stolen from him, he shall pay its owner.   יאוְאִם־גָּנֹ֥ב יִגָּנֵ֖ב מֵֽעִמּ֑וֹ יְשַׁלֵּ֖ם לִבְעָלָֽיו:
12If it is torn apart, he shall bring witness for it; [for] the torn one he shall not pay.   יבאִם־טָרֹ֥ף יִטָּרֵ֖ף יְבִאֵ֣הוּ עֵ֑ד הַטְּרֵפָ֖ה לֹ֥א יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
If it is torn: By a ferocious beast.   אם טרף יטרף: על ידי חיה רעה:
he shall bring witness for it: He shall bring witnesses [to testify] that it [the animal] was torn [apart] in a way that was beyond his control, and he is exempt. -[From B.K. 10b, 11a]   יבאהו עד: יביא עדים שנטרפה באונס, ופטור:
[for] the torn one he shall not pay: [The Torah] does not say, “[for] a torn one he shall not pay,” but, “[for]   הטרפה לא ישלם: אינו אומר טרפה לא ישלם, אלא הטרפה, יש טרפה שהוא משלם ויש טרפה שאינו משלם. טרפת חתול ושועל ונמיה משלם. טרפת זאב, ארי ודוב ונחש אינו משלם. ומי לחשך לדון כן, שהרי כתיב ומת או נשבר או נשבה, מה מיתה שאין יכול להציל, אף שבר ושביה שאין יכול להציל:
the: torn one.” For one type of torn animal he pays, and for another type of torn animal he does not pay. For an animal torn [apart] by a cat, a fox, or a marten, he must pay, but for an animal torn by a wolf, a lion, a bear, or a snake, he does not pay. Now who whispered to you to reason that way? [The proof is] that it is written: “and it dies, breaks a limb, or is captured” (verse 9). Just as with death, he cannot save it, so it is with breaking a limb and captivity, that he cannot save [it. But in the case of less ferocious beasts, like a fox, since the shepherd could have saved his charge, he is liable]. -[From Mechilta]  
13And if a person borrows [an animal] from his neighbor and it breaks a limb or dies, if its owner is not with him, he shall surely pay.   יגוְכִֽי־יִשְׁאַ֥ל אִ֛ישׁ מֵעִ֥ם רֵעֵ֖הוּ וְנִשְׁבַּ֣ר אוֹ־מֵ֑ת בְּעָלָ֥יו אֵֽין־עִמּ֖וֹ שַׁלֵּ֥ם יְשַׁלֵּֽם:
And if a person borrows: This [verse] comes to teach you concerning a borrower, that he is liable for incidents beyond his control.   וכי ישאל: בא ללמדך על השואל שחייב באונסין:
if its owner is not with him: If the owner of the bull is not with the borrower doing his work. -[From B.M. 95b]   בעליו אין עמו: אם בעליו של שור אינו עם השואל במלאכתו:
14If its owner is with him, he shall not pay; if it is a hired [animal], it has come for its hire.   ידאִם־בְּעָלָ֥יו עִמּ֖וֹ לֹ֣א יְשַׁלֵּ֑ם אִם־שָׂכִ֣יר ה֔וּא בָּ֖א בִּשְׂכָרֽוֹ:
If its owner is with him: Whether he [the animal’s owner] is with him [the borrower] doing the same work, or if he was with him doing a different work. If he [the animal’s owner] was with him [the borrower] at the time of the loan, he [the owner] need not be with him at the time the limb was broken or the animal died [to make him exempt from payment]. -[From B.M. 95b]   אם בעליו עמו: בין שהוא באותה מלאכה, בין שהוא במלאכה אחרת, היה עמו בשעת שאלה, אינו צריך להיות עמו בשעת שבירה ומיתה:
if it is a hired [animal]: If the bull was not borrowed but hired, [and] it came to be hired into the hands of this hirer [for a fee] not through lending And he [the hirer] does not have complete benefit [of the animal] for he used it through its hire, and he does not have the status of a borrower to be liable for accidents beyond his control. [The Torah, however,] did not specify what his status is, whether he is judged like an unpaid custodian or like a paid custodian. Therefore, the Sages of Israel differed concerning him: How does a hirer pay [in the case of an accident]? Rabbi Meir says: Like an unpaid custodian. Rabbi Judah says: Like a paid custodian. -[From B.M. 90b]   אם שכיר הוא: אם השור אינו שאול אלא שכור, בא בשכרו ליד השוכר הזה ולא בשאלה, ואין כל הנאה שלו, שהרי על ידי שכרו נשתמש, ואין לו משפט שואל להתחייב באונסין. ולא פירש מה דינו, אם כשומר חנם או כשומר שכר, לפיכך נחלקו בו חכמי ישראל, שוכר כיצד משלם, רבי מאיר אומר כשומר חנם. רבי יהודה אומר כשומר שכר:
15If a man seduces a virgin who is not betrothed and lies with her, he shall provide her with a marriage contract as a wife.   טווְכִֽי־יְפַתֶּ֣ה אִ֗ישׁ בְּתוּלָ֛ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־אֹרָ֖שָׂה וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ מָהֹ֛ר יִמְהָרֶ֥נָּה לּ֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה:
If a man seduces: Heb. יְפַךְתֶּה, he speaks to her heart until she yields to him. And so is its Aramaic translation: וַאִרֵי יְשַׁדֵּל. שִׁדּוּל in Aramaic is the equivalent of פִּךְתּוּי in Hebrew [and both signify persuasion].   וכי יפתה: מדבר על לבה עד ששומעת לו, וכן תרגומו וארי ישדל. שדול בלשון ארמי כפתוי בלשון עברי:
he shall provide her with a marriage contract: He shall stipulate for her a dowry, as is the custom of a man to his wife, that he writes for her a kethubah, and he shall marry her. -[From Mechilta]   מהר ימהרנה: יפסוק לה מוהר כמשפט איש לאשתו, שכותב לה כתובה וישאנה:
16If her father refuses to give her to him [in marriage], he shall weigh out money according to the dowry of the virgins.   טזאִם־מָאֵ֧ן יְמָאֵ֛ן אָבִ֖יהָ לְתִתָּ֣הּ ל֑וֹ כֶּ֣סֶף יִשְׁקֹ֔ל כְּמֹ֖הַר הַבְּתוּלֹֽת:
according to the dowry of the virgins: which is fixed at fifty silver shekels in the case of one who seizes a virgin and forcibly lies with her, as it is said: “The man who lay with her shall give the maiden’s father fifty silver shekels” (Deut. 22:29). -[From Keth. 10a]   כמהר הבתולות: שהוא קצוב חמשים כסף אצל התופס את הבתולה ושוכב עמה באונס שנאמר (דברים כב כט) ונתן האיש השוכב עמה לאבי הנער חמשים כסף:
17You shall not allow a sorceress to live.   יזמְכַשֵּׁפָ֖ה לֹ֥א תְחַיֶּֽה:
You shall not allow a sorceress to live: But she shall be executed by the court. [This law applies equally to] both males and females, but the text speaks of the usual, and those who practice sorcery are usually women. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 67a]   מכשפה לא תחיה: אלא תומת בבית דין, ואחד זכרים ואחד נקבות, אלא שדבר הכתוב בהווה שהנשים מצויות מכשפות:
18Whoever lies [carnally] with an animal shall surely be put to death.   יחכָּל־שֹׁכֵ֥ב עִם־בְּהֵמָ֖ה מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת:
Whoever lies [carnally] with an animal shall surely be put to death: by stoning. A male who has carnal relations with an animal [is just as liable] as a female who has carnal relations with an animal, concerning whom it is written: “their blood is upon them [meaning they will be killed]” (Lev. 20:16). -[From Sanh. 53, 54]) See Rashi on Exod. 21:17.   כל שוכב עם בהמה מות יומת: בסקילה, רובע כנרבעת, שכתוב בהן (ויקרא כ טז) דמיהם בם:
19He who slaughters [a sacrifice] to the gods shall be destroyed, except to the Lord alone.   יטזֹבֵ֥חַ לָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים יָֽחֳרָ֑ם בִּלְתִּ֥י לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לְבַדּֽוֹ:
to the gods: Heb. לָאֱלֹהִים, to pagan deities. If it were vowelized לֵאלֹהִים [the “lammed” with a “tzeirei”], it would have to specify [which deities] and [it would need to be explained and] written אִחֵרִים, other [gods]. Now that it says לָאֱלֹהִים, it does not have to specify [which gods are meant] because every “lammed,” “beth,” and “hey” prefixed to a word, if it is vowelized with a “chataf” (meaning a “sheva” ), such as לְמֶלֶ, to a king, לְמִדְבָּר, to a desert, לְעִיר, to a city, one must specify to which king, to which desert, to which city. Similarly, [with a “beth” or “lammed”] לִמְלָכִים, to kings, and לִרְגָלִים, to festivals, punctuated with a “chirik,” must be specified to which ones. If it is not specified all kings are meant. So too, לֵאלֹהִים means all gods, even the divine, but when it is vowelized with a “pattach,” like לַמֶּלֶ, to the king, לַמִּדְבָּר, to the desert, לָעִיר, to the city, [The “pattach” and the “kamatz” are in one category in this context. There is also another way to explain this, as is written in Dikdukei Rashi. See that source.] it is known about which king he is speaking, and so לָאֱלֹהִים, to the gods, to those concerning which you were warned elsewhere. Similarly, “There is none like You among the gods” (Ps. 86:8). Since it is not specified, it had to be vowelized with a “pattach”.   לא-להים: לעבודה זרה. אלו היה נקוד לא-להים היה צריך לפרש ולכתוב אחרים, עכשיו שאמר לא-להים, אין צריך לפרש אחרים, שכל למד ובית המשמשות בראש התיבה אם נקודה בחטף, כגון למלך, למדבר, לעיר, צריך לפרש לאיזה מלך, לאיזה מדבר, לאיזה עיר, וכן למלכים, לרגלים צריך לפרש לאיזה, ואם אינו מפרש, כל מלכים במשמע, וכן לא-להים כל א-להים משמע, אפילו קדש, אבל כשהיא נוקדה פת"ח, כמו למלך, למדבר, לעיר נודע באיזה מלך, באיזו מדבר ובאיזה עיר מדבר, וכן לא-להים, לאותן שהוזהרתם עליהם במקום אחר, כיוצא בו (תהלים פו ח) אין כמוך בא-להים, לפי שלא פירש הוצרך לנקד פתח:
shall be destroyed: Shall be put to death. Now why does it say “shall be destroyed” ? Is the death penalty not mentioned elsewhere: “And you shall take that man or that woman [and you shall stone them… so that they will die], etc.” (Deut. 17:5) ? Since [there the Torah] did not specify for which type of worship he is liable to death, so that you do not say that for all types of worship one is liable to death, [the Torah] came and specified to you here: “He who slaughters [a sacrifice] to the gods shall be destroyed,” to inform you that just as slaughtering is a type of worship performed inside [the Temple] to Heaven, I also include one who burns [incense or parts of an animal] or performs libations, which are types of worship performed inside [the Temple], and [people] are liable for performing them for idolatry whether or not it is customary to worship that particular deity in that manner. However, [for] other types of worship-for example, if one sweeps, sprinkles water on the sand floor before it [the idol], embraces it or kisses it-he is not liable to death, but he is warned against it [i.e., he is liable to receive lashes]. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 60b]   יחרם: יומת. ולמה נאמר יחרם, והלא כבר נאמר בו מיתה במקום אחר (דברים יז ה) והוצאת את האיש ההוא או את האשה ההיא וגו', אלא לפי שלא פירש על איזו עבודה חייב מיתה, שלא תאמר כל עבודות במיתה, בא ופירש לך כאן זובח לא-להים יחרם, לומר לך, מה זביחה עבודה הנעשית בפנים לשמים, אף אני מרבה המקטיר והמנסך והמשתחוה, שהן עבודת בפנים וחייבים עליהם לכל עבודה זרה בין שדרכה לעבדה בכך, בין שאין דרכה לעבדה בכך, אבל שאר עבודות, כגון מכבד והמרבץ והמגפף והמנשק, אינו במיתה, אלא באזהרה:
20And you shall not mistreat a stranger, nor shall you oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.   כוְגֵ֥ר לֹֽא־תוֹנֶ֖ה וְלֹ֣א תִלְחָצֶ֑נּוּ כִּֽי־גֵרִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
And you shall not mistreat: By taunting with words, contralier in Old French, [meaning] to vex, like “And those who taunt you (מוֹנַיִ), I will feed their flesh” (Isa. 49:26). -[From Mechilta, Jonathan]   וגר לא תונה: אונאת דברים, קונטרליי"ר בלעז [לקנטר], כמו (ישעיה מט כו) והאכלתי את מוניך את בשרם:
nor shall you oppress him: by robbing [him of his] money. -[From Mechilta, Jonathan]   ולא תלחצנו: בגזילת ממון:
for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: If you taunt him, he can also taunt you and say to you, “You too emanate from strangers.” Do not reproach your neighbor with a fault that is also yours (Mechilta, B.M. 59b). Every expression of a stranger (גֵּר) means a person who was not born in that country but has come from another country to sojourn there.   כי גרים הייתם: אם הוניתו, אף הוא יכול להונותך ולומר לך אף אתה מגרים באת, מום שבך אל תאמר לחברך. כל לשון גר, אדם שלא נולד באותה מדינה, אלא בא ממדינה אחרת לגור שם:
21You shall not oppress any widow or orphan.   כאכָּל־אַלְמָנָ֥ה וְיָת֖וֹם לֹ֥א תְעַנּֽוּן:
You shall not oppress any widow or orphan: The same applies to all people, but the Scripture speaks of the usual situation, since they [widows and orphans] are weak and [they] are frequently oppressed. -[From Mechilta]   כל אלמנה ויתום לא תענון: הוא הדין לכל אדם, אלא שדבר הכתוב בהווה, לפי שהם תשושי כח ודבר מצוי לענותם:
22If you oppress him, [beware,] for if he cries out to Me, I will surely hear his cry.   כבאִם־עַנֵּ֥ה תְעַנֵּה אֹת֑וֹ כִּ֣י אִם־צָעֹ֤ק יִצְעַק֙ אֵלַ֔י שָׁמֹ֥עַ אֶשְׁמַ֖ע צַֽעֲקָתֽוֹ:
If you oppress him: This is an elliptical verse. It threatens [punishment], but does not delineate his punishment. [This is] similar to “Therefore, whoever kills Cain…!” (Gen. 4:15). It threatens, but does not delineate his punishment. Here too, “If you oppress him” is an expression of a threat: If you oppress him [the orphan], you will ultimately receive what is coming to you. Why? “For if he cries out to Me, etc.”   אם ענה תענה אתו: הרי זה מקרא קצר, גזם ולא פירש עונשו, כמו (בראשית ד טו) לכן כל הורג קין גזם ולא פירש עונשו אף כאן אם ענה תענה אותו, לשון גזום, כלומר סופך ליטול את שלך, למה, כי צעק יצעק אלי וגו':
23My wrath will be kindled, and I will slay you with the sword, and your wives will be widows and your children orphans.   כגוְחָרָ֣ה אַפִּ֔י וְהָֽרַגְתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם בֶּחָ֑רֶב וְהָי֤וּ נְשֵׁיכֶם֙ אַלְמָנ֔וֹת וּבְנֵיכֶ֖ם יְתֹמִֽים:
and your wives will be widows: From the implication of what is said-“and I will slay you” -do I not know that your wives will be widows and your children orphans? Rather, this is another curse, namely that the wives will be bound in living widowhood -there will be no witnesses to their husbands’ deaths, and [thus] they will be forbidden to remarry. The children will be orphans because the court will not allow them to have their fathers’ property, since they do not know whether they died or were captured. -[From Mechilta, B.M. 38b]   והיו נשיכם אלמנות: ממשמע שנאמר והרגתי אתכם, איני יודע שנשיכם אלמנות ובניכם יתומים, אלא הרי זו קללה אחרת, שיהיו הנשים צרורות כאלמנות חיות, שלא יהיו עדים למיתת בעליהן ותהיינה אסורות להנשא והבנים יהיו יתומים, שלא יניחום בית דין לירד לנכסי אביהם לפי שאין יודעים אם מתו אם נשבו:
24When you lend money to My people, to the poor person [who is] with you, you shall not behave toward him as a lender; you shall not impose interest upon him.   כדאִם־כֶּ֣סֶף | תַּלְוֶ֣ה אֶת־עַמִּ֗י אֶת־הֶֽעָנִי֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ לֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֥ה ל֖וֹ כְּנשֶׁ֑ה לֹֽא־תְשִׂימ֥וּן עָלָ֖יו נֶֽשֶׁךְ:
When you lend money to My people: Rabbi Ishmael says: Every אִם in the Torah is optional except three, and this is one of them. -[From Mechilta. אִם usually means “if,” which refers to something optional, denoting an incident that may or may not occur. Rashi on Exod. 20:22 explains that in this case, lending money to the needy is obligatory, as in Deut. 15:8. Therefore, in this verse, אִם means “when.”]   אם כסף תלוה את עמי: רבי ישמעאל אומר כל אם ואם שבתורה רשות, חוץ משלושה וזה אחד מהן:
to My people: [If a member of] My people [i.e., an Israelite,] and a gentile [apply for a loan], [the member of] My people takes preference; [if] a poor person and a rich person [apply for a loan], the poor person takes preference; [if] the poor of your city and the poor of another city [apply for a loan], the poor of your city take preference (Mechilta, B.M. 71a), and this is its meaning: “When you lend money,” lend it to “My people” and not to a gentile, and to which of My people? “To the poor person.” And to which poor person? To the one who is “with you.” [I.e., if you have enough money to lend to only one person, lend it to a Jew rather than to a non-Jew. Even if the gentile will pay interest, and you are not allowed to take interest from the Jew, you must lend the money to the Jew (B.M. 71a).] Another meaning: to My people: That you shall not behave toward him [the borrower] in a demeaning manner when you lend to him, for he is [a member of] My people. -[From Tanchuma 15]   את עמי: עמי וגוי, עמי קודם. עני ועשיר, עני קודם. עניי עירך ועניי עיר אחרת, עניי עירך קודמין. וזה משמעו אם כסף תלוה, את עמי תלוהו, ולא לגוי ולאיזה מעמי, את העני, ולאיזה עני לאותו שעמך. דבר אחר את העני, שלא תנהג בו מנהג בזיון בהלוואה, שהוא עמי:
to the poor person [who is] with you: Look at yourself as if you were a poor person.) -[From Tanchuma 15]   את העני עמך: הוי מסתכל בעצמך כאלו אתה העני:
you shall not behave toward him as a lender: You shall not demand it of him forcibly (Tanchuma 9, Exod. Rabbah 31:6). If you know that he does not have [the money to repay you], do not appear to him as if you have lent to him, but as if you have not lent to him; i.e., do not embarrass him. -[From B.M. 75b]   לא תהיה לו כנשה: לא תתבענו בחזקה, אם אתה יודע שאין לו, אל תהי דומה עליו כאלו הלויתו, אלא כאילו לא הלויתו, כלומר לא תכלימהו:
interest: Heb. נֶשֶׁ, lit., biting. Interest, which is like the biting of a snake, which bites by making a small wound in a person’s foot, and he [the person] does not feel [the wound], and suddenly, it spreads and swells up as far as his crown. So it is with interest. He does not feel it, and it is not noticeable until the interest accumulates and it costs him a considerable sum of money. -[From Tanchuma 9, Exod. Rabbah 31:6]   נשך: רבית שהוא כנשיכת נחש, שנושך חבורה קטנה ברגלו ואינו מרגיש, ופתאום הוא מבצבץ ונופח עד קדקדו, כך רבית, אינו מרגיש ואינו ניכר עד שהרבית עולה ומחסרו ממון הרבה:
25If you take your neighbor's garment as security, until sunset you shall return it to him,   כהאִם־חָבֹ֥ל תַּחְבֹּ֖ל שַׂלְמַ֣ת רֵעֶ֑ךָ עַד־בֹּ֥א הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ תְּשִׁיבֶ֥נּוּ לֽוֹ:
If you take… as security: Heb. חָבֹל ךְתַּחְבֹּל. No expression of חִבָלָה means security given at the time of the loan, but [that which] is exacted from the debtor when the debt becomes due and he [the debtor] does not pay (B.M. 114). (חָבֹל ךְתַּחְבֹּל the Torah repeats the taking of the security [implying that one may take security] even many times. The Holy One, blessed is He, said: “How much you owe Me! Yet your soul ascends to Me every night, gives an account, is found guilty before Me, and I return it to you. You too, take and return, take and return.” ) -(Tanchuma 16.)   אם חבל תחבל: כל לשון חבלה אינו משכון בשעת הלואה, אלא שממשכנין את הלוה, כשמגיע הזמן ואינו פורע. חבול תחבול כפל לך בחבלה, עד כמה פעמים, אמר הקב"ה כמה אתה חייב לי, והרי נפשך עולה אצלי כל אמש ואמש ונותנת דין וחשבון ומתחייבת לפני, ואני מחזירה לך, אף אתה טול והשב טול והשב:
until sunset you shall return it to him: [For] the entire day you shall return it to him until the sun sets, and when the sun sets you may again take it until the next morning arrives. This verse speaks of a garment worn by day, which he does not need at night. -[From Mechilta, B.M. 114b]   עד בא השמש תשיבנו לו: כל היום תשיבנו לו עד בא השמש, וכבוא השמש תחזור ותטלנו, עד שיבא בקר של מחר, ובכסות יום הכתוב מדבר, שאין צריך לה בלילה:
26for it is his only covering; it is his garment for his skin. With what shall he lie? And it shall be [that] if he cries out to Me, I will hear because I am gracious.   כוכִּ֣י הִ֤וא כְסוּת֙וֹ (כתיב כסותה) לְבַדָּ֔הּ הִ֥וא שִׂמְלָת֖וֹ לְעֹר֑וֹ בַּמֶּ֣ה יִשְׁכָּ֔ב וְהָיָה֙ כִּֽי־יִצְעַ֣ק אֵלַ֔י וְשָֽׁמַעְתִּ֖י כִּֽי־חַנּ֥וּן אָֽנִי:
for it is his only covering: This is a cloak. -[From Mechilta]   כי הוא כסותה: זו טלית:
his garment: This is a shirt. -[From Mechilta]   שמלתו: זו חלוק:
With what shall he lie?: [This comes] to include a spread. -[From Mechilta]   במה ישכב: לרבות את המצע:

Fourth Portion

Exodus Chapter 22

27You shall not curse a judge, neither shall you curse a prince among your people.   כזאֱלֹהִ֖ים לֹ֣א תְקַלֵּ֑ל וְנָשִׂ֥יא בְעַמְּךָ֖ לֹ֥א תָאֹֽר:
You shall not curse a judge: Heb. אֱלֹהִים. This is a warning against cursing God and a warning against cursing a judge. -[From Sanh. 66a]   א-להים לא תקלל: הרי זו אזהרה לברכת השם, ואזהרה לקללת דיין:
28Your fullness offering and your heave offering you shall not delay; the firstborn of your sons you shall give Me.   כחמְלֵאָֽתְךָ֥ וְדִמְעֲךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְאַחֵ֑ר בְּכ֥וֹר בָּנֶ֖יךָ תִּתֶּן־לִֽי:
Your fullness offering: The obligation that is incumbent upon you when your produce becomes fully ripe. This reference is to the first fruits (בִּכּוּרִים). -[From Onkelos, Mechilta, Temurah 4a]   מלאתך: חובה המוטלת עליך כשתתמלא תבואתך להתבשל, והם בכורים:
and your heave offering: Heb. וְדִמְעֲ. [This is] the terumah [the first offering from the produce, which is given to the kohen] (Mechilta, Temurah 4a), but I do not know the etymology of דֶּמַע [which is the noun root of דִמְעֲ].   ודמעך: התרומה, ואיני יודע מהו לשון דמע:
you shall not delay: You shall not alter the sequence of their separation by delaying what should come first and advancing what should come later, namely that one may not advance terumah before bikkurim or tithes before terumah. -[From Mechilta]   לא תאחר: לא תשנה סדר הפרשתן, לאחר את המוקדם ולהקדים את המאוחר, שלא יקדים תרומה לבכורים ומעשר לתרומה:
the firstborn of your sons you shall give Me: to redeem him from the kohen with five selas. Now did He not give the command concerning this elsewhere (Num. 18:16) ? But [it is written here] to juxtapose to it “So shall you do with your cattle and with your sheep,” [implying that] just as the firstborn of man is redeemed after thirty days, as it is said: “And his redemption, from a month old you shall redeem [him]” (Num. 18:16), so too with the firstborn of small cattle; one must care for it for thirty days and afterwards give it to the kohen. -[From Bech. 26b]   בכור בניך תתן לי: לפדותו בחמש סלעים מן הכהן. והלא כבר צוה עליו במקום אחר, אלא כדי לסמוך לו כן תעשה לשורך, מה בכור אדם לאחר שלושים יום פודהו שנאמר (במדבר יח טז) ופדויו מבן חדש תפדה, אף בכור בהמה דקה [גסה] מטפל בו שלשים יום ואחר כך נותנו לכהן:
29So shall you do with your cattle and with your sheep: seven days it shall be with its mother, on the eighth day you may give it to Me.   כטכֵּֽן־תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה לְשֹֽׁרְךָ֖ לְצֹאנֶ֑ךָ שִׁבְעַ֤ת יָמִים֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה עִם־אִמּ֔וֹ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֖י תִּתְּנוֹ־לִֽי:
seven days it shall be with its mother: This is a warning to the kohen, that if he wants to bring his sacrifice early, he may not bring it before eight [days] because it lacks the minimum time requirement.   שבעת ימים יהיה עם אמו: זו אזהרה לכהן, שאם בא למהר את הקרבתו, לא ימהר קודם שמונה, לפי שהוא מחוסר זמן:
on the eighth day you may give it to Me: We may think that is obligatory for that day, [and if so, we would render: On the eighth day you shall give it to Me. That is not so, however, because] it says here, “eighth,” and it says further (Lev. 22:27), “and from the eighth day on it will be accepted.” Just as “the eighth day” mentioned further means to make [it] fit from the eighth day on, so does the eighth day mentioned here mean to make [it] fit from the eighth day on, and this is its meaning: on the eighth day you are permitted to give it to Me. -[From Mechilta]   ביום השמיני תתנו לי: יכול יהא חובה לבו ביום, נאמר כאן שמיני, ונאמר להלן (ויקרא כב כז) ומיום השמיני והלאה ירצה, מה שמיני האמור להלן להכשיר משמיני ולהלן, אף שמיני האמור כאן להכשיר משמיני ולהלן, וכן משמעו וביום השמיני אתה רשאי ליתנו לי:
30And you shall be holy people to Me, and flesh torn in the field you shall not eat; you shall throw it to the dog[s].   לוְאַנְשֵׁי־קֹ֖דֶשׁ תִּֽהְי֣וּן לִ֑י וּבָשָׂ֨ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֤ה טְרֵפָה֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ לַכֶּ֖לֶב תַּשְׁלִכ֥וּן אֹתֽוֹ:
And you shall be holy people to Me: If you are holy and abstain from the loathsomeness of [eating] carrion and mortally injured animals, you are Mine, but if not, you are not Mine. -[From Mechilta]   ואנשי קדש תהיון לי: אם אתם קדושים ופרושים משקוצי נבלות וטרפות הרי אתם שלי, ואם לאו אינכם שלי:
and flesh torn in the field: [If the flesh was torn] in the house the law is the same, but the Scripture speaks of the usual occurrence, [i.e.,] the location where animals are usually torn. Similarly, “For he found her in the field” (Deut. 22:27), [i.e., the law is the same for any place where no one is around to rescue a betrothed woman who is violated; it is assumed that she cried out for help to no avail]. Similarly,” who will be unclean as a result of a nocturnal emission” (Deut. 23:11). The same applies to an emission that occurs during the day [that the person becomes unclean], but the Scripture speaks of the usual occurrence [Mechilta]. [Onkelos renders:] וּבְשַׂר ךְתְּלִישׁ מִן חֵיוָא חַייָא, [i.e., you cannot eat] flesh that was torn off through the tearing of a wolf or a lion from a kosher beast or from a kosher domestic animal while it was alive.   ובשר בשדה טרפה: אף בבית כן, אלא שדיבר הכתוב בהווה, מקום שדרך בהמות ליטרף, וכן (דברים כב כז) כי בשדה מצאה, וכן (שם כג יא) אשר לא יהיה טהור מקרה לילה, הוא הדין מקרה יום, אלא שדיבר הכתוב בהווה. ואונקלוס תרגם ובשר תליש מן חיוא חיא, בשר שנתלש על ידי טרפת זאב או ארי, מן חיה כשרה או מבהמה כשרה בחייה:
you shall throw it to the dog[s]: He [the gentile] is also similar to a dog [in this context, namely that the treifah can be given or sold to him], or perhaps a dog is meant literally [that the treifah can be given only to a dog]? Therefore, the Torah states regarding carrion (נְבֵלָה [an animal that died without ritual slaughter]): “or sell [it] to a gentile” (Deut. 14:21). From this, we derive by a kal vachomer that from a treifah we are permitted to gain any type of benefit [except eating, of course]. If so, why does the Torah say “to the dogs” ? Because the Holy One, blessed is He, does not withhold the reward of any creature, as it is said: “But to all the children of Israel, not one dog will whet its tongue” (Exod. 11:7). Said the Holy One, blessed is He, “Give it its reward.” -[From Mechilta]   לכלב תשליכון אותו: אף הגוי ככלב, או אינו אלא כלב כמשמעו, תלמוד לומר בנבלה (דב' יד כא) או מכור לנכרי, קל וחומר לטרפה שמותרת בכל הנאות. אם כן מה תלמוד לומר לכלב, למדך הכתוב שאין הקב"ה מקפח שכר כל בריה, שנאמר (שמות יא ז) ולכל בני ישראל לא יחרץ כלב לשונו, אמר הקב"ה תנו לו שכרו:

Exodus Chapter 23

1You shall not accept a false report; do not place your hand with a wicked person to be a false witness.   אלֹ֥א תִשָּׂ֖א שֵׁ֣מַע שָׁ֑וְא אַל־תָּ֤שֶׁת יָֽדְךָ֙ עִם־רָשָׁ֔ע לִֽהְיֹ֖ת עֵ֥ד חָמָֽס:
You shall not accept a false report: Heb. לֹא תִשָׂא, as the Targum [Onkelos renders]: You shall not accept a false report. [This is] a prohibition against accepting slander (Mechilta, Pes. 118a, Mak. 23a), and for a judge [it dictates] that he should not hear the plea of one litigant until his opponent arrives (Mechilta, Sanh. 7b).   לא תשא שמע שוא: כתרגומו לא תקבל שמע דשקר, אזהרה למקבל לשון הרע, ולדיין, שלא ישמע דברי בעל דין עד שיבא בעל דין חבירו:
do not place your hand with a wicked person: who files a false claim against his neighbor, for whom he had promised to be a false witness.   אל תשת ידך עם רשע: הטוען את חבירו תביעת שקר, שהבטיחהו להיות לו עד חמס:
2You shall not follow the majority for evil, and you shall not respond concerning a lawsuit to follow many to pervert [justice].   בלֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֥ה אַֽחֲרֵֽי־רַבִּ֖ים לְרָעֹ֑ת וְלֹא־תַֽעֲנֶ֣ה עַל־רִ֗ב לִנְטֹ֛ת אַֽחֲרֵ֥י רַבִּ֖ים לְהַטֹּֽת:
You shall not follow the majority for evil: There are [halachic] interpretations for this verse given by the Sages of Israel, but the language of the verse does not fit its context according to them. From here they [the Sages] expounded that we may not decide unfavorably [for the defendant] by a majority created by one judge. They interpreted the end of the verse: אַחִרֵי רַבִּים לְהַטֹת, “after the majority to decide,” [to mean] that if those [judges] voting [that the defendant is] guilty outnumber those voting [that the defendant is] innocent by two, the verdict is to be decided unfavorably according to their [the majority’s] opinion. The text speaks of capital cases [i.e., in regard to the death penalty] (Sanh. 2a). [Note that in monetary cases, the court requires a majority of only one judge in order to convict someone.] The middle of the verse וְלֹא-תַעִנֶה עַל-רִב, they [the Rabbis] interpreted like וְלֹא-תַעִנֶה עַל-רַב [and you shall not speak up against a master], meaning that we may not differ with the greatest of the court. Therefore, in capital cases they [the judges] commence [the roll call] from the side, meaning that they first ask the smallest [least esteemed] of them to express his opinion (Sanh. 32a). According to the words of our Sages, this is the interpretation of the verse: You shall not follow the majority for evil to condemn [a person] to death because of one judge, by whom those who declare [the defendant] guilty outnumber those who declare [him] innocent. And you shall not speak up against a master to deviate from his words. Because the “yud” [of רִיב, meaning quarrel] is missing, they interpreted it (רִב) in this manner [i.e., like (רַב)]. After the majority to decide [signifies that] there is, however, a majority after whom you do decide [the verdict]. When? If those [judges] who declare [the defendant] guilty outnumber by two those who declare him innocent. And since it says: “You shall not follow the majority for evil,” I deduce that you shall follow them [the majority] for good. From here they [the Rabbis] deduced that in capital cases, we decide through [a majority of] one for an acquittal and through [a majority of] two for a conviction. Onkelos renders [this verse]: Do not refrain from teaching what appears to you concerning a judgment. The Hebrew wording according to the Targum is interpreted as follows: And you shall not respond concerning a quarrel by turning away. If someone asks you something concerning the law, do not answer by turning aside and distancing yourself from the quarrel, but judge it honestly. I, however, say, [differing from the Rabbis and Onkelos] that it [the verse] should be according to its context. This is its interpretation:   לא תהיה אחרי רבים לרעת: יש במקרא זה מדרשי חכמי ישראל, אבל אין לשון המקרא מיושב בהן על אופניו. מכאן דרשו שאין מטין לחובה בהכרעת דיין אחד, וסוף המקרא דרשו אחרי רבים להטות, שאם יש שנים במחייבין יותר על המזכין, הטה הדין על פיהם לחובה ובדיני נפשות הכתוב מדבר, ואמצע המקרא דרשו ולא תענה על ריב, על רב, שאין חולקין על מופלא שבבית דין, לפיכך מתחילין בדיני נפשות מן הצד, לקטנים שבהן שואלין תחלה, שיאמרו את דעתם. לפי דברי רבותינו כך פתרון המקרא לא תהיה אחרי רבים לרעות לחייב מיתה בשביל דיין אחד, שירבו המחייבין על המזכין ולא תענה על הרב לנטות מדבריו, ולפי שהוא חסר יו"ד דרשו בו כן. אחרי רבים להטת ויש רבים שאתה נוטה אחריהם, ואימתי, בזמן שהן שנים המכריעין במחייבין יותר מן המזכין, וממשמע שנאמר לא תהיה אחרי רבים לרעות שומע אני אבל היה עמהם לטובה, מכאן אמרו דיני נפשות מטין על פי אחד לזכות ועל פי שנים לחובה. ואונקלוס תרגם לא תתמנע מלאלפא מה דבעינך על דינא, ולשון העברי, לפי התרגום, כך הוא נדרש לא תענה על ריב לנטת אם ישאלך דבר למשפט, לא תענה לנטות לצד אחד ולסלק עצמך מן הריב, אלא הוי דן אותו לאמיתו. ואני אומר ליישבו על אופניו כפשוטו, כך פתרונו:
You shall not follow the majority for evil: If you see wicked people perverting justice, do not say, “Since they are many, I will follow them.”   לא תהיה אחרי רבים לרעת: אם ראית רשעים מטין משפט, לא תאמר הואיל ורבים הם, הנני נוטה אחריהם:
and you shall not respond concerning a lawsuit to follow, etc.: And if the litigant asks you about that [corrupted] judgment, do not answer him concerning the lawsuit with an answer that follows those many to pervert the judgment from its true ruling But tell the judgment as it is, and let the neck iron hang on the neck of the many. [I.e., let the many bear the punishment for their perversion of justice.]   ולא תענה על ריב לנטת וגו': ואם ישאל הנדון על אותו המשפט אל תעננו על הריב דבר הנוטה אחרי אותן רבים להטות את המשפט מאמתו אלא אמור את המשפט כאשר הוא, וקולר יהא תלוי בצואר הרבים:
3Neither shall you glorify a poor man in his lawsuit.   גוְדָ֕ל לֹ֥א תֶהְדַּ֖ר בְּרִיבֽוֹ:
Neither shall you glorify: You shall not bestow honor upon him [the destitute man] by deciding in his favor in his lawsuit, saying, “He is a poor man; I will decide in his favor and honor him.”   לא תהדר: לא תחלוק לו כבוד לזכותו בדין ולומר דל הוא, אזכנו ואכבדנו:
4If you come upon your enemy's bull or his stray donkey, you shall surely return it to him.   דכִּ֣י תִפְגַּ֞ע שׁ֧וֹר אֹֽיִבְךָ֛ א֥וֹ חֲמֹר֖וֹ תֹּעֶ֑ה הָשֵׁ֥ב תְּשִׁיבֶ֖נּוּ לֽוֹ:
5If you see your enemy's donkey lying under its burden would you refrain from helping him? You shall surely help along with him.   הכִּֽי־תִרְאֶ֞ה חֲמ֣וֹר שׂנַֽאֲךָ֗ רֹבֵץ֙ תַּ֣חַת מַשָּׂא֔וֹ וְחָֽדַלְתָּ֖ מֵֽעֲזֹ֣ב ל֑וֹ עָזֹ֥ב תַּֽעֲזֹ֖ב עִמּֽוֹ:
If you see your enemy’s donkey: Heb. כִּי תִרְאֶה. [The word] כִּי serves as an expression of “perhaps,” which is [one] of the four meanings for which כִּי is used (R.H. 3a). This is its meaning: Will you perhaps see his donkey lying under its burden… ? -   כי תראה חמור שונאך וגו': הרי כי משמש בלשון דלמא, שהוא מארבע לשונות של שמושי כי וכה פתרונו שמא תראה חמורו רובץ תחת משאו:
would you refrain from helping him?: This is the interrogative.   וחדלת מעזב לו: בתמיה:
You shall surely help along with him: Heb. עָזֹב ךְתַּעִזֹב עִמוֹ. This עִזִיבָה is an expression of help, and similarly, “restrained or assisted (וְעָזוּב) ” (Deut. 32:36, I Kings 14:10), and similarly, “and they strengthened (וַיַּעַזְבוּ) Jerusalem until the… wall” (Neh. 3:8), [which means] they filled it with earth to strengthen and reinforce the strength of the wall. Similarly, [following Rashi’s rendering that the word כִּי means “perhaps,”] “Will you perhaps כִּי say in your heart, ‘These nations are more numerous than I’” (Deut. 7:17) ? Will you perhaps say so? This is the interrogative. [The verse thus tells you:] “Do not fear them.” Midrashically, our Rabbis interpreted it [the verse] as follows: If you see…, you may refrain; [meaning that] sometimes you may refrain [from helping someone], and sometimes you must help. How so [can this be judged]? An elder who [finds it] beneath his dignity [to unload a donkey]- “You may refrain” (Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, Midrash Hagadol). Or if the animal belongs to a gentile and the burden belongs to an Israelite, you may refrain. -[From Mechilta, B.M. 32b]   עזב תעזב עמו: עזיבה זו לשון עזרה, וכן (דברים לב לו) עצור ועזוב, וכן (נחמיה ג ח) ויעזבו ירושלם עד החומה, מלאוה עפר לעזוב ולסייע את חוזק החומה. כיוצא בו (דברים ז יז) כי תאמר בלבבך רבים הגוים האלה ממני וגו', שמא תאמר כן, בתמיה, לא תירא מהם. ומדרשו, כך דרשו רבותינו כי תראה וחדלת פעמים שאתה חדל ופעמים שאתה עוזר. הא כיצד, זקן ואינו לפי כבודו, וחדלת, או בהמת נכרי ומשאוי ישראל, וחדלת:
You shall surely help along with him: to unload the burden (Mechilta, B.M. 32a). [Onkelos renders לוֹ מֵעִזֹב] מִלְמִשְׁקַל לֵה, from taking the burden off it.   עזב תעזב עמו: לפרק המשא. מלמשקל ליה, מליטול משאוי ממנו:

Fifth Portion

Exodus Chapter 23

6You shall not pervert the judgment of your poor man in his lawsuit.   ולֹ֥א תַטֶּ֛ה מִשְׁפַּ֥ט אֶבְיֹֽנְךָ֖ בְּרִיבֽוֹ:
your poor man: Heb. אֶבְיֹנְ, an expression of desiring אוֹבֶה, [meaning] one who is impoverished and desires all good things. -[From Mechilta]   אבינך: לשון אובה, שהוא מדולדל ותאב לכל טובה:
7Distance yourself from a false matter; and do not kill a truly innocent person or one who has been declared innocent, for I will not vindicate a guilty person.   זמִדְּבַר־שֶׁ֖קֶר תִּרְחָ֑ק וְנָקִ֤י וְצַדִּיק֙ אַל־תַּֽהֲרֹ֔ג כִּ֥י לֹֽא־אַצְדִּ֖יק רָשָֽׁע:
and do not kill a truly innocent person or one who has been declared innocent: How do we know that if one emerges from the court guilty [and is given the death sentence], and one [of the judges] says, “I have a way to prove his innocence,” we must bring him back [to the court and retry him]? Because the Torah states: “and do not kill a truly innocent person.” Although he was not declared innocent-for he was not vindicated by the court-he is, nevertheless, free from the death penalty, because you have reason to acquit him. And how do we know that if one emerges from the court innocent, and one [of the judges] says, “I have a way to prove his guilt,” we do not bring him back to the court [to retry him]? Because the Torah states: “and do not kill… one who is declared innocent.” And this one is innocent because he was vindicated by the court. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 33b]   ונקי וצדיק אל תהרג: מניין ליוצא מבית דין חייב ואמר אחד יש לי ללמד עליו זכות, שמחזירין אותו, תלמוד לומר ונקי אל תהרג וזה אף על פי שאינו צדיק, שלא נצטדק בבית דין, מכל מקום נקי הוא מדין מיתה, שהרי יש לך לזכותו. ומניין ליוצא מבית דין זכאי ואמר אחד יש לי ללמד עליו חובה, שאין מחזירין אותו לבית דין לחייבו תלמוד לומר וצדיק אל תהרוג, וזה צדיק הוא, שנצטדק בבית דין:
for I will not vindicate a guilty person: It is not incumbent upon you to return him [to court] for I will not vindicate him in My law. If he emerges innocent from your hand [i.e., from the courts], I have many agents to put him to death-with the death penalty he deserves. -[From Mechilta, Sanh. 33b]   כי לא אצדיק רשע: אין עליך להחזירו, כי אני לא אצדיקנו בדיני, אם יצא מידך זכאי, יש לי שלוחים הרבה להמיתו במיתה שנתחייב בה:
8You shall not accept a bribe, for a bribe will blind the clear sighted and corrupt words that are right.   חוְשֹׁ֖חַד לֹ֣א תִקָּ֑ח כִּ֤י הַשֹּׁ֨חַד֙ יְעַוֵּ֣ר פִּקְחִ֔ים וִֽיסַלֵּ֖ף דִּבְרֵ֥י צַדִּיקִֽים:
You shall not accept a bribe: Even [in order] to judge fairly, and surely [not] to pervert the judgment, for [in fact, taking a bribe] in order to pervert the judgment is already mentioned: “You shall not pervert judgment” (Deut. 16:19). -[From Keth. 105a]   ושחד לא תקח: אפילו לשפוט אמת, וכל שכן כדי להטות הדין, שהרי כדי להטות את הדין נאמר כבר לעיל לא תטה משפט:
for a bribe will blind the clear-sighted: Even if one is wise in Torah, and he accepts a bribe, he will eventually become deranged, forget his studies, and lose his eyesight. -[From Keth. 105a, Mechilta]   יעור פקחים: אפילו חכם בתורה ונוטל שוחד, סוף שתטרף דעתו עליו, וישתכח תלמודו, ויכהה מאור עיניו:
and corrupt: Heb. וִיסַלֵף, as the Targum [Onkelos and Jonathan] renders: וּמְקַלְקֵל, [meaning] and spoils.   ויסלף: כתרגומו ומקלקל:
words that are right: Heb. דִבְרֵי צַדִּיקִים, words that are just, true judgments, and so is its Aramaic translation: פִּתְגָמִין ךְתְּרִיצִין, [meaning words that are] straight.   דברי צדיקים: דברים המצודקים, משפטי אמת, וכן תרגומו פתגמין תריצין. ישרים:
9And you shall not oppress a stranger, for you know the feelings of the stranger, since you were strangers in the land of Egypt.   טוְגֵ֖ר לֹ֣א תִלְחָ֑ץ וְאַתֶּ֗ם יְדַעְתֶּם֙ אֶת־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַגֵּ֔ר כִּֽי־גֵרִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
And you shall not oppress a stranger -: In many places the Torah warns about the stranger [convert] because he has a strong temptation [to return to his former bad ways]. -[From B.M. 59b]   וגר לא תלחץ: בהרבה מקומות הזהירה תורה על הגר מפני שסורו רע:
the feelings of the stranger: How hard it is for him when people oppress him.   את נפש הגר: כמה קשה לו כשלוחצים אותו:
10Six years you may sow your land and gather in its produce.   יוְשֵׁ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים תִּזְרַ֣ע אֶת־אַרְצֶ֑ךָ וְאָֽסַפְתָּ֖ אֶת־תְּבֽוּאָתָֽהּ:
and gather in its produce: Heb. וְאָסַפְךְתָּ, an expression of bringing into the house, like “And you shall bring it (וַאִסַפְךְתּוֹ) into your house” (Deut. 22:2).   ואספת את תבואתה: לשון הכנסה לבית, כמו (דברים כב ב) ואספתו אל תוך ביתך:
11But in the seventh [year] you shall release it and abandon it; the poor of your people shall eat [it], and what they leave over, the beasts of the field shall eat. So shall you do to your vineyard [and] to your olive tree[s].   יאוְהַשְּׁבִיעִ֞ת תִּשְׁמְטֶ֣נָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּ֗הּ וְאָֽכְלוּ֙ אֶבְיֹנֵ֣י עַמֶּ֔ךָ וְיִתְרָ֕ם תֹּאכַ֖ל חַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה כֵּֽן־תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה לְכַרְמְךָ֖ לְזֵיתֶֽךָ:
you shall release it: from work.   תשמטנה: מעבודה:
and abandon it: from eating it after the time of the removal (see Mechilta). Another interpretation: from real work, such as plowing and sowing, and abandon it from fertilizing and hoeing.   ונטשתה: מאכילה אחר זמן הביעור. דבר אחר תשמטנה מעבודה גמורה, כגון חרישה וזריעה. ונטשתה מלזבל ומלקשקש:
and what they leave over, the beasts of the field shall eat: [This is written in order] to liken the food of the poor to the food of the beast. Just as the beast eats without tithing, so do the poor eat without tithing. From here [we derive] that there are no tithes in the seventh year. -[From Mechilta]   ויתרם תאכל חית השדה: להקיש מאכל אביון למאכל חיה מה חיה אוכלת בלא מעשר, אף אביונים אוכלים בלא מעשר, מכאן אמרו אין מעשר בשביעית:
So shall you do to your vineyard: And the beginning of the verse is speaking of a grain field, as is stated above [verse 10]: “You may sow your land.”   כן תעשה לכרמך: ותחלת המקרא בשדה הלבן, כמו שאמור למעלה הימנו תזרע את ארצך:
12Six days you may do your work, but on the seventh day you shall rest, in order that your ox and your donkey shall rest, and your maidservant's son and the stranger shall be refreshed.   יבשֵׁ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה מַֽעֲשֶׂ֔יךָ וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת לְמַ֣עַן יָנ֗וּחַ שֽׁוֹרְךָ֙ וַֽחֲמֹרֶ֔ךָ וְיִנָּפֵ֥שׁ בֶּן־אֲמָֽתְךָ֖ וְהַגֵּֽר:
but on the seventh day you shall rest: Even in the seventh year, the weekly Sabbath, commemorating the Creation, shall not be uprooted, [so] that you shall not say that since the entire year is referred to as “Sabbath,” the weekly Sabbath need not be observed in it [the Sabbatical Year]. -[From Mechilta]   וביום השביעי תשבת: אף בשנה השביעית לא תעקר שבת בראשית ממקומה, שלא תאמר הואיל וכל השנה קרויה שבת, לא תנהג בה שבת בראשית:
in order that your ox and your donkey shall rest: Give it rest, to permit it to tear up and eat grass from the earth. Or perhaps it [this verse] means that one must confine it indoors? [But] you must say that this [confining them indoors] would not be rest but discomfort. -[From Mechilta]   למען ינוח שורך וחמרך: תן לו ניח להתיר שיהא תולש ואוכל עשבים מן הקרקע. או אינו אלא יחבשנו בתוך הבית, אמרת אין זה נייח אלא צער:
your maidservant’s son: The text is speaking of an uncircumcised slave. [From Mechilta]   בן אמתך: בעבד הערל הכתוב מדבר:
and the stranger: This refers to a resident alien. -[From Mechilta]   והגר: גר תושב:
13Concerning all that I have said to you you shall beware, and the name of the gods of others you shall not mention; it shall not be heard through your mouth.   יגוּבְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־אָמַ֥רְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם תִּשָּׁמֵ֑רוּ וְשֵׁ֨ם אֱלֹהִ֤ים אֲחֵרִים֙ לֹ֣א תַזְכִּ֔ירוּ לֹ֥א יִשָּׁמַ֖ע עַל־פִּֽיךָ:
Concerning all that I have said to you you shall beware: Heb. ךְתִּשָׁמֵרוּ. [This verse comes] to give every positive commandment the stringency of a prohibition [i.e., negative commandment], for every exhortation to beware (שְׁמִירָה) in the Torah is a prohibition, [and it appears] instead of a negative expression.   ובכל אשר אמרתי אליכם תשמרו: לעשות כל מצות עשה באזהרה, שכל שמירה שבתורה אזהרה היא במקום לאו:
you shall not mention: That one should not say to another, “Wait for me beside such-and-such an idol,” or “Meet me on the day [dedicated to] such-and-such an idol” (Mechilta, Sanh. 63b). Another explanation: Concerning all that I have said to you, you shall beware, and the name of the gods of strangers you shall not mention -[this comes] to teach you that idolatry is tantamount to all the commandments [combined], and whoever is careful with it is considered as if he has observed them all. -[see Kid. 40a, Ned. 25a, Shev. 29a, Chul. 5a, Rashi on Num. 15:23, Deut. 12:28, Er. 69b]   לא תזכירו: שלא יאמר לו שמור לי בצד עבודה זרה פלונית או תעמוד עמי ביום עבודה זרה פלונית. דבר אחר ובכל אשר אמרתי אליכם תשמרו ושם א-להים אחרים לא תזכירו ללמדך ששקולה עבודה זרה כנגד כל המצות כולן, והנזהר בה כשומר את כולן:
it shall not be heard: from the gentile.   לא ישמע: מן הגוי:
through your mouth: [Meaning] that you shall not enter a partnership with a gentile, so that he would swear to you by his pagan deity. The result [if he does swear] will be that you will indirectly cause it [the deity] to be mentioned through yourself [i.e., through a claim you made against him]. -[From Sanh. 63b] I.e., the occasion may arise that the gentile partner is required to swear something to his Jewish partner, and he will swear by his deity. [From Sanh. 63b]   על פיך: שלא תעשה שותפות עם נכרי וישבע לך בעבודה זרה שלו נמצאת שאתה גורם שיזכר על ידך:
14Three times you shall slaughter sacrifices to Me during the year.   ידשָׁל֣שׁ רְגָלִ֔ים תָּחֹ֥ג לִ֖י בַּשָּׁנָֽה:
times: Heb. רְגָלִים, [synonymous with] פְּעָמִים, times, and similarly, “that you have struck me already three times (רְגָלִים) ” (Num. 22:28).   רגלים: פעמים וכן (במדבר כב כח) כי הכיתני זה שלש רגלים:
15You shall observe the festival of unleavened bread; for seven days you shall eat unleavened bread as I have commanded you, at the appointed time of the month of springtime, for then you left Egypt, and they shall not appear before Me empty handed.   טואֶת־חַ֣ג הַמַּצּוֹת֘ תִּשְׁמֹר֒ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִים֩ תֹּאכַ֨ל מַצּ֜וֹת כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֗ךָ לְמוֹעֵד֙ חֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֔יב כִּי־ב֖וֹ יָצָ֣אתָ מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וְלֹא־יֵֽרָא֥וּ פָנַ֖י רֵיקָֽם:
the month of springtime: Heb. חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב, [the month] in which the grain fills out in its greenness (בְּאִבֶּיהָ). [Alternatively,] אָבִיב is an expression [related to the word for] a father אָב, the firstborn and the earliest [month] to ripen fruits.   חדש האביב: שהתבואה מתמלאת בו באביה. לשון אחר אביב, לשון אב, בכור וראשון לבשל פירות:
and they shall not appear before Me empty-handed: When you come to appear before Me on the festivals, bring Me burnt offerings. -[From Mechilta, Chag. 7a]   ולא יראו פני ריקם: כשתבאו לראות פני ברגלים, הביאו לי עולות:
16And the festival of the harvest, the first fruits of your labors, which you will sow in the field, and the festival of the ingathering at the departure of the year, when you gather in [the products of] your labors from the field.   טזוְחַ֤ג הַקָּצִיר֙ בִּכּוּרֵ֣י מַֽעֲשֶׂ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּזְרַ֖ע בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה וְחַ֤ג הָֽאָסִף֙ בְּצֵ֣את הַשָּׁנָ֔ה בְּאָסְפְּךָ֥ אֶת־מַֽעֲשֶׂ֖יךָ מִן־הַשָּׂדֶֽה:
And the festival of the harvest: That is the feast of Shavuoth.   וחג הקציר: הוא חג שבועות:
the first fruits of your labors: which is the time of the bringing of the first fruits for the two breads, which are brought on Shavuoth [and serve to] permit the new grain [to be used] for meal offerings and [also] to bring the first fruits to the Sanctuary, as it is said: “And on the day of the first fruits, etc.” (Num. 28:26).   בכורי מעשיך: שהוא זמן הבאת בכורים, ששתי הלחם הבאים בעצרת היו מתירין החדש למנחות ולהביא בכורים למקדש, שנאמר (במדבר כח כו) וביום הבכורים וגו':
and the festival of the ingathering: That is the festival of Succoth.   וחג האסיף: הוא חג הסוכות:
when you gather in [the products of] your labors: For during the entire summer, the grain dries out in the fields, and on the festival [of Succoth], they gather it into the house because of the rains [that are about to fall].   באספך את מעשיך: שכל ימות החמה התבואה מתייבשת בשדות ובחג אוספים אותה אל הבית מפני הגשמים:
17Three times during the year, all your males shall appear before the Master, the Lord.   יזשָׁל֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה יֵֽרָאֶה֙ כָּל־זְכ֣וּרְךָ֔ אֶל־פְּנֵ֖י הָֽאָדֹ֥ן | יְהֹוָֽה:
Three times, etc.: Since the context deals with the seventh year, it was necessary to say that the three pilgrimage festivals would not be uprooted from their place. -[From Mechilta]   שלש פעמים וגו': לפי שהענין מדבר בשביעית הוצרך לומר שלא יסתרסו רגלים ממקומן:
all your males: Heb. כָּל-זְכוּרְ. All the males among you.   כל זכורך: הזכרים שבך:
18You shall not sacrifice the blood of My sacrifice with leaven, and the fat of My festive sacrifice shall not stay overnight until morning.   יחלֹֽא־תִזְבַּ֥ח עַל־חָמֵ֖ץ דַּם־זִבְחִ֑י וְלֹֽא־יָלִ֥ין חֵֽלֶב־חַגִּ֖י עַד־בֹּֽקֶר:
You shall not sacrifice the blood of My sacrifice with leaven: You shall not slaughter the Passover sacrifice on the fourteenth of Nissan until you have done away with the leaven. -[From Mechilta, Pes. 63a]   לא תזבח על חמץ וגו': לא תשחט את הפסח בי"ד בניסן עד שתבער החמץ:
and the fat of My festive sacrifice shall not stay overnight: off the altar. -[From Mechilta]   ולא ילין חלב חגי וגו': חוץ למזבח:
until morning: One may think that even on the altar pyre it would become disqualified. Therefore, the Torah states: “on its pyre on the altar all night” (Lev. 6:2).   עד בקר: יכול אף על המערכה יפסל בלינה, תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ו ב) על מוקדה על המזבח כל הלילה:
shall not stay overnight: Only at dawn is it considered [as if the fat of the sacrifice had been] staying overnight, as it is said: “until morning,” but all night he may pick it [the fat] up from the floor [and return it] onto the altar. -[From Zev. 87a]   ולא ילין: אין לינה אלא בעמוד השחר שנאמר עד בקר, אבל כל הלילה יכול להעלותו מן הרצפה למזבח:
19The choicest of the first fruits of your soil you shall bring to the house of the Lord, your God. You shall not cook a kid in its mother's milk.   יטרֵאשִׁ֗ית בִּכּוּרֵי֙ אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ תָּבִ֕יא בֵּ֖ית יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁ֥ל גְּדִ֖י בַּֽחֲלֵ֥ב אִמּֽוֹ:
The choicest of the first fruits of your soil: Even in the seventh year, the offering of bikkurim is obligatory. Therefore, it is stated here, too: “the first fruits of your soil.” How are the bikkurim chosen? A person enters his field and sees a fig that has ripened. He winds a blade of grass around it as a sign and sanctifies it. Bikkurim are [brought as an offering] only from the seven species enumerated in Scripture: “A land of wheat and barley, and vines and figs and pomegranates, a land of oil-yielding olives and honey” (Deut. 8:8). -[From Bik. 3:1]   ראשית בכורי אדמתך: אף השביעית חייבת בבכורים, לכך נאמר אף כאן בכורי אדמתך. כיצד, אדם נכנס לתוך שדהו, ורואה תאנה שבכרה, כורך עליה גמי לסימן ומקדישה. ואין בכורים אלא משבעת המינין האמורין במקרא (דברים ח ח) ארץ חטה ושעורה וגו':
You shall not cook a kid: Heb. גְּדִי. A calf and a lamb are also included in [the term] גְּדִי, for גְּדִי is only an expression of a tender young animal. [This you know] from what you find in many places in the Torah where גְּדִי is written, and it was necessary to write after it עִזִים [to qualify it as a kid], for example, “I will send you a kid גְּדִי עִזִים ” (Gen. 38:17); “the kid גְּדִי הָעִזִים ” (Gen. 38:20); “two kids עִזִים גְּדָיֵי ” (Gen. 27:9); to teach you that wherever גְּדִי is mentioned unqualified, it also means a calf and a lamb. This [prohibition] is written in three places in the Torah, one for the prohibition of eating [meat with milk], one for the prohibition of deriving any benefit [from meat with milk], and one for the prohibition of cooking [meat with milk]. -[From Chul. 113b, 115b]   לא תבשל גדי: אף עגל וכבש בכלל גדי, שאין גדי אלא לשון ולד רך, ממה שאתה מוצא בכמה מקומות בתורה שכתוב גדי, והוצרך לפרש אחריו עזים, כגון (בראשית לח יז) אנכי אשלח גדי עזים, (שם שם כ) את גדי העזים, (שם כז ט) שני גדיי עזים, ללמדך, שכל מקום שנאמר גדי סתם, אף עגל וכבש במשמע. ובשלושה מקומות נכתב בתורה אחד לאיסור אכילה, ואחד לאיסור הנאה, ואחד לאיסור בישול:

Sixth Portion

Exodus Chapter 23

20Behold, I am sending an angel before you to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared.   כהִנֵּ֨ה אָֽנֹכִ֜י שֹׁלֵ֤חַ מַלְאָךְ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמָרְךָ֖ בַּדָּ֑רֶךְ וְלַֽהֲבִ֣יאֲךָ֔ אֶל־הַמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֲכִנֹֽתִי:
Behold, I am sending an angel before you: Here they were informed that they were destined to sin, and the Shechinah would say to them, “for I will not ascend in your midst” (Exod. 33: 3). -[From Exod. Rabbah 32:3]   הנה אנכי שולח מלאך: כאן נתבשרו שעתידין לחטוא, ושכינה אומרת להם (שמות לג ג) כי לא אעלה בקרבך:
that I have prepared: to give to you. This is its simple meaning. Its midrashic interpretation is: "That I have prepared": My place is already recognizable opposite it. This is one of the verses that state that the heavenly Temple is directly opposite the earthly Temple. [From Midrash Tanchuma 18]   אשר הכינותי: אשר זמנתי לתת לכם, זהו פשוטו ומדרשו אל המקום אשר הכינותי כבר מקומי ניכר כנגדו, וזה אחד מן המקראות שאומרים, שבית המקדש של מעלה מכוון כנגד בית המקדש של מטה:
21Beware of him and obey him; do not rebel against him, for he will not forgive your transgression, for My Name is within him.   כאהִשָּׁ֧מֶר מִפָּנָ֛יו וּשְׁמַ֥ע בְּקֹל֖וֹ אַל־תַּמֵּ֣ר בּ֑וֹ כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יִשָּׂא֙ לְפִשְׁעֲכֶ֔ם כִּ֥י שְׁמִ֖י בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ:
do not rebel against him: Heb. ךְתַּמֵּר, an expression of rebellion הַמְרָאָה, like “Any man who rebels (יַמְרֶה) against your orders” (Josh. 1:18).   אל תמר בו: לשון המראה, כמו (יהושע א יח) אשר ימרה את פיך:
for he will not forgive your transgression: He is not accustomed to that [i.e., forgiving], for he is of the group that do not sin. And moreover, he is a messenger, and he can do only his mission. -[From Midrash Tanchuma 18]   כי לא ישא לפשעכם: אינו מלומד בכך, שהוא מן הכת שאין חוטאין, ועוד שהוא שליח ואינו עושה אלא שליחותו:
for My Name is within him: [This clause] is connected to the beginning of the verse: Beware of him because My Name is associated with him. Our Sages, however, said: This is [the angel] Metatron, whose name is like the name of his Master (Sanh. 38b). The numerical value of מֵטַטְרוֹן [314] equals that of שַׁדַּי [314]. -[From Tikunei Zohar 66b]   כי שמי בקרבו: מחובר לראש המקרא, השמר מפניו כי שמי משותף בו, ורבותינו אמרו זה מטטרו"ן ששמו כשם רבו. מטטרו"ן בגימטריא שדי:
22For if you hearken to his voice and do all that I say, I will hate your enemies and oppress your adversaries.   כבכִּ֣י אִם־שָׁמ֤וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע֙ בְּקֹל֔וֹ וְעָשִׂ֕יתָ כֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲדַבֵּ֑ר וְאָֽיַבְתִּי֙ אֶת־אֹ֣יְבֶ֔יךָ וְצַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־צֹֽרְרֶֽיךָ:
and oppress: Heb. וְצַרְךְתִּי, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וְאָעֵיק, and I will cause distress.   וצרתי: כתרגומו ואעיק:
23For My angel will go before you, and bring you to the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Canaanites, the Hivvites, and the Jebusites, and I will destroy them.   כגכִּֽי־יֵלֵ֣ךְ מַלְאָכִי֘ לְפָנֶ֒יךָ֒ וֶֽהֱבִֽיאֲךָ֗ אֶל־הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַ֣חִתִּ֔י וְהַפְּרִזִּי֙ וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֔י הַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִ֑י וְהִכְחַדְתִּֽיו:
24You shall not prostrate yourself before their gods, and you shall not worship them, and you shall not follow their practices, but you shall tear them down and you shall utterly shatter their monuments.   כדלֹֽא־תִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶ֤ה לֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶם֙ וְלֹ֣א תָֽעָבְדֵ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂיהֶ֑ם כִּ֤י הָרֵס֙ תְּהָ֣רְסֵ֔ם וְשַׁבֵּ֥ר תְּשַׁבֵּ֖ר מַצֵּבֹֽתֵיהֶֽם:
but you shall tear them down: Those gods.   הרס תהרסם: לאותם אלהות:
their monuments: Heb. מַצֵּבֹתֵיהֶם. Stones they erect (מַצִּיבִין) upon which to prostate themselves before them [idols].   מצבותיהם: אבנים שהם מציבין להשתחוות להם:
25And you shall worship the Lord, your God, and He will bless your food and your drink, and I will remove illness from your midst.   כהוַֽעֲבַדְתֶּ֗ם אֵ֚ת יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וּבֵרַ֥ךְ אֶת־לַחְמְךָ֖ וְאֶת־מֵימֶ֑יךָ וַֽהֲסִֽרֹתִ֥י מַֽחֲלָ֖ה מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:

Seventh Portion

Exodus Chapter 23

26There will be no bereaved or barren woman in your land; I will fill the number of your days.   כולֹ֥א תִֽהְיֶ֛ה מְשַׁכֵּלָ֥ה וַֽעֲקָרָ֖ה בְּאַרְצֶ֑ךָ אֶת־מִסְפַּ֥ר יָמֶ֖יךָ אֲמַלֵּֽא:
There will be no bereaved… woman: if you comply with My will.   לא תהיה משכלה: אם תעשה רצוני:
bereaved… woman: Heb. מְשַׁכֵּלָה. [A woman who] miscarries or buries her children is called מְשַׁכֵּלָה.   משכלה: מפלת נפלים או קוברת את בניה, קרויה משכלה:
27I will send My fear before you, and I will confuse all the people among whom you shall come, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you.   כזאֶת־אֵֽימָתִי֙ אֲשַׁלַּ֣ח לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְהַמֹּתִי֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּבֹ֖א בָּהֶ֑ם וְנָֽתַתִּ֧י אֶת־כָּל־אֹֽיְבֶ֛יךָ אֵלֶ֖יךָ עֹֽרֶף:
and I will confuse: Heb. וְהַמֹּתִי, like הָמַמְךְתִּי (I will confound), and its Aramaic translation is וֶאשַׁגֵּשׁ. Likewise, any word whose verb root has the last letter doubled, when it is converted to speak in the פָעַלְךְתִּי form [i.e., the first person past tense], in some instances the doubled letter is dropped [i.e., the third letter of the root], and a “dagesh” is placed into the [second] letter, and it is vowelized with a “melupum” [a “cholam”], like וְהַמֹּתִי [in this verse is] from the same root as in “and the wheel of his wagon shall be confused (וְהָמַם) ” (Isa. 28:28); “And I turned about (וְסַבּוֹתִי) ” (Eccl. 2:20), [which is] from the same root as “and go around (וְסָבַב) ” (I Sam. 7:16); “I was poor (דַּלוֹתִי)” (Ps. 116:6), from the same root as “became impoverished (דָלְלוּ)” (Isa. 19:6); “have I engraved you (חַקֹתִי) ” (Isa. 49:16), from the same root as “resolves of (חִקְקֵי) heart” (Jud. 5:15); “whom did I oppress (רַצֹּתִי)” (I Sam. 12:3), from the same root as “When he oppressed רִצַץ, he abandoned the poor” (Job 20:19). The one who translates וְהַמֹּתִי as וְאֶקְטַל, “and I will kill,” is in error, because if this was from the same root as מִיתָה, death, the “hey” of this word would not be vowelized with a “pattach,” and the “mem” would not be punctuated with a “dagesh” and not be vowelized with a “melupum,” rather וְהֵמַךְתִּי (with a “tzeirei,” ) like “and You will kill (וְהֵמַךְתָּה) this nation” (Num. 14:15), and the “tav” would be punctuated with a “dagesh,” because it would represent two “tav” s, one a root letter (מוּת) and one [“tav”] a suffix, like “I said, (אָמַרְךְתִּי) ” “I sinned (חָטָאתִי),” “I did (עָשִׂיתִי),” and so, in “and I will give (וְנָתַךְתִּי),” the “tav” is punctuated with a “dagesh,” because it comes instead of two [“tav” s], because there should have been three “tav” s, two of the root, like “on the day the Lord delivered up (ךְתֵּת) ” (Josh. 10:12), “it is a gift of (מַךְתַּת) God” (Eccl. 3:13), and the third [“tav”] as a suffix.   והמתי: כמו והממתי ותרגומו ואשגש. וכן כל תיבה שפועל שלה בכפל האות האחרונה, כשתהפוך לדבר בלשון פעלתי, יש מקומות שנוטל אות הכפולה ומדגיש את האות ונוקדו במלאפום, כגון והמותי, מגזרת (ישעיה כח כח) והמם גלגל עגלתו, (קהלת ב כ) וסבותי, מגזרת (שמואל א' ז טז) וסבב בית אל, (תהלים קטז ו) דלותי, מגזרת (ישעיה יט ו) דללו וחרבו, (שם מט טז) על כפים חקותיך, מגזרת (שופטים ה טו) חקקי לב, (שמואל א' יב ג) את מי רצותי, מגזרת (איוב כ יט) רצץ עזב דלים. והמתרגם והמותי ואיקטל, טועה הוא, שאלו מגזרת מיתה היה, אין ה"א שלה בפת"ח, ולא מ"ם שלו מודגשת, ולא נקודה מלאפום, אלא והמתי, כגון (במדבר יד טו) והמתה את העם הזה, והתי"ו מודגשת, לפי שתבא במקום ב' תוי"ן, האחת נשרשת, לפי שאין מיתה בלא ת"ו, והאחרת משמשת, כמו אמרתי, חטאתי, עשיתי, וכן ונתתי, הת"ו מודגשת, שהיא באה במקום שתים, לפי שהיה צריך שלש תוי"ן, שתים ליסוד, כמו (יהושע י יב) ביום תת ה', (קהלת ג יג) מתת א-להים היא, והשלישית לשמוש:
their backs: That they will flee from before you and turn their backs to you.   ערף: שינוסו מפניך ויהפכו לך ערפם:
28And I will send the tzir'ah before you, and it will drive out the Hivvites, the Canaanites, and the Hittites from before you.   כחוְשָׁלַֽחְתִּ֥י אֶת־הַצִּרְעָ֖ה לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וְגֵֽרְשָׁ֗ה אֶת־הַֽחִוִּ֧י אֶת־הַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֛י וְאֶת־הַֽחִתִּ֖י מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ:
the tzir’ah: [This was] a kind of flying insect, which would strike them [people] in their eyes, inject venom into them, and they would die (Tanchuma 18). The tzir’ah did not cross the Jordan, and the Hittites and the Canaanites are [those of] the land of Sihon and Og. Therefore, out of all the seven nations [the Torah] did not count [any] but these. As for the Hivvites, although they were on the other side of the Jordan, in tractate Sotah (36a) our Rabbis taught: It stood on the bank of the Jordan and cast venom upon them.   הצרעה: מין שרץ העוף, והיתה מכה אותם בעיניהם ומטילה בהם ארס והם מתים, והצרעה לא עברה את הירדן, והחתי והכנעני הם ארץ סיחון ועוג, לפיכך מכל שבע אומות לא מנה כאן אלא אלו. וחוי אף על פי שהוא מעבר הירדן והלאה, שנו רבותינו במסכת סוטה (סוטה לו א) על שפת הירדן עמדה וזרקה בהם מרה:
29I will not drive them away from before you in one year, lest the land become desolate and the beasts of the field outnumber you.   כטלֹ֧א אֲגָֽרְשֶׁ֛נּוּ מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ בְּשָׁנָ֣ה אֶחָ֑ת פֶּן־תִּֽהְיֶ֤ה הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה וְרַבָּ֥ה עָלֶ֖יךָ חַיַּ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶֽה:
desolate: Empty of human beings, since you are few and there are not enough of you to fill it [the land].   שממה: ריקנית מבני אדם, לפי שאתם מעט ואין בכם כדי למלאות אותה:
and… outnumber you: Heb. וְרַבָּה, and will outnumber you. [The word וְרַבָּה is not an adjective, but a verb in the past tense. The “vav” converts it to the future.]   ורבה עליך: ותרבה עליך:
30I will drive them out from before you little by little, until you have increased and can occupy the land.   למְעַ֥ט מְעַ֛ט אֲגָֽרְשֶׁ֖נּוּ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ עַ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּפְרֶ֔ה וְנָֽחַלְתָּ֖ אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
until you have increased: Heb. ךְתִּפְרֶה. You will increase, an expression of fruit, similar to “Be fruitful (פְּרוּ) and multiply” (Gen. 1:28).   עד אשר תפרה: תרבה, לשון פרי, כמו פרו ורבו:
31And I will make your boundary from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert to the river, for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hands, and you shall drive them out from before you.   לאוְשַׁתִּ֣י אֶת־גְּבֻֽלְךָ֗ מִיַּם־סוּף֙ וְעַד־יָ֣ם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וּמִמִּדְבָּ֖ר עַד־הַנָּהָ֑ר כִּ֣י | אֶתֵּ֣ן בְּיֶדְכֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת יֽשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ וְגֵֽרַשְׁתָּ֖מוֹ מִפָּנֶֽיךָ:
And I will make: Heb. וְשַׁךְתִּי, an expression of הִשָׁתָה, [meaning] placing. The “tav” is punctuated with a “dagesh” because it represents two “tav” s, since there is no [expression of] placing [or making, שִׁיתָה] without a “tav,” and the second one is [needed] for a suffix.   ושתי: לשון השתה, והת"ו מודגשת מפני שבאה תחת שתים, שאין שיתה בלא ת"ו, והאחת לשמוש:
to the river: [Meaning] the Euphrates. — [from targumim]   עד הנהר: פרת:
and you shall drive them out: Heb. וְגֵרַשְׁךְתָּמוֹ, [the equivalent of] וּתְגָרְשֵׁם, and you shall drive them out.   וגרשתמו: ותגרשם:
32You shall not form a covenant for them or for their gods.   לבלֹֽא־תִכְרֹ֥ת לָהֶ֛ם וְלֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶ֖ם בְּרִֽית:
33They shall not dwell in your land, lest they cause you to sin against Me, that you will worship their gods, which will be a snare for you.   לגלֹ֤א יֵֽשְׁבוּ֙ בְּאַרְצְךָ֔ פֶּן־יַֽחֲטִ֥יאוּ אֹֽתְךָ֖ לִ֑י כִּ֤י תַֽעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ לְמוֹקֵֽשׁ:
that you will worship, etc.: Heb. תַעִבֹד וְגוֹ כִּי-יִהְיֶה וְגוֹ כִּי. These [instances of] כִּי are used instead of אִשֶׁר [i.e.,] that, and so it is in many places. This is [similar to] the usage of אִי, if, which is one of the four expressions for which כִּי is used (Rosh Hashanah 3a). We also find אִם used as an expression of כַּאִשֶׁר, when, in many places, such as “And when (וְאִם) you offer up an offering of first fruits (Lev. 2:14), which is obligatory [and not optional].   כי תעבד כי יהיה לך למקש: הרי אלו כי משמשין במקום אשר, וכן בכמה מקומות, וזהו לשון אי, שהוא אחד מארבע לשונות שהכי משמש. וגם מצינו בהרבה מקומות אם משמש בלשון אשר, כמו (ויקרא ב יד) ואם תקריב מנחת בכורים, שהיא חובה:

Exodus Chapter 24

1And to Moses He said, "Come up to the Lord, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, and prostrate yourselves from afar.   אוְאֶל־משֶׁ֨ה אָמַ֜ר עֲלֵ֣ה אֶל־יְהֹוָ֗ה אַתָּה֙ וְאַֽהֲרֹן֙ נָדָ֣ב וַֽאֲבִיה֔וּא וְשִׁבְעִ֖ים מִזִּקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוִיתֶ֖ם מֵֽרָחֹֽק:
And to Moses He said, “Come up…: ” This section was [actually] said before the Ten Commandments [were given] (Mechilta 19:10). On the fourth of Sivan, “Come up” was said to him [Moses]. [Midrash Lekach Tov, based on Mechilta and Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai on Exod. 19:10, Shab. 88a] See also Midrash Hagadol on this.   ואל משה אמר עלה: פרשה זו נאמרה קודם עשרת הדברות, ובארבעה בסיון נאמר לו עלה:
2And Moses alone shall approach the Lord but they shall not approach, and the people shall not ascend with him."   בוְנִגַּ֨שׁ משֶׁ֤ה לְבַדּוֹ֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְהֵ֖ם לֹ֣א יִגָּ֑שׁוּ וְהָעָ֕ם לֹ֥א יַֽעֲל֖וּ עִמּֽוֹ:
And Moses alone shall approach: to the opaque darkness. -[Midrash Lekach Tov]   ונגש משה לבדו: אל הערפל:
3So Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord and all the ordinances, and all the people answered in unison and said, "All the words that the Lord has spoken we will do."   גוַיָּבֹ֣א משֶׁ֗ה וַיְסַפֵּ֤ר לָעָם֙ אֵ֚ת כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וְאֵ֖ת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֑ים וַיַּ֨עַן כָּל־הָעָ֜ם ק֤וֹל אֶחָד֙ וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה נַֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
So Moses came and told the people: on that day.   ויבא משה ויספר לעם: בו ביום:
all the words of the Lord: The commandments of separation [of the men from the women] and setting boundaries [around the mountain so that people would not cross].   את כל דברי ה': מצות פרישה והגבלה:
and all the ordinances: The seven commandments that the Noachides were commanded [to observe], in addition to [keeping] the Sabbath, honoring one’s father and mother, [the laws of] the red cow, and laws of jurisprudence, which were given to them in Marah. -[Mechilta on Exod. 19:10, Sanh. 56b] [Since this was before the giving of the Torah, there were only these commandments and ordinances.]   ואת כל המשפטים: שבע מצות שנצטוו בני נח. ושבת וכבוד אב ואם ופרה אדומה ודינין שניתנו להם במרה:
4And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord, and he arose early in the morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and twelve monuments for the twelve tribes of Israel.   דוַיִּכְתֹּ֣ב משֶׁ֗ה אֵ֚ת כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֣ם בַּבֹּ֔קֶר וַיִּ֥בֶן מִזְבֵּ֖חַ תַּ֣חַת הָהָ֑ר וּשְׁתֵּ֤ים עֶשְׂרֵה֙ מַצֵּבָ֔ה לִשְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ר שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And Moses wrote: [the Torah’s text] from “In the beginning” (Gen 1:1), until the giving of the Torah. He [also] wrote the commandments that they were commanded in Marah. [Again, since all this took place before the giving of the Torah, Moses could write only up to that point.]   ויכתב משה: מבראשית ועד מתן תורה, וכתב מצות שנצטוו במרה:
and he arose early in the morning: on the fifth of Sivan. -[From Mechilta on Exod. 19: 10, Shab. 88a]   וישכם בבקר: בחמשה בסיון:
5And he sent the youths of the children of Israel, and they offered up burnt offerings, and they slaughtered peace offerings to the Lord, bulls.   הוַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח אֶת־נַֽעֲרֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּֽעֲל֖וּ עֹלֹ֑ת וַיִּזְבְּח֞וּ זְבָחִ֧ים שְׁלָמִ֛ים לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה פָּרִֽים:
the youths: Heb. נַעִרֵי, the firstborn. -[From targumim, Zev. 115b, Num. Rabbah 4:8]   את נערי: הבכורות:
6And Moses took half the blood and put it into the basins, and half the blood he cast onto the altar.   ווַיִּקַּ֤ח משֶׁה֙ חֲצִ֣י הַדָּ֔ם וַיָּ֖שֶׂם בָּֽאַגָּנֹ֑ת וַֽחֲצִ֣י הַדָּ֔ם זָרַ֖ק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
And Moses took half the blood: Who [first] divided it [exactly in half]? An angel came and divided it. -[From Lev. Rabbah 6:5]   ויקח משה חצי הדם: מי חלקו, מלאך בא וחלקו:
in the basins: Two basins, one for half the blood of the burnt offering and one for half the blood of the peace offering, [in order] to sprinkle them on the people. From here our Sages learned that our ancestors entered the covenant with circumcision, immersion [in a mikvah], and the sprinkling of the blood [of the sacrifice on the altar], for there is no sprinkling [of blood on a person] without immersion [preceding it]. -[From Yev. 46b, Kreis. 9b]   באגנות: שני אגנות אחד לחצי דם עולה ואחד לחצי דם שלמים להזות אותם על העם. ומכאן למדו רבותינו שנכנסו אבותינו לברית במילה וטבילה והרצאת דמים שאין הזאה בלא טבילה:
7And he took the Book of the Covenant and read it within the hearing of the people, and they said, "All that the Lord spoke we will do and we will hear."   זוַיִּקַּח֙ סֵ֣פֶר הַבְּרִ֔ית וַיִּקְרָ֖א בְּאָזְנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה נַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה וְנִשְׁמָֽע:
the Book of the Covenant: from “In the beginning” (Gen 1:1) until the giving of the Torah, and he [also wrote] the commandments that they were commanded in Marah. -[From Mechilta, Exod. 19: 10]   ספר הברית: מבראשית ועד מתן תורה ומצות שנצטוו במרה:
8And Moses took the blood and sprinkled [it] on the people, and he said, "Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord has formed with you concerning these words."   חוַיִּקַּ֤ח משֶׁה֙ אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וַיִּזְרֹ֖ק עַל־הָעָ֑ם וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּ֤ה דַם־הַבְּרִית֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר כָּרַ֤ת יְהֹוָה֙ עִמָּכֶ֔ם עַ֥ל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
and sprinkled [it]: Heb. וַיִזְרֹק, an expression of sprinkling, and the Targum renders: and sprinkled it on the altar to atone for the people.   ויזרק: ענין הזאה, ותרגומו וזרק על מדבחא לכפרא על עמא:
9And Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel ascended,   טוַיַּ֥עַל משֶׁ֖ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֑ן נָדָב֙ וַֽאֲבִיה֔וּא וְשִׁבְעִ֖ים מִזִּקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
10and they perceived the God of Israel, and beneath His feet was like the forming of a sapphire brick and like the appearance of the heavens for clarity.   יוַיִּרְא֕וּ אֵ֖ת אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְתַ֣חַת רַגְלָ֗יו כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂה֙ לִבְנַ֣ת הַסַּפִּ֔יר וּכְעֶ֥צֶם הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם לָטֹֽהַר:
and they perceived the God of Israel: They gazed and peered and [because of this] were doomed to die, but the Holy One, blessed is He, did not want to disturb the rejoicing of [this moment of the giving of] the Torah. So He waited for Nadab and Abihu [i.e., to kill them,] until the day of the dedication of the Mishkan, and for [destroying] the elders until [the following incident:] “And the people were as if seeking complaints… and a fire of the Lord broke out against them and devoured at the edge (בִּקְצֵה) of the camp” (Num. 11:1). [בִקְצֵה denotes] the officers (בִקְצִינִים) of the camp [i.e., the elders]. -[From Midrash Tanchuma Beha’alothecha 16]   ויראו את אלהי ישראל: נסתכלו והציצו ונתחייבו מיתה, אלא שלא רצה הקב"ה לערבב שמחת התורה, והמתין לנדב ואביהוא עד יום חנוכת המשכן, ולזקנים עד, (במדבר יא א) ויהי העם כמתאוננים וגו' ותבער בם אש ה' ותאכל בקצה המחנה, בקצינים שבמחנה:
like the forming of a sapphire brick: that was before Him at the time of the bondage, to remember Israel’s straits [i.e.,] that they were enslaved in the making of bricks. -[From Lev. Rabbah 23:8]   כמעשה לבנת הספיר: היא היתה לפניו בשעת השעבוד לזכור צרתן של ישראל, שהיו משועבדים במעשה לבנים:
and like the appearance of the heavens for clarity: Since they were [finally] redeemed, there was light and joy before Him. -[From Lev. Rabbah 23:8]   וכעצם השמים לטהר: משנגאלו היה אור וחדוה לפניו:
and like the appearance: Heb. וּכְעֶצֶם, as the Targum (Onkelos) renders וּכְמֶחֱזֵי : an expression meaning appearance.   וכעצם: כתרגומו, לשון מראה:
for clarity: Heb. לָטֹהַר, an expression meaning clear and unclouded. -[From Lev. Rabbah 23:8] I.e., during the bondage of the Israelites, the sapphire brick clouded the heavens, but after the Exodus, the heavens became clear and not a cloud was in sight. -[Lev. Rabbah 23:8]   לטהר: לשון ברור וצלול:
11And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He did not lay His hand, and they perceived God, and they ate and drank.   יאוְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א שָׁלַ֖ח יָד֑וֹ וַיֶּֽחֱזוּ֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיֹּֽאכְל֖וּ וַיִּשְׁתּֽוּ:
And upon the nobles: They are Nadab and Abihu and the elders. -[From Midrash Tanchuma Beha’alothecha 16]   ואל אצילי: הם נדב ואביהוא והזקנים:
He did not lay His hand: This indicates that they deserved that a hand be laid upon them.   לא שלח ידו: מכלל שהיו ראוים להשתלח בהם יד:
and they perceived God: They gazed at Him with levity, while [they were] eating and drinking. So is the [interpretation of] Midrash Tanchuma (Beha’alothecha 16). Onkelos, however, did not render [this clause] in this manner. אִצִילֵי means great ones, like [in the phrases:] “and from its nobles (וּמֵאִצִילֶיהָ) I called you” (Isa. 41:9); “and He magnified (וַיָּאצֶל) some of the spirit” (Num. 11:25); “six large cubits (אַצִּילָה) ” (Ezek. 41:8).   ויחזו את הא-להים: היו מסתכלין בו בלב גס מתוך אכילה ושתיה, כך מדרש תנחומא. ואונקלוס לא תרגם כן. אצילי לשון גדולים, כמו (ישעיה מא ט) ומאציליה קראתיך, (במדבר יא כה) ויאצל מן הרוח, (יחזקאל מא ח) שש אמות אצילה:
12And the Lord said to Moses, "Come up to Me to the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the stone tablets, the Law and the commandments, which I have written to instruct them."   יבוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה עֲלֵ֥ה אֵלַ֛י הָהָ֖רָה וֶֽהְיֵה־שָׁ֑ם וְאֶתְּנָ֨ה לְךָ֜ אֶת־לֻחֹ֣ת הָאֶ֗בֶן וְהַתּוֹרָה֙ וְהַמִּצְוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּתַ֖בְתִּי לְהֽוֹרֹתָֽם:
And the Lord said to Moses: After the giving of the Torah.   ויאמר ה' אל משה: לאחר מתן תורה:
Come up to Me to the mountain and remain there: for forty days.   עלה אלי ההרה והיה שם: ארבעים יום:
the stone tablets, the Law and the commandments, which I have written to instruct them: All 613 mitzvoth are included in the Ten Commandments. In the “Azharoth” that he composed for each commandment [of the Ten], Rabbenu Saadiah [Goan] explained the mitzvoth dependent upon it [each commandment]. [from Jonathan, Num. Rabbah 13:16]   את לחת האבן והתורה והמצוה אשר כתבתי להורתם: כל שש מאות ושלש עשרה מצות בכלל עשרת הדברות הן, ורבינו סעדיה פירש באזהרות שיסד לכל דבור ודבור מצות התלויות בו:
13So Moses and Joshua, his servant, arose, and Moses ascended to the mount of God.   יגוַיָּ֣קָם משֶׁ֔ה וִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ מְשָֽׁרְת֑וֹ וַיַּ֥עַל משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־הַ֥ר הָֽאֱלֹהִֽים:
So Moses and Joshua, his servant, arose: I do not know what business Joshua had here, but I would say that the disciple [Joshua] escorted his mentor [Moses] until the place of the limits of the boundaries of the mountain, for he was not permitted to go past that point. From there Moses alone ascended to the mountain of God. Joshua pitched his tent and waited there for forty days. So we find that when Moses descended, “Joshua heard the voice of the people as they shouted” (Exod. 32:17). We learn [from there] that Joshua was not with them.   ויקם משה ויהושע משרתו: לא ידעתי מה טיבו של יהושע כאן. ואומר אני, שהיה התלמיד מלוה לרב עד מקום הגבלת תחומי ההר, שאינו רשאי לילך משם והלאה, ומשם ויעל משה לבדו אל הר הא-להים, ויהושע נטה שם אהלו ונתעכב שם כל ארבעים יום, שכן מצינו, כשירד משה (לקמן לב יז) וישמע יהושע את קול העם ברעה, למדנו שלא היה יהושע עמהם:
14And to the elders he said, "Wait for us here until we return to you, and here Aaron and Hur are with you; whoever has a case, let him go to them."   ידוְאֶל־הַזְּקֵנִ֤ים אָמַר֙ שְׁבוּ־לָ֣נוּ בָזֶ֔ה עַ֥ד אֲשֶׁר־נָשׁ֖וּב אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וְהִנֵּ֨ה אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וְחוּר֙ עִמָּכֶ֔ם מִי־בַ֥עַל דְּבָרִ֖ים יִגַּ֥שׁ אֲלֵהֶֽם:
And to the elders he said: upon his departure from the camp.   ואל הזקנים אמר: בצאתו מן המחנה:
Wait for us here: Wait here with the rest of the people in the camp [so that you will] be ready to judge each person’s quarrel.   שבו לנו בזה: והתעכבו כאן עם שאר העם במחנה להיות נכונים לשפוט לכל איש ריבו:
Hur: He was Miriam’s son, and his father was Caleb the son of Jephunneh, as it is said: “and Caleb took to himself Ephrath, and she bore to him Hur” (I Chron. 2:19). Ephrath was Miriam, as is stated in Sotah (11b).   חור: בנה של מרים היה, ואביו כלב בן יפנה, שנאמר (דברי הימים א' ב יט) ויקח לו כלב את אפרת ותלד לו את חור. אפרת זו מרים, כדאיתא בסוטה (יא ב):
whoever has a case: lit., whoever is a master of words, whoever has litigation. -[From targumim]   מי בעל דברים: מי שיש לו דין:
15And Moses went up to the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain.   טווַיַּ֥עַל משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־הָהָ֑ר וַיְכַ֥ס הֶֽעָנָ֖ן אֶת־הָהָֽר:
16And the glory of the Lord rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days, and He called to Moses on the seventh day from within the cloud.   טזוַיִּשְׁכֹּ֤ן כְּבֽוֹד־יְהֹוָה֙ עַל־הַ֣ר סִינַ֔י וַיְכַסֵּ֥הוּ הֶֽעָנָ֖ן שֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים וַיִּקְרָ֧א אֶל־משֶׁ֛ה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י מִתּ֥וֹךְ הֶֽעָנָֽן:
and the cloud covered it: Our Sages disagree on the matter. Some say that these are the six days from the New Moon [until Shavuoth, the day of the giving of the Torah -(old Rashi)].   ויכסהו הענן: רבותינו חולקין בדבר. יש מהם אומרים אלו ששה ימים שמראש חודש עד עצרת יום מתן תורה:
and the cloud covered it: The mountain.   ויכסהו הענן: להר:
and He called to Moses on the seventh day: to say the Ten Commandments, and [in fact] Moses and all Israel were standing [and listening to the Ten Commandments], but the text bestowed honor upon Moses [by mentioning only him]. Others say that the cloud covered Moses for six days after the Ten Commandments [were given], and they [these days] were at the beginning of the forty days that Moses ascended to receive the tablets (Yoma 4a). It teaches you that whoever enters the camp of the Shechinah requires six days separation [seclusion from society] (Yoma 3b).   ויקרא אל משה ביום השביעי: לומר עשרת הדברות, ומשה וכל בני ישראל עומדים, אלא שחלק הכתוב כבוד למשה, ויש אומרים ויכסהו הענן למשה ששה ימים לאחר עשרת הדברות, והם היו בתחלת ארבעים יום שעלה משה לקבל הלוחות, ולמדך, שכל הנכנס למחנה שכינה טעון פרישה ששה ימים:
17And the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a consuming fire atop the mountain, before the eyes of the children of Israel.   יזוּמַרְאֵה֙ כְּב֣וֹד יְהֹוָ֔ה כְּאֵ֥שׁ אֹכֶ֖לֶת בְּרֹ֣אשׁ הָהָ֑ר לְעֵינֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
18And Moses came within the cloud, and he went up to the mountain, and Moses was upon the mountain forty days and forty nights.   יחוַיָּבֹ֥א משֶׁ֛ה בְּת֥וֹךְ הֶֽעָנָ֖ן וַיַּ֣עַל אֶל־הָהָ֑ר וַיְהִ֤י משֶׁה֙ בָּהָ֔ר אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים לָֽיְלָה:
within the cloud: This cloud was a kind of smoke, and the Holy One, blessed is He, made a path (another version A canopy) within it. -[From Yoma 4b]   בתוך הענן: ענן זה כמין עשן הוא, ועשה לו הקב"ה למשה שביל [חופה] בתוכו:

Maftir Portion

Exodus Chapter 30

11The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   יאוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
12"When you take the sum of the children of Israel according to their numbers, let each one give to the Lord an atonement for his soul when they are counted; then there will be no plague among them when they are counted.   יבכִּ֣י תִשָּׂ֞א אֶת־רֹ֥אשׁ בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ לִפְקֻֽדֵיהֶם֒ וְנָ֨תְנ֜וּ אִ֣ישׁ כֹּ֧פֶר נַפְשׁ֛וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בִּפְקֹ֣ד אֹתָ֑ם וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בָהֶ֛ם נֶ֖גֶף בִּפְקֹ֥ד אֹתָֽם:
When you take: Heb. כִּי תִשָׂא. [This is] an expression of taking, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders. [I.e.,] when you wish to take the sum [total] of their numbers to know how many they are, do not count them by the head, but each one shall give a half-shekel, and you shall count the shekels. [Thereby] you will know their number.   כי תשא: לשון קבלה, כתרגומו, כשתחפוץ לקבל סכום מנינם לדעת כמה הם, אל תמנם לגלגולת, אלא יתנו כל אחד מחצית השקל ותמנה את השקלים ותדע מנינם:
then there will be no plague among them: for the evil eye has power over numbered things, and pestilence comes upon them, as we find in David’s time (II Sam. 24).   ולא יהיה בהם נגף: שהמנין שולט בו עין הרע והדבר בא עליהם, כמו שמצינו בימי דוד:
13This they shall give, everyone who goes through the counting: half a shekel according to the holy shekel. Twenty gerahs equal one shekel; half of [such] a shekel shall be an offering to the Lord.   יגזֶ֣ה | יִתְּנ֗וּ כָּל־הָֽעֹבֵר֙ עַל־הַפְּקֻדִ֔ים מַֽחֲצִ֥ית הַשֶּׁ֖קֶל בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֤ים גֵּרָה֙ הַשֶּׁ֔קֶל מַֽחֲצִ֣ית הַשֶּׁ֔קֶל תְּרוּמָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
This they shall give: He [God] showed him [Moses] a sort of coin of fire weighing half a shekel, and He said to him, “Like this one they shall give.” -[from Tanchuma 9; Tanchuma Buber, Naso p. 35; Pesikta d’Rav Kahana 19a; Midrash Psalms 91:1; Yerushalmi, Shekalim 1:4]   זה יתנו: הראה לו כמין מטבע של אש, ומשקלה מחצית השקל, ואומר לו כזה יתנו:
who goes through the counting: Heb. הָעֹבֵר עַל-הַפְקֻדִים. It is customary for those who count to pass the ones who have been counted one following another, and so [too the word יַעִבֹר in] “each one that passes under the rod” (Lev. 27:32), and so [the word תַּעִבֹרְנָה in] “flocks will again pass under the hands of one who counts them” (Jer. 33:13).   העבר על הפקודים: דרך המונין מעבירין את הנמנין זה אחר זה, וכן לשון (ויקרא כז לב) כל אשר יעבור תחת השבט, וכן (ירמיה לג יג) תעבורנה הצאן על ידי מונה:
half a shekel according to the holy shekel: By the weight of the shekel that I fixed for you [against which] to weigh the holy shekels, such as the shekels mentioned in the section dealing with personal evaluations (Lev. 27:1-8) and [in the section concerning] inherited fields (Lev. 27:16-21).   מחצית השקל בשקל הקודש: במשקל השקל שקצבתי לך לשקול בו שקלי הקדש, כגון שקלים האמורין בפרשת ערכין ושדה אחוזה:
Twenty gerahs equal one shekel: Now He explains to you how much it is.   עשרים גרה השקל: עכשיו פירש לך כמה הוא:
gerahs: Heb. גֵרָה, a word meaning a ma’ah [a small coin]. Likewise, “will come to prostrate himself before him for a silver piece (אִגוֹרַתכֶּסֶף) and a morsel of bread” (I Sam. 2:36).   גרה: לשון מעה, וכן בשמואל (בשמואל א' ב לו) יבוא להשתחות לו לאגורת כסף וככר לחם:
Twenty gerahs equal one shekel: for a whole shekel equals four zuzim, and the zuz was originally five ma’oth, but they came and added a sixth to it and raised it to six ma’oth of silver, and half of this shekel [of] which I have spoken to you [here in this verse], they shall give as an offering to the Lord.   עשרים גרה השקל: השקל השלם, שהשקל ארבעה זוזים, והזוז מתחלתו חמש מעות, אלא באו והוסיפו עליו שתות והעלוהו לשש מעה כסף, ומחצית השקל הזה, שאמרתי לך, יתנו תרומה לה':
14Everyone who goes through the counting, from the age of twenty and upward, shall give an offering to the Lord.   ידכֹּ֗ל הָֽעֹבֵר֙ עַל־הַפְּקֻדִ֔ים מִבֶּ֛ן עֶשְׂרִ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה וָמָ֑עְלָה יִתֵּ֖ן תְּרוּמַ֥ת יְהֹוָֽה:
from the age of twenty and upward: [The Torah] teaches you here that no one under twenty years old goes out [to serve] in the army or is counted among men.   מבן עשרים שנה ומעלה: למדך כאן, שאין פחות מבן עשרים יוצא לצבא ונמנה בכלל אנשים:
15The rich shall give no more, and the poor shall give no less than half a shekel, with which to give the offering to the Lord, to atone for your souls.   טוהֶֽעָשִׁ֣יר לֹֽא־יַרְבֶּ֗ה וְהַדַּל֙ לֹ֣א יַמְעִ֔יט מִמַּֽחֲצִ֖ית הַשָּׁ֑קֶל לָתֵת֙ אֶת־תְּרוּמַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶֽם:
to atone for your souls: That they should not be struck by a plague because of the counting. Another explanation:   לכפר על נפשתיכם: שלא תנגפו על ידי המנין. דבר אחר לכפר על נפשותיכם, לפי שרמז להם כאן שלש תרומות, שנכתב כאן תרומת ה' שלוש פעמים אחת תרומת א-דנים, שמנאן כשהתחילו בנדבת המשכן ונתנו כל אחד ואחד מחצית השקל, ועלה למאת ככר, שנאמר (שמות לח כה) וכסף פקודי העדה מאת ככר, ומהם נעשו הא-דנים, שנאמר (שמות לח כז) ויהי מאת ככר הכסף וגו'. והשנית אף היא על ידי מנין שמנאן, משהוקם המשכן, הוא המנין האמור בתחלת חומש הפקודים (במדבר א א) באחד לחדש השני בשנה השנית, ונתנו כל אחד מחצית השקל, והן לקנות מהן קרבנות צבור של כל שנה ושנה, והושוו בהם עניים ועשירים, ועל אותה תרומה נאמר לכפר על נפשותיכם, שהקרבנות לכפרה הם באים. והשלישית היא תרומת המשכן, כמו שנאמר (שמות לה כד) כל מרים תרומת כסף ונחשת, ולא היתה יד כולם שוה בה, אלא איש איש מה שנדבו לבו:
to atone for your souls: [This was written] because [God] hinted to them [the Israelites] here [about] three offerings, because “an offering to the Lord” is written here three times. The first [represents] the offering [of silver] for the sockets [of the Mishkan], for he [Moses] counted them when they commenced with the donations for the Mishkan. Everyone gave a half-shekel, amounting to one hundred talents, as it is said: “And the silver of the community census was one hundred talents” (Exod. 38:25). The sockets were made from this, as it is said: “One hundred talents of the silver was [used to cast the sockets of the Mishkan and the sockets of the dividing curtain]” (Exod. 38:27). The second [offering mentioned here] was also [collected] through counting, for he [Moses] counted them after the Mishkan was erected. This is the counting mentioned in the beginning of the Book of Numbers: “on the first of the second month in the second year” (Num. 1:1). [For this offering] everyone gave a half-shekel, [the total of] which was [earmarked] for the purchase of communal sacrifices for every year. The rich and poor were equal in them [i.e., they gave equally in these two offerings]. Concerning that [second] offering, it is said: “to atone for your souls,” because the sacrifices are brought for the purpose of atonement. The third one [offering] is the offering for the Mishkan, as it is said: “Whoever set aside an offering of silver or copper” (Exod. 35:24). In this [offering] not everyone gave the same amount, but each one [gave] according to what his heart inspired him to give. -[from Shekalim 2b]  
16You shall take the silver of the atonements from the children of Israel and use it for the work of the Tent of Meeting; it shall be a remembrance for the children of Israel before the Lord, to atone for your souls."   טזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֞ אֶת־כֶּ֣סֶף הַכִּפֻּרִ֗ים מֵאֵת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְנָֽתַתָּ֣ אֹת֔וֹ עַל־עֲבֹדַ֖ת אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְהָיָה֩ לִבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל לְזִכָּרוֹן֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶֽם:
and use it for the work of the Tent of Meeting: [From this] you learn that they were commanded to count them at the beginning of the donation for the Mishkan after the incident of the calf. [They were commanded then] because a plague had befallen them, as it is said: “And the Lord plagued the people” (Exod. 32:35). This can be compared to a flock of sheep, treasured by its owner, which was stricken with pestilence. When it [the pestilence] was over, he [the owner] said to the shepherd, “Please count my sheep to know how many are left,” in order to make it known that he treasured it [the flock] (Tanchuma, Ki Thissa 9). It is, however, impossible to say that this counting [mentioned here] was the [same] one mentioned in the Book of Numbers, for in that one [counting] it says: “on the first of the second month” (Num. 1:1), and the Mishkan was erected on the first [day] of the first month, as it is said: On the day of the first month, on the first of the month, you shall erect, etc. (Exod. 40:2). The sockets were made from shekels realized from that counting, as it is said: “One hundred talents of the silver were used to cast, etc.” (Exod. 38:27). Thus you learn that they [the countings] were two-one at the beginning of their donation [to the Mishkan] after Yom Kippur in the first year [after the Exodus], and one in the second year in Iyar after the Mishkan had been erected. Now if you ask, how is it possible that in both of these countings the Israelites equaled six hundred three thousand, five hundred fifty? In the case of the silver of the community census, it says this number, and also in the Book of Numbers it says the same: “And all the counted ones were six hundred three thousand, five hundred fifty” (Num. 1:46). Were they [the countings] not in two [separate] years? It is impossible that in the first census there were none who were nineteen years old and consequently not counted, and by the second counting became twenty years old [and were counted]. The answer to this matter is that in the context of the ages of people, they were counted in the same year, but in the context of the Exodus they [the two dates] were two [separate] years, since [to figure the time] from the Exodus, we count from [the month of] Nissan, as we learned in [tractate] Rosh Hashanah (2b). In this context, the Mishkan was built in the first year [after the Exodus] and erected in the second year, for the new year started on the first of Nissan. People’s ages, however, are counted according to the number of years of the world, beginning with [the month of] Tishri. Thus, the two countings were [taken] in the same year. The first counting was in Tishri after Yom Kippur, when the Omnipresent was placated toward Israel to forgive them, and they were commanded concerning [building] the Mishkan. The second one [counting] was on the first of Iyar. -[from Num. Rabbah 1:10]   ונתת אתו על עבודת אהל מועד: למדת שנצטוה למנותם בתחלת נדבת המשכן אחר מעשה העגל, מפני שנכנס בהם מגפה, כמו שנאמר (שמות לב לה) ויגוף ה' את העם. משל לצאן החביבה על בעליה, שנפל בה דבר, ומשפסק אמר לו לרועה בבקשה ממך, מנה את צאני ודע כמה נותרו בהם, להודיע שהיא חביבה עליו. ואי אפשר לומר, שהמנין הזה הוא האמור בחומש הפקודים, שהרי נאמר בו (במדבר א א) באחד לחדש השני, והמשכן הוקם באחד לחודש הראשון, שנאמר (שמות מ ב) ביום החודש הראשון באחד לחודש תקים וגו', ומהמנין הזה נעשו הא-דנים משקלים שלו, שנאמר (שמות לח כז) ויהי מאת ככר הכסף לצקת וגו', הא למדת שתים היו אחת בתחלת נדבתן אחר יום הכפורים בשנה ראשונה, ואחת בשנה שנייה באייר משהוקם המשכן. ואם תאמר, וכי אפשר שבשניהם היו ישראל שוים שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמישים, שהרי בכסף פקודי העדה נאמר כן, ובחומש הפקודים אף בו נאמר כן (במדבר א מו) ויהיו כל הפקודים שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים, והלא בשתי שנים היו, ואי אפשר שלא היו בשעת מנין הראשון בני תשע עשרה שנה שלא נמנו ובשנייה נעשו בני עשרים. תשובה לדבר, אצל שנות האנשים בשנה אחת נמנו, אבל למנין יציאת מצרים היו שתי שנים, לפי שליציאת מצרים מונין מניסן, כמו ששנינו במסכת ראש השנה (ב ב), ונבנה המשכן בראשונה והוקם בשנייה שנתחדשה שנה באחד בניסן, אבל שנות האנשים מנוין למנין שנות עולם המתחילין מתשרי, נמצאו שני המנינים בשנה אחת המנין הראשון היה בתשרי לאחר יום הכפורים, שנתרצה המקום לישראל לסלוח להם, ונצטוו על המשכן, והשני באחד באייר:
for the work of the Tent of Meeting: These are the sockets made from it [i.e., from the silver of the atonements].   על עבודת אהל מועד: הן הא-דנים שנעשו בו:


II Kings Chapter 11

17And Jehoiada enacted the covenant between the Lord and between the king and [between] the people, to be the people of the Lord, and between the king and between the people.   יזוַיִּכְרֹ֨ת יְהוֹיָדָ֜ע אֶֽת־הַבְּרִ֗ית בֵּ֚ין יְהֹוָה֙ וּבֵ֚ין הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וּבֵ֣ין הָעָ֔ם לִהְי֥וֹת לְעָ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וּבֵ֥ין הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וּבֵ֥ין הָעָֽם:
between the Lord and between the king and (between) the people: that the king and the people will follow the Lord, and afterwards he enacted a covenant between the king and between the people that they should be servants of the king.  
18And all the people of the land came to the temple of the Baal and tore it down, its altars and its images they smashed, and Mattan the priest of the Baal they slew before the altars; and the priest set up appointees over the house of the Lord.   יחוַיָּבֹ֣אוּ כָל־עָם֩ הָאָ֨רֶץ בֵּית־הַבַּ֜עַל וַֽיִּתְּצֻ֗הוּ אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָ֚יו (כתיב מִזְבְּחֹתָ֚ו) וְאֶת־צְלָמָיו֙ שִׁבְּר֣וּ הֵיטֵ֔ב וְאֵ֗ת מַתָּן֙ כֹּהֵ֣ן הַבַּ֔עַל הָרְג֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י הַֽמִּזְבְּח֑וֹת וַיָּ֧שֶׂם הַכֹּהֵ֛ן פְּקֻדֹּ֖ת עַל־בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
appointees: appointed to watch in the place of their watch according to their law, since Athaliah had abolished the order of the watches of the Temple.  
19And he took the officers of the hundreds and the mighty warriors and the couriers and all the people of the land, and they brought the king down from the house of the Lord, and they came by way of the gate of the couriers to the king's palace; and he sat on the throne of the kings.   יטוַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־שָׂרֵ֣י הַ֠מֵּאוֹת וְאֶת־הַכָּרִ֨י וְאֶת־הָרָצִ֜ים וְאֵ֣ת | כָּל־עַ֣ם הָאָ֗רֶץ וַיֹּרִ֚ידוּ אֶת־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיָּב֛וֹאוּ דֶּֽרֶךְ־שַׁ֥עַר הָרָצִ֖ים בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב עַל־כִּסֵּ֥א הַמְּלָכִֽים:
and they came by way of the gate of the couriers: to the king’s palace.  
20And all the people of the land rejoiced, and the city quieted down, and Athaliah they had dispatched by the sword in the royal palace.   כוַיִּשְׂמַ֥ח כָּל־עַם־הָאָ֖רֶץ וְהָעִ֣יר שָׁקָ֑טָה וְאֶת־עֲתַלְיָ֛הוּ הֵמִ֥יתוּ בַחֶ֖רֶב בֵּ֥ית הַמֶּֽלֶךְ (כתיב מֶּֽלֶךְ) :

II Kings Chapter 12

1Jehoash was seven years old when he became king.   אבֶּן־שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים יְהוֹאָ֥שׁ בְּמָלְכֽוֹ:
2Jehoash became king in the seventh year of Jehu, and he reigned in Jerusalem for forty years; and his mother's name was Zibiah from Beersheba.   בבִּשְׁנַת־שֶׁ֚בַע לְיֵהוּא֙ מָלַ֣ךְ יְהוֹאָ֔שׁ וְאַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירֽוּשָׁלָ֑םִ וְשֵׁ֣ם אִמּ֔וֹ צִבְיָ֖ה מִבְּאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע:
3And Jehoash did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord all his days, what Jehoiada the priest instructed him.   גוַיַּ֨עַשׂ יְהוֹאָ֧שׁ הַיָּשָׁ֛ר בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה כָּל־יָמָ֑יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוֹרָ֔הוּ יְהוֹיָדָ֖ע הַכֹּהֵֽן:
all his days, that Jehoiada the priest instructed him: but after Jehoiada died, the princes of Judah came to prostrate themselves before the king, and they defiled him. They said to him, One who enters the Holy of Holies is in peril of dying. Yet you hid there for six years. You are fit to be a god. “Then the king listened to them” (II Chron. 24:17).  
4However, the high places were not removed. The people were still slaughtering sacrifices and burning incense on the high places.   דרַ֥ק הַבָּמ֖וֹת לֹא־סָ֑רוּ ע֥וֹד הָעָ֛ם מְזַבְּחִ֥ים וּֽמְקַטְּרִ֖ים בַּבָּמֽוֹת:
5And Jehoash said to the priests, "All money of the hallowed things which is brought to the house of the Lord, the money of anyone who passes [the numbering], each one the money of the value of the people [whose value he vows to donate,] all money which comes upon a man's heart to bring to the house of the Lord.   הוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹאָ֜שׁ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִ֗ים כֹּל֩ כֶּ֨סֶף הַקֳּדָשִׁ֜ים אֲשֶׁר־יוּבָ֚א בֵית־יְהֹוָה֙ כֶּ֣סֶף עוֹבֵ֔ר אִ֕ישׁ כֶּ֥סֶף נַפְשׁ֖וֹת עֶרְכּ֑וֹ כָּל־כֶּ֗סֶף אֲשֶׁ֚ר יַֽעֲלֶה֙ עַ֣ל לֶב־אִ֔ישׁ לְהָבִ֖יא בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
the money of anyone who passes the numbering, each one the money of the value of the people, [whose value he vows to donate]: Two types of money are mentioned here: (1) the money of anyone who passes the numbering. That is the money of the shekels, concerning which it is stated (Ex. 30:13,14), “Everyone who passes the numbering,” and (2) anyone who volunteers the value of his person; i.e., One who says, My value shall be incumbent upon me to donate.  
all money which comes upon…: [I.e., all money which one desires to give,] such as one who says, It is incumbent upon me to donate a maneh (twenty-five selaim or one hundred dinarim) for the repairs of the Temple.  
6The priests shall take for themselves each one from his acquaintance; and they shall strengthen the damage of the house, wherever damage is found."   ויִקְח֚וּ לָהֶם֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים אִ֖ישׁ מֵאֵ֣ת מַכָּר֑וֹ וְהֵ֗ם יְחַזְּקוּ֙ אֶת־בֶּ֣דֶק הַבַּ֔יִת לְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵ֥א שָׁ֖ם בָּֽדֶק:
The priests shall take for themselves: It shall be theirs, and they shall take upon themselves to strengthen the damage of the Temple from their own money.  
from his acquaintance: [Heb. מַכָּרוֹ, like מַכִּירוֹ, i.e.,] from his acquaintance who frequently visits him.  
damage: splits and cracks in the wall.  
7And it was that in the twenty-third year of King Jehoash, the priests did not strengthen the damages of the house.   זוַיְהִ֗י בִּשְׁנַ֨ת עֶשְׂרִ֧ים וְשָׁל֛שׁ שָׁנָ֖ה לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ יְהוֹאָ֑שׁ לֹֽא־חִזְּק֥וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים אֶת־בֶּ֥דֶק הַבָּֽיִת:
8And King Jehoash summoned Jehoiada the priest and the priests and said to them, "Why are you not repairing the damage of the house? Now, take no money from your acquaintances, but give it for the damage of the house."   חוַיִּקְרָא֩ הַמֶּ֨לֶךְ יְהוֹאָ֜שׁ לִיהוֹיָדָ֚ע הַכֹּהֵן֙ וְלַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם מַדּ֛וּעַ אֵינְכֶ֥ם מְחַזְּקִ֖ים אֶת־בֶּ֣דֶק הַבָּ֑יִת וְעַתָּ֗ה אַל־תִּקְחוּ־כֶ֙סֶף֙ מֵאֵ֣ת מַכָּֽרֵיכֶ֔ם כִּֽי־לְבֶ֥דֶק הַבַּ֖יִת תִּתְּנֻֽהוּ:
Now, take no money: anymore, and do not repair the Temple from your money.  
but give it for the damage of the house: If it will be little, let it be little, and if it will be left over, let it be left over.  
9And the priests agreed not to take money from the people and not to repair the damage of the house.   טוַיֵּאֹ֖תוּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֑ים לְבִלְתִּ֚י קְחַת־כֶּ֙סֶף֙ מֵאֵ֣ת הָעָ֔ם וּלְבִלְתִּ֥י חַזֵּ֖ק אֶת־בֶּ֥דֶק הַבָּֽיִת:
10And Jehoiada the priest took one chest and bored a hole in its door; and he placed it near the altar on the right, where a person enters the house of the Lord: and the priests, the guards of the threshold, would put all the money that was brought into the house of the Lord, into there.   יוַיִּקַּ֞ח יְהוֹיָדָ֚ע הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֲר֣וֹן אֶחָ֔ד וַיִּקֹּ֥ב חֹ֖ר בְּדַלְתּ֑וֹ וַיִּתֵּ֣ן אֹתוֹ֩ אֵ֨צֶל הַמִּזְבֵּ֜חַ מִיָּמִ֗ין (כתיב בִיָּמִ֗ין) בְּבֽוֹא־אִישׁ֙ בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֔ה וְנָֽתְנוּ־שָׁ֚מָּה הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ שֹׁמְרֵ֣י הַסַּ֔ף אֶת־כָּל־הַכֶּ֖סֶף הַמּוּבָ֥א בֵית־יְהֹוָֽה:
near the altar: in the Temple court.  
on the right, where a person comes: on the right of the people’s entrance.  
the guards of the threshold: the thresholds of the Temple court, those in charge of the keys of the Temple court, for Jonathan rendered it as “Amarkalia,” and the “Amarkalim” were seven, for the seven gates of the Temple court. Tosefta Shekalim 2:15  
11And it was when they saw that there was much money in the chest, that the king's scribe and the high priest went up and packed and counted the money which was brought into the house of the Lord.   יאוַֽיְהִי֙ כִּרְאוֹתָ֔ם כִּֽי־רַ֥ב הַכֶּ֖סֶף בָּֽאָר֑וֹן וַיַּ֨עַל סֹפֵ֚ר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְהַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֔וֹל וַיָּצֻ֙רוּ֙ וַיִּמְנ֔וּ אֶת־הַכֶּ֖סֶף הַנִּמְצָ֥א בֵית־יְהֹוָֽה:
And it was: from day to day.  
12And they would give the counted money into the hands of the foremen of the work who were appointed in the house of the Lord; and they spent it for the carpenters and for the builders who work in the house of the Lord.   יבוְנָתְנוּ֙ אֶת־הַכֶּ֣סֶף הַֽמְתֻכָּ֔ן עַל־יְדֵי֙ (כתיב יְדֵ֙) עֹשֵֹ֣י הַמְּלָאכָ֔ה הַמֻּפְקָדִ֖ים (כתיב הַֻפְקָדִ֖ים) בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיּוֹצִיאֻ֜הוּ לְחָרָשֵׁ֚י הָעֵץ֙ וְלַבֹּנִ֔ים הָעֹשִֹ֖ים בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
And they would give the counted money: They would give that counted money. After they would take it out of the chest and weigh it, they would give it into the hands of the treasurers who were in charge of the performers of the work.  
the counted: Heb. [הַמְתֻכָּן,] an expression of a number, like (Ex. 5:18) “and the number (וְתֹכֶן) of bricks you shall give.”  
who were appointed: [Heb. הַמֻּפְקָדִים].  
and they spent it: [lit. and they took it out.] An expression of expenditure to hire carpenters.  
and for the builders: They are the architects, the stonesmiths whose colleagues would work under their orders, the supervisors of the crafts.  
13And for the masons and for the stonecutters and to buy wood and quarried stones to repair the damage of the house of the Lord, and for everything which would be spent for the house to strengthen it.   יגוְלַגֹּֽדְרִים֙ וּלְחֹצְבֵ֣י הָאֶ֔בֶן וְלִקְנ֚וֹת עֵצִים֙ וְאַבְנֵ֣י מַחְצֵ֔ב לְחַזֵּ֖ק אֶת־בֶּ֣דֶק בֵּית־יְהֹוָ֑ה וּלְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵ֥א עַל־הַבַּ֖יִת לְחַזְקָֽה:
And for the masons: for the builders of the wall, the apprentices of the architects.  
and for the stonecutters: from the mountain.  
14However, there would not be made for the house of the Lord, silver pitchers, musical instruments, basins, trumpets, or any golden or silver utensils, from the money brought into the house of the Lord.   ידאַךְ֩ לֹ֨א יֵעָשֶֹ֜ה בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֗ה סִפּ֥וֹת כֶּ֙סֶף֙ מְזַמְּר֚וֹת מִזְרָקוֹת֙ חֲצֹ֣צְר֔וֹת כָּל־כְּלִ֥י זָהָ֖ב וּכְלִי־כָ֑סֶף מִן־הַכֶּ֖סֶף הַמּוּבָ֥א בֵית־יְהֹוָֽה:
15But they would give it to the foremen over the work, and they would repair therewith the house of the Lord.   טוכִּֽי־לְעֹשֵֹ֥י הַמְּלָאכָ֖ה יִתְּנֻ֑הוּ וְחִזְּקוּ־ב֖וֹ אֶת־בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
16And they would not reckon with the men into whose hand they would give the money to give the foremen over the work, for they did [the work] honestly.   טזוְלֹ֧א יְחַשְּׁב֣וּ אֶת־הָאֲנָשִׁ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתְּנ֚וּ אֶת־הַכֶּ֙סֶף֙ עַל־יָדָ֔ם לָתֵ֖ת לְעֹשֵֹ֣י הַמְּלָאכָ֑ה כִּ֥י בֶאֱמֻנָ֖ה הֵ֥ם עֹשִֹֽים:
And they would not reckon with the men: The supervisors would not make a reckoning with the men, the treasurers into whose hand the supervisors would always give the money to give it to the foremen over the work, since they were not suspicious in their eyes, for they did the work honestly.  
for they did [the work] honestly: They were known to be honest men.  
17The money for guilt- offerings and the money for sin-offerings would not be brought to the house of the Lord; they would go to the priests.   יזכֶּ֚סֶף אָשָׁם֙ וְכֶ֣סֶף חַטָּא֔וֹת לֹ֥א יוּבָ֖א בֵּ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה לַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים יִהְיֽוּ:
The money for guilt-offerings and the money for sin-offerings: If one set aside money for his sin-offering or for his guilt- offering, and purchased an animal, and there remained of the money.  
would not be brought to the house of the Lord: to repair the damage of the Temple.  
they would go to the priests: who would in turn purchase therefrom burnt- offerings, “fruit” for the altar; the flesh was for a burnt- offering and the hides were theirs. Thus we learned in Temurah (23b). This interpretation Jehoiada the priest expounded on. Everything that comes from the remainder of a guilt-offering shall be used to purchase burnt-offerings.  

I Samuel Chapter 20

18And Jonathan said to him, "Tomorrow is the new moon, and you will be remembered, for your seat will be vacant.   יחוַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן מָחָ֣ר חֹ֑דֶשׁ וְנִפְקַ֕דְתָּ כִּ֥י יִפָּקֵ֖ד מוֹשָׁבֶֽךָ:
Tomorrow is the new moon: and it is the custom of all those who eat at the king’s table to come on the festive day to the table.  
and you will be remembered: My father will remember you, and ask where you are.  
for your seat will be vacant: for your seat in which you sit, will be vacant, and so did Jonathan render: and you will be sought, for your seat will be vacant.  
and you will be remembered: [ונפקדת is] an expression of remembering.  
will be vacant: [יפקד is] an expression of lacking.  

I Samuel Chapter 20

42And Jonathan said to David, "Go in peace! (And bear in mind) that we have sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, saying, 'May the Lord be between me and you, and between my descendants and your descendants forever.' "   מבוַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן לְדָוִ֖ד לֵ֣ךְ לְשָׁל֑וֹם אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁבַּ֨עְנוּ שְׁנֵ֜ינוּ אֲנַ֗חְנוּ בְּשֵׁ֚ם יְהֹוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יְהֹוָ֞ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה | בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֗ךָ וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעִ֛י וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעֲךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
Go in peace!: And the oath which we have sworn, may the Lord be witness thereon forever.  
The text on this page contains sacred literature. Please do not deface or discard.
Select a portion: