Torah Reading for Behar-Bechukotai

Parshat Behar-Bechukotai
Shabbat, 26 Iyar, 5785
24 May, 2025
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Complete: (Leviticus 25:1 - 27:34; Jeremiah 16:19 - 17:14)
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First Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 25

1And the Lord spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה בְּהַ֥ר סִינַ֖י לֵאמֹֽר:
on Mount Sinai: What [special relevance] does the subject of Shemittah [the “release” of fields in the seventh year] have with Mount Sinai? Were not all the commandments stated from Sinai? However, [this teaches us that] just as with Shemittah, its general principles and its finer details were all stated from Sinai, likewise, all of them were stated-their general principles [together with] their finer details-from Sinai. This is what is taught in Torath Kohanim (25:1). [And why is Shemittah used as the example to prove this rule, especially since the very fine details are not even specified here (Sefer Hazikkaron)?] It appears to me that its explanation is as follows: [At the plains of Moab, Moses reiterated the majority of the laws of the Torah to the Israelites before their entry into the land of Israel, this reiteration comprising most of the Book of Deuteronomy. Now,] since we do not find the laws of Shemittah [“release”] of land reiterated on the plains of Moab in Deuteronomy, we learn that its general principles, finer details, and explanations were all stated at Sinai. Scripture states this [phrase] here to teach us that [just as in the case of Shemittah,] every statement [i.e., every commandment] that was conveyed to Moses came from Sinai, [including] their general principles and finer details [and that the commandments delineated in Deuteronomy were merely] repeated and reviewed on the plains of Moab [not originally given there].   בְּהַר סִינַי: מָה עִנְיַן שְׁמִטָּה אֵצֶל הַר סִינַי? וַהֲלֹא כָל הַמִּצְוֹת נֶאֶמְרוּ מִסִּינַי? אֶלָּא מַה שְּׁמִטָּה נֶאֶמְרוּ כְלָלוֹתֶיהָ וּפְרָטוֹתֶיהָ וְדִקְדּוּקֶיהָ מִסִּינַי אַף כֻּלָּן נֶאֶמְרוּ כְלָלוֹתֵיהֶן וְדִקְדּוּקֵיהֶן מִסִּינַי, כָּךְ שְׁנוּיָה בְּתּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים; וְנִרְאֶה לִי שֶׁכָּךְ פֵּרוּשָׁהּ: לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא מָצִינוּ שְׁמִטַּת קַרְקָעוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁנֵית בְּעַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב בְּמִשְׁנֵה תוֹרָה, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁכְּלָלוֹתֶיהָ וּפְרָטוֹתֶיהָ כֻּלָּן נֶאֶמְרוּ מִסִּינַי, וּבָא הַכָּתוּב וְלִמֵּד כָּאן עַל כָּל דִּבּוּר שֶׁנִּדְבַּר לְמֹשֶׁה, שֶׁמִּסִּינַי הָיוּ כֻלָּם, כְּלָלוֹתֵיהֶן וְדִקְדּוּקֵיהֶן, וְחָזְרוּ וְנִשְׁנוּ בְּעַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב:
2Speak to the children of Israel and you shall say to them: When you come to the land that I am giving you, the land shall rest a Sabbath to the Lord.   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כִּ֤י תָבֹ֨אוּ֙ אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י נֹתֵ֣ן לָכֶ֑ם וְשָֽׁבְתָ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ שַׁבָּ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
a Sabbath to the Lord: For the sake of the Lord, just as is stated of the Sabbath of Creation (see Exod. 20:10) [i.e., just as every seventh day is a holy Sabbath day, acclaiming that God Himself rested on the seventh day and thus acclaiming that God is the Supreme Creator of all existence, likewise, man must rest from working the land on the seventh year, for the sake of God, not for the sake of the land, so that it should gain fertility by lying fallow for a year]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:7]   שַׁבָּת לה': לְשֵׁם ה', כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּשַׁבַּת בְּרֵאשִׁית (עי' ספרא):
3You may sow your field for six years, and for six years you may prune your vineyard, and gather in its produce,   גשֵׁ֤שׁ שָׁנִים֙ תִּזְרַ֣ע שָׂדֶ֔ךָ וְשֵׁ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים תִּזְמֹ֣ר כַּרְמֶ֑ךָ וְאָֽסַפְתָּ֖ אֶת־תְּבֽוּאָתָֽהּ:
4But in the seventh year, the land shall have a complete rest a Sabbath to the Lord; you shall not sow your field, nor shall you prune your vineyard.   דוּבַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗ת שַׁבַּ֤ת שַׁבָּתוֹן֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָאָ֔רֶץ שַׁבָּ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה שָֽׂדְךָ֙ לֹ֣א תִזְרָ֔ע וְכַרְמְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תִזְמֹֽר:
the land shall have [a complete rest]: for fields and vineyards [but you may dig holes in your land]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   יִֽהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ: לַשָּׂדוֹת וְלַכְּרָמִים:
nor shall you prune: Heb. לֹא תִזְמֹר. [This refers to the procedure in which] they cut off the [excessive] vine-branches (זְמוֹרוֹת) [and this expression] is rendered [by Onkelos] as לָא תִכְסָח, you shall not cut off, and similar to it is “as thorns cut down (כְּסוּחִים) [that are burned in fire]” (Isa. 33:12), and "it is burned with fire, it is cut (כְּסוּחָה) down.   לֹא תִזְמֹֽר: שֶׁקּוֹצְצִין זְמוֹרוֹתֶיהָ, וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ לָא תִכְסָח, וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ "קוֹצִים כְּסוּחִים" (ישעיהו ל"ג), "שְֹרֻפָה בָאֵשׁ כְּסוּחָה" (תהילים פ'):
5You shall not reap the aftergrowth of your harvest, and you shall not pick the grapes you had set aside [for yourself], [for] it shall be a year of rest for the land.   האֵ֣ת סְפִ֤יחַ קְצִֽירְךָ֙ לֹ֣א תִקְצ֔וֹר וְאֶת־עִנְּבֵ֥י נְזִירֶ֖ךָ לֹ֣א תִבְצֹ֑ר שְׁנַ֥ת שַׁבָּת֖וֹן יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לָאָֽרֶץ:
the aftergrowth of your harvest: although you did not sow it, but it grew by itself from seeds that [inadvertently] had dropped on [the ground] at the time of harvesting. This is called סְפִיחַ.   אֵת סְפִיחַ קְצִֽירְךָ: אֲפִלּוּ לֹא זְרַעְתָּהּ וְהִיא צָמְחָה מִן הַזֶּרַע שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ בְּעֵת הַקָּצִיר וְהוּא קָרוּי סָפִיחַ:
You shall not reap: to keep it like a regular harvest, but it must be rendered ownerless, [and available] for everyone [to take at will]. — [Be’er Basadeh]   לֹא תִקְצוֹר: לִהְיוֹת מַחֲזִיק בּוֹ כִּשְׁאָר קָצִיר, אֶלָּא הֶפְקֵר יִהְיֶה לַכֹּל:
the grapes you had set aside [for yourself]: [i.e., those grapes] that you set aside (הִנְזַרְתָּ) and kept people away from them and did not declare them ownerless.   נְזִירֶךָ: שֶׁהִנְזַרְתָּ וְהִפְרַשְׁתָּ בְנֵי אָדָם מֵהֶם וְלֹא הִפְקַרְתָּם:
you shall not pick: Those, you shall not pick, but [you may pick] from crops declared ownerless. — [Torath Kohanim 25:8]   לֹא תִבְצֹר: אוֹתָם אֵינְךָ בוֹצֵר, אֶלָּא מִן הַמֻּפְקָר:
6And [the produce of] the Sabbath of the land shall be yours to eat for you, for your male and female slaves, and for your hired worker and resident who live with you,   ווְהָֽיְתָ֠ה שַׁבַּ֨ת הָאָ֤רֶץ לָכֶם֙ לְאָכְלָ֔ה לְךָ֖ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ֣ וְלַֽאֲמָתֶ֑ךָ וְלִשְׂכִֽירְךָ֙ וּלְתוֹשָׁ֣בְךָ֔ הַגָּרִ֖ים עִמָּֽךְ:
And [the produce of] the Sabbath of the land, shall be [yours to eat]: Although I have prohibited the produce [of the Shemittah year] to you, I did not prohibit you to eat it or to derive benefit from it, only that you should not treat it as if you were its owner. Rather, everyone is deemed equal [regarding the use of the Shemittah year’s produce]-you, [your slaves,] and your hired worker and resident.   וְהָֽיְתָה שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ וגו': אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲסַרְתִּים עָלֶיךָ, לֹא בַאֲכִילָה וְלֹא בַּהֲנָאָה אֲסַרְתִּים, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא תִנְהֹג בָהֶם כְּבַעַל הַבַּיִת, אֶלָּא הַכֹּל יִהְיוּ שָׁוִים בָּהּ, אַתָּה וּשְׂכִירְךָ וְתוֹשָׁבְךָ:
And the produce of the Sabbath of the land... yours to eat: שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ. You may eat from what you treated as ownerless (שָׁבוּת), [see Sifthei Chachamim], but from that [produce] which is stored away, you shall not eat. — [Torath Kohanim 25:10]   שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה: מִן הַשָּׁבוּת אַתָּה אוֹכֵל, וְאִי אַתָּה אוֹכֵל מִן הַשָּׁמוּר (ספרא):
for you, for your male and female slaves: Since Scripture says [regarding Shemittah], “and the poor of your people shall eat [it]” (Exod. 23:11), one might think that it [the produce of the Shemittah year] is prohibited to be eaten by wealthy people. Scripture, therefore, says here, “for you, for your male and female slaves,”-we see that the [wealthy] owners and the male and female slaves are included here [to permit them also to eat of the Shemittah year produce]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:12 and see Sefer Hazikkaron]   לְךָ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ וְלַֽאֲמָתֶךָ: לְפִי שֶׁנֶאֱמַר וְאָכְלוּ אֶבְיֹנֵי עַמֶּךָ (שמות כ"ג), יָכוֹל יִהְיוּ אֲסוּרִים בַּאֲכִילָה לָעֲשִׁירִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר לְךָ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ וְלַאֲמָתֶךָ, הֲרֵי בְעָלִים וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחוֹת אֲמוּרִים כָּאן (ספרא):
and for your hired worker and resident [who live with you]: Even non-Jews. — [Torath Kohanim 25:14] [Hired worker is one hired by the day. Resident is one hired by the year (Bechor Shor).]   וְלִשְׂכִֽירְךָ וּלְתוֹשָׁבְךָ: אַף הַגּוֹיִם (שם):
7And all of its produce may be eaten [also] by your domestic animals and by the beasts that are in your land.   זוְלִ֨בְהֶמְתְּךָ֔ וְלַֽחַיָּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּאַרְצֶ֑ךָ תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה כָל־תְּבֽוּאָתָ֖הּ לֶֽאֱכֹֽל:
by your domestic animals and by the beasts: But if a beast may eat [Shemittah produce], how much more so are domestic animals [allowed to eat it], since you are obliged to feed them! So why does Scripture mention “by your domestic animals”? [The answer is that Scripture] compares the domestic animal to the beast. As long as beasts [have a particular food available for them to] eat in the field, you may feed your domestic animals from your house. However, once that [particular food] has been consumed by the beasts in the field, you must remove what you had [stored] in your house for your domestic animals [and make that food freely available to everyone]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:15]   וְלִבְהֶמְתְּךָ וְלַֽחַיָּה: אִם חַיָּה אוֹכֶלֶת, בְּהֵמָה לֹא כָּל שֶׁכֵּן, שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ עָלֶיךָ, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וְלִבְהֶמְתְּךָ? מַקִּישׁ בְּהֵמָה לַחַיָּה, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁחַיָּה אוֹכֶלֶת מִן הַשָּׂדֶה, הַאֲכֵל לִבְהֶמְתְּךָ מִן הַבַּיִת, כָּלָה לַחַיָּה מִן הַשָּׂדֶה, כַּלֵּה לִבְהֶמְתְּךָ מִן הַבַּיִת (שם; תענית ו'):
8And you shall count for yourself seven sabbatical years, seven years seven times. And the days of these seven sabbatical years shall amount to forty nine years for you.   חוְסָֽפַרְתָּ֣ לְךָ֗ שֶׁ֚בַע שַׁבְּתֹ֣ת שָׁנִ֔ים שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִ֖ים שֶׁ֣בַע פְּעָמִ֑ים וְהָי֣וּ לְךָ֗ יְמֵי֙ שֶׁ֚בַע שַׁבְּתֹ֣ת הַשָּׁנִ֔ים תֵּ֥שַׁע וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים שָׁנָֽה:
sabbatical years: Heb. שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים, sabbatical years. Now, [since our verse therefore tells us to count “seven sabbatical years,”] one might think that we should observe seven consecutive sabbatical years, and then make a Jubilee year after them. Scripture, therefore, continues here, “seven years seven times,” thus showing us that every Shemittah year occurs in its own time [namely, every seventh year]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:13]   שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים: שְׁמִטּוֹת שָׁנִים, יָכוֹל יַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים רְצוּפוֹת שְׁמִטָּה וְיַעֲשֶׂה יוֹבֵל אַחֲרֵיהֶם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים, הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר כָּל שְׁמִטָּה וּשְׁמִטָּה בִּזְמַנָּהּ (ספרא):
And the days of these seven [sabbatical years will amount to forty-nine years]: [But is it not already clear that seven years seven times equals forty-nine? However, this] comes to tell us that even though you have not observed the Shemittah years [throughout that period], nevertheless, make a Jubilee at the end of forty-nine years. — [Torath Kohanim 25:14] [This is a Midrashic explanation, linking the end of our verse with the next, to read, “And the days of these seven sabbatical years will amount to forty-nine years for you (and) Then…you shall proclaim with shofar blasts.”] The simple meaning of our verse is, however, that the calculation of the years of the Shemittah cycles will amount to the number forty-nine.   וְהָיוּ לְךָ יְמֵי שֶׁבַע וגו': מַגִּיד לְךָ, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עָשִׂיתָ שְׁמִטּוֹת, עֲשֵׂה יוֹבֵל לְסוֹף מ"ט שָׁנָה; וּפְשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא: יַעֲלֶה לְךָ חֶשְׁבּוֹן שְׁנוֹת הַשְּׁמִטּוֹת לְמִסְפַּר מ"ט:
9You shall proclaim [with] the shofar blasts, in the seventh month, on the tenth of the month; on the Day of Atonement, you shall sound the shofar throughout your land.   טוְהַֽעֲבַרְתָּ֞ שׁוֹפַ֤ר תְּרוּעָה֙ בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִ֔י בֶּֽעָשׂ֖וֹר לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ בְּיוֹם֙ הַכִּפֻּרִ֔ים תַּֽעֲבִ֥ירוּ שׁוֹפָ֖ר בְּכָל־אַרְצְכֶֽם:
You shall proclaim: Heb. וַהַעֲבַרְתָּ, [lit., “you shall pass” something from one place to another. But here, this term] stems from [the similar expression in the verse], “and they proclaimed (וַיַּעֲבִירוּ קוֹל) throughout the camp” (Exod. 36:6), an expression of proclamation. — [R.H. 34a]   וְהַֽעֲבַרְתָּ: לְשׁוֹן "וַיַּעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בַּמַּחֲנֶה" (שמות ל"ו), לְשׁוֹן הַכְרָזָה (ראש השנה ל"ד):
[On the tenth of the month,] on the Day of Atonement: But since it says, “on the Day of Atonement,” do I not already know that this occurs “on the tenth of the month”? So why does Scripture need to state, “on the tenth of the month”? However, [it does so,] in order to teach you the following: [The obligation] to sound the shofar on the tenth of the month [i.e., on the Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year] overrides the [prohibition of sounding the shofar on the] Sabbath “throughout your entire land,” whereas [the obligation] to sound the shofar on Rosh Hashanah does not override the [prohibition of sounding the shofar on] Sabbath “throughout your entire land,” except in the court of law [where this prohibition does not apply (see Ramban on our verse)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:16]   בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים: מִמַּשְׁמָע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ? אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר בעשור לחדש? אֶלָּא לוֹמַר לְךָ, תְּקִיעַה בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ דּוֹחָה שַׁבָּת בְּכָל אַרְצְכֶם, וְאֵין תְּקִיעַת רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה דּוֹחָה שַׁבָּת בְּכָל אַרְצְכֶם אֶלָּא בְּבֵית דִּין בִּלְבָד (ספרא):
10And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year, and proclaim freedom [for slaves] throughout the land for all who live on it. It shall be a Jubilee for you, and you shall return, each man to his property, and you shall return, each man to his family.   יוְקִדַּשְׁתֶּ֗ם אֵ֣ת שְׁנַ֤ת הַֽחֲמִשִּׁים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה וּקְרָאתֶ֥ם דְּר֛וֹר בָּאָ֖רֶץ לְכָל־יֽשְׁבֶ֑יהָ יוֹבֵ֥ל הִוא֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם וְשַׁבְתֶּ֗ם אִ֚ישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּת֔וֹ וְאִ֥ישׁ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּ֖וֹ תָּשֻֽׁבוּ:
And you shall sanctify [the fiftieth year]: [How?] At its commencement, [this Jubilee year] is sanctified in the court, [at which time] they declare: “This year is holy!”   וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם: בִּכְנִיסָתָהּ מְקַדְּשִׁין אוֹתָהּ בְּבֵית דִּין, וְאוֹמְרִים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת הַשָּׁנָה (ראש השנה כ"ד):
and proclaim freedom: for slaves, whether a נִרְצָע [a Jewish slave who chose to remain with his master even after his being permitted to go free at the end of six years and who therefore had to have his ear bored (see Exod. 21:16) or a slave] for whom his six-year period since having been sold has not yet elapsed. Said Rabbi Judah: What does this term דְּרוֹר mean? As one who dwells (כִּמְדַייֵר) in a dwelling (בֵּי דַייְרָא) etc., who dwells wherever he wishes, and is not under the domain of others [thus, the term דְּרוֹר denotes “freedom”]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:18, R.H. 9b and see Rashi there]   וּקְרָאתֶם דְּרוֹר: לָעֲבָדִים, בֵּין נִרְצַע בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא כָלוּ לוֹ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים מִשֶּׁנִּמְכַּר: אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַהוּ לְשׁוֹן דְּרוֹר? כִּמְדַיַּר בֵּי דַיְרָא וְכוּ' — שֶׁדָּר בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה וְאֵינוֹ בִרְשׁוּת אֲחֵרִים (ספרא; ראש השנה ט'):
It shall be a Jubilee: This year is distinguished from all other years, for only it has a special name. And what is that name? It is called יוֹבֵל [meaning “ram’s horn” (see Rashi on Exod. 19:13)], because of the shofar that is sounded [upon its commencement].   יוֹבֵל הִוא: שָׁנָה זֹאת מֻבְדֶּלֶת מִשְּׁאָר שָׁנִים בִּנְקִיבַת שֵׁם לָהּ לְבַדָּהּ, וּמַה שְּׁמָהּ? יוֹבֵל שְׁמָהּ, עַל שֵׁם תְּקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר:
and you shall return, each man to his property: that the fields revert to their owners. [This verse does not mean that the owner must return to his field, but that the ownership of the field returns to the one who had sold it (Mesiach Illemim)].   וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתוֹ: שֶׁהַשָּׂדוֹת חוֹזְרוֹת לְבַעְלֵיהֶן:
and you shall return, each man to his family: [This clause comes] to include the “bored one.” (See second Rashi on this verse.) - [Kid. 15a]   וְאִישׁ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ תָּשֻֽׁבוּ: לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַנִּרְצָע (קידושין ט"ו):
11This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you you shall not sow, nor shall you reap its aftergrowth or pick [its grapes] that you had set aside [for yourself].   יאיוֹבֵ֣ל הִ֗וא שְׁנַ֛ת הַֽחֲמִשִּׁ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם לֹ֣א תִזְרָ֔עוּ וְלֹ֤א תִקְצְרוּ֙ אֶת־סְפִיחֶ֔יהָ וְלֹ֥א תִבְצְר֖וּ אֶת־נְזִרֶֽיהָ:
This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you: What does this come to teach us?“ Since Scripture says (preceding verse),”And you shall sanctify [the fiftieth year,“ one might think that just as, at the beginning of the year, it gains sanctity progressively, so should its sanctity extend after the year, as it is with other instances of sanctification of holy times, e.g., Sabbath or a holy Festival, with which some ordinary time is added on to the holy time, here, too, some of the year following the Jubilee must be added on to it. Scripture, therefore, says, ”This fiftieth year shall be a Jubilee for you" - only the fiftieth year, with no extensions. The above] is taught in Tractate R.H. (8b) and Torath Kohanim (25:23).   יוֹבֵל הִוא שְׁנַת הַֽחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה: מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר? לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם וְגוֹ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה (דף ח') וּבְתּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים:
its [grapes that] you had set aside: Heb. נְזִרֶיהָ, those grapes stored away, but you may harvest those that have been rendered ownerless. [For] just as with Shemittah [the term נְזִירֶךָ] is stated [specifically referring to grapes (see Rashi verse 5 above)], so with Jubilee, [this term נְזִרֶיהָ] is stated [and refers specifically to grapes, for Shemittah and Jubilee are equal in all matters. (Mesiach Illemim, Devek Tov, Sifthei Chachamim) See also Be’er Basadeh, Maskil L’David]. Thus, two holy years are found right next to each other-the forty-ninth year [in each cycle] is Shemittah and the fiftieth year is Jubilee.   אֶת־נְזִרֶֽיהָ: אֶת הָעֲנָבִים הַמְשֻׁמָּרִים, אֲבָל בּוֹצֵר אַתָּה מִן הַמֻּפְקָרִים; כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּשְּׁבִיעִית כָּךְ נֶאֱמַר בַּיּוֹבֵל, נִמְצְאוּ שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים קְדוֹשׁוֹת סְמוּכוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ — שְׁנַת מ"ט שְׁמִטָּה, וּשְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים יוֹבֵל:
12For it is Jubilee. It shall be holy for you; you shall eat its produce from the field.   יבכִּ֚י יוֹבֵ֣ל הִ֔וא קֹ֖דֶשׁ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם מִ֨ן־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה תֹּֽאכְל֖וּ אֶת־תְּבֽוּאָתָֽהּ:
It shall be holy for you: [The produce of Jubilee] attaches its holiness onto the money [it is sold for] like items dedicated to the Holy Temple. However, one might think that [just like items dedicated to the Holy Temple, this produce] leaves [its holy status,] to become unholy-Scripture, therefore, says here “It shall be,” [as if to say,] they shall remain as they were. — [Suk. 40b]   קֹדֶשׁ תִּֽהְיֶה לָכֶם: תּוֹפֶסֶת דָּמֶיהָ כְּהֶקְדֵּשׁ, יָכוֹל תֵּצֵא הִיא לְחֻלִּין, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר תהיה — בַּהֲוָיָתָהּ תְּהֵא (ספרא; סוכה מ'):
You shall eat [its produce] from the field: You shall [gauge your] eating in the house, by way of the field. [That is to say,] once [a particular food] has been consumed by the beasts in the field, you must remove [what you had stored of that food] from your house [and make it freely available to all]. (See Rashi on verse 7 above; Torath Kohanim 25:26). Just as was stated regarding Shemittah, so it is stated regarding the Jubilee.   מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה תֹּֽאכְלוּ: עַל יְדֵי הַשָּׂדֶה אַתָּה אוֹכֵל מִן הַבַּיִת, שֶׁאִם כָּלָה לַחַיָּה מִן הַשָּׂדֶה, אַתָּה צָרִיךְ לְבַעֵר מִן הַבַּיִת; כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּשְּׁבִיעִית כָּךְ נֶאֱמַר בַּיּוֹבֵל (ספרא):
13During this Jubilee year, you shall return, each man to his property.   יגבִּשְׁנַ֥ת הַיּוֹבֵ֖ל הַזֹּ֑את תָּשֻׁ֕בוּ אִ֖ישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
you shall return, each man to his property: But has this not already been stated, [when Scripture says], “ and you shall return, each man to his property” (verse 10 above)? However, [this clause is stated here,] to include one who sold his field, and his son arose and redeemed it, that it reverts to his father in the Jubilee. — [Torath Kohanim 25:28]   תָּשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ: וַהֲרֵי כְבָר נֶאֱמַר וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל אֲחֻזָּתוֹ? אֶלָּא לְרַבּוֹת הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֵהוּ וְעָמַד בְּנוֹ וּגְאָלָהּ שֶׁחוֹזֶרֶת לְאָבִיו בַּיּוֹבֵל (שם):
14And when you make a sale to your fellow Jew or make a purchase from the hand of your fellow Jew, you shall not wrong one another.   ידוְכִֽי־תִמְכְּר֤וּ מִמְכָּר֙ לַֽעֲמִיתֶ֔ךָ א֥וֹ קָנֹ֖ה מִיַּ֣ד עֲמִיתֶ֑ךָ אַל־תּוֹנ֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ אֶת־אָחִֽיו:
And when you make a sale to your fellow-Jew or make a purchase from your fellow-Jew: Its simple meaning is obvious. The verse can also be expounded [to teach us the following lesson]: How do we know that when you wish to sell, you should sell to your fellow-Jew? For Scripture says, “ וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ,” i.e., “And when you make a sale--sell to your fellow-Jew!” And how do we know that if you come to buy, you should buy from your fellow-Jew? For Scripture continues here: “אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ,” i.e., “or when you buy--buy from your fellow-Jew!” - [Torath Kohanim 25:29]   וְכִֽי־תִמְכְּרוּ וגו': לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ כְמַשְׁמָעוֹ; וְעוֹד יֵשׁ דְּרָשָׁה: מִנַּיִן כְּשֶׁאַתָּה מוֹכֵר, מְכֹר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרְךָ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר — לַעֲמִיתְךָ מְכֹר, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאִם בָּאתָ לִקְנוֹת קְנֵה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרְךָ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אוֹ קָנֹה — מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ (ספרא):
you shall not wrong: This means wronging through money (see verse 17 below and Lev. 19:33). - [Torath Kohanim 25:31]   אַל־תּוֹנוּ: זוֹ אוֹנָאַת מָמוֹן (בבא מציעא נ"ח):
15According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase from your fellow Jew; according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.   טובְּמִסְפַּ֤ר שָׁנִים֙ אַחַ֣ר הַיּוֹבֵ֔ל תִּקְנֶ֖ה מֵאֵ֣ת עֲמִיתֶ֑ךָ בְּמִסְפַּ֥ר שְׁנֵֽי־תְבוּאֹ֖ת יִמְכָּר־לָֽךְ:
According to the number of years after the Jubilee, you shall purchase: The following is its simple meaning, to explain the verse according to its context: [The text] comes to warn against wronging [by overcharging, thereby linking verses 14-16 together (Mizrachi)], [namely, that] when you sell or purchase land, you should be aware of how many years remain until the [next] Jubilee, and according to [that number of] years and the crops that it is fit to yield, the seller should sell and the buyer should buy. For indeed, he will eventually return it to him in the Jubilee year. Thus, if there are [only] a few years [left until the next Jubilee year], and this one sells it for a high price, the purchaser has been wronged. And if there are many years [left until the next Jubilee year], and he will eat many crops from it [until Jubilee-if the purchaser had purchased the land for a low price], the seller has been wronged. Therefore, it must be purchased according to the time [left until the next Jubilee]. And this is [the meaning of] what it says, תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּרלָ בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי, “according to the number of years of crops, he shall sell to you.” “According to the number of years of crop yields that it will remain in the hands of the purchaser, you shall sell it to him.” Now, [the word שְׁנֵי can mean “years of” or can mean “two.” Thus,] our Rabbis have expounded from here (see end of this Rashi for clarification), that one who sells his field is not permitted to redeem it in less than two years, that it must remain in the purchaser’s possession for exactly two years to the day, even if there are three crops during those two years, for example, if he sold it to him with crop standing in it [and then the ensuing years brought two more yields of produce. In that case, the seller cannot redeem after one year, claiming that two years’ crops have been issued,] for the word שְׁנֵי [which could mean two, i.e., two yields] does not leave its simple meaning [that it means years,] referring to [the number of years that elapse and] specifically, years that elapse with a yield of crop, but not years of blight. [Now, if the word שְׁנֵי means “years” and not two, then how do our Rabbis expound it to mean “two years”?] Because [the term שְׁנֵי is plural, and] the minimum quantity implied by שָׁנִים is two. — [Arachin 29b; Mizrachi]   בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל תִּקְנֶה: זֶהוּ פְשׁוּטוֹ לְיַשֵּׁב הַמִּקְרָא עַל אָפְנָיו: עַל הָאוֹנָאָה בָּא לְהַזְהִיר, כְּשֶׁתִּמְכֹּר אוֹ תִקְנֶה קַרְקַע, דְּעוּ כַּמָּה שָׁנִים יֵשׁ עַד הַיּוֹבֵל, וּלְפִי הַשָּׁנִים וּתְבוּאוֹת הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לַעֲשׂוֹת יִמְכֹּר הַמּוֹכֵר וְיִקְנֶה הַקּוֹנֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי סוֹפוֹ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ לוֹ בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל, אִם יֵשׁ שָׁנִים מֻעָטוֹת וְזֶה מוֹכְרָהּ בְּדָמִים יְקָרִים, הֲרֵי נִתְאַנָּה לוֹקֵחַ, וְאִם יֵשׁ שָׁנִים מְרֻבּוֹת וְאָכַל מִמֶּנָּה תְּבוּאוֹת הַרְבֵּה, הֲרֵי נִתְאַנָּה מוֹכֵר, לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹתָהּ לְפִי הַזְּמַן, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּר לָךְ — לְפִי מִנְיַן שְׁנֵי הַתְּבוּאוֹת שֶׁתְּהֵא עוֹמֶדֶת בְּיַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ תִּמְכֹּר לוֹ. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ מִכָּאן שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֵהוּ אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לִגְאֹל פָּחוֹת מִשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים — שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים בְּיַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם, וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ שָׁלוֹשׁ תְּבוּאוֹת בְּאוֹתָן שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ לוֹ בְּקָמוֹתֶיהָ; וּשְׁנֵי אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִפְּשׁוּטוֹ — כְּלוֹמַר מִסְפַּר שָׁנִים שֶׁל תְּבוּאוֹת וְלֹא שֶׁל שִׁדָּפוֹן, וּמִעוּט שָׁנִים שְׁנַיִם (ספרא; ערכין כ"ט):
16The more [the remaining] years, you shall increase its purchase [price], and the fewer the [remaining] years, you shall decrease its purchase [price], because he is selling you a number of crops.   טזלְפִ֣י | רֹ֣ב הַשָּׁנִ֗ים תַּרְבֶּה֙ מִקְנָת֔וֹ וּלְפִי֙ מְעֹ֣ט הַשָּׁנִ֔ים תַּמְעִ֖יט מִקְנָת֑וֹ כִּ֚י מִסְפַּ֣ר תְּבוּאֹ֔ת ה֥וּא מֹכֵ֖ר לָֽךְ:
you shall increase its purchase: You should sell it at a high price.   תַּרְבֶּה מִקְנָתוֹ: תִּמְכְּרֶנָּה בְיֹקֶר:
you shall decrease its purchase: You should sell it for less money [than in the case in which many years are left until the Jubilee]. — [Mizrachi].   תַּמְעִיט מִקְנָתוֹ: תַּמְעִיט בְּדָמֶיהָ:
17And you shall not wrong, one man his fellow Jew, and you shall fear your God, for I am the Lord, your God.   יזוְלֹ֤א תוֹנוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־עֲמִית֔וֹ וְיָרֵ֖אתָ מֵֽאֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
And you shall not wrong, one man his fellow-Jew: Here, [as opposed to the same expression in verse 14 above (see Rashi there),] Scripture is warning against wronging verbally, namely, that one must not provoke his fellow [Jew], nor may one offer advice to him that is unsound for him but according to the mode of life or the benefit of the advisor. And if you say, “Who can tell whether I had evil intentions [when I talked to my fellow in an insulting manner? Perhaps I did so in order to make him feel remorseful and repent his ways].” (see Be’er Basadeh). Therefore, it says, “and you shall fear your God.”-The One Who knows all thoughts-He knows. Concerning anything held in the heart and known only to the one who bears this thought in his mind, it says “and you shall fear your God!” - [B.M. 58b]   וְלֹא תוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ: כָּאן הִזְהִיר עַל אוֹנָאַת דְּבָרִים, שֶׁלֹּא יַקְנִיט אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא יַשִּׂיאֶנּוּ עֵצָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ הוֹגֶנֶת לוֹ, לְפִי דַּרְכּוֹ וַהֲנָאָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹעֵץ, וְאִם תֹּאמַר מִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם נִתְכַּוַּנְתִּי לְרָעָה? לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ — הַיּוֹדֵעַ מַחֲשָׁבוֹת הוּא יוֹדֵעַ. כָּל דָּבָר הַמָּסוּר לַלֵּב, שֶׁאֵין מַכִּיר אֶלָּא מִי שֶׁהַמַּחֲשָׁבָה בְלִבּוֹ, נֶאֱמַר בּוֹ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ (ספרא; בבא מציעא נ"ח):
18You shall perform My statutes, keep My ordinances and perform them then you will live on the land securely.   יחוַֽעֲשִׂיתֶם֙ אֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֔י וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֥י תִּשְׁמְר֖וּ וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֣ם אֹתָ֑ם וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ לָבֶֽטַח:
Then you will live on the land securely: because it is through the transgression of [the laws of] Shemittah that the Israelites are exiled [from their land], as the verse says, “Then, the land will appease its Sabbaths. [All the days of desolation while you are in the land of your enemies -] the land will rest and appease its Sabbaths” (Lev. 26:34). And the seventy years of the Babylonian exile [when the land remained forcibly at rest], corresponded to the seventy years of Shemittah not observed by Israel, [and thus came to rectify and “appease” them]. [see Rashi Lev. 26:35 where the calculation is explained; Shab. 33a; and see II Chron. 36:21]   וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם עַל־הָאָרֶץ לָבֶֽטַח: שֶׁבַּעֲוֹן שְׁמִטָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אָז תִּרְצֶה הָאָרֶץ אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ, וְהִרְצָת אֶת שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ" (ויקרא כ"ו), וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה שֶׁל גָּלוּת בָּבֶל כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעִים שְׁמִטּוֹת שֶׁבִּטְּלוּ הָיוּ:

Second Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 25

19And the land will then yield its fruit and you will eat to satiety, and live upon it securely.   יט וְנָֽתְנָ֤ה הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ פִּרְיָ֔הּ וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם לָשׂ֑בַע וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֥ם לָבֶ֖טַח עָלֶֽיהָ:
And the land will then yield [its fruit…and you will…] live upon it securely: i.e., you will have no worry about a year of drought.   וְנָֽתְנָה הָאָרֶץ וגו', וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם לָבֶטַח עָלֶֽיהָ: שֶׁלֹּא תִדְאֲגוּ מִשְּׁנַת בַּצֹּרֶת:
and you will eat to satiety: There will be a blessing in it even inside your innards.   וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּם לָשׂבַע: אַף בְּתוֹךְ הַמֵּעַיִם תְּהֵא בוֹ בְּרָכָה (עי' ספרא):
20And if you should say, "What will we eat in the seventh year? We will not sow, and we will not gather in our produce!"   כוְכִ֣י תֹֽאמְר֔וּ מַה־נֹּאכַ֖ל בַּשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשְּׁבִיעִ֑ת הֵ֚ן לֹ֣א נִזְרָ֔ע וְלֹ֥א נֶֽאֱסֹ֖ף אֶת־תְּבֽוּאָתֵֽנוּ:
and will not gather in: to the house [for storage (Sefer Hazikkaron)].   וְלֹא נֶֽאֱסֹף: אֶל הַבַּיִת:
our produce: for example, wine and fruit of the trees and aftergrowth that grew spontaneously [and that, therefore, was not sown by you]. — [Pes. 51b]   אֶת־תְּבֽוּאָתֵֽנוּ: כְּגוֹן יַיִן וּפֵרוֹת הָאִילָן וּסְפִיחִין הַבָּאִים מֵאֵלֵיהֶם:
21[Know then, that] I will command My blessing for you in the sixth year, and it will yield produce for three years.   כאוְצִוִּ֤יתִי אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי֙ לָכֶ֔ם בַּשָּׁנָ֖ה הַשִּׁשִּׁ֑ית וְעָשָׂת֙ אֶת־הַתְּבוּאָ֔ה לִשְׁל֖שׁ הַשָּׁנִֽים:
for three years: for part of the sixth year from Nissan [when the crop is reaped] until Rosh Hashanah, for the [entire] seventh [Shemittah] year, and for the eighth [year, namely,] for they will sow [a new crop] in Marcheshvan of the eighth year and reap [this new crop] in Nissan [while still eating of the sixth year’s crop].   לִשְׁלשׁ הַשָּׁנִֽים: לִקְצָת הַשִּׁשִּׁית — מִנִּיסָן וְעַד רֹ"הַ, וְלַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְלַשְּׁמִינִית, שֶׁיִּזְרְעוּ בַשְּׁמִינִית בְּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן וְיִקְצְרוּ בְנִיסָן:
22And you will sow in the eighth year, while [still] eating from the old crops until the ninth year; until the arrival of its crop, you will eat the old [crop].   כבוּזְרַעְתֶּ֗ם אֵ֚ת הַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשְּׁמִינִ֔ת וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם מִן־הַתְּבוּאָ֣ה יָשָׁ֑ן עַ֣ד | הַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַתְּשִׁיעִ֗ת עַד־בּוֹא֙ תְּב֣וּאָתָ֔הּ תֹּֽאכְל֖וּ יָשָֽׁן:
until the ninth year: Until the Festival of Succoth in the ninth year, the time the crop of the eighth year is brought into the house, for throughout the summer season, it was kept in granaries in the field. In Tishrei-that is the time the crop is gathered into the house. Now, there were occasions when it would need to yield for four years, namely: in the sixth year preceding the seventh Shemittah, when they would refrain from doing work on the land for two consecutive years, the seventh year and the Jubilee year. Our verse, however, refers to all the other Shemittah years [i.e., the first through sixth cycles of Shemittah]. — [see Ned. 61a]   עַד הַשָּׁנָה הַתְּשִׁיעִת: עַד חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת שֶׁל תְּשִׁיעִית, שֶׁהוּא עֵת בֹּא תְּבוּאָתָהּ שֶׁל שְׁמִינִית לְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, שֶׁכָּל יְמוֹת הַקַּיִץ הָיוּ בַשָּׂדֶה בַּגְּרָנוֹת, וּבְתִשְׁרֵי הוּא עֵת הָאָסִיף לַבַּיִת; וּפְעָמִים שֶׁהָיְתָה צְרִיכָה לַעֲשׂוֹת לְאַרְבַּע שָׁנִים — בַּשִּׁשִּׁית שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַשְּׁמִטָּה הַשְּׁבִיעִית, שֶׁהֵן בְּטֵלִין מֵעֲבוֹדַת קַרְקַע שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים רְצוּפוֹת — הַשְּׁבִיעִית וְהַיּוֹבֵל, וּמִקְרָא זֶה נֶאֱמַר בִּשְׁאָר הַשְּׁמִטּוֹת כֻּלָּן:
23The land shall not be sold permanently, for the land belongs to Me, for you are strangers and [temporary] residents with Me.   כגוְהָאָ֗רֶץ לֹ֤א תִמָּכֵר֙ לִצְמִתֻ֔ת כִּי־לִ֖י הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּֽי־גֵרִ֧ים וְתֽוֹשָׁבִ֛ים אַתֶּ֖ם עִמָּדִֽי:
The land shall not be sold [permanently]: [Although this is already understood from the earlier verses in our passage (10 and 13), it is stated here] to impose a negative commandment regarding the reversion of fields to their [original] owners in Jubilee, that the purchaser must not seize [the land] forcibly [in an effort to keep it as a “permanent” sale].   וְהָאָרֶץ לֹא תִמָּכֵר: לִתֵּן לָאו עַל חֲזָרַת שָׂדוֹת לַבְּעָלִים בַּיּוֹבֵל, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַלּוֹקֵחַ כּוֹבְשָׁהּ:
permanently: לִצְמִתֻת, irreversibly. [Thus, the לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת, has the meaning of] a permanent, irreversible sale.   לִצְמִתֻת: לִפְסִיקָה, לִמְכִירָה פְסוּקָה עוֹלָמִית:
for the land belongs to Me: [Says God:] Do not be selfish about the land [hesitating to return it to its rightful owner at Jubilee], because the land does not belong to you. - [Torath Kohanim 25:39]   כִּי־לִי הָאָרֶץ: אַל תֵּרַע עֵינְךָ בָהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁלְּךָ (ספרא):
24Therefore, throughout the land of your possession, you shall give redemption for the land.   כדוּבְכֹ֖ל אֶ֣רֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶ֑ם גְּאֻלָּ֖ה תִּתְּנ֥וּ לָאָֽרֶץ:
throughout the land of your possession: [The seemingly superfluous word here, “throughout,”] comes to include [the right of relatives to redeem] houses [of walled cities (Sifthei Chachamim , Rashi on Kid. 21a)] and a Hebrew slave. This matter is explained in the first chapter of Tractate Kid. (21a). And according to its simple meaning, [this] is connected to the passage that follows, that one who sells his property is permitted to redeem it after two years-either he or his relative, and that the purchaser cannot impede [this redemption].   וּבְכֹל אֶרֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶם: לְרַבּוֹת בָּתִּים וְעֶבֶד עִבְרִי, וְדָבָר זֶה מְפֹרָשׁ בְּקִדּוּשִׁין בְּפֶרֶק רִאשׁוֹן (דף כ"א). וּלְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ סָמוּךְ לְפָרָשָׁה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, שֶׁהַמּוֹכֵר אֲחֻזָּתוֹ רַשָּׁאִי לְגָאֳלָהּ לְאַחַר שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, אוֹ הוּא אוֹ קְרוֹבוֹ, וְאֵין הַלּוֹקֵחַ יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב:
25If your brother becomes destitute and sells some of his inherited property, his redeemer who is related to him shall come forth and redeem his brother's sale.   כהכִּֽי־יָמ֣וּךְ אָחִ֔יךָ וּמָכַ֖ר מֵֽאֲחֻזָּת֑וֹ וּבָ֤א גֹֽאֲלוֹ֙ הַקָּרֹ֣ב אֵלָ֔יו וְגָאַ֕ל אֵ֖ת מִמְכַּ֥ר אָחִֽיו:
If your brother becomes destitute and sells: [This] teaches [us] that a person may not sell his field except when under the pressure of poverty. - [Torath Kohanim 25:41]   כִּֽי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָכַר: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין אָדָם רַשַּׁאי לִמְכֹּר שָׂדֵהוּ אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת דֹּחַק עֹנִי (עי' ספרא):
some of his inherited property: But not all of it. [Scripture] teaches [us] proper conduct, namely, that he should leave one field for himself. — [Torath Kohanim 25:41]   מֵֽאֲחֻזָּתוֹ: וְלֹא כֻּלָּהּ, לִמֵּד דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, שֶׁיְּשַׁיֵּר שָׂדֶה לְעַצְמוֹ:
and redeem his brother’s sale: and the purchaser cannot impede [the redemption].   וְגָאַל אֵת מִמְכַּר אָחִֽיו: וְאֵין הַלּוֹקֵחַ יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב:
26And if a man does not have a redeemer, but he gains enough means to afford its redemption,   כווְאִ֕ישׁ כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־לּ֖וֹ גֹּאֵ֑ל וְהִשִּׂ֣יגָה יָד֔וֹ וּמָצָ֖א כְּדֵ֥י גְאֻלָּתֽוֹ:
And if a man does not have a redeemer: But is there a man in Israel who has no [relative] to redeem [his sale]? However, [Scripture means] a redeemer who is [financially] able to redeem his sale. — [Kid. 21a]   וְאִישׁ כִּי לֹא יִֽהְיֶה־לּוֹ גֹּאֵל: וְכִי יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם בְּיִשְֹרָאֵל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ גּוֹאֲלִים? אֶלָּא גּוֹאֵל שֶׁיּוּכַל לִגְאֹל מִמְכָּרוֹ (קידושין כ"א):
27he shall calculate the years for which the land has been sold, and return the remainder to the man to whom he sold it, and [then] he may return to his inheritance.   כזוְחִשַּׁב֙ אֶת־שְׁנֵ֣י מִמְכָּר֔וֹ וְהֵשִׁיב֙ אֶת־הָ֣עֹדֵ֔ף לָאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָֽכַר־ל֑וֹ וְשָׁ֖ב לַֽאֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
he shall calculate the years of his sale: [The original owner asks the purchaser:] “How many years were left until the [next] Jubilee?” [He answers:] “Such-and-such [a number of years].” [The owner continues:] “And how much did I sell it to you for?” [He answers:] “For such-and-such [an amount of money].” [Continues the original owner:] “You would have eventually had to return the field to me at Jubilee.” Hence, [rather than buying actual land,] in effect, you bought [from me] a number of produce yields, according to the total for every year [remaining until Jubilee]. Now, you have eaten from it for three or four years [or whatever the amount may be]. Therefore, subtract their value from the total [i.e., from the original sale price], and take the remainder [until Jubilee].“ And this is the meaning of ”and return the remainder" of the purchase price over the crops he had eaten, and he shall give it to the purchaser.   וְחִשַּׁב אֶת־שְׁנֵי מִמְכָּרוֹ: "כַּמָּה שָׁנִים הָיוּ עַד הַיּוֹבֵל? כָּךְ וְכָךְ, וּבְכַמָּה מְכַרְתִּיהָ לְךָ? בְּכָךְ וְכָךְ, עָתִיד הָיִיתָ לְהַחֲזִירָהּ בַּיּוֹבֵל, נִמְצֵאתָ קוֹנֶה מִסְפַּר הַתְּבוּאוֹת כְּפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן שֶׁל כָּל שָׁנָה, אָכַלְתָּ אוֹתָהּ שָׁלוֹשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ אַרְבַּע, הוֹצֵא אֶת דְּמֵיהֶן מִן הַחֶשְׁבוֹן וְטֹל אֶת הַשְּׁאָר"; וְזֶהוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת הָעֹדֵף בִּדְמֵי הַמֶּקַח עַל הָאֲכִילָה שֶׁאֲכָלָהּ וְיִתְּנֵם לַלּוֹקֵחַ:
the man to whom he had sold [it]: [i.e., “the man to whom he-] this seller who is coming to redeem it- [had sold it.” If the first purchaser had sold it to another person for a higher price, the original owner makes the above calculation only with the first purchaser to whom he sold the field and not with the subsequent purchaser]. — [Arachin 30a; Mizrachi]   לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר מָֽכַר־לוֹ: הַמּוֹכֵר הַזֶּה שֶׁבָּא לְגָאֳלָהּ:
28But if he cannot afford enough to repay him, his sale shall remain in the possession of the one who has purchased it, until the Jubilee year. And then, in the Jubilee year, it shall go out and revert to his inheritance.   כחוְאִ֨ם לֹא־מָֽצְאָ֜ה יָד֗וֹ דֵּי֘ הָשִׁ֣יב לוֹ֒ וְהָיָ֣ה מִמְכָּר֗וֹ בְּיַד֙ הַקֹּנֶ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיּוֹבֵ֑ל וְיָצָא֙ בַּיֹּבֵ֔ל וְשָׁ֖ב לַֽאֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
enough to repay him: From here, [we learn] that he cannot redeem part [of a field but either all or nothing]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:48, Arachin 30a, Kid. 20b; Sifthei Chachamim]   דֵּי הָשִׁיב לוֹ: מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵינוֹ גוֹאֵל לַחֲצָאִין (ספרא; ערכין ל'):
until the Jubilee year: [i.e., until, but not including the Jubilee year (Torath Kohanim 25:50; Mizrachi), and hence the purchaser] must not at all enter the Jubilee year [while in possession of the field,] because the Jubilee year releases [the field from his possession] at its very onset. — [Arachin 28b and Rashi there]   עַד שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל: שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לְתוֹךְ אוֹתָהּ שָׁנָה כְּלוּם, שֶׁהַיּוֹבֵל מְשַׁמֵּט בִּתְחִלָּתוֹ (ספרא; ערכין כ"ח):

Third Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 25

29And when a man sells a residential house in a walled city, its redemption may take place until the completion of the year of its sale. Its [period of] redemption shall be a full year.   כטוְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יִמְכֹּ֤ר בֵּֽית־מוֹשַׁב֙ עִ֣יר חוֹמָ֔ה וְהָֽיְתָה֙ גְּאֻלָּת֔וֹ עַד־תֹּ֖ם שְׁנַ֣ת מִמְכָּר֑וֹ יָמִ֖ים תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה גְאֻלָּתֽוֹ:
a residential house in a walled city: A house (בֵּית) within a city (עִיר) surrounded by a wall (חוֹמָה) since the days of Joshua the son of Nun. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:53, Arachin 32a, b]   בֵּֽית־מוֹשַׁב עִיר חוֹמָה: בַּיִת בְּתוֹךְ עִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה מִימוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן (ספרא):
its redemption may take place [until the completion of the year of its sale]: Since regarding a field, Scripture states that one may redeem it whenever one wishes after two years have elapsed [since the date of sale] and onwards [until Jubilee] and that within the first two years [following the sale] one may not redeem it, [Scripture found] it necessary to specify that in this case, the opposite applies, namely, that if one wishes to redeem it within the first year [following the sale], one may redeem it, while after that, one may not redeem it.   וְהָֽיְתָה גְּאֻלָּתוֹ: לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּשָׂדֶה שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְגָאֳלָהּ מִשְּׁתֵי שָׁנִים וָאֵילָךְ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, וּבְתוֹךְ שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְגָאֳלָהּ, הֻצְרַךְ לְפָרֵט בָּזֶה שֶׁהוּא חִלּוּף — שֶׁאִם רָצָה לִגְאֹל בְּשָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה גּוֹאֲלָהּ, וּלְאַחַר מִכָּאן אֵינוֹ גוֹאֲלָהּ:
its [period of] redemption shall be: [I.e., the redemption] of the house, [not the redemption of the sale or the redemption of the seller.] - [Mizrachi, Sefer Hazikkaron]   וְהָֽיְתָה גְּאֻלָּתוֹ: שֶׁל בַּיִת:
a full year: Heb. יָמִים, [lit., “days,”]. The days of a full year, are called יָמִים. Likewise, “Let the maiden stay with us a year (יָמִים)” (Gen. 24:55).   יָמִים: יְמֵי שָׁנָה שְׁלֵמָה קְרוּיִים יָמִים, וְכֵן "תֵּשֵׁב הַנַּעֲרָה אִתָּנוּ יָמִים" (בראשית כ"ד):
30But if it is not redeemed by the end of a complete year, then that house which is in the city that has a wall, shall remain permanently [the property] of the one who purchased it throughout his generations. It will not leave [his possession] in the Jubilee.   לוְאִ֣ם לֹֽא־יִגָּאֵ֗ל עַד־מְלֹ֣את לוֹ֘ שָׁנָ֣ה תְמִימָה֒ וְ֠קָ֠ם הַבַּ֨יִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִ֜יר אֲשֶׁר־ל֣וֹ (כתיב אשר־לא) חֹמָ֗ה לַצְּמִיתֻ֛ת לַקֹּנֶ֥ה אֹת֖וֹ לְדֹֽרֹתָ֑יו לֹ֥א יֵצֵ֖א בַּיֹּבֵֽל:
then that house…shall remain permanently: It shall leave the jurisdiction of the seller, and remain under the jurisdiction of the purchaser.   וְקָם הַבַּיִת … צמיתת: יָצָא מִכֹּחוֹ שֶׁל מוֹכֵר וְעוֹמֵד בְּכֹחוֹ שֶׁל קוֹנֶה:
that has a wall: Heb. אֲשֶׁר לֹא חֹמָה, [meaning “which has no wall”]. [However, Oral Tradition teaches us that] we read לוֹ, [meaning “to him” or “to it,” [hence, “a city that has a wall”]. Our Rabbis of blessed memory said: [The written version of this phrase namely, בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לֹא חֹמָה teaches us that] even if [the city] does not (לֹא) have a wall now, since it had one before [from the days of Joshua, the laws of our passage still apply to it]. — [Arachin 32a] [Since the word] עִיר is grammatically feminine, Scripture should have written בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר לָהּ חֹמָה, [לָהּ being the feminine form of “to it”]. However, since לֹא had to be written inside [i.e., in the written text of the Torah, our Rabbis] set this word to be read according to the Oral Tradition as לוֹ, because they match [in pronunciation, unlike לָהּ].   אֲשֶׁר־לֹֽא־חֹמָה: "לוֹ" קָרֵינָן, אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִ"לִ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ עַכְשָׁיו הוֹאִיל וְהָיְתָה לוֹ קֹדֶם לָכֵן; וְעִיר נְקֵבָה הִיא, וְהֻצְרַךְ לִכְתֹּב "לָהּ", אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִכְתֹּב "לֹא" בִּפְנִים, תִּקְּנוּ "לוֹ" בַּמָּסֹרֶת — זֶה נוֹפֵל עַל זֶה:
It shall not leave [his possession] in the Jubilee: [What does this phrase teach us? It has already stated that the house becomes the permanent property of the purchaser.] Said Rabbi Safra: [Even] if the Jubilee year occurs within the first year [of the sale,] it shall not leave [his possession without redemption]. — [Arachin 31b]   לֹֽא־יֵצֵא בַּיֹּבֵֽל: אָמַר רַב סַפְרָא אִם פָּגַע בּוֹ יוֹבֵל בְּתוֹךְ שְׁנָתוֹ לֹא יֵצֵא (עי' ערכין ל"א):
31But houses in open cities, which do not have a wall surrounding them, are to be considered as the field of the land. It may have redemption and shall leave [the purchaser's possession] in the Jubilee.   לאוּבָתֵּ֣י הַֽחֲצֵרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵֽין־לָהֶ֤ם חֹמָה֙ סָבִ֔יב עַל־שְׂדֵ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ יֵֽחָשֵׁ֑ב גְּאֻלָּה֙ תִּֽהְיֶה־לּ֔וֹ וּבַיֹּבֵ֖ל יֵצֵֽא:
But houses in open cities: Heb. הַחֲצֵרִים, [to be understood] as it is rendered by the Targum [Onkelos, namely]: פַצִיחַיָא, meaning open towns, without a wall. There are many [instances of this term] in the Book of Joshua, [for example in the verse] (13:28),“the cities and their open towns (וְחַצְרֵיהֶם) ”; [likewise in the verse], “in their open cities (בְּחַצְרֵיהֶם) and in their walled cities” (Gen. 25:16).   וּבָתֵּי הַֽחֲצֵרִים: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "פַּצְחִין" — עֲיָרוֹת פְּתוּחוֹת מֵאֵין חוֹמָה, וְיֵשׁ הַרְבֵּה בְּסֵפֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, "הֶעָרִים וְחַצְרֵיהֶם" (יהושע י"ג), "בְּחַצְרֵיהֶם וּבְטִירֹתָם" (בראשית כ"ה):
[But houses in open cities…] are to be considered as the field of the land: They are like fields, which may be redeemed until the Jubilee and leave [the possession of the purchaser, reverting] to the [original] owners in the Jubilee if they had not been redeemed [until then].   עַל־שְׂדֵה הָאָרֶץ יֵֽחָשֵׁב: הֲרֵי הֵן כְּשָׂדוֹת, הַנִּגְאָלִים עַד הַיּוֹבֵל וְיוֹצְאִין בַּיּוֹבֵל לַבְּעָלִים אִם לֹא נִגְאֲלוּ:
It may have redemption: immediately, if one wishes [to redeem it]. And by virtue of this element, they have a greater advantage [to the original owner] than do fields, since fields may not be redeemed until two years have elapsed [since the sale (see Rashi on verse 15 above)]. — [Arachin 33a]   גְּאֻלָּה תִּֽהְיֶה־לּוֹ: מִיָּד, אִם יִרְצֶה, וּבָזֶה יָפֶה כֹחוֹ מִכֹּחַ שָׂדוֹת, שֶׁהַשָּׂדוֹת אֵין נִגְאֲלוֹת עַד שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים (ערכין ל"ג):
and shall leave [the purchaser’s possession] in the Jubilee: without payment [for regarding fields, which are required to remain with the purchaser for two years (see Rashi on verse 15 above), if the Jubilee occurs after only one year has elapsed from the sale, then the field reverts to the owner for the Jubilee year, but the purchaser takes it back for one more year afterwards (Arachin 29b). In the case of houses in open cities, however, even if the Jubilee occurs after only one year, the house reverts to the original owner, without any payment.] - [Sifthei Chachamim].   וּבַיֹּבֵל יֵצֵֽא: בְּחִנָּם:
32And, [regarding] the cities of the Levites, the houses of their inherited cities shall forever have a [right of] redemption for the Levites.   לבוְעָרֵי֙ הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם בָּתֵּ֖י עָרֵ֣י אֲחֻזָּתָ֑ם גְּאֻלַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
And [regarding] the cities of the Levites: [namely,] the forty-eight cities that were given to the Levites (see Num. 35:7).   וְעָרֵי הַֽלְוִיִּם: אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה עִיר שֶׁנִתְּנוּ לָהֶם:
shall forever have a [right of] redemption: [If a Levite] sells a field of one of their fields that were given to them in the two-thousand cubits surrounding the cities (see Num. 35:45), he may redeem it immediately, even before two years have elapsed [since the sale]. And if he sells a house in a walled city, he may always redeem it, and the house is not transferred permanently [to the purchaser] at the end of the [first] year [after the sale, as opposed to the case of a non-Levite owner]. — [Arachin 33b]   גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם: גּוֹאֵל מִיָּד, אֲפִלּוּ לִפְנֵי שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, אִם מָכְרוּ שָׂדֶה מִשְּׂדוֹתֵיהֶם הַנְּתוּנוֹת לָהֶם בְּאַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה סְבִיבוֹת הֶעָרִים, אוֹ אִם מָכְרוּ בַיִת בְּעִיר חוֹמָה, גּוֹאֲלִין לְעוֹלָם וְאֵינוֹ חָלוּט לְסוֹף שָׁנָה (שם):
33And if one purchases from the Levites, whether a house or an inherited city, will leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee, because the houses of the cities of the Levites, are their inherited property amidst the children of Israel.   לגוַֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר יִגְאַל֙ מִן־הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם וְיָצָ֧א מִמְכַּר־בַּ֛יִת וְעִ֥יר אֲחֻזָּת֖וֹ בַּיֹּבֵ֑ל כִּ֣י בָתֵּ֞י עָרֵ֣י הַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם הִ֚וא אֲחֻזָּתָ֔ם בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And if one purchases from the Levites: And if someone buys (יִגְאַל) a house or a city from them.   וַֽאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן־הַֽלְוִיִּם: וְאִם יִקְנֶה בַיִת אוֹ עִיר מֵהֶם:
shall leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee: It will leave in Jubilee, i.e., the sale of that house or city [will leave the possession of that purchaser], and will revert to the Levite who sold it. And it will not be transferred permanently [to the purchaser] like other houses in a walled city owned by an Israelite. Thus, this expression of גְּאֻלָּה [usually meaning “redemption”], here means “purchase.” Another explanation: [keeping the usual meaning of גְּאֻלָּה, namely, “redemption”]: Since it is said, “the Levites will forever have a [right of] redemption,” one might assume that Scripture is speaking only of a non-Levite who purchased a house in the Levitic cities [and that the Levite owner may always redeem this house], but if a Levite purchased from another Levite, it would be transferred permanently, Therefore, Scripture says here, “And if one redeems (יִגְאַל) from the Levites”-i.e., even when a Levite redeems from a Levite, [still the owner,] “will forever have a [right of] redemption.” - [Torath Kohanim 25:66]   וְיֵצֵא בַיּוֹבֵל: אוֹתוֹ מִמְכָּר שֶׁל בַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁל עִיר וְיָשׁוּב לַלֵּוִי שֶׁמְּכָרוֹ, וְלֹא יִהְיֶה חָלוּט כִּשְׁאָר בָּתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּגְאֻלָּה זוֹ לְשׁוֹן מְכִירָה; דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לַלְוִיִּם, יָכוֹל לֹא דִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא בְּלוֹקֵחַ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁקָּנָה בַיִת בְּעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם, אֲבָל לֵוִי שֶׁקָּנָה מִלֵּוִי, יִהְיֶה חָלוּט, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם — אַף הַגּוֹאֵל מִיַּד לֵוִי גּוֹאֵל גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם:
the house... shall leave [the possession of the purchaser] in the Jubilee: [According to Rashi’s first explanation of וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם, the verse continues to state that the house purchased by a non-Levite “will leave (the possession of the purchaser) in the Jubilee,” as above. However, according to the alternative explanation, where this first phrase וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן הַלְוִיִּם independently teaches us about a Levite purchaser, the second phrase here, namely, “will leave (the possession of the purchaser) in the Jubilee”] this is a separate commandment, namely, that if the Levite owner] did not redeem the house, it leaves [the possession of the purchaser] in Jubilee and does not transfer permanently [to the purchaser] at the end of a year, like the house of an Israelite.   וְיָצָא מִמְכַּר־בַּיִת: הֲרֵי זוֹ מִצְוָה אַחֶרֶת, וְאִם לֹא גְאָלָהּ, יוֹצְאָה בַיּוֹבֵל וְאֵינוֹ נֶחְלָט לְסוֹף שָׁנָה כְּבַיִת שֶׁל יִשְֹרָאֵל:
because the houses of the cities of the Levites are their inherited property: They did not have an inheritance of fields and vineyards, but cities to live in and their open areas (see Num. 35:18). Therefore, these [cities and their open areas,] are to be considered for them [as their inheritance] in place of fields. Consequently, they have the same redemption [rights] as do fields [of non-Levites and also, this property reverts to them in Jubilee (Sifthei Chachamim). All this,] so that their inheritance never be removed from them.   כִּי בָתֵּי עָרֵי הַֽלְוִיִּם הִוא אֲחֻזָּתָם: לֹא הָיָה לָהֶם נַחֲלַת שָׂדוֹת וּכְרָמִים, אֶלָּא עָרִים לָשֶׁבֶת וּמִגְרְשֵׁיהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ הֵם לָהֶם בִּמְקוֹם שָׂדוֹת, וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם גְּאֻלָּה כְשָׂדוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תֻּפְקַע נַחֲלָתָם מֵהֶם:
34And a field in the open areas of their cities cannot be sold, because it is their eternal inheritance.   לדוּֽשֲׂדֵ֛ה מִגְרַ֥שׁ עָֽרֵיהֶ֖ם לֹ֣א יִמָּכֵ֑ר כִּֽי־אֲחֻזַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם ה֖וּא לָהֶֽם:
And a field in the open areas of their cities cannot be sold: by the [Temple] treasurer. I.e., if a Levite consecrated his field and did not redeem it, and the treasurer sold it, in the Jubilee, the field does not leave [the possession of the purchaser] and [“revert”] to the kohanim, as it is said concerning [a field originally owned by] an Israelite, “and if he sold the field to another man-it may no longer be redeemed.” (Lev. 27:20). But a Levite may always redeem [his field]. - [Torath Kohanim 25:70]   וּֽשֲׂדֵה מִגְרַשׁ עָֽרֵיהֶם לֹא יִמָּכֵר: מֶכֶר גִּזְבָּר, שֶׁאִם הִקְדִּישׁ בֶּן לֵוִי אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ וְלֹא גְאָלָהּ וּמְכָרָהּ גִּזְבָּר, אֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה לַכֹּהֲנִים בַּיּוֹבֵל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם מָכַר אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה לְאִישׁ אַחֵר לֹא יִגָּאֵל עוֹד (ויקרא כ"ז), אֲבָל בֶּן לֵוִי גּוֹאֵל לְעוֹלָם:
35If your brother becomes destitute and his hand falters beside you, you shall support him [whether] a convert or a resident, so that he can live with you.   להוְכִֽי־יָמ֣וּךְ אָחִ֔יךָ וּמָ֥טָה יָד֖וֹ עִמָּ֑ךְ וְהֶֽחֱזַ֣קְתָּ בּ֔וֹ גֵּ֧ר וְתוֹשָׁ֛ב וָחַ֖י עִמָּֽךְ:
you shall support him: Do not allow him to fall down and collapse altogether, in which case it would be difficult to pick him up again [from his dire poverty]. Rather, “support him” while his hand is still faltering [for then it is easier to help him out of his trouble]. To what can this be compared? To a load on a donkey-while it is still on the donkey, one person can grasp it and hold it in place. Once it falls to the ground, however, [even] five people cannot pick it up. - [Torath Kohanim 25:71]   וְהֶֽחֱזַקְתָּ בּוֹ: אַל תַּנִּיחֵהוּ שֶׁיֵּרֵד וְיִפֹּל וְיִהְיֶה קָשֶׁה לַהֲקִימוֹ, אֶלָּא חַזְּקֵהוּ מִשְּׁעַת מוֹטַת הַיָּד; לְמָה זֶה דוֹמֶה? לְמַשּׂאוֹי שֶׁעַל הַחֲמוֹר, עוֹדֵהוּ עַל הַחֲמוֹר אֶחָד תּוֹפֵס בּוֹ וּמַעֲמִידוֹ, נָפַל לָאָרֶץ, חֲמִשָּׁה אֵין מַעֲמִידִין אוֹתוֹ:
a convert or a resident: Even if he is a convert (גֵּר) or a “resident (תוֹשָׁב).” And what is a “resident”? Any [non-Jew] who has accepted upon himself not to worship idols, but eats carrion. - [Torath Kohanim 25:72; and compare Rashi verse 47] [These people are called “residents,” as they are permitted to reside permanently in the land of Israel (Rambam A.Z. 10:6).]   גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב: אַף אִם הוּא גֵּר אוֹ תוֹשָׁב; וְאֵיזֶהוּ תוֹשָׁב? כָּל שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְאוֹכֵל נְבֵלוֹת (עי' ספרא):
36You shall not take from him interest or increase, and you shall fear your God, and let your brother live with you.   לואַל־תִּקַּ֤ח מֵֽאִתּוֹ֙ נֶ֣שֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּ֔ית וְיָרֵ֖אתָ מֵֽאֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְחֵ֥י אָחִ֖יךָ עִמָּֽךְ:
interest or increase: The Rabbis regard these as one, [but the Torah uses two terms so that one who takes interest transgresses thereby two negative commandments. — [B.M. 60b]   נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית: חַד שַׁוִּינְהוּ רַבָּנָן, וְלַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בִּשְׁנֵי לָאוִין (בבא מציעא ס'):
and you shall fear your God: A person’s desire is naturally attracted to [taking] interest, and it is difficult to stay away from it, for he [rationalizes and] grants himself [false] permission because of his money which was lying idle while in his [the debtor’s] hands. [Therefore, Scripture] found it necessary to state here “and you shall fear your God.” Or if someone ascribes his money to a non-Jew in order to lend it to a Jew with interest. This is a matter held [secretly] in a man’s heart and thought. Therefore, Scripture deems it necessary to state, “and you shall fear your God” [Who is privy to all inner thoughts]. — [B.M. 61b]   וְיָרֵאתָ מֵֽאֱלֹהֶיךָ: לְפִי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם נִמְשֶׁכֶת אַחַר הָרִבִּית, וְקָשֶׁה לִפְרֹשׁ הֵימֶנּוּ, וּמוֹרֶה לְעַצְמוֹ הֶתֵּר בִּשְׁבִיל מְעוֹתָיו שֶׁהָיוּ בְטֵלוֹת אֶצְלוֹ, הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ, אוֹ הַתּוֹלֶה מְעוֹתָיו בְּגוֹי כְּדֵי לְהַלְווֹתָם לְיִשְֹרָאֵל בְּרִבִּית, הֲרֵי זֶה דָבָר הַמָּסוּר לְלִבּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם וּמַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ, לְכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ (שם ס"א):
37You shall not give him your money with interest, nor shall you give your food with increase.   לזאֶת־כַּ֨סְפְּךָ֔ לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֥ן ל֖וֹ בְּנֶ֑שֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּ֖ית לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֥ן אָכְלֶֽךָ:
38I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be a God to you.   לחאֲנִ֗י יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם לָתֵ֤ת לָכֶם֙ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן לִֽהְי֥וֹת לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִֽים:
Who took [you] out [of the land of Egypt]: and I distinguished between a firstborn [Egyptian] and a non-firstborn [in the plague of the firstborn, which preceded Israel’s Exodus (see Exod. 12:29-42)]I am also capable of discerning and exacting punishment from someone who lends money to his fellow Jew with interest and says, “It belongs to a non-Jew!” - [B.M. 61b] Another explanation: [In effect, God is saying, “I am the Lord, your God] Who took you out from the land of Egypt” on the condition that you keep My commandments-even if they are difficult for you. - [see Rashi on verse 36 above; see Torath Kohanim 25:77]   אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי וגו': וְהִבְחַנְתִּי בֵין בְּכוֹר לְשֶׁאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר, אַף אֲנִי יוֹדֵעַ וְנִפְרָע מִן הַמַּלְוֶה מָעוֹת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרִבִּית וְאוֹמֵר שֶׁל גּוֹי הֵם; דָּבָר אַחֵר: אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם עַל מְנָת שֶׁתְּקַבְּלוּ עֲלֵיכֶם מִצְוֹתַי, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן כְּבֵדוֹת עֲלֵיכֶם:
to give you the land of Canaan: As a reward for accepting My commandments.   לָתֵת לָכֶם אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן: בִּשְׂכַר שֶׁתְּקַבְּלוּ מִצְוֹתַי:
[To give you the land of Canaan,] to be a God to you: for I am a God to anyone who lives in the land of Israel, but anyone who leaves it [without halachic permission] is like one who worships idols. — [Torath Kohanim 25:77; Keth. 110b]   לִֽהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵֽאלֹהִֽים: שֶׁכָּל הַדָּר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי לוֹ לֵאלֹהִים וְכָל הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנָּה כְּעוֹבֵד עַ"זָ (ספרא; כתובות ק"י):

Fourth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 25

39And if your brother becomes destitute with you, and is sold to you, do not work him with slave labor.   לטוְכִֽי־יָמ֥וּךְ אָחִ֛יךָ עִמָּ֖ךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָ֑ךְ לֹא־תַֽעֲבֹ֥ד בּ֖וֹ עֲבֹ֥דַת עָֽבֶד:
slave labor: Degrading work, through which he is made to look like a slave (עֶבֶד), e.g., he must not carry his clothes after him to the bathhouse, or put on his shoes for him. — [Torath Kohanim 25:80]   עֲבֹדַת עָֽבֶד: עֲבוֹדָה שֶׁל גְּנַאי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִכָּר בָּהּ כְּעֶבֶד, שֶׁלֹּא יוֹלִיךְ כֵּלָיו אַחֲרָיו לְבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ וְלֹא יַנְעִיל לוֹ מִנְעָלָיו (עי' ספרא):
40As an employee or a [hired] resident, he shall be with you; until the Jubilee year he shall work with you.   מכְּשָׂכִ֥יר כְּתוֹשָׁ֖ב יִֽהְיֶ֣ה עִמָּ֑ךְ עַד־שְׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַֽעֲבֹ֥ד עִמָּֽךְ:
As an employee or a [hired] resident: [Give him dignified jobs, e.g.,] work in agriculture and craftsmanship; treat him like other employees.   כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתוֹשָׁב: עֲבוֹדַת קַרְקַע וּמְלֶאכֶת אֻמָּנוּת כִּשְׁאָר שְׂכִירִים הִתְנַהֵג בּוֹ:
until the Jubilee year: i.e., if the Jubilee year occurs before the six years [of his servitude have elapsed (see Exod. 21:2)], the Jubilee [immediately] takes him out [of servitude].   עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל: אִם פָּגַע בּוֹ יוֹבֵל לִפְנֵי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים הַיּוֹבֵל מוֹצִיאוֹ:
41Then, he shall leave you he, and his children with him, and he shall return to his family and resume the status of his fathers.   מאוְיָצָא֙ מֵֽעִמָּ֔ךְ ה֖וּא וּבָנָ֣יו עִמּ֑וֹ וְשָׁב֙ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּ֔וֹ וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּ֥ת אֲבֹתָ֖יו יָשֽׁוּב:
he, and his children with him: Says Rabbi Simeon: If he was sold, who sold his children [that Scripture states that his children go free with him]? However, from here, [we learn] that his master is obligated to provide food for his children [and, in this sense, they are released with their father]. — [Kid. 22a]   הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ: אָמַר רַ' שִׁמְעוֹן אִם הוּא נִמְכַּר, בָּנָיו מִי מְכָרָן? אֶלָּא מִכָּאן שֶׁרַבּוֹ חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹת בָּנָיו (קידושין כ"ב):
the status of his fathers: To his fathers’ [former] honor, and he must not be degraded for it [i.e., for having been a servant]. - [Mak. 13a and Rashi there] [Thus,] אֲחֻזַּת - [means here:] “The status of.” - [Mak. 13a and Rashi there]   וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו: אֶל כְּבוֹד אֲבוֹתָיו, וְאֵין לְזַלְזְלוֹ בְּכָךְ (ספרא; מכילתא י"ג):
42For they are My servants, whom I brought out of the land of Egypt they shall not be sold as a slave is sold.   מבכִּֽי־עֲבָדַ֣י הֵ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם לֹ֥א יִמָּֽכְר֖וּ מִמְכֶּ֥רֶת עָֽבֶד:
For they are My servants: My contract came first. - [Torath Kohanim 25:85]   כִּֽי־עֲבָדַי הֵם: שְׁטָרִי קוֹדֵם (ספרא):
They shall not be sold in the way a slave is sold: namely, by public announcement, saying: “Here is a slave for sale!” Neither may they stand him up on an auctioning block [for public sale]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:85]   לֹא יִמָּֽכְרוּ מִמְכֶּרֶת עָֽבֶד: בְּהַכְרָזָה — "כָּאן יֵשׁ עֶבֶד לִמְכֹּר" וְלֹא יַעֲמִידֶנּוּ עַל אֶבֶן הַלֶּקַח (ספרא):
43You shall not work him with rigor, and you shall fear your God.   מגלֹֽא־תִרְדֶּ֥ה ב֖וֹ בְּפָ֑רֶךְ וְיָרֵ֖אתָ מֵֽאֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
You shall not enslave him through rigor: Unnecessary jobs, for the purpose of tormenting him. E.g., do not say to him: “Warm up this drink for me,” when you do not need it; or “Hoe under this vine until I come back” [and you may never come back there (Sifthei Chachamim on verse 53)]. Perhaps you will say, “No one really knows whether it is necessary or not, and I say that it is necessary!” This matter is held [secretly] in a man’s heart [for no one knows his true intentions]. Therefore, Scripture states, “and you shall fear [your God” for He is privy to all inner thoughts]. — [Torath Kohanim 25: 86]   לֹֽא־תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ: מְלָאכָה שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ, כְּדֵי לְעַנּוֹתוֹ, אַל תֹּאמַר לוֹ, הָחֵם לִי אֶת הַכּוֹס הַזֶּה וְהוּא אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ, עֲדֹר תַּחַת הַגֶּפֶן עַד שֶׁאָבֹא; שֶׁמָּא תֹאמַר אֵין מַכִּיר בַּדָּבָר אִם לְצֹרֶךְ אִם לָאו, וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי לוֹ שֶׁהוּא לְצֹרֶךְ, הֲרֵי הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה מָסוּר לְלִבּוֹ, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר "וְיָרֵאתָ" (שם):
44Your male slave or female slave whom you may have from the nations that are around you, from them you may acquire a male slave or a female slave.   מדוְעַבְדְּךָ֥ וַֽאֲמָֽתְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִֽהְיוּ־לָ֑ךְ מֵאֵ֣ת הַגּוֹיִ֗ם אֲשֶׁר֙ סְבִיבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם מֵהֶ֥ם תִּקְנ֖וּ עֶ֥בֶד וְאָמָֽה:
Your male slave or female slave that you have: If you say, “If so [that I may give my Jewish servant only skilled labor to do,] by whom shall I be served? Over my [Jewish] servants I do not have real power [as I must treat them like hired employees (see verse 40 above)]. Of the seven nations I am not allowed to possess [a slave], for You have warned me, ‘you shall not allow any soul to live’ (Deut. 20:16), So who will serve me [as a slave]?” [To this, God answers:]   וְעַבְדְּךָ וַֽאֲמָֽתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יִֽהְיוּ־לָךְ: אִם תֹּאמַר אִם כֵּן בְּמָה אֶשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ? בַּעֲבָדַי אֵינִי מוֹשֵׁל, בָּאֻמּוֹת אֵינִי נוֹחֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי הִזְהַרְתַּנִי לֹא תְחַיֶּה כָּל נְשָׁמָה, אֶלָּא מִי יְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי?
from the nations: They will be slaves for you.   מֵאֵת הַגּוֹיִם: הֵם יִהְיוּ לְךָ לַעֲבָדִים (שם):
that are around you: But not from those [seven Canaanite nations] that are within the borders of your land, for indeed, regarding them, I said, “you shall not allow any soul to live” (Deut. 20:16).   אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֵיכֶם: וְלֹא שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ גְּבוּל אַרְצְכֶם, שֶׁהֲרֵי בָהֶם אָמַרְתִּי לֹא תְחַיֶּה כָּל נְשָׁמָה:
45And also from the children of the residents that live among you, from them you may acquire [slaves] and from their family that is with you whom they begot in your land, and they shall become your inheritance.   מהוְ֠גַ֠ם מִבְּנֵ֨י הַתּֽוֹשָׁבִ֜ים הַגָּרִ֤ים עִמָּכֶם֙ מֵהֶ֣ם תִּקְנ֔וּ וּמִמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמָּכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר הוֹלִ֖ידוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶ֑ם וְהָי֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם לַֽאֲחֻזָּֽה:
And also from the children of the residents: who came from surrounding lands to marry women in your land, who subsequently bore children to them. [In these cases,] the [lineage of the] child follows the father and thus, does not fall under [the commandment of], “ you shall not allow any soul to live” (Deut. 20:16). But, you are permitted to acquire him as a slave. — [Kid. 67b]   וְגַם מִבְּנֵי הַתּֽוֹשָׁבִים: שֶׁבָּאוּ מִסְּבִיבוֹתֵיכֶם לִשָּׂא נָשִׁים בְּאַרְצְכֶם, וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם, הַבֵּן הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הָאָב, וְאֵינוֹ בִּכְלַל לֹא תְחַיֶּה, אֶלָּא אַתָּה מֻתָּר לִקְנוֹתוֹ כְּעֶבֶד (קידושין כ"ז):
from them you may acquire: [This might mean that we may acquire slaves by buying from their slaves. However, the true meaning is:] You may acquire them [i.e., the residents’ children, as slaves]. — [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 25:87]   מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ: אוֹתָם תִּקְנוּ:
46You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you, as acquired property, and may thus have them serve you forever. But as for your brethren, the children of Israel, a man shall not work his brother with rigor.   מווְהִתְנַֽחַלְתֶּ֨ם אֹתָ֜ם לִבְנֵיכֶ֤ם אַֽחֲרֵיכֶם֙ לָרֶ֣שֶׁת אֲחֻזָּ֔ה לְעֹלָ֖ם בָּהֶ֣ם תַּֽעֲבֹ֑דוּ וּבְאַ֨חֵיכֶ֤ם בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אִ֣ישׁ בְּאָחִ֔יו לֹֽא־תִרְדֶּ֥ה ב֖וֹ בְּפָֽרֶךְ:
You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children: You shall hold onto them as an inheritance for your children after you.“ But it would be incorrect to explain וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם as ”Bequeath them to your children“ [interpreting וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם as a causative,] for if so, then Scripture would have had to write וְהִנְחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם [Instead, Scripture writes:] וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם - [with the verb in the reflexive conjugation,] just like [the word] וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם [and similarly, just as וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם (in Num. 13:20) is an intransitive verb, so too, here, our verb וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם must be considered not to be causative but rather, reflexive (see preceding Rashi) and means ”You should keep them as an inheritance"]. — [Sefer Hazikkaron]   וְהִתְנַֽחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם: הַחֲזִיקוּ בָהֶם לְנַחֲלָה לְצֹרֶךְ בְּנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם; וְלֹא יִתָּכֵן לְפָרֵשׁ הַנְחִילוּם לִבְנֵיכֶם, שֶׁאִם כֵּן הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב "וְהִנְחַלְתֶּם" אוֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם, וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם כְּמוֹ וְהִתְחַזַּקְתֶּם:
[But as for… children of Israel,] a man [shall not work] his brother [with rigor]: [But has this prohibition regarding a Jewish servant not already been stated in verse 43 above?- [Mizrachi] It is repeated here,] to include [in the prohibition] a leader over his people and a king over his attendants, i.e., that these [rulers] must not work with rigor. — see Be’er Basadeh]   אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו: לְהָבִיא נָשִׂיא בְעַמָּיו וּמֶלֶךְ בִּמְשָׁרְתָיו שֶׁלֹּא לִרְדּוֹת בְּפָרֶךְ:
47If a resident non Jew gains wealth with you, and your brother becomes destitute with him and is sold to a resident non Jew among you or to an idol of the family of a non Jew.   מזוְכִ֣י תַשִּׂ֗יג יַ֣ד גֵּ֤ר וְתוֹשָׁב֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ וּמָ֥ךְ אָחִ֖יךָ עִמּ֑וֹ וְנִמְכַּ֗ר לְגֵ֤ר תּוֹשָׁב֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ א֥וֹ לְעֵ֖קֶר מִשְׁפַּ֥חַת גֵּֽר:
a resident non-Jew: Heb. גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב. A stranger (גֵּר) who is a resident (תּוֹשָׁב),“ [stranger here meaning non-Jew,] just as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: עֲרַל תּוֹתָב, an uncircumcised resident. And the end [of the verse] proves [that it is one person, when it continues:] וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב [without a "vav"].   יַד גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב: גֵּר וְהוּא תוֹשָׁב, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ עָרֵל תוֹתָב, וְסוֹפוֹ מוֹכִיח — וְנִמְכַּר "לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב":
If a resident non-Jew gains wealth with you: What caused him to become wealthy? His connection with you. [He gained wealth through the blessing of the Jewish people]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   וְכִי תַשִּׂיג יַד גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ: מִי גָּרַם לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשִׁיר? דִּבּוּקוֹ עִמְּךָ.
and your brother becomes destitute with him: What caused his destitution? His connection with him, because he learned from his deeds. — [Torath Kohanim 25:93]   וּמָךְ אָחִיךָ עִמּוֹ: מִי גָּרַם לוֹ שֶׁיָּמוּךְ? דִּבּוּקוֹ עִמּוֹ, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁלָּמַד מִמַּעֲשָׂיו:
the family of a non-Jew: [Without the word לְעֵקֶר,] this [expression] means [the Jew is sold to] an idolater; but when Scripture says לְעֵקֶר [literally “to uproot,” making it לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר], it refers to [a Jew] who is sold to the idol itself [לְעֵקֶר meaning “that which is to be uprooted”] - i.e., he becomes an attendant to it. He does not worship it as a deity, but to chop wood and draw water. — [Torath Kohanim 25:94]   מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר: זֶה הַגּוֹי, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר לְעֵקֶר, זֶה הַנִּמְכָּר לְעֲ"זַ עַצְמָהּ, לִהְיוֹת לָהּ שַׁמָּשׁ, וְלֹא לֶאֱלֹהוּת אֶלָּא לַחֲטֹב עֵצִים וְלִשְׁאֹב מַיִם (ספרא; בבא קמא קי"ג):
48After he is sold, he shall have redemption; one of his brothers shall redeem him.   מחאַֽחֲרֵ֣י נִמְכַּ֔ר גְּאֻלָּ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶה־לּ֑וֹ אֶחָ֥ד מֵֽאֶחָ֖יו יִגְאָלֶֽנּוּ:
he shall have redemption: immediately. Do not allow him to become assimilated [Sifthei Chachamim ; Torath Kohanim 25:95] until the Jubilee year. For the purchaser’s sole purpose here was to acquire this man so that he would serve him until the Jubilee, for [the servant] goes free in the Jubilee, as is stated below, “[And if he has not been redeemed…] he shall go out in the Jubilee year” (verse 54). [Obviously], Scripture is speaking of a non-Jew who is under the jurisdiction of Israel [and therefore obeys the law to free his slave in the Jubilee year]. Nevertheless, you shall not cheat him, because [this may cause] a desecration of God’s Name, but, when [the servant] is to be redeemed, he must be meticulous in his calculation, according to what is due for each year, and the non-Jew should then deduct this amount from his price. If there were twenty years since he was sold, until the Jubilee, and he had purchased him for twenty manehs -it turns out that the non-Jew had purchased each year’s work for a maneh . Now, if this [Jewish servant] had already spent five years with him, and he comes to be redeemed, he [the non-Jew] must deduct five manehs, and the servant must give him fifteen manehs. This, then, is the meaning of: “then, the purchase price shall be divided by the number of years” [in order to determine the annual hiring rate, as above]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:103; B.K. 113b]   גְּאֻלָּה תִּֽהְיֶה־לּוֹ: מִיָּד, אַל תַּנִּיחֵהוּ שֶׁיִּטָּמַע, עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל שֶׁהֲרֵי כָל עַצְמוֹ לֹא קְנָאוֹ אֶלָּא לְעָבְדוֹ עַד הַיּוֹבֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי בַיּוֹבֵל יֵצֵא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְמַטָּה וְיָצָא בִּשְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל; וּבְגוֹי שֶׁתַּחַת יָדְךָ הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר (ספרא; קידושין ט"ז), וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא תָבֹא עָלָיו בַּעֲקִיפִין מִפְּנֵי חִלּוּל הַשֵּׁם (בבא קמא קי"ג), אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁבָּא לִגָּאֵל, יְדַקְדֵּק בַּחֶשְׁבּוֹן, לְפִי הַמַּגִּיעַ בְּכָל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה יְנַכֶּה לוֹ הַגּוֹי מִן דָּמָיו, אִם הָיוּ עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה מִשֶּׁנִמְכַּר עַד הַיּוֹבֵל, וּקְנָאוֹ בְּעֶשְׂרִים מָנֶה, נִמְצָא שֶׁקָּנָה הַגּוֹי עֲבוֹדַת שָׁנָה בְּמָנֶה, וְאִם שָׁהָה זֶה אֶצְלוֹ חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים, וּבָא לִגָּאֵל, יְנַכֶּה לוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה מָנִים, וְיִתֵּן לוֹ הָעֶבֶד ט"ו מָנִים, וְזֶהוּ והיה כסף ממכרו במספר שנים:
49Or his uncle or his cousin shall redeem him, or the closest [other] relative from his family shall redeem him; or, if he becomes able to afford it, he can be redeemed [on his own].   מטאֽוֹ־דֹד֞וֹ א֤וֹ בֶן־דֹּדוֹ֙ יִגְאָלֶ֔נּוּ אֽוֹ־מִשְּׁאֵ֧ר בְּשָׂר֛וֹ מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּ֖וֹ יִגְאָלֶ֑נּוּ אֽוֹ־הִשִּׂ֥יגָה יָד֖וֹ וְנִגְאָֽל:
50He shall calculate with his purchaser [the number of years] from the year of his being sold to him until the Jubilee year; then, the purchase price shall be [divided] by the number of years; as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him.   נוְחִשַּׁב֙ עִם־קֹנֵ֔הוּ מִשְּׁנַת֙ הִמָּ֣כְרוֹ ל֔וֹ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְהָיָ֞ה כֶּ֤סֶף מִמְכָּרוֹ֙ בְּמִסְפַּ֣ר שָׁנִ֔ים כִּימֵ֥י שָׂכִ֖יר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה עִמּֽוֹ:
as the days of a hired worker, he shall be with him: He shall calculate the amount [of money] resulting for each year, “as if he had been employed by him for a maneh annually,” and he [the non-Jew] should then deduct it for him, [as explained in the preceding Rashi].   כִּימֵי שָׂכִיר יִֽהְיֶה עִמּֽוֹ: — חֶשְׁבּוֹן הַמַּגִּיעַ לְכָל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה יַחֲשֹׁב, כְּאִלּוּ נִשְׂכַּר עִמּוֹ כָּל שָׁנָה בְּמָנֶה, וִינַכֶּה לוֹ:
51If there are still many years, according to them, he shall return his redemption [money] out of the money for which he was purchased.   נאאִם־ע֥וֹד רַבּ֖וֹת בַּשָּׁנִ֑ים לְפִיהֶן֙ יָשִׁ֣יב גְּאֻלָּת֔וֹ מִכֶּ֖סֶף מִקְנָתֽוֹ:
If there are still many years: until the Jubilee.   אִם־עוֹד רַבּוֹת בַּשָּׁנִים: עַד הַיּוֹבֵל:
according to them: Everything as I have explained.   לְפִיהֶן: הַכֹּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי:
52But if only a few years remain until the Jubilee year, he shall make the [same] calculation; according to his years [that remain until Jubilee], he shall return the redemption [money].   נבוְאִם־מְעַ֞ט נִשְׁאַ֧ר בַּשָּׁנִ֛ים עַד־שְׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל וְחִשַּׁב־ל֑וֹ כְּפִ֣י שָׁנָ֔יו יָשִׁ֖יב אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתֽוֹ:
53He shall be with him as an employee hired year by year; he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight.   נגכִּשְׂכִ֥יר שָׁנָ֛ה בְּשָׁנָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה עִמּ֑וֹ לֹֽא־יִרְדֶּ֥נּוּ בְּפֶ֖רֶךְ לְעֵינֶֽיךָ:
he shall not enslave him with rigor in your sight: That is to say, while you see this [i.e., a Jew must not see a non-Jew forcing this type of labor upon his Jewish servant without doing anything, but this is not a warning to the non-Jew (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:101]   לֹֽא־יִרְדֶּנּוּ בְּפֶרֶךְ לְעֵינֶֽיךָ: כְּלוֹמַר וְאַתָּה רוֹאֶה (ספרא):
54And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways], he shall go out in the Jubilee year he and his children with him.   נדוְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל בְּאֵ֑לֶּה וְיָצָא֙ בִּשְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֔ל ה֖וּא וּבָנָ֥יו עִמּֽוֹ:
And if he is not redeemed through [any of] these [ways]: This [Jewish servant of a non-Jew] may be redeemed [only] through “these ways” [described in the verses here], but he may not be redeemed [i.e., released] through six [years]. — [see Exod. 21:2; Kid. 15b]   וְאִם־לֹא יִגָּאֵל בְּאֵלֶּה: בְּאֵלֶּה הוּא נִגְאָל וְאֵינוֹ נִגְאָל בְּשֵׁשׁ (קידושין ט"ו):
he, and his children with him: [But are his children also sold, that Scripture finds it necessary to state here that his children go free together with him? However, we learn from here that just like a Jewish master, so too], the non-Jewish [master] is obligated to provide food for the [servant’s] children, just as an Israelite is obligated [and in this sense, they are released, along with their father]. — [Kid. 22a; see Rashi verse 41 above]   הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּֽוֹ: הַגּוֹי חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹת בָּנָיו:
55For the children of Israel are servants to Me; they are My servants, whom I took out of the land of Egypt. I am the Lord, your God.   נהכִּי־לִ֤י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ עֲבָדִ֔ים עֲבָדַ֣י הֵ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אוֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
For the children of Israel are servants to Me: “My contract came before.” [And thus, when the Jubilee arrives, the servant must be released and revert to being God’s servant rather than man’s.]- [Torath Kohanim 25:85; see Rashi verse 42 above]   כִּי־לִי בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדִים: שְׁטָרִי קוֹדֵם:
I am the Lord, your God: Whoever subjugates them below [on this earth,] is as if he subjugates [them] above [in heaven, for as long as a Jew is enslaved to another human being, he is not free to do the holy service of God Above (Be’er Basadeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 25:104]   אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם: כָּל הַמְשַׁעְבְּדָן מִלְּמַטָּה כְּאִלּוּ מְשַׁעְבְּדוֹ מִלְמַעְלָה (ספרא):

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 26

1You shall not make idols for yourselves, nor shall you set up a statue or a monument for yourselves. And in your land you shall not place a pavement stone on which to prostrate yourselves, for I am the Lord, your God.   אלֹא־תַֽעֲשׂ֨וּ לָכֶ֜ם אֱלִילִ֗ם וּפֶ֤סֶל וּמַצֵּבָה֙ לֹֽא־תָקִ֣ימוּ לָכֶ֔ם וְאֶ֣בֶן מַשְׂכִּ֗ית לֹ֤א תִתְּנוּ֙ בְּאַרְצְכֶ֔ם לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֹ֖ת עָלֶ֑יהָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
You shall not make idols for yourselves: [This] is addressed to the one who has been sold [as a servant] to a non-Jew, that he should not say, “Since my master has illicit relations, I will also be like him! Since my master worships idols, I will also be like him! Since my master desecrates the Sabbath, I will also be like him!” This is why these verses are stated here. - [Torath Kohanim 25:106]. Also, the passages [in this whole section (namely, from the beginning of Chapter 25 until the end of Behar),] are written in a meaningful order, [as follows]: At first, Scripture admonishes us to observe [the laws of] Shemittah [and Jubilee (25: 124)]; then, if one covets money and becomes suspect of [unlawfully doing business with produce of] Shemittah (Nachalath Ya’akov), he will eventually [become destitute and] have to sell his personal belongings therefore, Scripture juxtaposes to it, “And when you make a sale [to your fellow-Jew]” (25:14) (What is written therein? “or make a purchase from the hand…,” something that is transferred from hand to hand). If he still does not repent, he will eventually have to sell his ineritance (25:25). If he even then does not repent, he will eventually have to sell his home, and if even then, he does not repent, he will eventually have to borrow money with interest (verses 25:35-38). Now, the later the scenario in this passage, the more severe it is [i.e., first he sells his belongings, then his property, then his home and then even borrowing with interest which is more severe than selling one’s property; (Nachalath Ya’akov) thus, the passage continues accordingly, for] if he still does not repent, he will eventually have to sell himself [to his fellow Jew as a servant] (verses 25:39-46); and [finally,] if he has still not repented, not enough that he had to be sold to his fellow Jew - but he will [be forced to sell himself] even to a non-Jew!- [25:47-55; Kidd. 20a]   לֹא־תַֽעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אלילים: כְּנֶגֶד זֶה הַנִּמְכָּר לְגוֹי, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְרַבִּי מְגַלֶּה עֲרָיוֹת, אַף אֲנִי כְּמוֹתוֹ, הוֹאִיל וְרַבִּי עוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אַף אֲנִי כְּמוֹתוֹ, הוֹאִיל וְרַבִּי מְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּת, אַף אֲנִי כְּמוֹתוֹ, לְכָךְ נֶאֶמְרוּ מִקְרָאוֹת הַלָּלוּ; וְאַף הַפָּרָשִׁיּוֹת הַלָּלוּ נֶאֶמְרוּ עַל הַסֵּדֶר: בַּתְּחִלָּה הִזְהִיר עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְאִם חָמַד מָמוֹן וְנֶחְשַׁד עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית, סוֹפוֹ לִמְכֹּר מִטַּלְטְלָיו, לְכָךְ סָמַךְ לָהּ וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר — (מַה כְּתִיב בֵּיהּ? אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ — דָּבָר הַנִּקְנֶה מִיָּד לְיָד) — לֹא חָזַר בּוֹ, סוֹף מוֹכֵר אֲחֻזָּתוֹ, לֹא חָזַר בּוֹ, סוֹף מוֹכֵר אֶת בֵּיתוֹ, לֹא חָזַר בּוֹ, סוֹף לֹוֶה בְרִבִּית — כָּל אֵלּוּ הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת קָשׁוֹת מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת — לֹא חָזַר בּוֹ, סוֹף מוֹכֵר אֶת עַצְמוֹ, לֹא חָזַר בּוֹ, לֹא דַיּוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ לְגוֹי:
a pavement stone: אֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית, an expression denoting a covering, as in “And I shall cover (וְשַׂכֹּתִי) [you with] My hand.” (Exod. 33:22). [And the meaning of “covering” is relevant here,] as people use a stone floor to make a covering over the ground.   וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית: לְשׁוֹן כִּסּוּי, כְּמוֹ "וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי" (שמות ל"ג), שֶׁמְּכַסִּין הַקַּרְקַע בְּרִצְפַּת אֲבָנִים:
on which to prostrate yourselves: even to Heaven, for the expression הִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה, prostration, denotes stretching one’s hands and feet out [on the ground], and the Torah prohibits one to do this outside the Holy Temple [where prostration on a stone floor is permitted]. — [Meg. 22b and see Rashi there]   לְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֹת עָלֶיהָ: אֲפִלּוּ לַשָּׁמַיִם, לְפִי שֶׁהִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה בְּפִשּׁוּט יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם הִיא וְאָסְרָה תוֹרָה לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן חוּץ מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ (מגילה כ"ב):
2You shall keep My Sabbaths and fear My Sanctuary. I am the Lord.   באֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֣י תִּשְׁמֹ֔רוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁ֖י תִּירָ֑אוּ אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
I am the Lord: Who is faithful to give reward [to those who fulfill My Torah].   אֲנִי ה': נֶאֱמָן לְשַׁלֵּם שָׂכָר:
3If you follow My statutes and observe My commandments and perform them,   גאִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֖י תֵּלֵ֑כוּ וְאֶת־מִצְו‍ֹתַ֣י תִּשְׁמְר֔וּ וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָֽם:
If you follow My statutes: I might think that this refers to the fulfillment of the commandments. However, when Scripture says, “and observe My commandments,” the fulfillment of the commandments is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “If you follow My statutes”? It means that you must toil in the study of Torah [for the word for “follow” here, תֵּלֵכוּ, literally means “walk,” which is a strenuous activity (Gur Aryeh)]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:2]   אִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַי תֵּלֵכוּ: יָכוֹל זֶה קִיּוּם הַמִּצְווֹת, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וְאֶת מִצְוֹתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִיתֶם אֹתָם הֲרֵי קִיּוּם הַמִּצְווֹת אָמוּר, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם אִם בְּחֻקֹּתַי תֵּלֵכוּ? שֶׁתִּהְיוּ עֲמֵלִים בַּתּוֹרָה (ספרא):
and observe My commandments: You shall toil in the study of Torah in order to observe and fulfill [the commandments (Torath Kohanim 26:2). This is similar to, “[Hear, O Israel, the statutes and ordinances…] and learn them, and keep in mind to do them” (Deut. 5:1) [i.e., learn the Torah in order to keep them in your heart and perform them]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   וְאֶת־מצותי תִּשְׁמְרוּ: הֱווּ עֲמֵלִים בַּתּוֹרָה עַל מְנָת לִשְׁמֹר וּלְקַיֵּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם" (דברים ה'):
4I will give your rains in their time, the Land will yield its produce, and the tree of the field will give forth its fruit.   דוְנָֽתַתִּ֥י גִשְׁמֵיכֶ֖ם בְּעִתָּ֑ם וְנָֽתְנָ֤ה הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְעֵ֥ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה יִתֵּ֥ן פִּרְיֽוֹ:
[I will give your rains] in their time: at a time when people do not usually go out, for example, on Sabbath Eve. — [Ta’anith 23a]   בְּעִתָּם: בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לָצֵאת, כְּגוֹן בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת (ספרא; תענית כ"ג):
the tree of the field: This refers to trees [planted in the field, as opposed to the orchard,] that do not bear fruit, but are destined to bear fruit in the future. — [Torath Kohanim 26:5]   וְעֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה: הֵן אִילָנֵי סְרָק, וַעֲתִידִין לַעֲשׂוֹת פֵּרוֹת (ספרא):
5Your threshing will last until the vintage, and the vintage will last until the sowing; you will eat your food to satiety, and you will live in security in your land.   הוְהִשִּׂ֨יג לָכֶ֥ם דַּ֨יִשׁ֙ אֶת־בָּצִ֔יר וּבָצִ֖יר יַשִּׂ֣יג אֶת־זָ֑רַע וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם לַחְמְכֶם֙ לָשׂ֔בַע וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֥ם לָבֶ֖טַח בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם:
Your threshing will last until the vintage [and the vintage will last until the sowing]: For the threshing will be so plentiful that you will be occupied with it until the vintage, and you will be occupied with the vintage until the sowing season. — [Torath Kohanim 26:6]   וְהִשִּׂיג לָכֶם דַּיִשׁ אֶת־בָּצִיר: שֶׁיְּהֵא הַדַּיִשׁ מְרֻבֶּה, וְאַתֶּם עֲסוּקִים בּוֹ עַד הַבָּצִיר, וּבַבָּצִיר תַּעַסְקוּ עַד שְׁעַת הַזֶּרַע (ספרא):
you will eat your food to satiety: One will eat only a little [food], but it will become blessed in one’s innards. — [Torath Kohanim 26:6]   וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּם לַחְמְכֶם לָשׂבַע: אוֹכֵל קִמְעָא וְהוּא מִתְבָּרֵךְ בְּמֵעָיו:
6And I will grant peace in the Land, and you will lie down with no one to frighten [you]; I will remove wild beasts from the Land, and no army will pass through your land;   ווְנָֽתַתִּ֤י שָׁלוֹם֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ וּשְׁכַבְתֶּ֖ם וְאֵ֣ין מַֽחֲרִ֑יד וְהִשְׁבַּתִּ֞י חַיָּ֤ה רָעָה֙ מִן־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְחֶ֖רֶב לֹא־תַֽעֲבֹ֥ר בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם:
And I will grant peace: You might say, “Here is food, and here is drink, but if there is no peace, there is nothing!” Scripture, therefore, states, after all this [blessing], “I will grant peace in the Land.” From here, [we learn] that peace is equal to everything else. And so, [this is illustrated in our morning prayers,] when we say: “[Blessed are You, O Lord…] Who… makes peace and creates everything” [a paraphrase of the verse] (Isaiah 45:7). - [see Ber. 11b; Torath Kohanim 26:7]   וְנָֽתַתִּי שָׁלוֹם: שֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ, הֲרֵי מַאֲכָל וַהֲרֵי מִשְׁתֶּה, אִם אֵין שָׁלוֹם אֵין כְּלוּם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אַחַר כָּל זֹאת "וְנָתַתִּי שָׁלוֹם בָּאָרֶץ"; מִכָּאן שֶׁהַשָּׁלוֹם שָׁקוּל כְּנֶגֶד הַכֹּל, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (ישעיה מ"ה) "עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הַכֹּל":
and no army will pass through your land: It is unnecessary to state that they will not come to wage war, but [they will not come] even to pass through your land from one country to another. — [Torath Kohanim 26:9]   וְחֶרֶב לֹא־תַֽעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם: אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמָר שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לַמִּלְחָמָה, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ לַעֲבֹר דֶּרֶךְ אַרְצְכֶם מִמְּדִינָה לִמְדִינָה (ספרא):
7You will pursue your enemies, and they will fall by the sword before you;   זוּרְדַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְנָֽפְל֥וּ לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לֶחָֽרֶב:
[And they will fall] by the sword before you: each man [falling] by the sword of his fellow. — [Torath Kohanim 26:9]   לִפְנֵיכֶם לֶחָֽרֶב: אִישׁ בְּחֶרֶב רֵעֵהוּ (שם):
8Five of you will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand, and your enemies will fall by the sword before you.   חוְרָֽדְפ֨וּ מִכֶּ֤ם חֲמִשָּׁה֙ מֵאָ֔ה וּמֵאָ֥ה מִכֶּ֖ם רְבָבָ֣ה יִרְדֹּ֑פוּ וְנָֽפְל֧וּ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֛ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לֶחָֽרֶב:
of you will pursue: [It will require only five] of your weakest [to pursue a hundred enemies], and not of your strongest [i.e., מִכֶּם means “the weakest (מָךְ) of you.”]- [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 26:10]   וְרָֽדְפוּ מִכֶּם: מִן הַחַלָּשִׁים שֶׁבָּכֶם וְלֹא מִן הַגִּבּוֹרִים שֶׁבָּכֶם (שם):
Five… will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand: But is this calculation correct? [Since five will pursue a hundred, this means that each Jew will pursue twenty enemies;] therefore, should Scripture not have written here: “and a hundred of you will pursue two thousand”? But, [the Torah teaches us that] there is no comparison between a few who fulfill the Torah and many who fulfill the Torah [and thus, here, the larger the group of pursuers, the higher proportionately is the number pursued]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:10]   חֲמִשָּׁה מֵאָה וּמֵאָה מִכֶּם רְבָבָה: וְכִי כָךְ הוּא הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן? וַהֲלֹא לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אֶלָּא מֵאָה מִכֶּם שְׁנֵי אֲלָפִים יִרְדֹּפוּ, אֶלָּא אֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה מֻעֲטִין הָעוֹשִׂים אֶת הַתּוֹרָה לִמְרֻבִּין הָעוֹשִׂין אֶת הַתּוֹרָה (שם):
and your enemies will fall [by the sword before you]: [This promise, already stated in verse 7, is repeated here to teach us (Torath Kohanim 26:10)] that the enemy will fall before you, not in the usual manner [i.e., that many of them will fall by the hand of only a few. — [Rash MiShantz ad loc.]   וְנָֽפְלוּ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶם וגו': שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נוֹפְלִין לִפְנֵיכֶם שֶׁלֹּא כְדֶרֶךְ הָאָרֶץ (שם):
9I will turn towards you, and I will make you fruitful and increase you, and I will set up My covenant with you.   טוּפָנִ֣יתִי אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וְהִפְרֵיתִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֖י אֶתְכֶ֑ם וַֽהֲקִֽימֹתִ֥י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתְּכֶֽם:
I will turn towards you: “I will turn away (אֶפְנֶה) from all My affairs to pay your reward.” To what may this be compared? To a king who hired some workers [only one of whom worked for him for a long time, while all the others did not. When they presented themselves to receive payment, the king quickly paid the others a small amount, while to the one who had worked long, he said, “They worked merely a little for me, but with you, I must now turn my attention to calculate the substantial amount that I owe you.” Likewise, God will quickly pay the nations the small amount He owes them for their little good deeds, and then He will turn His attention, as it were, to the Jewish people, to calculate their great reward,] as is taught in Torath Kohanim 26:11.]   וּפָנִיתִי אֲלֵיכֶם: אֶפְנֶה מִכָּל עֲסָקַי לְשַׁלֵּם שְׂכַרְכֶם. מָשָׁל לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה? לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁשָּׂכַר פּוֹעֲלִים וְכוּ', כִּדְאִיתָא בְּתּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים:
and I will make you fruitful: [Unlike the usual expression of פִּרְיָה וְרִבְיָה in Scripture, here, the two parts of this expression are separated by the word אֶתְכֶם (Sifthei Chachamim quoting Maharai). The first part, וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם, refers to the blessing of] being fruitful and multiplying. — [Torath Kohanim 26:12]   וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם: בִּפְרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה:
and increase you: [while the second part,] וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם [refers to the blessing of having] dignity of stature [(הִתְרַבְרְבוּת) i.e., being able to hold one’s head up high due to dignity]. — [Mizrachi; Torath Kohanim 26:12]   וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם: בְּקוֹמָה זְקוּפָה (ספרא):
and I will set up My covenant with you: a new covenant, not like the first covenant, which you broke, but a new covenant, which will not be broken, as it is said, “I will form a new covenant with the House of Israel and with the House of Judah-not like the covenant [that I formed with their forefathers… that they broke]” (Jer. 31:30-31). - [Torath Kohanim 26:12]   וַֽהֲקִֽימֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֶתְכֶם: בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה, לֹא כַבְּרִית הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהֵפַרְתֶּם אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה שֶׁלֹּא תּוּפַר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיהו ל"א) "וְכָרַתִּי אֶת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה לֹא כַבְּרִית וְגוֹ'" (ספרא):

Fifth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 26

10You will eat very old [produce], and you will clear out the old from before the new.   י וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֥ם יָשָׁ֖ן נוֹשָׁ֑ן וְיָשָׁ֕ן מִפְּנֵ֥י חָדָ֖שׁ תּוֹצִֽיאוּ:
You will eat very old [produce]: [But what blessing is it to eat old food? The Torah, means, however, that] the produce will remain well preserved, growing mellow with age, so that very old produce from three years ago will be better to eat than that of last year. — [B.B. 91b]   וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן: הַפֵּרוֹת יִהְיוּ מִשְׁתַּמְרִין וְטוֹבִים לְהִתְיַשֵּׁן, שֶׁיְּהֵא יָשָׁן הַנּוֹשָׁן שֶׁל שָׁלוֹשׁ שָׁנִים יָפֶה לֶאֱכֹל מִשֶּׁל אֶשְׁתָּקַד (בבא בתרא צ"א):
and you will clear out the old from before the new: The threshing floors will be full of new [grain, which would decay if left there, and, therefore, must be stored]. The storehouses, however, will be filled with the [abundant] old produce. Therefore, you will have to remove what is in the storehouses and take it elsewhere [in your house], in order to put the new produce into them. - [Sifthei Chachamim and see preceding Rashi; B.B. 91b]   וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִֽיאוּ: שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַגְּרָנוֹת מְלֵאוֹת חָדָשׁ וְהָאוֹצָרוֹת מְלֵאוֹת יָשָׁן, וּצְרִיכִים אַתֶּם לְפַנּוֹת הָאוֹצָרוֹת לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר, לָתֵת הֶחָדָשׁ לְתוֹכָן (שם):
11And I will place My dwelling in your midst, and My Spirit will not reject you;   יאוְנָֽתַתִּ֥י מִשְׁכָּנִ֖י בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תִגְעַ֥ל נַפְשִׁ֖י אֶתְכֶֽם:
And I will place My dwelling: This is the Holy Temple. — [see Er. 2a and Rashi there; Torath Kohanim 26:14]   וְנָֽתַתִּי מִשְׁכָּנִי: זֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ (ספרא: עירובין ב'):
and My Spirit will not reject you: My Spirit will not be disgusted with you. Every [expression of] גְּעִילָה is an expression of the purging of something that had been absorbed by something else, as in the verse, “For there, the shield of the mighty was rejected (נִגְעֲל),” (II Sam. 1:21), it did not accept that anointment, that [warriors] used to anoint their leather shields with cooked fat, in order to have attacking arrows or spears glide off it, rather than pierce the leather.   וְלֹֽא־תִגְעַל נַפְשִׁי: אֵין רוּחִי קָצָה בָכֶם; כָּל גְּעִילָה לְשׁוֹן פְּלִיטַת דָּבָר הַבָּלוּעַ בְּדָבָר, כְּמוֹ "כִּי שָׁם נִגְעַל מָגֵן גִּבּוֹרִים" (שמואל ב א') — לֹא קִבֵּל הַמְּשִׁיחָה, שֶׁמּוֹשְׁחִין מָגֵן שֶׁל עוֹר בְּחֵלֶב מְבֻשָּׁל כְּדֵי לְהַחֲלִיק מֵעָלָיו מַכַּת חֵץ אוֹ חֲנִית, שֶׁלֹּא יִקֹּב הָעוֹר:
12I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be My people.   יבוְהִתְהַלַּכְתִּי֙ בְּת֣וֹכְכֶ֔ם וְהָיִ֥יתִי לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים וְאַתֶּ֖ם תִּֽהְיוּ־לִ֥י לְעָֽם:
I will walk among you: [God promises a blessing of special spiritual quality, involving intimate knowledge of Him (Zeidah Laderech):] “I will stroll with you in the Garden of Eden, as if I were one of you, and you will not be terrified of Me.” Now, one might think that you will not fear Me [under such “familiar” circumstances]. Scripture, therefore, says here, “and be your God.” - [Torath Kohanim 26: 15]   וְהִתְהַלַּכְתִּי בְּתוֹכְכֶם: אֲטַיֵּל עִמָּכֶם בְּגַן עֵדֶן כְּאֶחָד מִכֶּם, וְלֹא תִהְיוּ מִזְדַּעְזְעִים מִמֶּנִּי, יָכוֹל לֹא תִירְאוּ מִמֶּנִּי, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים" (ספרא):
13I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt from being slaves to them; and I broke the pegs of your yoke and led you upright.   יגאֲנִ֞י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הוֹצֵ֤אתִי אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מִֽהְיֹ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם עֲבָדִ֑ים וָֽאֶשְׁבֹּר֙ מֹטֹ֣ת עֻלְּכֶ֔ם וָֽאוֹלֵ֥ךְ אֶתְכֶ֖ם קֽוֹמְמִיּֽוּת:
I am the Lord, your God, [Who took you out of the land of Egypt]: It is worthwhile for you to believe Me that I can do all these things, for indeed “I took you out of the land of Egypt” and performed great miracles for you. — [Torath Kohanim 26:16]   אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם: כְּדַאי אֲנִי שֶׁתַּאֲמִינוּ בִי שֶׁאֲנִי יָכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל אֵלֶּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וְעָשִׂיתִי לָכֶם נִסִּים גְּדוֹלִים:
the pegs: [A plowing yoke consists of a bar that is placed over the animal’s neck and reins that are placed under its neck and threaded through two holes at each end of the bar. This term מוֹט refers to] a type of peg, which is inserted into the two [holes at the] ends of the yoke. [These pegs therefore jam the reins tightly through the holes,] preventing the reins from coming off the ox’s head and [preventing the] undoing of the knot. [The term is] as [it appears] in the verse, “Make yourself reins and yoke-pegs (מֹטוֹת) ” (Jer. 27:2); cheville in French.   מֹטֹת: כְּמִין יָתֵד בִּשְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁי הָעֹל הַמְעַכְּבִים הַמּוֹסֵרָה שֶׁלֹּא תֵצֵא מֵרֹאשׁ הַשּׁוֹר וְיַתִּיר הַקֶּשֶׁר, כְּמוֹ "עֲשֵֹה לְךָ מוֹסֵרוֹת וּמֹטוֹת" (ירמיהו כ"ז), קבילייא בְּלַעַז:
upright: Erect in stature [due to relief from bondage]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:17]   קֽוֹמְמִיּֽוּת: בְּקוֹמָה זְקוּפָה (ספרא):
14But if you do not listen to Me and do not perform all these commandments,   ידוְאִם־לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וְלֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֔וּ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַמִּצְוֹ֖ת הָאֵֽלֶּה:
But if you do not listen to Me: to toil in [the study of] Torah in order to know the exposition of the Sages [corresponding to verse 3]. I might think that this refers to fulfilling the commandments. When Scripture says, “and you do not perform all these commandments,” the fulfillment of commandments is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “if you do not listen to Me”? To toil in [the study of] Torah. And what is the meaning of “to Me”? This is speaking only about someone who knows his Master, and yet willfully rebels against Him (Sanh. 109a). Likewise, regarding Nimrod [whom Scripture calls], “a powerful hunter before the Lord ” (Gen. 10:9), [it means that] he recognized God but intentionally rebelled against Him; likewise, regarding the people of Sodom, [referred to as], “very evil and sinful against the Lord ” (Gen. 13:13)- [it means that] they recognized their Master but intentionally rebelled against Him. — [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   וְאִם־לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ לִי: לִהְיוֹת עֲמֵלִים בַּתּוֹרָה, לָדַעַת מִדְרַשׁ חֲכָמִים. יָכוֹל לְקִיּוּם הַמִּצְווֹת? כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וְגוֹ' הֲרֵי קִיּוּם מִצְווֹת אָמוּר, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם וְאִם לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ לִי? לִהְיוֹת עֲמֵלִים בַּתּוֹרָה, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר לִי? אֵין לִי אֶלָּא זֶה הַמַּכִּיר אֶת רִבּוֹנוֹ וּמְכַוֵּן לִמְרֹד בּוֹ, וְכֵן בְּנִמְרוֹד "גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי ה'" (בראשית י'), שֶׁמַּכִּירוֹ וּמִתְכַּוֵּן לִמְרֹד בּוֹ, וְכֵן בְּאַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם "רָעִים וְחַטָּאִים לַה' מְאֹד" (שם י"ג), מַכִּירִים אֶת רִבּוֹנָם וּמִתְכַּוְּנִים לִמְרֹד בּוֹ (ספרא):
and do not perform: If you do not learn [the Torah], you will not perform. Scripture hereby enumerates two transgressions [namely, (a) not learning the Torah and therefore (b) not fulfilling its commandments properly]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   וְלֹא תַֽעֲשׂוּ: מִשֶּׁלֹּא תִלְמְדוּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ, הֲרֵי שְׁתֵּי עֲבֵרוֹת:
15and if you despise My statutes and reject My ordinances, not performing any of My commandments, thereby breaking My covenant   טווְאִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֣י תִּמְאָ֔סוּ וְאִ֥ם אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֖י תִּגְעַ֣ל נַפְשְׁכֶ֑ם לְבִלְתִּ֤י עֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתַ֔י לְהַפְרְכֶ֖ם אֶת־בְּרִיתִֽי:
and if you despise My statutes: [This refers to one who] despises others who perform [the commandments];- [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   וְאִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַי תִּמְאָסוּ: מוֹאֵס בַּאֲחֵרִים הָעוֹשִׂים:
and reject My ordinances: [refers to one who] hates the Sages - [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   מִשְׁפָּטַי תִּגְעַל נַפְשְׁכֶם: שׂוֹנֵא הַחֲכָמִים:
not performing: [refers to someone who] prevents others from fulfilling [the commandments];- [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת: מוֹנֵעַ אֶת אֲחֵרִים מֵעֲשׂוֹת:
any of my commandments: [refers to one who] denies that I [God,] commanded them. This is why the verse says “any of My commandments” and “not any of the commandments.” - [Torath Kohanim 26:18]   אֶת־כָּל־מצותי: כּוֹפֵר שֶׁלֹּא צִוִּיתִים, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר "אֶת כָּל מִצְוֹתַי" וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר "אֶת כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת":
thereby breaking My covenant: [This refers to one who] denies the main tenet [of Judaism, namely, that God is the Omnipotent Creator of all existence (Torath Kohanim 26:18).] Hence, [this verse has enumerated] seven sins, the first leading to the second, and so on, until the seventh, [and the process of degeneration is] as follows: [First, a person] does not learn [the Torah]; then, he [subsequently] does not fulfill [the commandments]; he then despises others who do [fulfill them]; then, he hates the Sages, prevents others from fulfilling [the commandments], denies the [authenticity of the] commandments and [finally] denies the very omnipotence of God.   לְהַפְרְכֶם אֶת־בְּרִיתִֽי: כּוֹפֵר בָּעִקָּר; הֲרֵי שֶׁבַע עֲבֵרוֹת, הָרִאשׁוֹנָה גוֹרֶרֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה, וְכֵן עַד הַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: לֹא לָמַד, וְלֹא עָשָׂה, מוֹאֵס בַּאֲחֵרִים הָעוֹשִׂים, שׂוֹנֵא אֶת הַחֲכָמִים, מוֹנֵעַ אֶת הָאֲחֵרִים, כּוֹפֵר בַּמִּצְווֹת, כּוֹפֵר בָּעִקָּר:
16then I too, will do the same to you; I will order upon you shock, consumption, fever, and diseases that cause hopeless longing and depression. You will sow your seed in vain, and your enemies will eat it.   טזאַף־אֲנִ֞י אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־זֹּ֣את לָכֶ֗ם וְהִפְקַדְתִּ֨י עֲלֵיכֶ֤ם בֶּֽהָלָה֙ אֶת־הַשַּׁחֶ֣פֶת וְאֶת־הַקַּדַּ֔חַת מְכַלּ֥וֹת עֵינַ֖יִם וּמְדִיבֹ֣ת נָ֑פֶשׁ וּזְרַעְתֶּ֤ם לָרִיק֙ זַרְעֲכֶ֔ם וַֽאֲכָלֻ֖הוּ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
I will order: I will order upon you.   וְהִפְקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם: וְצִוִּיתִי עֲלֵיכֶם:
consumption: This is a disease that consumes the flesh; anpoles in Old French, blisters. [The afflicted] appears like one who has had swellings and whose swellings have abated, thereby causing a sad appearance to his face [due to the stretched skin sagging after the swellings have abated].   הַשַּׁחֶפֶת: חֹלִי שֶׁמְּשַׁחֵף אֶת הַבָּשָׂר, אנפו"ליש בלעז, דּוֹמֶה לְנָפוּחַ שֶׁהוּקַלָּה נְפִיחָתוֹ וּמַרְאִית פָּנָיו זְעוּפָה:
fever: Heb. קַדַּחַת, an illness that makes the body feverish, heating it up and making it burn, like, “For a fire blazed (קָדְחָה) in My wrath” (Deut. 32:22).   הַקַּדַּחַת: חֹלִי שֶׁמַּקְדִּיחַ אֶת הַגּוּף וּמְחַמְּמוֹ וּמַבְעִירוֹ, כְּמוֹ "כִּי אֵשׁ קָדְחָה בְאַפִּי" (דברים ל"ב):
that cause hopeless longing and depression: Heb. מְכַלּות עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נֶפֶשׁ. The eyes (עֵינַיִם) look with anticipation, longing (כָּלוֹת) to see that the illness will abate, and he will recover, but, he eventually does not recover, and depression (מְדִיבֹת נֶפֶשׁ) falls upon his family members when he dies. Any desire that is not realized or some prolonged yearning [for something], is termed כִּלְיוּן עֵינַיִם.   מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נָפֶשׁ: הָעֵינַיִם צוֹפוֹת וְכָלוֹת לִרְאוֹת שֶׁיֵּקַל וְיֵרָפֵא, וְסוֹף שֶׁלֹּא יֵרָפֵא, וְיִדְאֲבוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת שֶׁל מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ בְּמוֹתוֹ; כָּל תַּאֲוָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בָּאָה וְתוֹחֶלֶת מְמֻשָּׁכָה קְרוּיָה כִלְיוֹן עֵינַיִם:
You will sow [your seed] in vain [and your enemies will eat it]: You will sow, but it will not grow, and if it does grow-“your enemies will eat it.”   וּזְרַעְתֶּם לָרִיק: תִּזְרְעוּ וְלֹא תִצְמַח, וְאִם תִּצְמַח ואכלהו איביכם:
17I will set My attention against you, and you will be smitten before your enemies. Your enemies will rule over you; you will flee, but no one will be pursuing you.   יזוְנָֽתַתִּ֤י פָנַי֙ בָּכֶ֔ם וְנִגַּפְתֶּ֖ם לִפְנֵ֣י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְרָד֤וּ בָכֶם֙ שֽׂנְאֵיכֶ֔ם וְנַסְתֶּ֖ם וְאֵֽין־רֹדֵ֥ף אֶתְכֶֽם:
I will set my attention: [The word here פָנַי, means] My leisure. [Thus, God is saying here:] “I will turn (פּוֹנֶה) away from all My affairs, to harm you.”   וְנָֽתַתִּי פָנַי: פְּנַאי שֶׁלִּי — פּוֹנֶה אֲנִי מִכָּל עֲסָקַי לְהָרַע לָכֶם:
Your enemies will rule over you: Heb. וְרָדוּ. [This expression is to be understood] literally, namely, [that they] will rule over you. Now, the Aggadic explanation of this passage (beginning from verse 16), as taught in Torath Kohanim (26:19-24), is as follows: [16]   וְרָדוּ בָּכֶם שֽׂנְאֵיכֶם: כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ, יִשְׁלְטוּ בָכֶם: אַגָּדַת תּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים מִפָּרָשָׁה זוֹ:
Then I too, will do the same: Heb., אַף אֲנִי אֶעשֶׂה זֹּאת. I will speak only out of wrath (אַף). Likewise, וְהָלַכְתִּי אַף אֲנִי עִמָּכֶם בְּקֶרִי (verse 24 below);   אף אני אעשה זאת: אֵינִי מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בְּאַף, וְכֵן "אַף אֲנִי אֵלֵךְ עִמָּכֶם בְּקֶרִי" (פסוק מ"א):
I will order upon you: Heb., וְהִפְקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם. The plagues will address (פּוֹקְדוֹת) you one immediately after the other; i.e., the first plague will not have even finished, when I will bring the next one upon you, right next to it.   והפקדתי עליכם: שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַמַּכּוֹת פּוֹקְדוֹת אֶתְכֶם מִזוֹ לְזוֹ, עַד שֶׁהָרִאשׁוֹנָה פְקוּדָה אֶצְלְכֶם, אָבִיא אַחֶרֶת וְאֶסְמְכֶנָּה לָהּ:
shock: Heb., בֶּהָלָה. This is a plague that shocks (מַבְהֶלֶת) people. And what is this? A plague [whose cure is anxiously] awaited, [and when the afflicted dies suddenly, people are (נִבְהָלִים) shocked];   בהלה: מַכָּה הַמְבַהֶלֶת אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת, וְאֵי זוֹ? זוֹ מַכַּת מוֹתָן:
Consumption…: Heb. אֶת הַשַּׁחֶפֶת וְאֶת הַקַּדַּחַת מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבֹת נָפֶשׁ . Sometimes, a person is sick and lies in bed, but his flesh is well preserved on him-therefore, Scripture states, שַׁחֶפֶת, [a disease that] consumes the flesh. Or occasionally, a person may be worn away [from disease], but is comfortable in that he has no burning fever. Therefore, Scripture states, וְאֶת הַקַדַּחַת, which teaches us that [the afflicted] will be burning with fever. Or sometimes, a person may be burning with fever, but he himself believes that he will survive. Therefore, Scripture states, “[and diseases] that cause hopeless longing” [explained above in Rashi to mean that he will not recover]. Or, although he himself does not believe that he will survive, nevertheless, others may believe that he will. Therefore, Scripture states, מְדִיבוֹת נֶפֶשׁ [explained above in Rashi to mean that the family members of the afflicted will be depressed due to his death];   את השחפת: יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁהוּא חוֹלֶה וּמֻטָּל בַּמִּטָּה אֲבָל בְּשָׂרוֹ שָׁמוּר עָלָיו, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "שַׁחֶפֶת", שֶׁהוּא נִשְׁחָף, אוֹ עִתִּים שֶׁהוּא נִשְׁחָף אֲבָל נֹחַ וְאֵינוֹ מַקְדִּיחַ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וְאֶת הַקַּדַּחַת", מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהוּא מַקְדִּיחַ, אוֹ עִתִּים שֶׁהוּא מַקְדִּיחַ אֲבָל סָבוּר הוּא בְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁיִּחְיֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם", אוֹ הוּא אֵינוֹ סָבוּר בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁיִּחְיֶה, אֲבָל אֲחֵרִים סְבוּרִים שֶׁיִּחְיֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וּמְדִיבֹת נָפֶשׁ":
You will sow your seed in vain: You will sow your seed, but it will not grow. If this is the case, though, what would your enemies come and eat, that the verse should then state, “and your enemies will eat it”? What circumstance are we speaking about here? You will sow your seed one particular year, and it will not grow [then]; in the following year, however, it will grow, but then, your enemies will come and find the produce for the time of the siege. Thus, those inside [the besieged cities] will be dying of starvation, because they had not gathered in produce from the previous year. Another explanation of “You will sow your seed in vain” is that Scripture here is alluding to sons and daughters, namely, that you will invest hard work in your children, rearing them, but [the punishment of your] sin will come and consume them, as the verse says, “Those whom I have reared and brought up-my enemy has consumed” (Lam. 2:22). [17]   וזרעתם לריק זרעכם: זוֹרְעָהּ וְאֵינָהּ מַצְמַחַת, וּמֵעַתָּה מָה אוֹיְבֵיכֶם בָּאִים וְאוֹכְלִים? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וַאֲכָלֻהוּ אֹיְבֵיכֶם", הָא כֵיצַד? זוֹרְעָהּ שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וְאֵינָהּ מַצְמַחַת, שָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה מַצְמַחַת, וְאוֹיְבִים בָּאִים וּמוֹצְאִים תְּבוּאָה לִימֵי הַמָּצוֹר, וְשֶׁבִּפְנִים מֵתִים בָּרָעָב, שֶׁלֹּא לִקְּטוּ תְּבוּאָה אֶשְׁתָּקַד; דָּבָר אַחֵר: "וּזְרַעְתֶּם לָרִיק זַרְעֲכֶם", כְּנֶגֶד הַבָּנִים וְהַבָּנוֹת הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, שֶׁאַתָּה עָמֵל בָּהֶם וּמְגַדְּלָן, וְהַחֵטְא בָּא וּמְכַלֶּה אוֹתָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אֲשֶׁר טִפַּחְתִּי וְרִבִּיתִי אֹיְבִי כִלָּם" (איכה ב'):
I will set My attention against you: Just as it is said regarding the good, “I will turn towards you” (verse 9), so it is said regarding the bad, “I will set My attention [against you.” Our Sages] drew a parable to a king, who said to his servants [when they had not obeyed him]: “I am now turning my attention away from all my affairs, and I am occupying myself with you, to do [you] harm!”   וְנָֽתַתִּי פָנַי בָּכֶם: כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּטּוֹבָה "וּפָנִיתִי אֲלֵיכֶם", כָּךְ נֶאֱמַר בָּרָעָה "וְנָתַתִּי פָנַי"; מָשְׁלוּ מָשָׁל, לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁאָמַר לַעֲבָדָיו, פּוֹנֶה אֲנִי מִכָּל עֲסָקַי וְעוֹסֵק אֲנִי עִמָּכֶם לְרָעָה:
and you will be smitten before your enemies: Heb. וְנִגַּפְתֶּם, [lit., “and you will fall by the plague before your enemies,”] that the deathly plague will kill you inside [the besieged cities] while your enemies surround you from the outside [and rejoice that you are dying off within, from the plague];- [Sifthei Chachamim]   וְנִגַּפְתֶּם לִפְנֵי אֹֽיְבֵיכֶם: שֶׁיְּהֵא הַמָּוֶת הוֹרֵג אֶתְכֶם מִבִּפְנִים, וּבַעֲלֵי דְבָבֵיכוֹן מַקִּיפִין אֶתְכֶם מִבַּחוּץ:
Your enemies will rule over you: Heb. וְרָדוּ בָכֶם. I will make your enemies stem from within your very own people. For at the time that the nations stand up against Israel, they seek out only what is visible, as it is said, “And it happened, when Israel sowed, that Midian, Amalek, and the children of the East came up… and they camped against them and destroyed the Land’s produce” (Jud. 6:3-4). However, when I will set up [enemies] against you from within your very own camp, they will seek out your hidden treasures [within]. Thus, says the verse, “who ate the flesh of My people and flayed their skin from upon them [and opened their bones and broke them” (Micah 3:3)-the metaphor of breaking the bone to get to the marrow within, alluding to the enemy seeking out the hidden treasure within (Yosef Hallel)].   וְרָדוּ בָּכֶם שֽׂנְאֵיכֶם: שֶׁאֵינִי מַעֲמִיד שׂוֹנְאִים אֶלָּא מִכֶּם וּבָכֶם, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם עוֹמְדִים עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֵינָם מְבַקְּשִׁים אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁבַּגָּלוּי, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר "וְהָיָה אִם זָרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעָלָה מִדְיָן וַעֲמָלֵק וּבְנֵי קֶדֶם וְגוֹ' וַיַּחֲנוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַיַּשְׁחִיתוּ אֶת יְבוּל הָאָרֶץ" (שופטים ו'), אֲבָל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֲעֲמִיד עֲלֵיכֶם מִכֶּם וּבָכֶם, הֵם מְחַפְּשִׂים אַחַר הַמַּטְמוֹנִיּוֹת שֶׁלָּכֶם, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "וַאֲשֶׁר אָכְלוּ שְׁאֵר עַמִּי וְעוֹרָם מֵעֲלֵיהֶם הִפְשִׁיטוּ וְגוֹ'" (מיכה ג'):
you will flee: out of fright,   וְנַסְתֶּם: מִפְּנֵי אֵימָה:
but no one will be pursuing you: for lack of strength [left to pursue you.] - [Torath Kohanim 26:24] [This is the end of the Aggadic explanation given by Torath Kohanim. Now Rashi resumes his commentary, although sometimes quoting Torath Kohanim.]   וְאֵֽין־רֹדֵף אֶתְכֶֽם: מִבְּלִי כֹחַ (ספרא):
18And if, during these, you will not listen to Me, I will add another seven punishments for your sins:   יחוְאִ֨ם־עַד־אֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וְיָֽסַפְתִּי֙ לְיַסְּרָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
And if, during these: Heb. וְאִםעַדאֵלֶּה, [equivalent to:] וְאִםבְּעוֹדאֵלֶּה, lit., “and if, while (עוֹד) these [are transpiring], you [still] will not listen to Me.”   וְאִם־עַד־אֵלֶּה: וְאִם בְּעוֹד אֵלֶּה לא תשמעו:
I will add: more sufferings of a different [nature].   וְיָֽסַפְתִּי: עוֹד יִסּוּרִין אַחֵרִים:
another seven… for your sins: Seven retributions for your seven sins that have been enumerated earlier [not sevenfold for your sins]. — [see Rashi verse 15 above; Torath Kohanim 26:26]   שֶׁבַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם: שֶׁבַע פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת עַל שֶׁבַע עֲבֵרוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת לְמַעְלָה:
19I will break the pride of your strength and make your skies like iron and your land like copper.   יטוְשָֽׁבַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־גְּא֣וֹן עֻזְּכֶ֑ם וְנָֽתַתִּ֤י אֶת־שְׁמֵיכֶם֙ כַּבַּרְזֶ֔ל וְאֶת־אַרְצְכֶ֖ם כַּנְּחֻשָֽׁה:
I will break the pride of your strength: This is the Temple, and so Scripture says, “Behold I profaning My Sanctuary, the pride of your strength” (Ezek. 24:21). - [Torath Kohanim 26:27]   וְשָֽׁבַרְתִּי אֶת־גְּאוֹן עֻזְּכֶם: זֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "הִנְנִי מְחַלֵּל אֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי גְּאוֹן עֻזְּכֶם" (יחזקאל כ"ד):
and make your skies like iron and your land like copper: This is more severe than that of Moses, for there he says, “And your sky above you will be [like] copper and the earth beneath you (like) iron” (Deut. 28:23), that the sky will sweat as copper sweats, and the earth will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat, and therefore, [the earth] will preserve [any of] its [existing] fruit. Here, however, [in this harsher curse, pronounced by God Himself,] the sky will not sweat, just as iron does not sweat, and therefore, there will be drought in the world, while the earth will sweat, just as copper sweats, thus causing its fruits to rot [through its dampness]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:28]   וְנָֽתַתִּי אֶת־שְׁמֵיכֶם כַּבַּרְזֶל וְאֶת־אַרְצְכֶם כַּנְּחֻשָֽׁה: זוֹ קָשָׁה מִשֶּׁל מֹשֶׁה, שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא אוֹמֵר "וְהָיוּ שָׁמֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר עַל רֹאשְׁךָ נְחֹשֶׁת וְגו'" (דברים כ"ח), שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם מַזִּיעִין כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהַנְּחֹשֶׁת מַזִּיעָה, וְהָאָרֶץ אֵינָהּ מַזִּיעָה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאֵין הַבַּרְזֶל מַזִּיעַ, וְהִיא מְשַׁמֶּרֶת פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ, אֲבָל כָּאן הַשָּׁמַיִם לֹא יִהְיוּ מַזִּיעִין כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאֵין הַבַּרְזֶל מַזִּיעַ, וִיהֵא חֹרֶב בָּעוֹלָם, וְהָאָרֶץ תְּהֵא מַזִּיעָה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהַנְּחֹשֶׁת מַזִּיעָה, וְהִיא מְאַבֶּדֶת פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ (ספרא):
20Your strength will be expended in vain; your land will not yield its produce, neither will the tree of the earth give forth its fruit.   כוְתַ֥ם לָרִ֖יק כֹּֽחֲכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תִתֵּ֤ן אַרְצְכֶם֙ אֶת־יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְעֵ֣ץ הָאָ֔רֶץ לֹ֥א יִתֵּ֖ן פִּרְיֽוֹ:
Your strength will be expended in vain: In the case of a man who did not toil, not having plowed, sown, weeded, cut off [the thorns], or hoed-at the time of harvest, if blight comes and ruins everything [that others worked on], it does not affect him at all. However, a man who did toil, who plowed, sowed, weeded, cut off [the thorns], and hoed-if blight comes and ruins everything, this man’s teeth become blunt [i.e., his spirit will surely be broken]! [Thus is the force of the retribution described here]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:28]   וְתַם לָרִיק כֹּֽחֲכֶם: הֲרֵי אָדָם שֶׁלֹּא עָמַל, שֶׁלֹּא חָרַשׁ, שֶׁלֹּא זָרַע, שֶׁלֹּא נִכֵּשׁ, שֶׁלֹּא כִּסֵּחַ, שֶׁלֹּא עָדַר, וּבִשְׁעַת הַקָּצִיר בָּא שִׁדָּפוֹן וּמַלְקֶה אוֹתוֹ, אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, אֲבָל אָדָם שֶׁעָמַל וְחָרַשׁ וְזָרַע וְנִכֵּשׁ וְכִסֵּחַ וְעָדַר וּבָא שִׁדָּפוֹן וּמַלְקֶה אוֹתוֹ, הֲרֵי שִׁנָּיו שֶׁל זֶה קֵהוֹת:
your land will not yield its produce: [Heb. יְבוּלָה. Even [that quantity of seed] that you “bring forth (מוֹבִיל) ” to [the field] at the time of sowing. — Torath Kohanim 26:29]   וְלֹֽא־תִתֵּן אַרְצְכֶם אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ: אַף מַה שֶּׁאַתָּה מוֹבִיל לָהּ בִּשְׁעַת הַזֶּרַע (ספרא):
and the tree of the earth [will not give forth its fruit]: [Why the expression “tree of the earth”? It means that] the trees will be smitten even from the earth, for they will not be able to put forth their fruits in the season when fruits sprout forth. [The production of fruit originates from the earth in which the tree is rooted. The tree will blossom, but the earth will have no power to bring forth fruit.] - [Sefer Hazikkaron; Torath Kohanim 26:29]   וְעֵץ הָאָרֶץ: אֲפִלּוּ מִן הָאָרֶץ יְהֵא לָקוּי, שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲנִיט פֵּרוֹתָיו בִּשְׁעַת הַחֲנָטָה (שם):
will not give forth: [This phrase comes after “the tree of the land” and before “its fruit” and must be understood here to] refer to both that [phrase] which is before it and that which comes after it, the trees and the fruits [and therefore, there are two separate retributions specified here (see next Rashi)].   לֹא יִתֵּן: מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְמַעְלָה וּלְמַטָּה, אָעֵץ וְאַפְּרִי:
will not give forth its fruit: i.e., if a tree will produce any fruit (Mizrachi), they will drop off (Torath Kohanim 26:29). Thus, this [clause, “the tree of the land will not give forth its fruit”] represents two separate curses and [by so identifying them as two separate curses here, Rashi has shown that verses 19-20 have] now enumerated seven retributions here (see Rashi on verse 18) [namely: (a) Breaking the pride of your strength, (b) making your skies like iron, and (c) your land like copper, (d) that your strength will be expended in vain, (e) your land will not yield its produce, (f) trees will not be able to give forth their fruits altogether (see preceding Rashi), and (g) any fruit produced will drop off the tree]. [Torath Kohanim]   לֹא יִתֵּן פִּרְיֽוֹ: כְּשֶׁהוּא מַפְרֶה מַשִּׁיר פֵּרוֹתָיו, הֲרֵי שְׁתֵּי קְלָלוֹת, וְיֵשׁ כָּאן שֶׁבַע פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת (ספרא):
21And if you treat Me as happenstance, and you do not wish to listen to Me, I will add seven punishments corresponding to your sins:   כאוְאִם־תֵּֽלְכ֤וּ עִמִּי֙ קֶ֔רִי וְלֹ֥א תֹאב֖וּ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ לִ֑י וְיָֽסַפְתִּ֤י עֲלֵיכֶם֙ מַכָּ֔ה שֶׁ֖בַע כְּחַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
And if you treat me as happenstance: Heb. קֶרִי. Our Rabbis said that [this word means] temporary, by chance (מִקְרֶה), something that happens only sometimes. Thus, [our verse means:] “If you treat the commandments as happenstance, a temporary concern.” Menachem [Ben Saruk], (Machbereth, p. 1158) however, explains קֶרִי as refraining. Similar is, “hold back (הֹקֵר) your steps” (Prov. 25:17), and also, “he who keeps back (יְקַר) his breath” (Prov. 17:27). And this explanation [of לָלֶכֶת עִמִּי קֶרִי] resembles Onkelos’s translation, namely, denoting hardness (קשִׁי), i.e., [those who commit the sin of לָלֶכֶת עִמִּי קֶרִי] harden (מַקְשִׁין) their hearts to refrain from coming close to Me.   וְאִם־תֵּֽלְכוּ עִמִּי קֶרִי: רַבּוֹתֵינוּ אָמְרוּ עֲרַאי, בְּמִקְרֶה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לִפְרָקִים, כֵּן תֵּלְכוּ עֲרַאי בְּמִצְווֹת; וּמְנַחֵם פֵּרֵשׁ לְשׁוֹן מְנִיעָה, וְכֵן "הֹקַר רַגְלְךָ" (משלי כ"ה), וְכֵן "יְקַר רוּחַ" (שם י"ז), וְקָרוֹב לָשׁוֹן זֶה לְתַרְגּוּמוֹ שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס, לְשׁוֹן קֹשִׁי, שֶׁמַּקְשִׁין לִבָּם לִמָּנַע מֵהִתְקָרֵב אֵלַי:
I will add seven punishments corresponding to your sins: Seven other punishments, with the number seven, corresponding to your sins. - [Torath Kohanim 26:30]   שֶׁבַע כְּחַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם: שֶׁבַע פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת אֲחֵרִים, בְּמִסְפַּר שֶׁבַע כְּחַטֹּאתֵיכֶם (ספרא):
22I will incite the wild beasts of the field against you, and they will bereave you, utterly destroy your livestock and diminish you, and your roads will become desolate.   כבוְהִשְׁלַחְתִּ֨י בָכֶ֜ם אֶת־חַיַּ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ וְשִׁכְּלָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהִכְרִ֨יתָה֙ אֶת־בְּהֶמְתְּכֶ֔ם וְהִמְעִ֖יטָה אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְנָשַׁ֖מּוּ דַּרְכֵיכֶֽם:
I will incite: Heb. הִשְׁלַחְתּי, an expression of inciting.   וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי: לְשׁוֹן גֵּרוּי:
and they will bereave you: [From this verse,] I know only that wild beasts will bereave you, for this is their nature. How do I know that domestic animals, which are not accustomed [to kill people, that they too, will kill]? Therefore, Scripture says, “I will incite the teeth of livestock upon them” (Deut. 32:24). Thus, there are two [punishments-both wild beasts and domestic animals attacking people]. How do I know that they will kill through their bite? Because that verse continues, “with the venom of the creatures that slither in the dust”-just as those [snakes] kill through their bite, these also will kill through their bite, and indeed, there were years in the Land of Israel, when [domestic] donkeys used to bite and kill, wild donkeys bit and killed. — [see Rashi Deut. 32:24; Torath Kohanim 26:31] [Be’er Mayim Chayim writes that the wild donkey is basically a domestic animal, but, as Leket Bahir comments, it lives in the wilderness and is therefore considered a wild animal. See also Sefer Hazikkaron. Extant editions of Torath Kohanim read: Donkeys would bite and kill; oxen would bite and kill.]   וְשִׁכְּלָה אֶתְכֶם: אֵין לִי אֶלָּא חַיָּה מְשַׁכֶּלֶת שֶׁדַּרְכָּהּ בְּכָךְ, בְּהֵמָה שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ בְּכָךְ מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וְשֶׁן בְּהֵמֹת אֲשַׁלַּח בָּם" (דברים ל"ב), הֲרֵי שְׁתַּיִם. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁתְּהֵא מְמִיתָה בִנְשִׁיכָתָהּ? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "עִם חֲמַת זֹחֲלֵי עָפָר" (שם), מָה אֵלּוּ נוֹשְׁכִין וּמְמִיתִין אַף אֵלּוּ נוֹשְׁכִין וּמְמִיתִין, כְּבָר הָיוּ שָׁנִים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲמוֹר נוֹשֵׁךְ וּמֵמִית, עָרוֹד נוֹשֵׁךְ וּמֵמִית:
and they will bereave you: these are the young children.   וְשִׁכְּלָה אֶתְכֶם: אֵלּוּ הַקְּטַנִּים:
utterly destroy your livestock: from outside [your city].   וְהִכְרִיתָה אֶת־בְּהֶמְתְּכֶם: מִבַּחוּץ:
and diminish you: from within [your city].   וְהִמְעִיטָה אֶתְכֶם: מִבִּפְנִים:
and your roads will become desolate: The major trails and the minor trails. Here you have seven punishments: 1) the teeth of domestic animals, 2) the teeth of wild animals, 3) the venom of the crawling things of the dust, 4) and they will bereave [you], 5) utterly destroy [you], 6) and diminish [you], 7) and [your roads] will become desolate.   וְנָשַׁמּוּ דַּרְכֵיכֶֽם: שְׁבִילִים גְּדוֹלִים וּשְׁבִילִים קְטַנִּים; הֲרֵי שֶׁבַע פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת: שֵׁן בְּהֵמָה, וְשֵׁן חַיָּה, חֲמַת זוֹחֲלֵי עָפָר, וְשִׁכְּלָה, וְהִכְרִיתָה, וְהִמְעִיטָה, וְנָשַׁמּוּ:
23And if, through these, you will still not be chastised [to return] to Me, and if you [continue to] treat Me happenstance,   כגוְאִ֨ם־בְּאֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א תִוָּֽסְר֖וּ לִ֑י וַֽהֲלַכְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י קֶֽרִי:
you will not be chastised to Me: to return to Me.   לֹא תִוָּֽסְרוּ לִי: לָשׁוּב אֵלַי:
24Then I too, will treat you as happenstance. I will again add seven punishments for your sins:   כדוְהָֽלַכְתִּ֧י אַף־אֲנִ֛י עִמָּכֶ֖ם בְּקֶ֑רִי וְהִכֵּיתִ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ גַּם־אָ֔נִי שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
25I will bring upon you an army that avenges the avenging of a covenant, and you will gather into your cities. I will incite the plague in your midst, and you will be delivered into the enemy's hands,   כהוְהֵֽבֵאתִ֨י עֲלֵיכֶ֜ם חֶ֗רֶב נֹקֶ֨מֶת֙ נְקַם־בְּרִ֔ית וְנֶֽאֱסַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶל־עָֽרֵיכֶ֑ם וְשִׁלַּ֤חְתִּי דֶ֨בֶר֙ בְּת֣וֹכְכֶ֔ם וְנִתַּתֶּ֖ם בְּיַד־אוֹיֵֽב:
the avenging of a covenant: [Since] there is also an avenging which is not of the covenant [i.e., not stated here in the Torah, such as those] in the manner of other avengings and this is the blinding of the eyes of Zedekiah (see II Kings, 25:7) [i.e., blinding is not one of the punishments enumerated here]. Another explanation of “the avenging of a covenant” : The avenging [here] will be because you broke My covenant [namely, the Torah] (Sifthei Chachamim and Onkelos; Shab. 33a). Wherever the expression of “bringing חֶרֶב ” appears in Scripture, it refers to a war of enemy armies.   נְקַם־בְּרִית: יֵשׁ נָקָם שֶׁאֵינוֹ בַּבְּרִית, כְּדֶרֶךְ שְׁאָר נְקָמוֹת, וְזֶהוּ סִמּוּי עֵינָיו שֶׁל צִדְקִיָּהוּ (ספרא). דָּבָר אַחֵר: נְקַם־בְּרִית. נִקְמַת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר עֲבַרְתֶּם. כָּל הֲבָאַת חֶרֶב שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא הִיא מִלְחֶמֶת חֲיָלוֹת אוֹיְבִים:
and you will gather [into your cities]: from the outside, to the inside of the cities, due to the siege. — [Torath Kohanim 26:33]   וְנֶֽאֱסַפְתֶּם: מִן הַחוּץ אֶל תּוֹךְ הֶעָרִים מִפְּנֵי הַמָּצוֹר (שם):
I will then incite the plague in your midst [and you will be delivered into the enemy’s hands]: Through this plague, you will be delivered over to the hands of your enemies who are besieging you (see preceding Rashi); because since one may not allow a dead person to remain [unburied] overnight in Jerusalem (B.K. 82b), when they bring out their dead for burial, they will then be “delivered into the enemy’s hands.” - [Torath Kohanim 26:33]   וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי דֶבֶר בְּתוֹכְכֶם: עַל יְדֵי הַדֶּבֶר ונתתם ביד הָאוֹיְבִים הַצָּרִים עֲלֵיכֶם, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מְלִינִים אֶת הַמֵּת בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וּכְשֶׁהֵם מוֹצִיאִים אֶת הַמֵּת לְקָבְרוֹ נִתָּנִין בְּיַד אוֹיֵב (שם):
26when I break for you the staff of bread, and ten women will bake your bread in one oven, and they will bring back your bread by weight, and you will eat, yet not be satisfied.   כובְּשִׁבְרִ֣י לָכֶם֘ מַטֵּה־לֶ֒חֶם֒ וְ֠אָפ֠וּ עֶ֣שֶׂר נָשִׁ֤ים לַחְמְכֶם֙ בְּתַנּ֣וּר אֶחָ֔ד וְהֵשִׁ֥יבוּ לַחְמְכֶ֖ם בַּמִּשְׁקָ֑ל וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם וְלֹ֥א תִשְׂבָּֽעוּ:
the staff of bread: Heb. מַטֵּה. [This expression] denotes [a source of] “support” [namely, food or bread, just as a staff (מַטֵּה) supports a person (Mizrachi)], similar to “staff (מַטֵּה) of strength” (Jer. 48:17).   מַטֵּה־לֶחֶם: לְשׁוֹן מִשְׁעָן, כְּמוֹ מַטֵּה עֹז (ירמיהו מ"ח):
When I break for you the staff of bread: I will break every support of bread that you have. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34] This refers to “the arrows of hunger” (see Ezek. 5:16 where both of these expressions appear, and Redak identifies the “arrows of hunger” as blight, mildew, and locusts, which destroy some or most of the grain).   בְּשִׁבְרִי לָכֶם מַטֵּה־לֶחֶם: אֶשְׁבֹּר לָכֶם כָּל מִסְעַד אֹכֶל, וְהֵם חִצֵּי רָעָב (יחזקאל ה'):
and ten women will bake your bread in one oven: because of lack of wood. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34]   וְאָפוּ עֶשֶׂר נָשִׁים לַחְמְכֶם בְּתַנּוּר אֶחָד: מֵחֹסֶר עֵצִים (ספרא):
and they will bring back your bread by weight: The grain will rot, and the bread will become crumbly, breaking apart inside the oven. The women, therefore, will sit and weigh the broken pieces, to divide them among themselves. — [Torath Kohanim 26:34]   וְהֵשִׁיבוּ לַחְמְכֶם בַּמִּשְׁקָל: שֶׁתְּהֵא הַתְּבוּאָה נִרְקֶבֶת וְנַעֲשֵׂית פַּת נְפֹלֶת, וּמִשְׁתַּבֶּרֶת בַּתַּנּוּר, וְהֵן יוֹשְׁבוֹת וְשׁוֹקְלוֹת אֶת הַשְּׁבָרִים לְחַלְּקָם בֵּינֵיהֶם (שם):
and you will eat, yet not be satisfied: This describes a curse within the intestines. [Once again,] seven retributions [are enumerated here (verses 25-26) corresponding to the seven sins (see Rashi on verses 15, 18, 20 and 22 above)], namely: (a) the attacking armies, (b) the siege, (c) the plague, (d) the destruction of food supply, (e) a lack of wood, (f) crumbly bread and (g) a curse in the intestines. The clause, “you will be delivered [into the enemy’s hand]” (in verse 25), does not count [as a separate retribution because it] is [part of] the attacking armies.   וַֽאֲכַלְתֶּם וְלֹא תִשְׂבָּֽעוּ: זֶהוּ מְאֵרָה בְּתוֹךְ הַמֵּעַיִם בַּלֶּחֶם, הֲרֵי שֶׁבַע פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת: חֶרֶב, מָצוֹר, דֶּבֶר, שֶׁבֶר מַטֵּה לֶחֶם, חֹסֶר עֵצִים, פַּת נְפֹלֶת, מְאֵרָה בַמֵּעַיִם; וְנִתַּתֶּם אֵינָהּ מִן הַמִּנְיָן, הִיא הַחֶרֶב:
27And if, despite this, you still do not listen to Me, still treating Me as happenstance,   כזוְאִ֨ם־בְּזֹ֔את לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וַֽהֲלַכְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י בְּקֶֽרִי:
28I will treat you with a fury of happenstance, adding again seven [chastisements] for your sins:   כחוְהָֽלַכְתִּ֥י עִמָּכֶ֖ם בַּֽחֲמַת־קֶ֑רִי וְיִסַּרְתִּ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ אַף־אָ֔נִי שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּֽאתֵיכֶֽם:
29You will eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your daughters you will eat.   כטוַֽאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם בְּשַׂ֣ר בְּנֵיכֶ֑ם וּבְשַׂ֥ר בְּנֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
30I will demolish your edifices and cut down your sun idols; I will make your corpses [fall] upon the corpses of your idols, and My Spirit will reject you.   לוְהִשְׁמַדְתִּ֞י אֶת־בָּמֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם וְהִכְרַתִּי֙ אֶת־חַמָּ֣נֵיכֶ֔ם וְנָֽתַתִּי֙ אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶ֔ם עַל־פִּגְרֵ֖י גִּלּֽוּלֵיכֶ֑ם וְגָֽעֲלָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֖י אֶתְכֶֽם:
your edifices: Towers and castles.   בָּמֹֽתֵיכֶם: מִגְדָּלִים וּבִירָנִיּוֹת:
your sun-idols: A type of idol that they would place upon the rooftops, and since they would stand in the sun (חַמָּה), they are called “sun idols.” (חַמָּנִים) - [Torath Kohanim 19:7]   חַמָּנֵיכֶם: מִין עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין עַל הַגַּגּוֹת, וְעַל שֵׁם שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין בַּחַמָּה, קְרוּיִין חַמָּנִים (ספרא ויקרא י"ט):
I will make your corpses [fall] upon [the corpses of your idols]: [How so?] The people would be swollen from starvation; [and in a futile gesture of homage,] they would take out their idol from their bosom and kiss it; their bellies would burst open, and they would fall down [dead] on top of it. — [Torath Kohanim 26:36]   וְנָֽתַתִּי אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶם: תְּפוּחֵי רָעָב הָיוּ, וּמוֹצִיאִים יִרְאָתָם מֵחֵיקָם וּמְנַשְּׁקִים אוֹתָם, וּכְרֵיסָן נִבְקַעַת וְנוֹפֵל עָלֶיהָ (ספרא; סנהדרין ס"ג):
and My Spirit will reject you: This is the departure of the Divine Presence. — [Torath Kohanim 26:36]   וְגָֽעֲלָה נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶֽם: זֶה סִלּוּק שְׁכִינָה (ספרא):
31I will lay your cities waste and make your holy places desolate, and I will not partake of your pleasant fragrances.   לאוְנָֽתַתִּ֤י אֶת־עָֽרֵיכֶם֙ חָרְבָּ֔ה וַֽהֲשִׁמּוֹתִ֖י אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶ֑ם וְלֹ֣א אָרִ֔יחַ בְּרֵ֖יחַ נִיחֹֽחֲכֶֽם:
I will lay your cities waste: I might think that this means [desolate] of people [who reside there (Mizrachi)]. When the [next verse] says, “I will make the Land desolate,” [desolation of] people [who reside there] is [already] stated. So what is the meaning of “waste”? [It means that the Land will be desolate] of any passerby. — [Torath Kohanim 26:2]   וְנָֽתַתִּי אֶת־עָֽרֵיכֶם חָרְבָּה: יָכוֹל מֵאָדָם, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִי אֲנִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי אָדָם אָמוּר, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם חָרְבָּה? מֵעוֹבֵר וָשָׁב:
and make your holy places (מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם) desolate: I might think that this means [desolate] of sacrifices. [However,] when [Scripture] states, “and I will not partake [of your pleasant fragrances],” [desolation of] sacrifices is stated. So what is the meaning of “and make your holy places desolate”? It means [desolate] of throngs (Torath Kohanim 26: 4) - these are the caravans of Israelites who prepare themselves (מִתְקַדְּשׁוֹת) and gather to go there [to the Holy Temple in Jerusalem]. [Here also,] seven retributions [are enumerated here (verses 29-31) corresponding to the seven sins (see Rashi on verses 15, 18, 20 and 22 above)], namely: eating the flesh of sons and daughters, edifices being demolished; thus we have two [retributions enumerated]. The cutting down of sun-idols is not [counted as a separate] retribution, but rather, [part of this second one, for] as a consequence of the edifices being demolished, the sun-idols that had been erected on the rooftops (see Rashi verse 30 above) will fall off [these tall buildings] and be destroyed; I will make your corpses [(fall) upon the corpses of your idols]-that makes three; the departure of the Divine Presence-four; the cities being laid waste, the desolation of the holy places from throngs, and I will not partake [of the pleasant fragrances of] your sacrifices-in total, seven [even though the ensuing verses go on to mention several other additional hardships that are not actually part of these seven, but that Israel will have to endure if they sin (Mizrachi)].   וַֽהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם: יָכוֹל מִן הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וְלֹא אָרִיחַ הֲרֵי קָרְבָּנוֹת אֲמוּרִים, הָא מָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם? מִן הַגְּדוּדִיּוֹת — שַׁיָּרוֹת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְקַדְּשׁוֹת וְנוֹעָדוֹת לָבֹא שָׁם; הֲרֵי שֶׁבַע פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת: אֲכִילַת בְּשַׂר בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת וְהַשְׁמָדַת בָּמוֹת הֲרֵי שְׁתַּיִם — כְּרִיתוּת חַמָּנִים אֵין כָּאן פֻּרְעָנוּת, אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי הַשְׁמָדַת הַבִּירָנִיּוֹת יִפְּלוּ הַחַמָּנִים שֶׁבְּרָאשֵׁי הַגַּגּוֹת וְיִכָּרְתוּ — וְנָתַתִּי אֶת פִּגְרֵיכֶם וְגוֹ' הֲרֵי שָׁלוֹשׁ, סִלּוּק שְׁכִינָה אַרְבַּע, חֻרְבַּן עָרִים, שִׁמְמוֹן מִקְדָּשׁ מִן הַגְּדוּדִיּוֹת, וְלֹא אָרִיחַ קָרְבָּנוֹת, הֲרֵי שֶׁבַע:
32I will make the Land desolate, so that it will become desolate [also] of your enemies who live in it.   לבוַֽהֲשִׁמֹּתִ֥י אֲנִ֖י אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְשָֽׁמְמ֤וּ עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֔ם הַיּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בָּֽהּ:
I will make the Land desolate: This is actually a good thing for Israel, namely, that since the Land will be desolate of people living in it, the enemies will not find contentment in Israel’s Land [and will have to leave]. — [Sifthei Chachamim; Torath Kohanim 26:38]   וַֽהֲשִׁמֹּתִי אֲנִי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ: זוֹ מִדָּה טוֹבָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁלֹּא יִמְצְאוּ הָאוֹיְבִים נַחַת רוּחַ בְּאַרְצָם, שֶׁתְּהֵא שׁוֹמֵמָה מִיּוֹשְׁבֶיהָ (ספרא):
33And I will scatter you among the nations, and I will unsheathe the sword after you. Your land will be desolate, and your cities will be laid waste.   לגוְאֶתְכֶם֙ אֱזָרֶ֣ה בַגּוֹיִ֔ם וַֽהֲרִֽיקֹתִ֥י אַֽחֲרֵיכֶ֖ם חָ֑רֶב וְהָֽיְתָ֤ה אַרְצְכֶם֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה וְעָֽרֵיכֶ֖ם יִֽהְי֥וּ חָרְבָּֽה:
And you, I will scatter among the nations: This [though,] is a harsh thing [for Israel], for when the people of a country are exiled to the same place, they see each other and find solace. However, Israel was scattered as if through a winnowing basket, just as a person who scatters barley through a sieve [so that] not one of them is attached to another. — [Torath Kohanim 26: 39]   וְאֶתְכֶם אֱזָרֶה בַגּוֹיִם: זוֹ מִדָּה קָשָׁה, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבְּנֵי הַמְּדִינָה גּוֹלִים לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד, רוֹאִים זֶה אֶת זֶה וּמִתְנַחֲמִין, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל נִזְרוּ כְבַמְּזָרֶה — כְּאָדָם הַזּוֹרֶה שְׂעוֹרִים בְּנָפָה וְאֵין אַחַת מֵהֶן דְּבוּקָה בַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ (שם):
and I will unsheathe: Heb. וַהֲרִיקֹתִי, [lit., “I will empty out,” which means here to unsheathe, because] when one unsheathes a sword, the sheath is emptied out (מִתְרוֹקֵֵן). And the Midrashic explanation [based on the term לְהָרִיק, often used to mean “to empty out water,” is as follows]: The sword that will be taken out against you will not return quickly [to its sheath]. This is like a person who empties out (מֵרִיק) [a pitcher of] water, which does not return [to the pitcher]. — [Torath Kohanim 26:39]   וַֽהֲרִֽיקֹתִי: כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹלֵף הַחֶרֶב מִתְרוֹקֵן הַנָּדָן; וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ חֶרֶב הַנִּשְׁמֶטֶת אַחֲרֵיכֶם אֵינָהּ חוֹזֶרֶת מַהֵר, כְּאָדָם שֶׁמֵּרִיק אֶת הַמַּיִם וְאֵין סוֹפָן לַחֲזֹר (ספרא):
Your land will be desolate: For you will not hasten to return into it, and subsequently, “your cities will be laid waste,” i.e., they will appear to you as having been [permanently] laid waste. For when a person is exiled from his house, from his vineyard, and from his city, but he [knows that he] will ultimately return, [in his eyes,] it is as though his vineyard and house are not laid waste [whereas here, since Israel will give up hope of returning to their Land, it will appear to them as having been laid waste]; thus is it taught in Torath Kohanim (26:40).   וְהָֽיְתָה אַרְצְכֶם שְׁמָמָה: שֶׁלֹּא תְמַהֲרוּ לָשׁוּב לְתוֹכָהּ, וּמִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ עָרֵיכֶם יִהְיוּ חָרְבָּה — נִרְאוֹת לָכֶם חֲרֵבוֹת, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָדָם גּוֹלֶה מִבֵּיתוֹ וּמִכַּרְמוֹ וּמֵעִירוֹ וְסוֹפוֹ לַחֲזֹר, כְּאִלּוּ אֵין כַּרְמוֹ וּבֵיתוֹ חֲרֵבִים, כָּךְ שְׁנוּיָה בְּתּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים:
34Then, the land will be appeased regarding its sabbaticals. During all the days that it remains desolate while you are in the land of your enemies, the Land will rest and thus appease its sabbaticals.   לדאָז֩ תִּרְצֶ֨ה הָאָ֜רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶ֗יהָ כֹּ֚ל יְמֵ֣י הָשַּׁמָּ֔ה וְאַתֶּ֖ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם אָ֚ז תִּשְׁבַּ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהִרְצָ֖ת אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶֽיהָ:
Then, the Land will be appeased: [This verb is in the reflexive form and the meaning is: Then, the Land will be appeased, and in turn,] appease the anger of the Omnipresent, Who had been angry regarding the Land’s Shemittah years (Mizrachi) [and thus appease [God regarding them].   אָז תִּרְצֶה: תְּפַיֵּס אֶת כַּעַס הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁכָּעַס עַל שְׁמִטּוֹתֶיהָ:
and thus appease: [This verb is in the causative form, meaning: The Land will appease] the King regarding its sabbaticals (Mizrachi).   וְהִרְצָת: לַמֶּלֶךְ את שבתתיה:
35It will rest during all the days that it remains desolate, whatever it had not rested on your sabbaticals, when you lived upon it.   להכָּל־יְמֵ֥י הָשַּׁמָּ֖ה תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹא־שָֽׁבְתָ֛ה בְּשַׁבְּתֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם בְּשִׁבְתְּכֶ֥ם עָלֶֽיהָ:
all the days that it remains desolate: [This word הָשַּׁמָּה is in the passive form, just] like the word הֵעָשׂוֹת [and means “being desolate”]. The [root of the word, שׁמם, actually has two letters מ, and our word should therefore appear as הָשַּׁמָמָּה Since this is difficult to pronounce, however, the first] “mem” is vocalized with a dagesh, which replaces the [second, omitted “mem,” rather than having the full word with a] double [“mem” in it, as in the noun form,] שְׁמָמָה.   כָּל־יְמֵי הָשַּׁמָּה: לְשׁוֹן הֵעָשׂוֹת, וּמֵ"ם דָּגֵשׁ בִּמְקוֹם כֵּפֶל שְׁמָמָה:
whatever it had not rested on your sabbaticals: The seventy years of the Babylonian exile [i.e., between the destruction of the first Temple and the building of the second,] corresponded to the seventy years of Shemittah and Jubilee years that took place during the years that Israel angered the Omnipresent while in their Land, [a total of] 430 years. Three hundred and ninety years were the years of their sinning from when they entered the land until the Ten Tribes were exiled, and the people of Judah angered Him for forty more years from the time the Ten Tribes were exiled until the destruction of Jerusalem. This is what is referred to in Ezek. (4:4-5) [when God makes Ezekiel figuratively suffer one day for each year Israel sinned, in order to atone for their sins], “And you shall lie on your left side (symbolizing the house of Israel, i.e., the ten tribes)… [Now I have made for you the years of their iniquity by the number of days, three hundred and ninety days, and you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Israel]. And when you complete these, you shall lie on your right side a second time, and you shall bear the iniquity of the house of Judah: forty days [a day for a year, a day for a year, I have given it to you].” Now, this prophecy was stated to Ezekiel in the fifth year of King Jehoiachin’s exile. And [since the people of Judah] spent another six years [in the Land] until Zedekiah’s exile, totaling forty-six [sinful years of the house of Judah, and hence, of the 850 years the people of Israel spent from the time of their entry into the Land until their eventual exile from it after the destruction of the first Holy Temple, they sinned for a total of 436 years]. Now, you might object, saying that King Manasseh [who was born immediately after the ten tribes were exiled, and who] ruled for fifty-five years [and so, even without taking into account the sinful years during the reigns of all the other kings of Judah, fifty-five years alone is more than forty-six, so surely the calculation is incorrect]! [However,] Manasseh repented [his evil ways] for thirty-three [of the fifty-five] years [of his reign], and thus, his sinful years [amounted to] twenty-two years, as it is written, “and he made an asherah as Ahab, the king of Israel, had made” (II Kings 21:3), and Ahab ruled for twenty-two [sinful] years, [so did Manasseh sin for twenty-two of his fifty-five year reign,] as is taught in the Aggadah of [the eleventh chapter of Tractate Sanh. (103a), entitled] Cheilek. [Thus, the number of years that the house of Judah sinned was: 22 years during the reign of Manasseh,] two during [the reign of] Amon, eleven during [the reign of] Jehoiakim and the same [i.e., another eleven] during [the reign of] Zedekiah [making a total of 46 years. The other kings of Judah are not included in the calculation, because during the righteous Josiah’s reign, Israel did not sin, while Jehoachaz and Jehoiachin each ruled for only three months. Let us now] go and calculate, for the [period of] 436 years [of sin], how many Shemittah and Jubilee years transpired during the years, at a rate of sixteen in every hundred years: 14 Shemittah years and two Jubilee years [totaling 16 sabbatical years]. Therefore, for 400 years, we have 64, and for the remaining 36 years, there are five [cycles of seven years and thus five] Shemittah years, making a total of [64 and 5 =] seventy minus one [i.e., 69 unobserved sabbatical years in that total of 436 sinful years in that period]. And [we must add to this calculation] an extra year-this extra year was the [last sinful] year [of the 436,] which began another Shemittah cycle [and God exiled Israel then and did not wait for the completion of that cycle for them to desecrate the seventieth Shemittah year-out of mercy for them, so that they would not have to endure the punishment of utter destruction, God forbid.] - [see Deut. 4:25 and Rashi there; Sifthei Chachamim] [This extra year, nevertheless, is included in the calculation here, as though another sabbatical had gone by unobserved, thereby] completing the seventy [unobserved sabbatical years of that period]. And for these [unobserved sabbaticals], a full seventy years [of exile] were decreed. And thus is it stated in (II) Chron. (36: 21), “until the Land was appeased regarding its Sabbaths; [for all the days of its desolation it rested,] until the completion of seventy years.” - [See Sefer Hazikkaron for the explanation of this Rashi.]   אֵת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָֽׁבְתָה: שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה שֶׁל גָּלוּת בָּבֶל הֵן הָיוּ כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעִים שְׁנוֹת הַשְּׁמִטָּה וְיוֹבֵל שֶׁהָיוּ בַּשָּׁנִים שֶׁהִכְעִיסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאַרְצָם לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם — אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וּשְׁלוֹשִׁים שָׁנָה; שְׁלוֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְתִשְׁעִים הָיוּ שְׁנֵי עֲוֹנָם מִשֶּׁנִּכְנְסוּ לָאָרֶץ עַד שֶׁגָּלוּ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים, וּבְנֵי יְהוּדָה הִכְעִיסוּ לְפָנָיו אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה מִשֶּׁגָּלוּ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים עַד חָרְבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בִּיחֶזְקֵאל "וְאַתָּה שְׁכַב עַל צִדְּךָ הַשְּׂמָאלִי וְגוֹ', וְכִלִּיתָ אֶת אֵלֶּה וְגוֹ', וְשָׁכַבְתָּ עַל צִדְּךָ הַיְמָנִי אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְנָשָׂאתָ אֶת עֲוֹן בֵּית יְהוּדָה", וּנְבוּאָה זוֹ נֶאֶמְרָה לִיחֶזְקֵאל בַּשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִשִּׁית לְגָלוּת הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוֹיָכִין, וְעוֹד עָשׂוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים עַד גָּלוּת צִדְקִיָּהוּ, הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעִים וְשֵׁשׁ; וְאִם תֹּאמַר שְׁנוֹת מְנַשֶּׁה חֲמִשִּׁים וְחָמֵשׁ הָיוּ, מְנַשֶּׁה עָשָֹה תְשׁוּבָה שְׁלוֹשִׁים וְשָׁלוֹשׁ שָׁנָה, וְכָל שְׁנוֹת רִשְׁעוֹ עֶשְֹרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ בְּאַגָּדַת חֵלֶק, וְשֶׁל אָמוֹן שְׁתַּיִם, וְאַחַת עֶשְֹרֵה לִיהוֹיָקִים, וּכְנֶגְדָּן לְצִדְקִיָּהוּ; צֵא וַחֲשֹׁב לְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וּשְׁלוֹשִׁים וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנָה שְׁמִטִּין וְיוֹבְלוֹת שֶׁבָּהֶם, וְהֵם שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֶה לְמֵאָה — אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שְׁמִטִּין וּשְׁנַיִם יוֹבְלוֹת, הֲרֵי לְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה שִׁשִּׁים וְאַרְבַּע, לִשְׁלוֹשִׁים וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנָה חָמֵשׁ שְׁמִטּוֹת, הֲרֵי שִׁבְעִים חָסֵר אַחַת, וְעוֹד שָׁנָה יְתֵרָה, שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה בַשְּׁמִטָּה הַמַּשְׁלֶמֶת לְשִׁבְעִים, וַעֲלֵיהֶם נִגְזַר שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה שְׁלֵמִים, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָמִים (דברי הימים ב' ל"ו), עַד רָצְתָה הָאָרֶץ אֶת שַׁבְּתוֹתֶיהָ … לְמַלֹּאות שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה (סדר עולם):
36And those of you who survive I will bring fear in their hearts in the lands of their enemies, and the sound of a rustling leaf will pursue them; they will flee as one flees the sword, and they will fall, but there will be no pursuer.   לווְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּכֶ֗ם וְהֵבֵ֤אתִי מֹ֨רֶךְ֙ בִּלְבָבָ֔ם בְּאַרְצֹ֖ת אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֑ם וְרָדַ֣ף אֹתָ֗ם ק֚וֹל עָלֶ֣ה נִדָּ֔ף וְנָס֧וּ מְנֻֽסַת־חֶ֛רֶב וְנָֽפְל֖וּ וְאֵ֥ין רֹדֵֽף:
I will bring fear: Heb. מֹרֶךְ, fear and timidity (רֹךְ) of heart (see Torath Kohanim 26:43). The letter “mem” of מֹרֶךְ is [actually part of] the root [of the word, but occasionally] is omitted (see Rashi on Gen. 17:11 and 49:10) [and does not appear in other forms of the word, e.g., אַל יֵרַךְ לְבַבְכֶם (Deut. 20:3)], like the “mem” of מוֹעֵד and מוֹקֵשׁ [where the “mem” is also part of the root, but is omitted in different forms of these words, e.g., וְנוֹעַדְתּי שָׁמָה (Exod. 29:43) and, יָקוּשׁ (Hos. 9:8)]. — [Meira Dachya]   וְהֵבֵאתִי מֹרֶךְ: פַּחַד וְרֹךְ לֵבָב; מ"ם שֶׁל מֹרֶךְ יְסוֹד נוֹפֵל הוּא, כְּמוֹ מ"ם שֶׁל מוֹעֵד וְשֶׁל מוֹקֵשׁ:
they will flee as one flees the sword: i. e., as if murderers are pursuing them [but only “as if,” because “there will be no pursuer.” - [Mizrachi]   וְנָסוּ מְנֻֽסַת־חֶרֶב: כְּאִלּוּ רוֹדְפִים הוֹרְגִים אוֹתָם:
a rustling leaf: Heb., עָלֶה נִדָּף, lit., a “ pushed” leaf, that the wind “pushes,” striking it against another leaf, so that it knocks and makes a sound. And so does the Targum [Onkelos] render: קַל טַרְפָא דְשָׁקִיף, an expression of striking, like שְׁדוּפוֹת קָדִים, beaten by the east wind (Gen. 41:6), [which Onkelos renders:] שְׁקִיפָן קִדּוּם, [and it is like] the term מַשְׁקוֹף, lintel, the place where the door slams. Similar is [Onkelos’s] translation of חַבּוּרָה [“bruise” (Exod. 21:25), which he renders:], מַשְׁקוֹפֵי [which actually means “blow,” since the bruise is a result of a blow on the body (see Rashi there)]. [Although the word נִדָּף actually means “pushed,” Onkelos conveys the result of one leaf being pushed against another, namely, that it “strikes” its neighboring leaf. (Mizrachi).]   עָלֶה נִדָּף: שֶׁהָרוּחַ דּוֹחֲפוֹ וּמַכֵּהוּ עַל עָלֶה אַחֵר וּמְקַשְׁקֵשׁ וּמוֹצִיא קוֹל, וְכֵן תַּרְגּוּמוֹ קַל טַרְפָּא דְשָׁקִיף, לְשׁוֹן חֲבָטָה, "שְׁדוּפוֹת קָדִים" (בראשית מ"א) — שְׁקִיפָן קִדּוּם, לְשׁוֹן מַשְׁקוֹף, מְקוֹם חֲבָטַת הַדֶּלֶת, וְכֵן תַּרְגּוּמוֹ שֶׁל "חַבּוּרָה" (שמות כ"א) — מַשְׁקוֹפֵי:
37Each man will stumble over his brother, [fleeing] as if from the sword, but without a pursuer. You will not be able to stand up against your enemies.   לזוְכָֽשְׁל֧וּ אִֽישׁ־בְּאָחִ֛יו כְּמִפְּנֵי־חֶ֖רֶב וְרֹדֵ֣ף אָ֑יִן וְלֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ תְּקוּמָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
Each man will stumble over his brother: When they run away to flee, they will stumble over each other, because they will flee in panic.   וְכָֽשְׁלוּ אִֽישׁ־בְּאָחִיו: כְּשֶׁיָּרוּצוּ לָנוּס יִכָּשְׁלוּ זֶה בָזֶה, כִּי יִבָּהֲלוּ לָרוּץ:
as if from the sword: i.e., as if fleeing from [people] who want to kill them, for they will have fear in their hearts, and every moment, they will think that someone is chasing them. And the Midrashic explanation of וְכָשְׁלוּ אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו is: “Each man will stumble because of his brother,” i.e., one person will stumble because of someone else’s sin, because all Jews are guarantors for one another. - [Torath Kohanim 26:45, Sanh. 27b]   כְּמִפְּנֵי־חֶרֶב: כְּאִלּוּ בּוֹרְחִים מִלִּפְנֵי הוֹרְגִים, שֶׁיְּהֵא בִלְבָבָם פַּחַד, וְכָל שָׁעָה סְבוּרִים שֶׁאָדָם רוֹדְפָם; וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ וְכָשְׁלוּ אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו, זֶה נִכְשָׁל בַּעֲוֹנוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, שֶׁכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲרֵבִין זֶה לָזֶה (ספרא; סנהדרין כ"ז):
38You will become lost among the nations, and the land of your enemies will consume you.   לחוַֽאֲבַדְתֶּ֖ם בַּגּוֹיִ֑ם וְאָֽכְלָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֶ֖רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם:
You will become lost among the nations: When you will be scattered, you will become lost from one another.   וַֽאֲבַדְתֶּם בַּגּוֹיִם: כְּשֶׁתִּהְיוּ פְזוּרִים, תִּהְיוּ אֲבוּדִים זֶה מִזֶּה (עי' ספרא):
and the land of your enemies will consume you: This refers to those [Jews] who will die in the Diaspora.   וְאָֽכְלָה אֶתְכֶם: אֵלּוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּגּוֹלָה:
39And because of their iniquity, those of you who survive will rot away in the lands of your enemies; moreover, they will rot away because the iniquities of their fathers are still within them.   לטוְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּכֶ֗ם יִמַּ֨קּוּ֙ בַּֽעֲו‍ֹנָ֔ם בְּאַרְצֹ֖ת אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְאַ֛ף בַּֽעֲו‍ֹנֹ֥ת אֲבֹתָ֖ם אִתָּ֥ם יִמָּֽקּוּ:
because the iniquities of their fathers are still with them: If they hold onto the [evil] practices of their forefathers in their hands. — [Sanh. 27b]   בעונת אֲבֹתָם אִתָּם: כְּשֶׁעֲווֹנוֹת אֲבוֹתָם אִתָּם — כְּשֶׁאוֹחֲזִים מַעֲשֵׂה אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם בִּידֵיהֶם (שם):
they will rot away: Heb. יִמָּקּוּ, an expression of melting, and has the same meaning as יִמַּסּוּ, “they will melt.” Similar is, “their eyes will melt (תִּמַּקְנָה) in their sockets” (Zech. 14:12), and, “my bruises are… decayed (נָמַקּוּ) ” (Ps. 38:6).   יִמַּקּוּ: לְשׁוֹן הֲמַסָּה, כְּמוֹ יִמַּסּוּ, וְכָמוֹהוּ "תִּמַּקְנָה בְחֹרֵיהֶן" (זכריה י"ד), "נָמַקּוּ חַבּוּרֹתָי" (תהילים ל"ח):
40They will then confess their iniquity and the iniquity of their fathers their betrayal that they dealt Me, and that they also treated Me as happenstance.   מוְהִתְוַדּ֤וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָם֙ וְאֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן אֲבֹתָ֔ם בְּמַֽעֲלָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָֽעֲלוּ־בִ֑י וְאַ֕ף אֲשֶׁר־הָֽלְכ֥וּ עִמִּ֖י בְּקֶֽרִי:
41Then I too, will treat them as happenstance and bring them [back while] in the land of their enemies. If then, their clogged heart becomes humbled, then, [their sufferings] will gain appeasement for their iniquity,   מאאַף־אֲנִ֞י אֵלֵ֤ךְ עִמָּם֙ בְּקֶ֔רִי וְהֵֽבֵאתִ֣י אֹתָ֔ם בְּאֶ֖רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֑ם אוֹ־אָ֣ז יִכָּנַ֗ע לְבָבָם֙ הֶֽעָרֵ֔ל וְאָ֖ז יִרְצ֥וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָֽם:
Then I too, will… bring them [… (back while) in the land of their enemies]: “I Myself will bring them [back]!” This is a good thing for Israel, so that they should not say, “Since we have been exiled among the nations, we may as well behave like them!” [Says God in answer to this:] “I will not allow them [to do this]! Rather, I will set up My prophets, and bring them back [to Me] under My very wings!” as it is said, “But what enters your mind shall not come about, [what you say, 'Let us be like the nations, like the families of the lands, serving wood and stone’]. As I live, says the Lord God, surely with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm and with poured out fury, will I reign over you!” (Ezek. 20:32-33). - [Torath Kohanim 26:48]   וְהֵֽבֵאתִי אֹתָם: אֲנִי בְעַצְמִי אֲבִיאֵם; זוֹ מִדָּה טוֹבָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ אוֹמְרִים, הוֹאִיל וְגָלִינוּ בֵּין הָאֻמּוֹת נַעֲשֶׂה כְמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם, אֲנִי אֵינִי מַנִּיחָם, אֶלָּא מַעֲמִיד אֲנִי אֶת נְבִיאַי וּמַחֲזִירָן לְתַחַת כְּנָפַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל כ"א), "וְהָעֹלָה עַל רוּחֲכֶם הָיוֹ לֹא תִהְיֶה וְגוֹ' חַי אָנִי … אִם לֹא בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וְגוֹ'" (ספרא):
If then… becomes humbled: Heb. אוֹ אָז יִכָּנַע [This unusual expression, אוֹ אָז, is] similar to that in the verse, אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא, “If it was known that it was a [habitually] goring bull” (Exod. 21:36). [Thus, the meaning of this verse is: If they want to become like the nations, I will have to take them back to Me against their will] but, if (אוֹ) their clogged heart then (אָז) becomes humbled [without force, their sufferings will atone for them…] (Sifthei Chachamim). Another meaning [of אוֹ אָז is:] Perhaps. [Thus, the verse means:] “Perhaps then, their blocked heart will become humbled….”   אוֹ־אָז יִכָּנַע: כְּמוֹ "אוֹ נוֹדַע כִּי שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא" (שמות כ"א) — אִם אָז יִכָּנַע; לָשׁוֹן אַחֵר אוּלַי — שֶׁמָּא אָז יִכָּנַע לְבָבָם וְגוֹ':
then, [their sufferings] will gain appeasement for their iniquity: [means that] they will gain atonement for their iniquity through their sufferings.   וְאָז יִרְצוּ אֶת־עונם: יְכַפְּרוּ עַל עֲווֹנָם בְּיִסּוּרֵיהֶם:
42and I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob, and also My covenant [with] Isaac, and also My covenant [with] Abraham I will remember. And I will remember the Land,   מבוְזָֽכַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֣י יַֽעֲק֑וֹב וְאַף֩ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֨י יִצְחָ֜ק וְאַ֨ף אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֶזְכֹּ֖ר וְהָאָ֥רֶץ אֶזְכֹּֽר:
And I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob: Heb. יַעִקוֹב. [The name יַעִקוֹב is] written in full, [i.e., with a “vav,”] in five places [in Scripture], and [the name] אֵלִיָּהוּ is written defectively [without a “vav,” i.e., אֵלִיָּה also] in five places [in Scripture]. Jacob took a letter [“vav”] from the name of Elijah [the Prophet] as security-that he will come and herald the redemption of his [Jacob’s] children [and since this is Elijah’s mission in life, his name will remain “incomplete,” as it were, until he fulfills it, speedily, in our days. The five instances of the “vav” symbolize the five fingers of the hand; i.e., this security arrangement between Jacob and Elijah was sealed by a handshake (Gur Aryeh)].   וְזָֽכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יַֽעֲקוֹב: בַּחֲמִשָּׁה מְקוֹמוֹת נִכְתַּב מָלֵא, וְאֵלִיָּהוּ חָסֵר בַּחֲמִשָּׁה מְקוֹמוֹת — יַעֲקֹב נָטַל אוֹת מִשְּׁמוֹ שֶׁל אֵלִיָּהוּ עֵרָבוֹן שֶׁיָּבֹא וִיבַשֵּׂר גְּאֻלַּת בָּנָיו:
I will remember My covenant [with] Jacob, and also… Isaac, and also… Abraham]: Why are the forefathers enumerated in reverse order? To inform [you that the youngest patriarch,] Jacob is [alone] worthy of this [i.e., that Israel be redeemed through his merit alone], but if this is not enough, then Isaac is together with him, and if this is not enough, then Abraham is with him, and [Abraham] is certainly worthy. And why is the expression “remembering” not used with Isaac? [Because] Isaac’s ashes (see Rashi on Gen. 22:13; Bereishith Rabbah 56:9; Tanchuma Shelach 14) [always] appear before Me, gathered up and placed upon the altar“ [and therefore, God does not have to ”remember" Isaac, for Isaac is never forgotten]. — [Hagahoth Ubiyurei Hagra on Torath Kohanim]   וְזָֽכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יַֽעֲקוֹב: לָמָּה נִמְנוּ אֲחוֹרַנִּית? כְּלוֹמַר, כְּדַאי הוּא יַעֲקֹב הַקָּטָן לְכָךְ, וְאִם אֵינוֹ כְדַאי, הֲרֵי יִצְחָק עִמּוֹ, וְאִם אֵינוֹ כְדַאי, הֲרֵי אַבְרָהָם עִמּוֹ שֶׁהוּא כְדַאי, וְלָמָּה לֹא נֶאֶמְרָה זְכִירָה בְיִצְחָק? אֶלָּא אֲפָרוֹ שֶׁל יִצְחָק נִרְאֶה לְפָנַי צָבוּר וּמֻנָּח עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ (ספרא):
43[For] the Land will be bereft of them, appeasing its sabbaticals when it had been desolate of them, and they will gain appeasement for their iniquity. This was all in retribution for their having despised My ordinances and in retribution for their having rejected My statutes.   מגוְהָאָ֩רֶץ֩ תֵּֽעָזֵ֨ב מֵהֶ֜ם וְתִ֣רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶ֗יהָ בָּהְשַׁמָּה֙ מֵהֶ֔ם וְהֵ֖ם יִרְצ֣וּ אֶת־עֲו‍ֹנָ֑ם יַ֣עַן וּבְיַ֔עַן בְּמִשְׁפָּטַ֣י מָאָ֔סוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֖י גָּֽעֲלָ֥ה נַפְשָֽׁם:
This was all in retribution for: [means:] “In retribution (יַעַן) and in retribution (וּבְיַעַן) [i.e., in retribution] for their having despised My ordinances [and in retribution (וּבְיַעַן) for their having rejected My statutes].”- [Mizrachi]   יַעַן וּבְיַעַן: גְּמוּל וּבִגְמוּל אֲשֶׁר בְּמִשְׁפָּטַי מָאָסוּ (עי' ספרא):
44But despite all this, while they are in the land of their enemies, I will not despise them nor will I reject them to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them, for I am the Lord their God.   מדוְאַף גַּם־זֹאת בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֞ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֗ם לֹֽא־מְאַסְתִּ֤ים וְלֹֽא־גְעַלְתִּים֙ לְכַלֹּתָ֔ם לְהָפֵ֥ר בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתָּ֑ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶֽם:
But despite all this: Moreover (אַף), even though (גַּם) I will mete out this (זֹאת) retribution upon them which I have described [for them] when they are in the land of their enemies-nevertheless, I will not despise them… to annihilate them, thereby breaking My covenant that is with them.   וְאַף גַּם־זֹאת: וְאַף אֲפִלּוּ אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה עִמָּהֶם זֹאת הַפֻּרְעָנוּת אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי בהיותם בארץ איביהם, לֹא אֶמְאָסֵם לְכַלֹּתָם וּלְהָפֵר בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר אִתָּם:
45I will remember for them the covenant [made with] the ancestors, whom I took out from the land of Egypt before the eyes of the nations, to be a God to them. I am the Lord.   מהוְזָֽכַרְתִּ֥י לָהֶ֖ם בְּרִ֣ית רִֽאשֹׁנִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוֹצֵֽאתִי־אֹתָם֩ מֵאֶ֨רֶץ מִצְרַ֜יִם לְעֵינֵ֣י הַגּוֹיִ֗ם לִֽהְי֥וֹת לָהֶ֛ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֖ים אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
The covenant [made with] the ancestors: i.e., with the Tribes. — [Torath Kohanim 26:53]   בְּרִית רִֽאשֹׁנִים: שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים (ספרא):
46These are the statutes, the ordinances, and the laws that the Lord gave between Himself and the children of Israel on Mount Sinai, by the hand of Moses.   מואֵ֠לֶּה הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים֘ וְהַתּוֹרֹת֒ אֲשֶׁר֙ נָתַ֣ן יְהֹוָ֔ה בֵּינ֕וֹ וּבֵ֖ין בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֥ר סִינַ֖י בְּיַד־משֶֽׁה:
the laws: וְהַתּוֹרוֹת. [Why the plural form, וְהַתּוֹרוֹת ? This denotes two Torahs -] one Written Torah and one Oral Torah. It teaches us that all were given to Moses on [Mount] Sinai. — [Torath Kohanim 26:54]   וְהַתּוֹרֹת: אַחַת בִּכְתָב וְאַחַת בְּעַל פֶּה, מַגִּיד שֶׁכֻּלָּם נִתְּנוּ לְמֹשֶׁה בְּסִינַי (שם):

Sixth Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 27

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When a man expresses a vow, [pledging the] value of lives to the Lord,   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יַפְלִ֖א נֶ֑דֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ נְפָשֹׁ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
When a man expresses: Expresses verbally.   כִּי יַפְלִא: יַפְרִישׁ בְּפִיו:
[pledging the] value of lives: to give the valuation of his life, i.e., saying: “I take it upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value (בְּעֶרְכְּךָ) of a vital (נְפָשֹׁת) organ, [such as the head or the liver]” - [Torath Kohanim 26:57, Arachin 20a]   בְּעֶרְכְּךָ נְפָשֹׁת: לִתֵּן עֵרֶךְ נְפָשׁוֹת — לוֹמַר עֵרֶךְ דָּבָר שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ תְלוּיָה בוֹ עָלַי (עי' ספרא; ערכין ד'):
3the [fixed] value of a male shall be as follows: From twenty years old until sixty years old, the value is fifty silver shekels, according to the holy shekel;   גוְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר מִבֶּן֙ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְעַ֖ד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֗ חֲמִשִּׁ֛ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כֶּ֖סֶף בְּשֶׁ֥קֶל הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
the [fixed] value… shall be: The value stated here is not an expression of monetary value [the usual market value of a person sold as a slave], but, whether he has a high market value or a low one, the value fixed for him in this passage is according to his age.   וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ וגו': אֵין עֵרֶךְ זֶה לְשׁוֹן דָּמִים, אֶלָּא בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יָקָר בֵּין שֶׁהוּא זוֹל, כְּפִי שָׁנָיו הוּא הָעֵרֶךְ הַקָּצוּב עָלָיו בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ:
the value: Heb. הָעֶרְכְּךָ [The last letter of this word, ךָ, is not the second person pronominal suffix, “your,” but rather, a double of the preceding letter כ, and therefore, this word is] the same as עֵרֶךְ, “value.” And I do not know what the double כ denotes here.   עֶרְכְּךָ: כְּמוֹ עֵרֶךְ, וְכֵפֶל הַכָּפִי"ן לֹא יָדַעְתִּי מֵאֵיזֶה לָשׁוֹן הוּא:
4And if she is a female, the value is thirty shekels;   דוְאִם־נְקֵבָ֖ה הִ֑וא וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ שְׁלשִׁ֥ים שָֽׁקֶל:
5And if [the person is] from five years old until twenty years old, the value of a male shall be twenty shekels, while that of a female shall be ten shekels;   הוְאִ֨ם מִבֶּן־חָמֵ֜שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים וְעַד֙ בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְהָיָ֧ה עֶרְכְּךָ֛ הַזָּכָ֖ר עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שְׁקָלִ֑ים וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת שְׁקָלִֽים:
And if… five years old: Not that the one who is vowing is a minor, because a minor’s words have no validity. Rather, [our verse is speaking of] an adult who says: “I take upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value of this five-year-old” [i.e., the subject of our verse is the person who is to be evaluated].   וְאִם מִבֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים: לֹא שֶׁיְּהֵא הַנּוֹדֵר קָטָן — שֶׁאֵין בְּדִבְרֵי קָטָן כְּלוּם — אֶלָּא גָּדוֹל שֶׁאָמַר עֵרֶךְ קָטָן זֶה שֶׁהוּא בֶן חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים עָלַי (עי' ערכין ב'):
6And if [the person is] from one month old until five years old, the value of a male shall be five silver shekels, while the value of a female shall be three silver shekels;   ווְאִ֣ם מִבֶּן־חֹ֗דֶשׁ וְעַד֙ בֶּן־חָמֵ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֔ים וְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּ֑סֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ שְׁל֥שֶׁת שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּֽסֶף:
7And if [the person is] sixty years old or over, if it is a male, the value shall be fifteen shekels, while for a female, it shall be ten shekels.   זוְ֠אִ֠ם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֨ים שָׁנָ֤ה וָמַ֨עְלָה֙ אִם־זָכָ֔ר וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר שָׁ֑קֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשָׂרָ֥ה שְׁקָלִֽים:
And if [the person is] sixty years old [or over]: When people reach a venerable age, a woman’s value becomes closer to that of a man. This is why a man decreases [in value] in his old age [to] beyond a third of his value [as an adult, namely, from 50 shekels to 15], while a woman [in her old age] decreases [to] only one third of her value [namely, from 30 shekels to 10]. As people say: “An old man in the house is a breach in the house (Rashi) [or] a snare in the house (Rabbenu Gershom), while an old woman in the house is a hidden treasure in the house and a good sign for the house.”- [Arachin 19a]   וְאִם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וגו': כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לִימֵי הַזִּקְנָה, הָאִשָּׁה קְרוֹבָה לְהֵחָשֵׁב כְּאִישׁ, לְפִיכָךְ הָאִישׁ פּוֹחֵת בְּהִזְדַּקְּנוֹ יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁלִישׁ בְּעֶרְכּוֹ, וְהָאִשָּׁה אֵינָהּ פוֹחֶתֶת אֶלָּא שְׁלִישׁ בְּעֶרְכָּהּ, דְּאָמְרֵי אִינְשֵׁי "סָבָא בְּבֵיתָא, פַּחָא בְּבֵיתָא, סָבְתָא בְּבֵיתָא סִימָא בְּבֵיתָא וְסִימָנָא טָבָא בְּבֵיתָא" (ערכין י"ט):
8But if he is [too] poor to [pay] the valuation [amount], he shall stand him up before the kohen, and the kohen shall evaluate him according to how much the one who is vowing his value can afford.   חוְאִם־מָ֥ךְ הוּא֙ מֵֽעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְהֶֽעֱמִידוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהֶֽעֱרִ֥יךְ אֹת֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן עַל־פִּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּשִּׂיג֙ יַ֣ד הַנֹּדֵ֔ר יַֽעֲרִיכֶ֖נּוּ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
But if he is [too] poor: that he cannot afford to pay this [fixed] valuation amount,   וְאִם־מָךְ הוּא: שֶׁאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לִתֵּן הָעֵרֶךְ הַזֶּה.
he shall stand him up: [i.e., the one making the vow should stand up] the one whose value he pledged, before the kohen , [who] will then evaluate him in view of how much the one pledging the valuation, can afford. — [see next Rashi ; Torath Kohanim 27:62]   וְהֶֽעֱמִידוֹ: לַנֶּעֱרָךְ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן, וְיַעֲרִיכֶנּוּ לְפִי הַשָּׂגַת יָדוֹ שֶׁל מַעֲרִיךְ:
according to how much [the one who is vowing his value] can afford: [The kohen] shall estimate the valuation, with reference to how much [the one who is vowing] owns, leaving him his basic life necessities, namely, a bed, a bolster, a pillow, and tools of trade-e.g., if he is a donkey-driver, the kohen must [make the valuation such that he] leaves him his donkey. — [Arachin 23b]   עַל־פִּי אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג: לְפִי מַה שֶּׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ יְסַדְּרֶנּוּ, וְיַשְׁאִיר לוֹ כְּדֵי חַיָּיו: מִטָּה, כַּר וְכֶסֶת, וּכְלֵי אֻמָּנוּת; אִם הָיָה חַמָּר מַשְׁאִיר לוֹ חֲמוֹרוֹ (בבא מציעא קי"ד; ערכין כ"ג):
9Now, if an animal of whose type is [fit] to be brought as an offering to the Lord, whatever part of it the person donates to the Lord, shall become holy.   טוְאִ֨ם־בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כֹּל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֥ן מִמֶּ֛נּוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ:
[If… an animal…] whatever part of it the person donates [… shall become holy]: If a person says, “The leg of this animal shall be a burnt-offering,” his words have validity. [And how is his vow expedited?] The [entire] animal [except for its leg] should be sold to one who needs a burnt-offering, and the money [received from this sale] which excludes the value of that limb [as stated above], becomes non-consecrated, [and then the entire animal can be brought by both parties as a burnt-offering]. — [Arachin 5a, Temurah 11b, Raavad on Torath Kohanim]   כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ: אָמַר רַגְלָהּ שֶׁל זוֹ עוֹלָה, דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין, וְתִמָּכֵר לְצָרְכֵי עוֹלָה, וְדָמֶיהָ חֻלִּין חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אוֹתוֹ הָאֵבֶר (ספרא; ערכין ה'):
10He shall not exchange it or offer a substitute for it, whether it be a good one for a bad one, or a bad one for a good one. But if he does substitute one animal for another animal, [both] that one and its replacement shall be holy.   ילֹ֣א יַֽחֲלִיפֶ֔נּוּ וְלֹֽא־יָמִ֥יר אֹת֛וֹ ט֥וֹב בְּרָ֖ע אוֹ־רַ֣ע בְּט֑וֹב וְאִם־הָמֵ֨ר יָמִ֤יר בְּהֵמָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה וְהָֽיָה־ה֥וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ:
whether it be a good one for a bad one: i.e., an unblemished animal in place of a blemished one,   טוֹב בְּרָע: תָּם בְּבַעַל מוּם.
or a bad one in place of a good one: And how much more so [should he receive lashes if he replaced] a good [unblemished animal] for another good one, or if he replaced a bad [blemished animal] with another bad one [in which cases he did not raise the standard of the consecrated animal]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:71; Temurah 9a]   אוֹ־רַע בְּטוֹב: וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן טוֹב בְּטוֹב וְרַע בְּרַע (עי' תמורה ט'):
11And if it is any unclean animal, of whose type shall not be brought as an offering to the Lord, then he shall stand up the animal before the kohen.   יאוְאִם֙ כָּל־בְּהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֔ה אֲ֠שֶׁ֠ר לֹֽא־יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהֶֽעֱמִ֥יד אֶת־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַכֹּהֵֽן:
And if it is any unclean animal: [But the case of an unclean animal is stated later (verse 27); so what “unclean animal” is meant?] The text is speaking about a blemished animal, which is “unclean” [i.e., unfit] for sacrifice. And Scripture is teaching us that unblemished consecrated animals cannot leave [their holy status and enter] into a mundane status through redemption, unless they become blemished. — [Men. 101a, Temurah 32b, 33a]   וְאִם כָּל־בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה: בְּבַעֲלַת מוּם הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה לְהַקְרָבָה, וְלִמֶּדְךָ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁאֵין קָדָשִׁים תְּמִימִים יוֹצְאִין לְחֻלִּין בְּפִדְיוֹן אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֻמְּמוּ (שם ל"ג):
12The kohen shall then evaluate it whether it is good or bad; like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be.   יבוְהֶֽעֱרִ֤יךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔הּ בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֣ין רָ֑ע כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יִֽהְיֶֽה:
like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be: for anyone else [but the owner], who wishes to purchase it from the possession of the Temple treasury,   כְּעֶרְכְּךָ הַכֹּהֵן כֵּן יִֽהְיֶֽה: לִשְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם הַבָּא לִקְנוֹתָהּ מִיַּד הֶקְדֵּשׁ:
13But if he redeems it, he shall add its fifth to its value.   יגוְאִם־גָּאֹ֖ל יִגְאָלֶ֑נָּה וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽישִׁת֖וֹ עַל־עֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he redeems it: [i.e., if the owner himself redeems the animal]. Scripture is more stringent with the owner, [obligating him] to add a fifth [to its value (see B.M . 54a, regarding the meaning of fifth)]. Likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his house, and likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his field, and likewise, in the case of the redemption of the Second Tithe- [in all these cases,] the owners must add a fifth [to the value], but no one else [who redeems these items must add a fifth]. [Torath Kohanim 27:83]   וְאִם־גָּאֹל יִגְאָלֶנָּה: בַּבְּעָלִים הֶחֱמִיר הַכָּתוּב לְהוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ, וְכֵן בְּמַקְדִּישׁ בַּיִת, וְכֵן בְּמַקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה, וְכֵן בְּפִדְיוֹן מַעֲשֵֹר שֵׁנִי — הַבְּעָלִים מוֹסִיפִין חֹמֶשׁ וְלֹא שְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם (שם כ"ה):
14And if a man consecrates his house [to be] holy to the Lord, the kohen shall evaluate it whether good or bad; as the kohen evaluates it, so shall it remain.   ידוְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יַקְדִּ֨שׁ אֶת־בֵּית֥וֹ קֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהֶֽעֱרִיכוֹ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֥ין רָ֑ע כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יַֽעֲרִ֥יךְ אֹת֛וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יָקֽוּם:
15But if the one who consecrated it redeems his house, he shall add to it a fifth of its valuation money, and it shall be his.   טווְאִם־הַ֙מַּקְדִּ֔ישׁ יִגְאַ֖ל אֶת־בֵּית֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִישִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְהָ֥יָה לֽוֹ:

Seventh Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 27

16And if a man consecrates some of the field of his inherited property to the Lord, the valuation shall be according to its sowing: an area which requires a chomer of barley seeds at fifty silver shekels.   טז וְאִ֣ם | מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֗וֹ יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ לְפִ֣י זַרְע֑וֹ זֶ֚רַע חֹ֣מֶר שְׂעֹרִ֔ים בַּֽחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כָּֽסֶף:
the valuation shall be according to its sowing: And not according to its value, whether it is a field of good quality or a field of bad quality, their redemption from consecration is equal, [namely]: The area requiring a kor (a chomer in Scripture) of barley seeds [must be redeemed] for fifty [silver] shekels. This is Scripture’s decree. — [Torath Kohanim 27:90] Now, this applies to one who comes to redeem it at the beginning of the Jubilee cycle [namely, in its first year]. However, if he comes to redeem it in the middle [of the Jubilee cycle, i.e., after the first year has elapsed], he must pay according to the calculation of one sela (i.e., a shekel) and a pundyon (one forty-eighth of a shekel) per year [depending on how many years until the next Jubilee (see Rashi on verse 18 below)]. — [Arachin 25a] [And why so?] Because property is consecrated only according to the years of the Jubilee cycle-if it is redeemed [within the Jubilee cycle], very good, [i.e., it reverts to its original owners and is no longer Temple property]; but if not, the [Temple] treasurer sells it to someone else at the aforementioned rate, and it remains in the purchaser’s possession until the next Jubilee, just like any other fields which are sold. Then, when it leaves the possession of this purchaser [in the Jubilee], it reverts to the kohanim of that watch, namely, [namely, the shift officiating] when [Yom Kippur of that] Jubilee occurs, and is apportioned among them. — [Arachin 28b] [The kohanim are divided into 24 family watches, or shifts, each in rotation for two or three one-week periods every year.] This is the law stated regarding one who consecrates a field. I will now explain it according to the order of the verses.   וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ לְפִי זַרְעוֹ: לֹא כְּפִי שָׁוְיָהּ, אַחַת שָׂדֶה טוֹבָה וְאַחַת שָׂדֶה רָעָה פִּדְיוֹן הֶקְדֵּשָׁן שָׁוֶה — בֵּית כֹּר שְׂעוֹרִים בַּחֲמִשִּׁים שְׁקָלִים — כָּךְ גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב, וְהוּא שֶׁבָּא לְגָאֳלָהּ בִּתְחִלַּת הַיּוֹבֵל. וְאִם בָּא לְגָאֳלָהּ בְאֶמְצָעוֹ, נוֹתֵן לְפִי הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן סֶלַע וּפֻנְדְּיוֹן לְשָׁנָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ הֶקְדֵּשׁ אֶלָּא לְמִנְיַן שְׁנוֹת הַיּוֹבֵל, שֶׁאִם נִגְאֲלָה הֲרֵי טוֹב, וְאִם לָאו הַגִּזְבָּר מוֹכְרָהּ בַּדָּמִים הַלָּלוּ לְאַחֵר, וְעוֹמֶדֶת בְּיַד הַלּוֹקֵחַ עַד הַיּוֹבֵל כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַשָּׂדוֹת הַמְּכוּרוֹת, וּכְשֶׁהִיא יוֹצְאָה מִיָּדוֹ חוֹזֶרֶת לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ מִשְׁמָר שֶׁהַיּוֹבֵל פּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ, וּמִתְחַלֶּקֶת בֵּינֵיהֶם, זֶהוּ הַמִּשְׁפָּט הָאָמוּר בְּמַקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֶה, וְעַכְשָׁו אֲפָרְשֶׁנּוּ עַל סֵדֶר הַמִּקְרָאוֹת:
17Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended], it shall remain at [its full] valuation.   יזאִם־מִשְּׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֑הוּ כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֖ יָקֽוּם:
Now, if he consecrates his field from [when] the Jubilee year [has ended]: If, as soon as the Jubilee year has ended, he immediately consecrates [his property i.e., within that first year of the next Shemittah and Jubilee cycle], and then he comes to redeem it immediately [i.e., before that first year has ended].   אִם־מִשְּׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַקְדִּישׁ וגו': אִם מִשֶּׁעָבְרָה שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל מִיָּד הִקְדִּישָׁהּ, וּבָא זֶה לְגָאֳלָהּ מִיָּד.
it shall remain at [its full] valuation: i.e., like this aforementioned (in verse 16) valuation, it shall be, [namely,] he must give fifty silver shekels [for the size of field stated]. — [see Arachin 24b]   כְּעֶרְכְּךָ יָקֽוּם: כָּעֵרֶךְ הַזֶּה הָאָמוּר יִהְיֶה — חֲמִשִּׁים כֶּסֶף יִתֵּן:
18But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years until the [next] Jubilee year, and it shall be deducted from the valuation.   יחוְאִם־אַחַ֣ר הַיֹּבֵל֘ יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֒הוּ֒ וְחִשַּׁב־ל֨וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־הַכֶּ֗סֶף עַל־פִּ֤י הַשָּׁנִים֙ הַנּ֣וֹתָרֹ֔ת עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנִגְרַ֖ע מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, [the kohen should calculate the money for him….: [And not only in this case, but] likewise, if [the original owner] had consecrated the property immediately after the Jubilee ended, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer, and this one comes to redeem it after [this first year following] the Jubilee -   וְאִם־אַחַר הַיֹּבֵל יַקְדִּישׁ: וְכֵן אִם הִקְדִּישָׁהּ מִשְּׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְנִשְׁתַּהָת בְּיַד גִּזְבָּר, וּבָא זֶה לְגָאֳלָהּ אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל.
the kohen shall calculate the money for him, according to the remaining years [until the (next) Jubilee year]: according to the rate. How? [Scripture] has stated the fixed value [of redemption for a field whose size is that stated in our verse,] for forty-nine years as fifty [silver] shekels, i.e., one shekel for each of the [49] years and an extra shekel [paid over] all the [49] years. Now, a shekel is equivalent to 48 pundyons . Thus, one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for each year, except that one pundyon is missing for all of them [i.e., if we figure fifty shekels, we have only 49 shekels and 48 pundyons , which is less than a sela and a pundyon per year, but the redeemer is required to pay one extra pundyon per a 49-year period, for] our Rabbis taught (Bech. 50a) that, the [extra] pundyon is a surcharge for [currency exchange of] small coins [i.e., if someone comes to purchase a silver shekel with pundyons , he will be charged 49 of them, the extra pundyon being a surcharge for attaining the more significant single shekel coin rather than many small coins. This surcharge, then, is passed on to the one who wishes to redeem the field. Hence, at an annual rate of one shekel and one pundyon, the redeemer is actually paying one forty-ninth of a pundyon currency exchange surcharge every year]. And therefore, someone who comes to redeem [a field], must pay one sela [i.e., a shekel] and one pundyon for every year left until the next Jubilee year.   וְחִשַּׁב־לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף עַל־פִּי הַשָּׁנִים הַנּוֹתָרֹת: כְּפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן; כֵּיצַד? הֲרֵי קָצַב דָּמֶיהָ שֶׁל אַרְבָּעִים וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנָה חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל, הֲרֵי שֶׁקֶל לְכָל שָׁנָה וְשֶׁקֶל יָתֵר עַל כֻּלָּן, וְהַשֶּׁקֶל אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנָה פֻנְדְּיוֹן, הֲרֵי סֶלַע וּפֻנְדְּיוֹן לְשָׁנָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁחָסֵר פֻּנְדְּיוֹן אֶחָד לְכֻלָּן, וְאָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁאוֹתוֹ פֻּנְדְּיוֹן קַלְבּוֹן לִפְרוֹטְרוֹט, וְהַבָּא לִגְאֹל, יִתֵּן סֶלַע וּפֻנְדְּיוֹן לְכָל שָׁנָה לַשָּׁנִים הַנּוֹתָרוֹת עַד שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל (עי' ספרא; ערכין כ"ד):
thereby deducting from the [full] valuation [amount]: the number of years from the [preceding] Jubilee year until the redemption year.   וְנִגְרַע מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ: מִנְיַן הַשָּׁנִים שֶׁמִּשְּׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל עַד שְׁנַת הַפִּדְיוֹן:
19If the one who consecrated it redeems the field, he shall add to it a fifth of the valuation money, and it shall be his.   יטוְאִם־גָּאֹ֤ל יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה הַמַּקְדִּ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִשִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְקָ֥ם לֽוֹ:
If the [one who consecrated it] redeems the field: The person who consecrated it must add a fifth to this set amount. — [see Rashi on preceding verse; Mizrachi]   וְאִם־גָּאֹל יִגְאַל: הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אוֹתוֹ, יוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ עַל הַקִּצְבָּה הַזֹּאת:
20But if he does not redeem the field, and if he has sold the field to someone else it may no longer be redeemed.   כוְאִם־לֹ֤א יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְאִם־מָכַ֥ר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ אַחֵ֑ר לֹֽא־יִגָּאֵ֖ל עֽוֹד:
But if he does not redeem the field: [i.e., if] the one who consecrated [the field does not redeem it].   וְאִם־לֹא יִגְאַל אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה: הַמַּקְדִּישׁ:
and if… has sold: [i.e., if] the treasurer (Arachin 25b) has sold   וְאִם־מָכַר: הַגִּזְבָּר:
the field to someone else-it may no longer be redeemed: to revert to the possession of the one who consecrated it [i.e., the original owner, come Jubilee]. — [Sifthei Chachamim]   אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה לְאִישׁ אַחֵר לֹא יִגְאַל עֽוֹד: לָשׁוּב בְּיַד הַמַּקְדִּישׁ:
21But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee, it shall be holy to the Lord like a field devoted; his inherited property shall belong to the kohen.   כאוְהָיָ֨ה הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה בְּצֵאת֣וֹ בַיֹּבֵ֗ל קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה כִּשְׂדֵ֣ה הַחֵ֑רֶם לַכֹּהֵ֖ן תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ:
But, when the field leaves in the Jubilee: the possession of the one who had purchased it from the treasurer, just like all fields that leave the possession of their purchasers, come Jubilee.   וְהָיָה הַשָּׂדֶה בְּצֵאתוֹ בַיֹּבֵל: מִיַּד הַלּוֹקְחוֹ מִן הַגִּזְבָּר, כְּדֶרֶךְ שְׁאָר שָׂדוֹת הַיּוֹצְאוֹת מִיַּד לוֹקְחֵיהֶם בַּיּוֹבֵל:
holy to the Lord: This does not mean that it reverts to the treasurer as sacred property designated for maintenance of the Holy Temple. Rather, it is “like a field devoted” which is given to the kohanim, as it is said, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you” (Num. 18:14). This too shall be divided in Jubilee among the kohanim of the watch at that time, namely, when Yom Kippur of that Jubilee occurs. — [Arachin 28b]   קֹדֶשׁ לה': לֹא שֶׁיָּשׁוּב לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת, לְיַד הַגִּזְבָּר, אֶלָּא כשדה החרם הַנָּתוּן לַכֹּהֲנִים — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כָּל חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה" (במדבר י"ח) — אַף זוֹ תִּתְחַלֵּק לַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ מִשְׁמָר שֶׁיּוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁל יוֹבֵל פּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ (ערכין כ"ח):
22And if he consecrates to the Lord a field that he had acquired, that is not part of his inherited property,   כבוְאִם֙ אֶת־שְׂדֵ֣ה מִקְנָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֕ר לֹ֖א מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֑וֹ יַקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And if [he consecrates…] a field that he had acquired…: There is a difference between an acquired field (שְׂדֵה מִקְנֶה) and a field that is part of inherited property (שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה), namely, that the acquired field is not apportioned among the kohanim in the Jubilee because [the acquirer] can consecrate the field only until Jubilee, for in the Jubilee, the field is destined to leave his possession and revert to the original owner [from whom he acquired it]. Therefore, if he [the original owner (Panim Yafoth; Malbim)] comes to redeem [his property,] he must redeem it with that same fixed rate of valuation for a field that was part of an inherited property. [Should the one who consecrated it redeem it, according to the Sages, he redeems it according to its market value.] But if he does not redeem it, and the treasurer sells it to someone else, or if he does redeem it [according to Tos., Arachin 26b, the reading in Rashi is: If no one redeemed it, and it remained in the possession of the treasurer] in the Jubilee year the field reverts to the one from whom the one who consecrated it bought it, [i.e., the original owner of the field]. Now, lest you say that [the expression] לַאֲשֶׁר קָנֵהוּ מֵאִתּוֹ (in verse 24 below) [refers to] the one from whom this acquirer most recently acquired the field, namely, the treasurer [and that our verse is thus stating here that come Jubilee, the field “reverts” to the treasurer]. Therefore, it was necessary to state (verse 24),“namely, the one whose inherited land it was,” i.e., inherited from his ancestors-referring, therefore, to the original owner who had sold [the field] to the one who consecrated it. — [Arachin 26b]   וְאִם אֶת־שְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ וגו': חִלּוּק יֵשׁ בֵּין שְׂדֵה מִקְנָה לִשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה, שֶׁשְּׂדֵה מִקְנָה לֹא תִתְחַלֵּק לַכֹּהֲנִים בַּיּוֹבֵל, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַקְדִּישָׁהּ אֶלָּא עַד הַיּוֹבֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי בַיּוֹבֵל הָיְתָה עֲתִידָה לָצֵאת מִיָּדוֹ וְלָשׁוּב לַבְּעָלִים, לְפִיכָךְ אִם בָּא לְגָאֳלָהּ, יִגְאַל בַּדָּמִים הַלָּלוּ הַקְּצוּבִים לִשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה; וְאִם לֹא יִגְאַל, וְיִמְכְּרֶנָּה גִּזְבָּר לְאַחֵר, אוֹ אִם יִגְאַל הוּא בשנת היובל ישוב השדה לאשר קנהו מאתו — אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ, וּפֶן תֹּאמַר "לַאֲשֶׁר קָנָהוּ" הַלּוֹקֵחַ הַזֶּה הָאַחֲרוֹן מֵאִתּוֹ, וְזֶהוּ הַגִּזְבָּר, לְכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר לאשר לו אחזת הארץ — מִירֻשַּׁת אָבוֹת, וְזֶהוּ בְּעָלִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁמְּכָרוּהָ לַמַּקְדִּישׁ (ערכין כ"ו):
23the kohen shall calculate for him the amount of the valuation until the Jubilee year, and he shall give the valuation on that day, holy to the Lord.   כגוְחִשַּׁב־ל֣וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן אֵ֚ת מִכְסַ֣ת הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֔ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנָתַ֤ן אֶת־הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
24In the Jubilee year, the field shall return to the one from whom he bought it namely, the one whose inherited land it was.   כדבִּשְׁנַ֤ת הַיּוֹבֵל֙ יָשׁ֣וּב הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר קָנָ֖הוּ מֵֽאִתּ֑וֹ לַֽאֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אֲחֻזַּ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ:
25Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel, whereby one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs.   כהוְכָ֨ל־עֶרְכְּךָ֔ יִֽהְיֶ֖ה בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֥ים גֵּרָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶ֥ה הַשָּֽׁקֶל:
Every valuation shall be made according to the holy shekel: i.e., every valuation regarding which shekels are written, will be made according to the holy shekel.   וְכָל־עֶרְכְּךָ יִֽהְיֶה בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ: כָּל עֶרְכְּךָ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ שְׁקָלִים, יִהְיֶה בְשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ:
one shekel is the equivalent of twenty gerahs: Twenty ma’ahs. This was how it was originally. However, in later times, they “added a sixth” [i.e., instead of a dinar being worth five ma’ahs (or gerahs), it became worth six ma’ahs (or gerahs)]. And indeed, our Rabbis taught: “A dinar is comprised of six ma’ahs of silver, and [since a shekel is worth four dinars,] there are twenty-four ma’ahs to one sela (i.e., shekel)” [as opposed to twenty ma’ahs in the shekel of the Torah]. — [Bech. 50a]   עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה: עֶשְׂרִים מָעוֹת, כָּךְ הָיוּ מִתְּחִלָּה, וּלְאַחַר מִכָּאן הוֹסִיפוּ שְׁתוּת, וְאָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֵׁשׁ מָעָה כֶּסֶף דִּינָר, עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע מָעוֹת לְסֶלַע (עי' בכורות נ'):
26However, a firstborn animal that must be [sacrificed as] a firstborn to the Lord no man may consecrate it; whether it be an ox or sheep, it belongs to the Lord.   כואַךְ־בְּכ֞וֹר אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְבֻכַּ֤ר לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה לֹֽא־יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ אִם־שׁ֣וֹר אִם־שֶׂ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הֽוּא:
no man may consecrate it: for the purpose of any other sacrifice, because it does not belong to him [but from its birth, a firstborn animal is designated as holy, to be given to the kohanim]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:107]   לֹֽא־יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ אֹתוֹ: לְשֵׁם קָרְבָּן אַחֵר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ (עי' ערכין כ"ט):
27Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal, he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation, and he shall add its fifth to it, and if it is not redeemed, it shall be sold for the valuation [price].   כזוְאִ֨ם בַּבְּהֵמָ֤ה הַטְּמֵאָה֙ וּפָדָ֣ה בְעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽשִׁת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל וְנִמְכַּ֥ר בְּעֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
Now, if [someone consecrates] an unclean animal: [lit., “And if it is with an unclean animal….”] This verse does not refer back to firstborn animals [discussed in the preceding verse], for it cannot state of a firstborn unclean animal that “he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation” [for the only unclean animal to which the law of the firstborn applies is a donkey (see Exod. 13: 12-13)]; and this [verse] cannot refer to a donkey, because the firstborn of a donkey can be redeemed only with a lamb (see Exod. 13:13), which becomes a gift to the kohen and is not given to the Sanctuary [as does the valuation money in our verse]. Rather, our verse here is referring back to consecration [of one’s possessions to the Temple], for Scripture above (verses 11-13) was speaking about the redemption of a clean animal that had been [consecrated and subsequently] blemished (see Rashi there), and here, our verse is speaking about one who consecrates an unclean animal for maintenance of the Temple. — [Men. 101a]   וְאִם בַּבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה וגו': אֵין הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה מוּסָב עַל הַבְּכוֹר, שֶׁאֵין לוֹמַר בִּבְכוֹר בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה וּפָדָה בְּעֶרְכְּךָ, וַחֲמוֹר אֵין זֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין פִּדְיוֹן פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר אֶלָּא טָלֶה, וְהוּא מַתָּנָה לַכֹּהֵן, וְאֵינוֹ לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ, אֶלָּא הַכָּתוּב מוּסָב עַל הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ, שֶׁהַכָּתוּב שֶׁל מַעְלָה דִּבֵּר בְּפִדְיוֹן בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁהֻמְּמָה, וְכָאן דִּבֵּר בְּמַקְדִּישׁ בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת:
he may redeem [it] by [paying] the valuation: According to how much the kohen will assess its value.   וּפָדָה בְעֶרְכֶּךָ: כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁיַּעֲרִיכֶנָּה הַכֹּהֵן:
and if it is not redeemed: By the owner,   וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל: עַל יְדֵי בְעָלִים:
it shall be sold for the valuation [price]: to others. — [Torath Kohanim 27: 108]   וְנִמְכַּר בְעֶרְכֶּךָ: לַאֲחֵרִים:
28However, anything that a man devotes to the Lord from any of his property whether a person, an animal, or part of his inherited field shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed, [for] all devoted things are holy of holies to the Lord.   כחאַ֣ךְ כָּל־חֵ֡רֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַֽחֲרִם֩ אִ֨ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֜ה מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֗וֹ מֵֽאָדָ֤ם וּבְהֵמָה֙ וּמִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֔וֹ לֹ֥א יִמָּכֵ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִגָּאֵ֑ל כָּל־חֵ֕רֶם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁ֥ים ה֖וּא לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
However, anything that a man devotes…: Our Rabbis are in dispute regarding this matter [of devoted property]: Some say that unqualified vows of devoted property [i.e., he says, “This is hereby devoted (חֵרֶם),” and does not specify,] go [automatically] to Sanctuary moneys [designated for maintenance of the Temple. Now, according to this ruling,] what then is the meaning of, “Anything devoted in Israel shall belong to you”? (Num. 18:14). This refers to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim, whereby someone says explicitly: “This is (חֵרֶם) devoted for the kohen .” But some [Rabbis] say that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim . — [Arachin 28b]   אַךְ כָּל־חֵרֶם וגו': נֶחְלְקוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בַּדָּבָר, יֵשׁ אוֹמָרִים סְתָם חֲרָמִים לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ, וּמָה אֲנִי מְקַיֵּם כָּל חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה? בְּחֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים, שֶׁפֵּרֵשׁ וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זֶה חֵרֶם לַכֹּהֵן; וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאָמְרוּ, סְתָם חֲרָמִים לַכֹּהֵן (עי' ספרא; ערכין כ"ח):
shall not be sold, nor shall it be redeemed: But, it must be given to the kohen . [For] according to those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to the kohanim (see preceding Rashi), they explain this verse as referring to unqualified vows of devoted property, while those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go [automatically] to [Sanctuary moneys designated for] maintenance of the Temple, explain this verse as referring to vows of devoted property specifically designated to the kohanim. For all agree that devoted property specifically designated to kohanim does not have any redemption, until it falls into the possession of the kohen [and the property then becomes completely non-consecrated and can even be sold by the kohen (Sifthei Chachamim)]. Devoted property to the One on High [i.e., specifically designated to the maintenance of the Holy Temple, on the other hand], may be redeemed [at its market value even before it reaches the Temple treasury, and its redemption moneys go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, and the property itself then becomes non-consecrated]. — [Sifthei Chachamim ; Arachin 29a]   לֹא יִמָּכֵר וְלֹא יִגָּאֵל: אֶלָּא יִנָּתֵן לַכֹּהֵן: לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר סְתָם חֲרָמִים לַכֹּהֲנִים, מְפֹרָשׁ מִקְרָא זֶה בִּסְתָם חֲרָמִים, וְהָאוֹמֵר סְתָם חֲרָמִים לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, מְפָרֵשׁ מִקְרָא זֶה בְּחֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים — שֶׁהַכֹּל מוֹדִים שֶׁחֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים אֵין לָהֶם פִּדְיוֹן עַד שֶׁיָּבֹאוּ לְיַד כֹּהֵן וְחֶרְמֵי גָּבוֹהַּ נִפְדִּים:
all devoted things are holy of holies: Those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go for maintenance of the Holy Temple, bring this verse as proof [to their position]. However, those who rule that unqualified vows of devoted property go to the kohanim, explain the phrase here, “all devoted things are holy of holies (קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים),” to mean that the act of devoting items to the kohanim can take effect upon [animal sacrifices with the degree of] “holy of holies” [indicated by the use of the double expression here, קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים] and [moreover, even the single expression itself here, קֹדֶשׁ, indicates that this act can take effect upon sacrifices with a degree] of lesser holiness. Thus, [if someone undertakes to bring a sacrifice, allocates which animal he is to sacrifice and then subsequently devotes that animal to the kohanim,] he must give [the relevant money (see below)] to the kohen [and then sacrifices the animal for the offering he had undertaken], just as we have learnt in Tractate Arachin (28b): If [he made] a vow (נֶדֶר) [to bring a sacrifice, i.e., he said, “I take upon myself (to bring an animal as such-and-such a sacrifice)” (see Rashi on Lev. 22: 18)-in this case, if an animal he had then allocated becomes lost or blemished, he must fulfill his vow with a replacement animal, for his vow was to bring a sacrifice and was not limited to that particular animal. Therefore, in the case of a devoted vow (נֶדֶר),] he must give [to the kohen, money worth] the full value [of the animal, for it is still considered fully his when he devoted it to the kohen]. And if [he committed himself in the form of] a donation (נְדָבָה) [saying, “This particular animal is to be brought as such-and-such a sacrifice” (see Rashi on Lev. 22:18)-in this case, if the animal he had allocated becomes lost or blemished, he need not replace it, for his undertaking was limited only to that particular animal, and therefore the animal is no longer considered his. Therefore, in the case of a devoted donation (נְדָבָה) ,] he need give only [the monetary value of] the “benefit” for the [animal which means: Since in case the animal is lost or dies, he would not be required to bring another one in replacement, then once he has set the animal aside for the purpose of that particular sacrifice, he is considered to have already fulfilled his duty, and so, his actual sacrificing it becomes simply a gift to God, as it were. Enjoying this gesture of presenting a gift to God is the “benefit” he has from that animal and which is also the extent of his monetary ownership. This “benefit” is valued as follows: Someone else, who was not obligated to bring this sacrifice, is asked how much he would pay to have this animal sacrificed in his name as a gift to God. The amount that this person states is the amount that the one devoting must give to the kohen , and then he must bring the animal as a sacrifice, as per his undertaking to bring a donation]. — [Mishnah Arachin 8:6-7 and see Rashi on Talmud Arachin 28b]   כָּל־חֵרֶם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁים הוּא: הָאוֹמֵר סְתָם חֲרָמִים לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, מֵבִיא רְאָיָה מִכָּאן, וְהָאוֹמֵר סְתָם חֲרָמִים לַכֹּהֲנִים, מְפָרֵשׁ "כָּל חֵרֶם קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא" לְלַמֵּד שֶׁחֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים חָלִים עַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים וְעַל קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, וְנוֹתֵן לַכֹּהֵן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְמַסֶּכֶת עֲרָכִין (דף כ"ח), אִם נֵדֶר, נוֹתֵן דְּמֵיהֶן, וְאִם נְדָבָה, נוֹתֵן אֶת טוֹבָתָהּ:
[Anything that a man devotes… from any of his property -] whether it be a person: For example, if he devotes his non-Jewish male or female servants [for they are considered his property]. — [Arachin 28a]   מֵֽאָדָם: כְּגוֹן שֶׁהֶחֱרִים עֲבָדָיו וְשִׁפְחוֹתָיו הַכְּנַעֲנִים:
29Any devoting of a person who has been devoted, need not be redeemed [for] he is to be put to death.   כטכָּל־חֵ֗רֶם אֲשֶׁ֧ר יָֽחֳרַ֛ם מִן־הָֽאָדָ֖ם לֹ֣א יִפָּדֶ֑ה מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת:
Any devoting… who has been devoted: [This verse refers to] someone who [has been sentenced to death, and, as he] is going out to be executed, another person declares, “I hereby make a personal commitment [to pay] his valuation!” his words have no validity. — [Arachin 6b]   כָּל־חֵרֶם אֲשֶׁר יָֽחֳרַם וגו': הַיּוֹצֵא לֵהָרֵג וְאָמַר אֶחָד עֶרְכּוֹ עָלַי, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם (ספרא; ערכין ו'):
[And why not? Because] he is to be put to death: i.e., he is on his way to be executed, and therefore, he “cannot be redeemed”-he has no market value [as a slave] or any valuation.   מוֹת יוּמָֽת: הֲרֵי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא יִפָּדֶה — אֵין לוֹ לֹא דָמִים וְלֹא עֵרֶךְ:
30Any tithe of the Land, whether it be from the seed of the land or the fruit of the tree it is the Lord's. It is holy to the Lord.   לוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֨ר הָאָ֜רֶץ מִזֶּ֤רַע הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ מִפְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה ה֑וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
Any tithe of the Land: Scripture is speaking about the Second Tithe. — [Torath Kohanim 27:112]   וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ: בְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר:
the seed of the land: [Regarding the Second Tithe, Scripture says, “the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil” (Deut. 14:23 and see Rashi there). Thus, here, “the seed of the land” refers to] grain [and]   מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ: דָּגָן:
the fruit of the tree: [refers to] wine and oil.   מִפְּרִי הָעֵץ: תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר:
It is the Lord’s: [The Second Tithe does not belong to God in the sense that one is forbidden to have benefit from it, for indeed it is eaten in Jerusalem by the one who brings it (Sifthei Chachamim) Rather,] God has acquired this [Second Tithe], and it is from His very Table, as it were, that He invites you to come up and eat it in Jerusalem, as it is said, “And you shall eat before the Lord, your God, [in the place which He will choose to establish His Name therein;] the tithes of your grain, of your wine and of your oil…” (Deut. 14: 23). - [Kid. 53a]   לה' הוּא: קְנָאוֹ הַשֵּׁם. וּמִשֻּׁלְחָנוֹ צִוָּה לְךָ לַעֲלוֹת וְלֶאֱכֹל בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י"ד), וְאָכַלְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְגוֹ' (עי' קידושין נ"ד):
31And if a man redeems some of his tithe, he shall add its fifth to it.   לאוְאִם־גָּאֹ֥ל יִגְאַ֛ל אִ֖ישׁ מִמַּֽעַשְׂר֑וֹ חֲמִֽשִׁית֖וֹ יֹסֵ֥ף עָלָֽיו:
[redeem] some of his tithe [… he shall add its fifth]: ] [“of his tithe,”] but not, of someone else’s tithe. Thus, one who redeems his friend’s tithe, does not add a fifth [to its value]. — [Kid. 24a] And what is [the purpose of] its redemption? In order to permit its being eaten anywhere [outside Jerusalem]. And [instead] he must bring the money [of its redemption] up to Jerusalem and eat [food there, bought with that money], as it is stated, “[And if… the place is too distant from you…] Then you will turn it into money [… and… go to the place which… God will choose. And you will turn that money into whatever your soul desires… and you will eat there before… God]” (Deut. 14:24-26).   מִמַּֽעַשְׂרוֹ: וְלֹא מִמַּעְשַׂר חֲבֵרוֹ — הַפּוֹדֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ אֵין מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ, וּמַה הִיא גְאֻלָּתוֹ? יִפְדֶנּוּ כְּדֵי לְהַתִּירוֹ בַאֲכִילָה בְכָל מָקוֹם, וְהַמָּעוֹת יַעֲלֶה וְיֹאכַל בִירוּשָׁלַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י"ד), וְנָתַתָּה בַּכָּסֶף וְגוֹ' (עי' קידושין כ"ד):
32Any tithe of cattle or flock of all that pass under the rod, the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.   לבוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֤ר בָּקָר֙ וָצֹ֔אן כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑בֶט הָֽעֲשִׂירִ֕י יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
of all that pass under the rod: When one comes to tithe them, he lets them out [of the pen] through the gate, one by one, and he strikes [every] tenth animal with a rod that has been painted with vermillion (red dye), so that it is identifiable as the tithe. So he must do with every year’s lambs and calves, [but with no other animals, as Scripture states, “Any tithe of cattle or flock”]. — [Bech. 58b]   תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט: כְּשֶׁבָּא לְעַשְּׂרָן, מוֹצִיאָן בַּפֶּתַח זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וְהָעֲשִֹירִי מַכֶּה בְּשֵׁבֶט צְבוּעָה בְסִקְרָא, לִהְיוֹת נִכָּר שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשֵׂר, כֵּן עוֹשֶׂה לִטְלָאִים וְלַעֲגָלִים שֶׁל כָּל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה (בכו' נ"ח):
[the tenth] shall be holy: that its blood and sacrificial portions be offered upon the altar, while its meat is eaten by the owner [with nothing given to the kohanim], because it is not enumerated with other [items categorized as] “gifts to the kehunah,” nor do we find that its meat must be given to kohanim.   יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּדֶשׁ: לִקְרַב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ דָּמוֹ וְאֵמוּרָיו, וְהַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לַבְּעָלִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִמְנָה עִם שְׁאָר מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָה, וְלֹא מָצִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא נָתוּן בְּשָׂרוֹ לַכֹּהֲנִים:
33He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one, nor shall he offer a substitute for it. And if he does replace it, then [both] that one and its replacement are holy; it cannot be redeemed.   לגלֹ֧א יְבַקֵּ֛ר בֵּֽין־ט֥וֹב לָרַ֖ע וְלֹ֣א יְמִירֶ֑נּוּ וְאִם־הָמֵ֣ר יְמִירֶ֔נּוּ וְהָֽיָה־ה֧וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֛וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵֽל:
He shall not inspect [a tithed animal]…: Since [Scripture] says, “[there will you bring…] the choice of your vows [which you will vow to the Lord]” (Deut. 12:11), one might think that he should select and take out the best [animal for the tithe]. Scripture, therefore, says, “He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one”-i.e., whether [the tenth animal] is unblemished or blemished, [since it is the tenth,] holiness has come upon it [exclusively]. This does not mean that a blemished animal can be sacrificed, but that he should eat it according to the law of tithes and that it must not be shorn or used for labor. — [Bech. 14b, 31b]   לֹא יְבַקֵּר וגו': לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְכֹל מִבְחַר נִדְרֵיכֶם" (דברים י"ב), יָכוֹל יְהֵא בוֹרֵר וּמוֹצִיא אֶת הַיָּפֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "לֹא יְבַקֵּר בֵּין טוֹב לָרַע" — בֵּין תָּם בֵּין בַּעַל מוּם חָלָה עָלָיו קְדֻשָּׁה — וְלֹא שֶׁיִּקְרַב בַּעַל מוּם, אֶלָּא יֵאָכֵל בְּתוֹרַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְאָסוּר לִגָּזֵז וְלֵעָבֵד (עי' בכורות י"ד):
34These are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to [tell] the children of Israel on Mount Sinai.   לדאֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֖ר סִינָֽי:

Maftir Portion

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 27

32Any tithe of cattle or flock of all that pass under the rod, the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.   לבוְכָל־מַעְשַׂ֤ר בָּקָר֙ וָצֹ֔אן כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑בֶט הָֽעֲשִׂירִ֕י יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
of all that pass under the rod: When one comes to tithe them, he lets them out [of the pen] through the gate, one by one, and he strikes [every] tenth animal with a rod that has been painted with vermillion (red dye), so that it is identifiable as the tithe. So he must do with every year’s lambs and calves, [but with no other animals, as Scripture states, “Any tithe of cattle or flock”]. — [Bech. 58b]   תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט: כְּשֶׁבָּא לְעַשְּׂרָן, מוֹצִיאָן בַּפֶּתַח זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וְהָעֲשִֹירִי מַכֶּה בְּשֵׁבֶט צְבוּעָה בְסִקְרָא, לִהְיוֹת נִכָּר שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשֵׂר, כֵּן עוֹשֶׂה לִטְלָאִים וְלַעֲגָלִים שֶׁל כָּל שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה (בכו' נ"ח):
[the tenth] shall be holy: that its blood and sacrificial portions be offered upon the altar, while its meat is eaten by the owner [with nothing given to the kohanim], because it is not enumerated with other [items categorized as] “gifts to the kehunah,” nor do we find that its meat must be given to kohanim.   יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּדֶשׁ: לִקְרַב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ דָּמוֹ וְאֵמוּרָיו, וְהַבָּשָׂר נֶאֱכָל לַבְּעָלִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִמְנָה עִם שְׁאָר מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָה, וְלֹא מָצִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא נָתוּן בְּשָׂרוֹ לַכֹּהֲנִים:
33He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one, nor shall he offer a substitute for it. And if he does replace it, then [both] that one and its replacement are holy; it cannot be redeemed.   לגלֹ֧א יְבַקֵּ֛ר בֵּֽין־ט֥וֹב לָרַ֖ע וְלֹ֣א יְמִירֶ֑נּוּ וְאִם־הָמֵ֣ר יְמִירֶ֔נּוּ וְהָֽיָה־ה֧וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֛וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵֽל:
He shall not inspect [a tithed animal]…: Since [Scripture] says, “[there will you bring…] the choice of your vows [which you will vow to the Lord]” (Deut. 12:11), one might think that he should select and take out the best [animal for the tithe]. Scripture, therefore, says, “He shall not inspect [a tithed animal] for a good or a bad one”-i.e., whether [the tenth animal] is unblemished or blemished, [since it is the tenth,] holiness has come upon it [exclusively]. This does not mean that a blemished animal can be sacrificed, but that he should eat it according to the law of tithes and that it must not be shorn or used for labor. — [Bech. 14b, 31b]   לֹא יְבַקֵּר וגו': לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְכֹל מִבְחַר נִדְרֵיכֶם" (דברים י"ב), יָכוֹל יְהֵא בוֹרֵר וּמוֹצִיא אֶת הַיָּפֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "לֹא יְבַקֵּר בֵּין טוֹב לָרַע" — בֵּין תָּם בֵּין בַּעַל מוּם חָלָה עָלָיו קְדֻשָּׁה — וְלֹא שֶׁיִּקְרַב בַּעַל מוּם, אֶלָּא יֵאָכֵל בְּתוֹרַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְאָסוּר לִגָּזֵז וְלֵעָבֵד (עי' בכורות י"ד):
34These are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to [tell] the children of Israel on Mount Sinai.   לדאֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְו‍ֹ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֖ר סִינָֽי:


Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) Chapter 16

19O Lord, Who are my power and my strength and my refuge in the day of trouble, to You nations will come from the ends of the earth and say, "Only lies have our fathers handed down to us, emptiness in which there is nothing of any avail!   יטיְהֹוָ֞ה עֻזִּ֧י וּמָֽעֻזִּ֛י וּמְנוּסִ֖י בְּי֣וֹם צָרָ֑ה אֵלֶ֗יךָ גּוֹיִ֚ם יָבֹ֙אוּ֙ מֵֽאַפְסֵי־אָ֔רֶץ וְיֹאמְר֗וּ אַךְ־שֶׁ֙קֶר֙ נָֽחֲל֣וּ אֲבוֹתֵ֔ינוּ הֶ֖בֶל וְאֵֽין־בָּ֥ם מוֹעִֽיל:
and my refuge: (mon vantement in French), my boast. And Menahem (Machbereth p. 123) classified it as an expression of a wonder. Cf. (Psalms 60:6) “You have given those who fear You a wonder to be wondrous (נֵס לְהִתְנוֹסֵס).”   ה' עוזי ומעוזי ומנוסי: אנטיפויימאנ"ט בלעז ומנחם חברו ל' פלא כמו נתת ליראיך נס להתנוסס (תהילים ס׳:ו׳) וכן ה' נסי (שמות ז) ודונש פתר אותו ל' מנוס ממש:
to You nations will come: Eventually, the heathens will come to you and worship You of one accord, and they will say, “How did they make gods for themselves, and they are no gods?”   אליך גוים יבאו: סוף האומות לשוב אליך ולעבדך שכם אחד ועמך איך עשו להם אלהים והמה לא אלהים:
from the ends of: Like מִקְצֵה, from the end of.   מאפסי: כמו מקצה:
handed down: an expression of an inheritance.   נחלו: ל' נחלה:
avail: an expression of use (תּוֹעֶלֶת).   מועיל: ל' תועלת:
20Can a man make gods for himself, and they are no gods?"   כהֲיַֽעֲשֶׂה־לּ֥וֹ אָדָ֖ם אֱלֹהִ֑ים וְהֵ֖מָּה לֹ֥א אֱלֹהִֽים:
21Therefore, behold I let them know; at this time I will let them know My power and My might, and they shall know that My Name is the Lord.   כאלָכֵן֙ הִנְנִ֣י מֽוֹדִיעָ֔ם בַּפַּ֣עַם הַזֹּ֔את אֽוֹדִיעֵ֥ם אֶת־יָדִ֖י וְאֶת־גְּבֽוּרָתִ֑י וְיָֽדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־שְׁמִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
that My name is the Lord: As its apparent meaning, a ruler and a sovereign to fulfill My decree.   כי שמי ה': כמשמעו מושל ושליט לקיים גזרתי:

Yirmiyahu (Jeremiah) Chapter 17

1The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, with a diamond point, engraved on the tablet of their heart and on the horns of your altars.   אחַטַּ֣את יְהוּדָ֗ה כְּתוּבָ֛ה בְּעֵ֥ט בַּרְזֶ֖ל בְּצִפֹּ֣רֶן שָׁמִ֑יר חֲרוּשָׁה֙ עַל־ל֣וּחַ לִבָּ֔ם וּלְקַרְנ֖וֹת מִזְבְּחֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם:
with a pen of iron: This is an allegory. That is to say that it is deeply engraved, and cannot be erased. And the Midrash Aggadah explains: with a pen of iron, with a diamond point, preserved by Jeremiah, called ‘an iron wall,’ and by Ezekiel, to whom it was said (3:9): “As a diamond, harder than flint have I made your forehead.”   בעט ברזל: משל הוא כלומר חקוקה בשיקוע ואין נוחה למחוק, ומדרש אגדה בעט ברזל בצפורן שמיר על ידי ירמיה שנקרא עמוד ברזל ועל ידי יחזקאל שנאמר לו כשמיר חזק מצור נתתי מצחך:
engraved: Engraved like one who plows deeply.   חרושה: חקוקה כזה שהוא חורש בעומק:
on the tablet of their heart: that they do not forget their idolatry.   על לוח לבם: שאינם שוכחין עכו"ם שלהם:
2As they remember their children, [so do they remember] their altars, and their asherim by the green trees upon the high hillocks.   בכִּזְכֹּ֚ר בְּנֵיהֶם֙ מִזְבְּחוֹתָ֔ם וַֽאֲשֵֽׁרֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־עֵ֣ץ רַֽעֲנָ֑ן עַ֖ל גְּבָע֥וֹת הַגְּבֹהֽוֹת:
As they remember their children, [so do they remember] their altars: Like the remembrance of their children, so was the remembrance of their altars to them, like a man who longs for his son.   כזכור בניהם מזבחותם: כזכירת בניהם כן היתה להם זכירת מזבחותם כאדם שיש לו געגועין על בנו:
and their asherim: which are by the green trees.   ואשריהם: אשר על עץ רענן:
by… trees: like אֵצֶּל, by. And Jonathan renders in this manner. under every green tree.   על עץ: כמו אצל וכת"י תחות כל אילן עבוף:
3You, who sit upon the mountain in the field, I will give your substance, all your treasures for a spoil! Your high places are made for sin within all your borders.   גהֲרָרִי֙ בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה חֵֽילְךָ֥ כָל־אֽוֹצְרוֹתֶ֖יךָ לָבַ֣ז אֶתֵּ֑ן בָּֽמֹתֶ֕יךָ בְּחַטָּ֖את בְּכָל־גְּבוּלֶֽיךָ:
You, who sit upon the mountain in the field: Jerusalem that is situated on the mountain of the plain. All around the city is a fielded plain. The structure of הֲרָרִי is like עֲרָבִי, called so because he dwells in the plain (עֲרָבָה) (montanyers in O.F), mountain dwellers (other versions: a mountain dweller).   הררי בשדה: ירושלים היושבת בהר המישור כל סביב העיר מישור שדה ול' הררי כמו ערבי (ישעיה יג) על שם שיושב בערבה מונטיינד"ש בלעז יושבי ההר (ס"א יושבת ההר):
your substance: like מָמוֹנְךָ, your money.   חילך: כמו ממונך:
Your high places are made for sin: Your high places are made in sin for the purpose of idolatry within all your borders.   במותיך בחטאת: במותך עשויות בחטא לשם עכו"ם בכל גבוליך:
4And you shall release, and [I will avenge Myself] of you because of your heritage that I gave you, and I will make you serve your enemies in the land that you did not know, for you have kindled fire in My nostrils that shall burn forever.   דוְשָׁמַטְתָּ֗ה וּבְךָ֙ מִנַּֽחֲלָֽתְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָתַ֣תִּי לָ֔ךְ וְהַֽעֲבַדְתִּ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־אֹ֣יְבֶ֔יךָ בָּאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־יָדָ֑עְתָּ כִּי־אֵ֛שׁ קְדַחְתֶּ֥ם בְּאַפִּ֖י עַד־עוֹלָ֥ם תּוּקָֽד:
And you shall release: Perforce you will release your land for the time that it did not rest on your Sabbaths, which I said to you (Lev. 25:2), “And the land shall rest a Sabbath for the Lord.”   ושמטתה: על כרחך תשמט ארצך את אשר לא שבתה בשבתותיכם שאמרתי לכם ושבתה הארץ (ויקרא כ״ה:ב׳):
of you: I will avenge Myself of you because of your heritage that I gave you, that you did not perform My will to release it. Another explanation: even of you, from your heritage; I will avenge Myself of you from your heritage, that I will exile you from it.   ובך: אנקם מחמת נחלתך אשר נתתי לך שלא עשית רצוני להשמיטה, ד"א ובך מנחלתך ובך אנקם מנחלתך שאגלה אותך ממנה:
for you have kindled fire in My nostrils: Heb. קְדַכְתֶּם.   כי אש קדחתם באפי: יקדתם בנחירי:
5So says the Lord: Cursed is the man who trusts in man and makes flesh his arm, and whose heart turns away from the Lord.   הכֹּ֣ה | אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה אָר֚וּר הַגֶּ֙בֶר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְטַ֣ח בָּֽאָדָ֔ם וְשָׂ֥ם בָּשָׂ֖ר זְרֹע֑וֹ וּמִן־יְהֹוָ֖ה יָס֥וּר לִבּֽוֹ:
who trusts in man: In his plowing and his harvest, saying, “I will sow during the seventh year and I will eat.”   אשר יבטח באדם: בחרישו וקצירו לומר אזרע בשביעית ואוכל:
his arm: Like ‘his help,’ and so did Jonathan render: his trust.   זרועו: כמו עזרו וכן תרגם יונתן רוחצניה:
and whose heart turns away from the Lord: Who promised him (Lev. 25:21), “And I will command My blessing to you.” This is what I heard.   ומן ה' יסור לבו: שהבטיחו וצויתי את ברכתי לכם (שם) כך שמעתי:
6He shall be like a lone tree in the plain, and will not see when good comes, and will dwell on parched land in the desert, on salt-sodden soil that is not habitable.   ווְהָיָה֙ כְּעַרְעָ֣ר בָּֽעֲרָבָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א יִרְאֶ֖ה כִּי־יָב֣וֹא ט֑וֹב וְשָׁכַ֚ן חֲרֵרִים֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר אֶ֥רֶץ מְלֵחָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א תֵשֵֽׁב:
like a lonely tree: like a lonely tree, an expression of (Gen. 15:2) “Childless (עֲרִירִי),” and some say (degat in O.F) laid waste, and Menahem (Machbereth Menahem p. 137) explained: The name of a tree of the forest trees, and its name is ar’ar, and this is the explanation of (infra 48:6) “Like an ‘aroer’ in the desert,” one of the trees of the forest.   כערער: כעץ יחידי ל' ערירי (בראשית טו) ויש אומר דגאשטי"ה בלעז ומנחם פי' שם עץ מעצי היער וערער שמו וכן פי' כערער במדבר עץ אחד מעצי היער:
in the plain: an expression of a plain.   בערבה: לשון מישור:
parched land: aridness. Comp. (Job 30:30) “Became dry (חָרָה) from heat.”   חררים: יובש כמו חרה מני חורב (איוב ל׳:ל׳):
salt-sodden soil: Land that is salty and will not be settled.   ארץ מליחה: ארץ שהיא מליחה ולא תהא מיושבת:
7Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord; the Lord shall be his trust.   זבָּר֣וּךְ הַגֶּ֔בֶר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְטַ֖ח בַּֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהָיָ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה מִבְטַחֽוֹ:
8For he shall be like a tree planted by the water, and by a rivulet spreads its roots, and will not see when heat comes, and its leaves shall be green, and in the year of drought will not be anxious, neither shall it cease from bearing fruit.   חוְהָיָ֞ה כְּעֵ֣ץ | שָׁת֣וּל עַל־מַ֗יִם וְעַל־יוּבַל֙ יְשַׁלַּ֣ח שָֽׁרָשָׁ֔יו וְלֹ֚א יִרְאֶה֙ (כתיב יִרְאֶ֙) כִּֽי־יָבֹ֣א חֹ֔ם וְהָיָ֥ה עָלֵ֖הוּ רַֽעֲנָ֑ן וּבִשְׁנַ֚ת בַּצֹּ֙רֶת֙ לֹ֣א יִדְאָ֔ג וְלֹ֥א יָמִ֖ישׁ מֵֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת פֶּֽרִי:
and will not see: The tree will not see when heat comes.   ולא יראה: העץ כי יבא חום:
drought: an expression of hunger, (famine in French). Another interpretation: בַּצֹרֶת is an expression of fortification (מִבְצָר), and in this manner, Menahem (Machbereth Menahem p. 47) classified it.   בצורת: ל' רעב פאמצ"א בלעז, ל"א בצורת ל' מבצר וכן חברו מנחם:
will not be anxious: will not be afraid.   לא ידאג: לא יפחד:
9The heart is deceitful above all things, and when it is sick, who will recognize it?   טעָקֹ֥ב הַלֵּ֛ב מִכֹּ֖ל וְאָנֻ֣שׁ ה֑וּא מִ֖י יֵדָעֶֽנּוּ:
The heart is deceitful: Full of pretext and deceit of all evil.   עקוב הלב: מלא תואנה ועקובה מכל רעה:
and when it is sick: an expression of sickness, and this is its sickness.   ואנוש: לשון חולי וחליו הוא זה:
who recognizes it?: He thinks, “Who recognizes it?” I, the Lord, search it.   מי ידענו: הוא סבור מי ידענו אני ה' חוקרו:
10I, the Lord, search the heart, test the kidneys, to give everyone according to his ways, according to the fruit of his deeds.   יאֲנִ֧י יְהֹוָ֛ה חֹקֵ֥ר לֵ֖ב בֹּחֵ֣ן כְּלָי֑וֹת וְלָתֵ֚ת לְאִישׁ֙ כִּדְרָכָ֔יו (כתיב כִּדְרָכָ֔ו) כִּפְרִ֖י מַֽעֲלָלָֽיו:
11The cuckoo calls but has not laid, so it is he who gathers riches but not by right; he shall leave them in the midst of his days, and at his end he stands dishonored.   יאקֹרֵ֚א דָגָר֙ וְלֹ֣א יָלָ֔ד עֹ֥שֶׂה עֹ֖שֶׁר וְלֹ֣א בְמִשְׁפָּ֑ט בַּֽחֲצִ֚י יָמָיו֙ (כתיב יָמָו֙) יַעַזְבֶ֔נּוּ וּבְאַֽחֲרִית֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶ֥ה נָבָֽל:
The cuckoo calls: (Coucou glousse in French).   קורא דגר: קוק"ו גלונצנ"ט בלעז:
but has not laid: This cuckoo draws after it chicks that it did not lay. דָגָר - This is the chirping which the bird chirps with its voice to draw the chicks after it, but those whom the cuckoo called will not follow it when they grow up for they are not of its kind. So is one who gathers riches but not by right.   ולא ילד: הקורא הזה מושך אחריו אפרוחים שלא ילד דגר. ציפצוף שמצפצף העוף בקולו למשוך אפרוחין אחריו ואלו שהקורא דגר לא ילכו אחריו משיגדלו שאינם מינו כך עושה עושר ולא במשפט:
he stands dishonored: He is called wicked.   יהיה נבל: מתקרי רשיעא:
12As a Throne of Glory, exalted from the beginning, so is the place of our Sanctuary.   יבכִּסֵּ֣א כָב֔וֹד מָר֖וֹם מֵֽרִאשׁ֑וֹן מְק֖וֹם מִקְדָּשֵֽׁנוּ:
As a Throne of Glory: Since he wishes to state: All that forsake You shall be shamed, he commences with the praise of the Omnipresent, and says before Him, “You, Whose Throne of Glory is exalted from the beginning of the Creation of the world and is directed opposite our Sanctuary.”   כסא כבוד וגו': לפי שבא לומר כל עוזביך יבושו מתחיל בקילוסו של מקום ומדבר לפניו אתה שכסא כבוד ומרום מראשית בריאת עולם ומכוון כנגד מקדשנו:
13The Lord who is the source of the hopes of Israel, all that forsake You shall be shamed, and they who turn away from me shall be marked out on the earth that they have forsaken the source of living waters, the Lord.   יגמִקְוֵ֚ה יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה כָּל־עֹֽזְבֶ֖יךָ יֵבֹ֑שׁוּ וְסוּרַי֙ (כתיב יְסוּרַי֙) בָּאָ֣רֶץ יִכָּתֵ֔בוּ כִּ֥י עָֽזְב֛וּ מְק֥וֹר מַֽיִם־חַיִּ֖ים אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
The Lord Who is the source of the hopes of Israel: sits upon it. Therefore, all that forsake You shall be shamed.   מקוה ישראל: ה' יושב עליו לפיכך כל עוזביך יבושו:
and they that turn away from me shall be marked on the earth: Those who turn away from my words, who do not hearken to my message, will be marked out in the nether graves of the earth.   וסורי בארץ יכתבו: אותם שסרים מדברי שאינם שומעים שליחותי בקברות תחתיות ארץ יכתבו:
14Heal me, O Lord, then shall I be healed; help me, then I shall be helped, for You are my praise!   ידרְפָאֵ֚נִי יְהֹוָה֙ וְאֵ֣רָפֵ֔א הוֹשִׁיעֵ֖נִי וְאִוָּשֵׁ֑עָה כִּ֥י תְהִלָּתִ֖י אָֽתָּה:
for You are my praise: I praise myself and boast with You, saying that You are my Savior   כי תהלתי אתה: בך אני מתהלל ומתפאר לומר שאתה מושיעי:
my praise: (vantance in O.F.), boast.   תהלתי: וונטנצ"א בלעז:
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