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Torah Reading for Tetzaveh

Parshat Tetzaveh
Shabbat, 11 Adar, 5783
4 March, 2023
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Complete: (Exodus 27:20 - 30:10; Deuteronomy 25:17-19; Samuel I 15:1-34)
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First Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 27

20And you shall command the children of Israel, and they shall take to you pure olive oil, crushed for lighting, to kindle the lamps continually.   כוְאַתָּ֞ה תְּצַוֶּ֣ה | אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְיִקְח֨וּ אֵלֶ֜יךָ שֶׁ֣מֶן זַ֥יִת זָ֛ךְ כָּתִ֖ית לַמָּא֑וֹר לְהַֽעֲלֹ֥ת נֵ֖ר תָּמִֽיד:
pure: Without sediment, as we learned in Men. (86a): “He allows it to ripen at the top of the olive tree, etc.”   וְאַתָּה תצוה. זָךְ: בְּלִי שְׁמָרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בִמְנָחוֹת מְגַרְגְּרוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַזַּיִת וְכוּ':
crushed: He must crush the olives in a mortar, but he may not grind them in a mill, so that they will not contain sediment. After he has extracted the first drop [of oil], he places them [the olives] into a mill and grinds them. The [resulting] second oil is unfit for the menorah but is fit for meal offerings, as it is said: “crushed for lighting,” but not crushed for meal offerings. -[from Men. 86a]   כָּתִית: הַזֵּיתִים כּוֹתֵשׁ בַּמַּכְתֶּשֶׁת וְאֵינוֹ טוֹחֲנָן בָּרֵחַיִם, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בוֹ שְׁמָרִים, וְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹצִיא טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה מַכְנִיסָן לָרֵחַיִם וְטוֹחֲנָן; וְהַשֶּׁמֶן הַשֵּׁנִי פָּסוּל לַמְּנוֹרָה וְכָשֵׁר לִמְנָחוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר – וְלֹא כָתִית לַמְּנָחוֹת (מנחות פ"ו):
to kindle the lamps continually: Heb. לְהַעִלֹת, lit., to cause to rise. [The kohen] shall light it until the flame rises by itself. -[from Shab. 21a]   להעלות נֵר תָּמִֽיד: מַדְלִיק עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא שַׁלְהֶבֶת עוֹלָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ (שבת כ"א):
continually: Heb. תָּמִיד. [Since it burns] every night, it is called תָּמִיד, as you say: “a continual burnt offering” (עֹלַת תָּמִיד)” (Exod. 29:42, Num. 28:6), [which is called “continual”] although it is [offered up] only from day to day. Similarly, concerning the flat pan meal offering [of the Kohen Gadol, the word] תָּמִיד is mentioned although it is [offered up] only half in the morning and [the other] half in the evening. [The word] תָּמִיד mentioned concerning the showbread (Exod. 25:30), however, [literally] means from Sabbath to Sabbath [i.e., continually].   תָּמִֽיד: כָּל לַיְלָה וְלַיְלָה קָרוּי תָּמִיד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר עֹלַת תָּמִיד וְאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם; וְכֵן בְּמִנְחַת חֲבִתִּין נֶאֱמַר תָּמִיד וְאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מַחֲצִיתָהּ בַּבֹּקֶר וּמַחֲצִיתָהּ בָּעֶרֶב, אֲבָל תָּמִיד הָאָמוּר בְּלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים מִשַּׁבָּת לְשַׁבָּת הוּא:
21In the Tent of Meeting, outside the dividing curtain that is in front of the testimony, Aaron and his sons shall set it up before the Lord from evening to morning; [it shall be] an everlasting statute for their generations, from the children of Israel.   כאבְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵד֩ מִח֨וּץ לַפָּרֹ֜כֶת אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הָֽעֵדֻ֗ת יַֽעֲרֹךְ֩ אֹת֨וֹ אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן וּבָנָ֛יו מֵעֶ֥רֶב עַד־בֹּ֖קֶר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה חֻקַּ֤ת עוֹלָם֙ לְדֹ֣רֹתָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
from evening to morning: Give it its measure so that it will burn from evening to morning. And the Sages estimated [that this is] a half of a log [between 6 and 10.6 fl. oz.] for the long nights of Teveth, and similarly for all the nights. If any of it remains, it does not matter. [from Men. 89a]   מֵעֶרֶב עַד־בֹּקֶר: תֵּן לָהּ מִדָּתָהּ שֶׁתְּהֵא דּוֹלֶקֶת מֵעֶרֶב וְעַד בֹּקֶר, וְשִׁעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים חֲצִי לֹג לְלֵילֵי טֵבֵת הָאֲרֻכִּין וְכֵן לְכָל הַלֵּילוֹת, וְאִם יִוָּתֵר אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם (מנחות פ"ט):

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 28

1And you bring near to yourself your brother Aaron, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel to serve Me [as kohanim]: Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.   אוְאַתָּ֡ה הַקְרֵ֣ב אֵלֶ֩יךָ֩ אֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן אָחִ֜יךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֣יו אִתּ֗וֹ מִתּ֛וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְכַֽהֲנוֹ־לִ֑י אַֽהֲרֹ֕ן נָדָ֧ב וַֽאֲבִיה֛וּא אֶלְעָזָ֥ר וְאִֽיתָמָ֖ר בְּנֵ֥י אַֽהֲרֹֽן:
And you bring near to yourself your brother Aaron, and his sons with him: After you complete the work of the Mishkan.   וְאַתָּה הַקְרֵב אֵלֶיךָ: לְאַחַר שֶׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן:
2You shall make holy garments for your brother Aaron, for honor and glory.   בוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ בִגְדֵי־קֹ֖דֶשׁ לְאַֽהֲרֹ֣ן אָחִ֑יךָ לְכָב֖וֹד וּלְתִפְאָֽרֶת:
3And you shall speak to all the wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, and they shall make Aaron's garments to sanctify him, [so] that he serve Me [as a kohen].   גוְאַתָּ֗ה תְּדַבֵּר֙ אֶל־כָּל־חַכְמֵי־לֵ֔ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִלֵּאתִ֖יו ר֣וּחַ חָכְמָ֑ה וְעָשׂ֞וּ אֶת־בִּגְדֵ֧י אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן לְקַדְּשׁ֖וֹ לְכַֽהֲנוֹ־לִֽי:
to sanctify him, [so] that he serve Me [as a kohen]: Heb. לְקַדְּשׁוֹ לְכַהִנוֹ-לִי, to sanctify him, to initiate him into the kehunah through these garment [so] that he would be a kohen to Me. The expression of kehunah means service, serjanterie [or serventrie] in Old French.   לְקַדְּשׁוֹ לְכַֽהֲנוֹ־לִֽי: לְקַדְּשׁוֹ לְהַכְנִיסוֹ בִּכְהֻנָּה עַל יְדֵי הַבְּגָדִים שֶׁיְּהֵא כֹהֵן לִי, וּלְשׁוֹן כְּהֻנָּה שֵׁרוּת הוּא, שנטרי"אה בְּלַעַז:
4And these are the garments that they shall make: a choshen, an ephod, a robe, a tunic of checker work, a cap, and a sash. They shall make holy garments for your brother Aaron and for his sons to serve Me [as kohanim].   דוְאֵ֨לֶּה הַבְּגָדִ֜ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַֽעֲשׂ֗וּ ח֤שֶׁן וְאֵפוֹד֙ וּמְעִ֔יל וּכְתֹ֥נֶת תַּשְׁבֵּ֖ץ מִצְנֶ֣פֶת וְאַבְנֵ֑ט וְעָשׂ֨וּ בִגְדֵי־קֹ֜דֶשׁ לְאַֽהֲרֹ֥ן אָחִ֛יךָ וּלְבָנָ֖יו לְכַֽהֲנוֹ־לִֽי:
a choshen: An ornament opposite the heart.   חשֶׁן: תַּכְשִׁיט כְּנֶגֶד הַלֵּב:
an ephod: I did not hear (that it was a garment) [i.e., I have no tradition concerning the ephod], and I did not find the explanation of its pattern in the Baraitha [Melecheth HaMishkan]. My heart tells me that he [the Kohen Gadol] was girded with it [the ephod] from behind, its width being like the width of an [average] man’s back, similar to a kind of apron called porzent [or pourceint], [a kind of] belt, [like an] apron [back to front] that princesses wear when they ride horseback. So it was made from below [i.e., for the lower part of the body], as it is said: “and David was girded with a linen ephod” (II Sam. 6:14). [Thus] we learn that the ephod was a belt. It is impossible, however, to say that it was only a belt, because it is said: “and he put the ephod on him,” and afterwards, “and he girded him with the band of the ephod (בְּחֵשֶׁב הָאֵפוֹד) ” (Lev. 8:7), which Onkelos renders: בְּהֶמְיַן אֵפוֹדָא. [Thus] we learn that the חֵשֶׁב was the band and the ephod was a separate decoration. It is also impossible to say that because of the two shoulder straps in it, it is called ephod, for it is said: “the two shoulder straps of the ephod” (verse 27). [Thus] we learn that the ephod was a separate entity, the shoulder straps were a separate entity, and the band was a separate entity. Therefore, I say that because of the apron below it is called ephod because he decorates and adorns himself with it, as it is said: “and he decorated him with it” (Lev. 8:7); the חֵשֶׁב is the band above it, to which the shoulder straps were attached. Moreover, my heart tells me that there is evidence that it is a kind of garment, for Jonathan rendered “and David was girded with a linen ephod” (II Sam. 6: 14) as כַּרְדּוּט דְּבוּץ and he renders likewise מְעִילִים as כַּרְדּוּטִין, in the narrative of Tamar, Absalom’s sister, “for in this manner the king’s virgin daughters dressed, in robes (מְעִילִים) ” (II Sam. 13:18).   וְאֵפוֹד: לֹא שָׁמַעְתִּי וְלֹא מָצָאתִי בַּבָּרַיְתָא פֵּרוּשׁ תַּבְנִיתוֹ, וְלִבִּי אוֹמֵר לִי שֶׁהוּא חֲגוֹרָה לוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, רָחְבּוֹ כְּרֹחַב גַּב אִישׁ, כְּמִין סִינָר שֶׁקּוֹרִין פורצי"נט בְּלַעַז, שֶׁחוֹגְרוֹת הַשָּׂרוֹת כְּשֶׁרוֹכְבוֹת עַל הַסּוּסִים, כָּךְ מַעֲשֵׂהוּ מִלְּמַטָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְדָוִד חָגוּר אֵפוֹד בָּד, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהָאֵפוֹד חֲגוֹרָה הִיא; וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא חֲגוֹרָה לְבַדָּהּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת הָאֵפֹד וְאֲחַר כַּךְ וַיַּחְגֹּר אוֹתוֹ בְּחֵשֶׁב הָאֵפֹד וְתִרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס בְּהֶמְיַן אֵפוֹדָא, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַחֵשֶׁב הוּא הֶחָגוֹר וְהָאֵפוֹד שֵׁם תַּכְשִׁיט לְבַדּוֹ; וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁעַל שֵׁם שְׁתֵּי הַכְּתֵפוֹת שֶׁבּוֹ הוּא קָרוּי אֵפוֹד, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר שְׁתֵּי כִתְפוֹת הָאֵפוֹד, לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהָאֵפוֹד שֵׁם לְבַד וְהַכְּתֵפוֹת שֵׁם לְבַד וְהַחֵשֶׁב שֵׁם לְבַד, לְכָךְ אֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁעַל שֵׁם הַסִּינָר שֶׁל מַטָּה קָרוּי אֵפוֹד – עַל שֵׁם שֶׁאוֹפְדוֹ וּמְקַשְּׁטוֹ בוֹ – כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּ' וַיֶּאְפֹּד לוֹ בּוֹ, וְהַחֵשֶׁב הוּא חָגוּר שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה הֵימֶנּוּ וְהַכְּתֵפוֹת קְבוּעוֹת בּוֹ. וְעוֹד אוֹמֵר לִי לִבִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ רְאָיָה שֶׁהוּא מִין לְבוּשׁ, שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם יוֹנָתָן וְדָוִד חָגוּר אֵפוֹד בָּד (שמואל ב ו') – כַּרְדּוּט דְּבוּץ, וְתִרְגֵּם כְּמוֹ כֵן מְעִילִים כַּרְדּוּטִין, בְּמַעֲשֵׂה תָּמָר אֲחוֹת אַבְשָׁלוֹם, כִּי כֵן תִּלְבַּשְׁנָה בְנוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ הַבְּתוּלוֹת מְעִילִים (שם י"ג):
a robe: Heb. מְעִיל. It is a kind of tunic, as is the כְּתֹנֶת, only that the כְּתֹנֶת is [worn] next to his flesh and the מְעִיל is [what is] called the outside robe.   מעיל: הוּא כְּמִין חָלוּק, וְכֵן הַכֻּתֹּנֶת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַכֻּתֹּנֶת סָמוּךְ לִבְשָׂרוֹ וּמְעִיל קָרוּי חָלוּק הָעֶלְיוֹן:
of checker work: Heb. תַּשְׁבֵּץ. Made of boxes (מִשְׁבְּצוֹת) for beauty. The boxes are similar to holes made in gold jewelry as a setting for precious stones and pearls, as it is said regarding the ephod stones: “enclosed in gold settings (מִשְׁבְּצוֹת) ” (verse 11), and in Old French it is called cha(s)tons, settings. [I.e., the boxes of the checker work on the tunic are like settings for precious gems.]   תַּשְׁבֵּץ: עֲשׂוּיִין מִשְׁבְּצוֹת לְנוֹי, וְהַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת הֵם כְּמִין גֻּמּוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת בְּתַכְשִׁיטֵי זָהָב לְמוֹשַׁב קְבִיעַת אֲבָנִים טוֹבוֹת וּמַרְגָּלִיּוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּאַבְנֵי הָאֵפוֹד מֻסַבֹּת מִשְׁבְּצוֹת זָהָב, וּבְלַעַז קוֹרְאִין אוֹתוֹ קשטו"נש:
a cap: Heb. מִצְנֶפֶת, a type of dome-shaped hat, called cofia in Old French, because elsewhere (verse 40) [the Torah] calls them מִגְבָּעוֹת, and the Targum [Onkelos] renders: כּוֹבָעִין.   מִצְנֶפֶת: כְּמִין כִּפַּת כּוֹבַע, שֶׁקּוֹרִין קופ"יא בְּלַעַז, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְמָקוֹם אַחֵר קוֹרֵא לָהֶם מִגְבָּעוֹת וּמְתַרְגְּמִינָן כּוֹבָעִין:
and a sash: This is the belt on the tunic, and the ephod is the belt on the robe, as we find in the order they were put on: “and put upon him the tunic, girded him with the sash, clothed him with the robe, put upon him the ephod” (Lev. 8:7).   וְאַבְנֵט: הִיא חֲגוֹרָה עַל הַכֻּתֹּנֶת וְהָאֵפוֹד חֲגוֹרָה עַל הַמְּעִיל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמָּצִינוּ בְּסֵדֶר לְבִישָׁתָן וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת הַכֻּתֹּנֶת וַיַּחְגֹּר אֹתוֹ בָּאַבְנֵט וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ אֶת הַמְּעִיל וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת הָאֵפֹד:
holy garments: From the offering sanctified for My name they shall make it.   בִגְדֵי־קֹדֶשׁ: מִתְּרוּמָה הַמְקֻדֶּשֶׁת לִשְׁמִי יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָם:
5They shall take the gold, the blue, purple, and crimson wool, and the linen,   הוְהֵם֙ יִקְח֣וּ אֶת־הַזָּהָ֔ב וְאֶת־הַתְּכֵ֖לֶת וְאֶת־הָֽאַרְגָּמָ֑ן וְאֶת־תּוֹלַ֥עַת הַשָּׁנִ֖י וְאֶת־הַשֵּֽׁשׁ:
They shall take: Those wise-hearted people, who are to make the garments, shall receive from the donors the gold and the blue wool from which to make the garments.   וְהֵם יִקְחוּ: אוֹתָם חַכְמֵי לֵב שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ הַבְּגָדִים יְקַבְּלוּ מִן הַמִּתְנַדְּבִים אֶת הַזָּהָב וְאֶת הַתְּכֵלֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן אֶת הַבְּגָדִים:
6and they shall make the ephod of gold, blue, purple, and crimson wool, and twisted fine linen, the work of a master weaver.   ווְעָשׂ֖וּ אֶת־הָֽאֵפֹ֑ד זָ֠הָ֠ב תְּכֵ֨לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָ֜ן תּוֹלַ֧עַת שָׁנִ֛י וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מָשְׁזָ֖ר מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה חשֵֽׁב:
and they shall make the ephod: If I would try to explain the making of the ephod and the choshen according to the order of the verses, their explanation would be fragmentary and the reader would err in combining them. Therefore, I am writing [first] how they were made, as it was [i.e., in its entirety], so that the reader will be able to run through it [quickly]. Afterwards, I will explain it [how they were made] according to the sequence of the verses. The ephod was designed like a sort of apron worn by women who ride horseback [see Rashi on verse 4], and he [the Kohen Gadol] would gird [himself with] it from behind, opposite his heart, below his elbows, its width equaling the width of a man’s back and more, and it [the ephod] would reach his ankles. The belt was attached to the top of it across its width, [it was] the work of a weaver, and it extended on both sides in order to wrap [the Kohen Gadol] and gird [him] with it. The shoulder straps were attached to the belt-one to the right and one to the left from behind the Kohen [Gadol], at the two ends of the width of the apron. When he held them [i.e., the shoulder straps] upright, they stood [i.e., lay flat] on his two shoulders. They were like two straps made from the same material as the ephod [and they were] long enough to place them upright alongside his neck on either side. They were folded in front of him slightly below his shoulders. The shoham stones were set in them-one on the right shoulder strap and one on the left shoulder strap. The settings were placed at their ends in front of his shoulders, and the two golden chains were inserted into the two rings of the choshen at the two ends of its upper width-one on the right and one on the left. The two ends of the [right] chains were inserted into the settings on the right, and similarly the two ends of the left chains were inserted into the settings on the left shoulder strap. Thus, the choshen was suspended on the settings of the ephod in front of him [the Kohen Gadol] over his heart. There were two more rings on the two ends of the choshen, on the bottom of it. Opposite them [there were] two rings on the two shoulder straps from below, at its bottom end, which was attached to the belt. The rings of the choshen [were] opposite the rings of the ephod, lying on each other. He would fasten them [the rings] with a blue cord, inserted through the rings of the ephod and the choshen, attached to the band of the ephod, so that the bottom of the choshen would be attached to the band of the ephod, and it would not swing back and forth.   וְעָשׂוּ אֶת־הָֽאֵפֹד: אִם בָּאתִי לְפָרֵשׁ מַעֲשֵׂה הָאֵפוֹד וְהַחֹשֶׁן עַל סֵדֶר הַמִּקְרָאוֹת, הֲרֵי פֵּרוּשָׁן פְּרָקִים, וְיִשְׁגֶה הַקּוֹרֵא בְּצֵרוּפָן, לְכָךְ אֲנִי כוֹתֵב מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא, לְמַעַן יָרוּץ הַקּוֹרֵא בוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אֲפָרֵשׁ עַל סֵדֶר הַמִּקְרָאוֹת. הָאֵפוֹד עָשׂוּי כְּמִין סִינָר שֶׁל נָשִׁים רוֹכְבוֹת סוּסִים, וְחוֹגֵר אוֹתוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרָיו כְּנֶגֶד לִבּוֹ לְמַטָּה מֵאֲצִילָיו, רָחְבּוֹ כְּמִדַּת רֹחַב גַּבּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם וְיוֹתֵר, וּמַגִּיעַ עַד עֲקֵבָיו, וְהַחֵשֶׁב מְחֻבָּר בְּרֹאשׁוֹ עַל פְּנֵי רָחְבּוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה אוֹרֵג, וּמַאֲרִיךְ לְכָאן וּלְכָאן כְּדֵי לְהַקִּיף וְלַחְגֹּר בּוֹ, וְהַכְּתֵפוֹת מְחֻבָּרוֹת בַּחֵשֶׁב, אֶחָד לְיָמִין וְאֶחָד לִשְׂמֹאל, מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַכֹּהֵן, לִשְׁנֵי קְצוֹת רָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל סִינָר, וּכְשֶׁזּוֹקְפָן עוֹמְדוֹת לוֹ עַל שְׁתֵּי כְתֵפָיו, וְהֵן כְּמִין שְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת עֲשׂוּיוֹת מִמִּין הָאֵפוֹד, אֲרֻכּוֹת כְּדֵי שִׁעוּר לְזָקְפָן אֵצֶל צַוָּארוֹ מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן וְנִקְפָּלוֹת לְפָנָיו לְמַטָּה מִכְּתֵפָיו מְעַט, וְאַבְנֵי הַשֹּׁהַם קְבוּעוֹת בָּהֶם, אַחַת עַל כֶּתֶף יָמִין וְאַחַת עַל כֶּתֶף שְׂמֹאל, וְהַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת נְתוּנוֹת בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶם לִפְנֵי כְּתֵפָיו, וּשְׁתֵּי עֲבוֹתוֹת הַזָּהָב תְּחוּבוֹת בִּשְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת שֶׁבַּחֹשֶׁן, בִּשְׁנֵי קְצוֹת רָחְבּוֹ הָעֶלְיוֹן, אַחַת לְיָמִין וְאַחַת לִשְׂמֹאל, וּשְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁי הַשַּׁרְשֶׁרֶת תְּקוּעִין בַּמִּשְׁבֶּצֶת לַיָּמִין וְכֵן שְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁי הַשַּׁרְשֶׁרֶת הַשְּׂמָאלִית תְּקוּעִין בַּמִּשְׁבֶּצֶת שֶׁבְּכָתֵף שְׂמֹאל, נִמְצָא הַחֹשֶׁן תָּלוּי בְּמִשְׁבְּצוֹת הָאֵפוֹד עַל לִבּוֹ מִלְּפָנָיו, וְעוֹד שְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת בִּשְׁנֵי קְצוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן בְּתַחְתִּיתוֹ, וּכְנֶגְדָּם שְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת בִּשְׁתֵּי כִּתְפוֹת הָאֵפוֹד מִלְּמַטָּה, בְּרֹאשׁוֹ הַתַּחְתּוֹן הַמְּחֻבָּר בַּחֵשֶׁב; טַבְּעוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן אֶל מוּל טַבְּעוֹת הָאֵפוֹד שׁוֹכְבִים זֶה עַל זֶה, וּמְרַכְּסָן בִּפְתִיל תְּכֵלֶת תָּחוּב בְּטַבְּעוֹת הָאֵפוֹד וְהַחֹשֶׁן, שֶׁיְּהֵא תַּחְתִּית הַחֹשֶׁן דָּבוּק לְחֵשֶׁב הָאֵפוֹד וְלֹא יְהֵא נָד וְנִבְדָּל, הוֹלֵךְ וְחוֹזֵר:
of gold, blue, purple, and crimson wool, and twisted fine linen: These five kinds [of substances] were twisted into each thread. They [the workers] flattened the gold into a sort of thin plate and cut cords out of them [the plates] and spun them, one thread of gold with six threads of blue wool, and one thread of gold with six threads of purple wool, and similarly with the crimson wool, and similarly with the linen, for the threads of all the kinds were doubled sixfold, and one thread of gold was [twisted] with each one [kind of thread]. Afterwards, he would twist them all together. Thus, their threads were doubled into twenty-eight strands. This is explained in tractate Yoma (72a), and it is derived from the following verse (Exod. 39:3): “They flattened out the sheets of gold and he cut cords [out of them], to work (the gold cords) into the blue wool, into the purple wool, etc.” We learn that a thread of gold was twisted with every kind [of thread].   זָהָב תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן תּוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר: חֲמֵשֶׁת מִינִים הַלָּלוּ שְׁזוּרִין בְּכָל חוּט וָחוּט; הָיוּ מְרַדְּדִין אֶת הַזָּהָב כְּמִין טַסִּין דַּקִּין וְקוֹצְצִין פְּתִילִים מֵהֶם, וְטוֹוִין אוֹתוֹ חוּט שֶׁל זָהָב עִם שִׁשָּׁה חוּטִין שֶׁל תְּכֵלֶת, וְחוּט שֶׁל זָהָב עִם שִׁשָּׁה חוּטִין שֶׁל אַרְגָּמָן, וְכֵן בְּתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְכֵן בַּשֵּׁשׁ – שֶׁכָּל הַמִּינִין חוּטָן כָּפוּל שִׁשָּׁה וְחוּט שֶׁל זָהָב עִם כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד – וְאַחַר כָּךְ שׁוֹזֵר אֶת כֻּלָּם כְּאֶחָד, נִמְצָא חוּטָן כָּפוּל כ"ח, וְכֵן מְפֹרָשׁ בְּמַסֶּכֶת יוֹמָא, וְלָמֵד מִן הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה וַיְרַקְּעוּ אֶת פַּחֵי הַזָּהָב וְקִצֵּץ פְּתִילִם לַעֲשׂוֹת – אֶת פְּתִילֵי הַזָּהָב – בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּכֵלֶת וּבְתוֹךְ הָאַרְגָּמָן וְגוֹ', לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁחוּט שֶׁל זָהָב שָׁזוּר עִם כָּל מִין וָמִין:
the work of a master weaver: Heb. מַעִשֵׂה חוֹשֵׁב. I have already explained (Exod. 26:1) that this is the weaving of two “walls,” [and] that the figures of its two sides are unlike one another.   מַֽעֲשֵׂה חשֵֽׁב: כְּבָר פֵּרַשְׁתִּי שֶׁהוּא אֲרִיגַת שְׁתֵּי קִירוֹת, שֶׁאֵין צוּרוֹת שְׁנֵי עֲבָרֶיהָ דּוֹמוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ:
7It shall have two connected shoulder straps at both its ends, and it shall be entirely connected.   זשְׁתֵּ֧י כְתֵפֹ֣ת חֹֽבְרֹ֗ת יִֽהְיֶה־לּ֛וֹ אֶל־שְׁנֵ֥י קְצוֹתָ֖יו וְחֻבָּֽר:
two shoulder straps: The apron was below and the חשב of the Eiphod was the belt. And it was connected to the apron at the top, similar to the apron of a woman. And at the kohen's back, it was connected by two pieces attached to the חשב, like two wide straps, one opposite each shoulder. He lifted these over his two shoulders so that they hung in front of him on his chest. And through them being attached to the rings of the breastplate they were held in place, opposite his heart, not falling. As explained in this chapter. And they would be straight over the shoulders and the two Shoham stones were set into them, one on each strap.   שְׁתֵּי כְתֵפֹת וגו': הַסִּינָר מִלְּמַטָּה וְחֵשֶׁב הָאֵפוֹד הִיא הַחֲגוֹרָה, וּצְמוּדָה לוֹ מִלְמַעְלָה דֻּגְמַת סִינַר הַנָּשִׁים, וּמִגַּבּוֹ שֶׁל כֹּהֵן הָיוּ מְחֻבָּרוֹת בַּחֵשֶׁב שְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת כְּמִין שְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת רְחָבוֹת, אַחַת כְּנֶגֶד כָּל כָּתֵף וְכָתֵף, וְזוֹקְפָן עַל שְׁתֵּי כִתְפוֹתָיו עַד שֶׁנִּקְפָּלוֹת לְפָנָיו כְּנֶגֶד הֶחָזֶה, וְעַל יְדֵי חִבּוּרָן לְטַבְּעוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן נֶאֱחָזִין מִלְּפָנָיו כְּנֶגֶד לִבּוֹ שֶׁאֵין נוֹפְלוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בָּעִנְיָן, וְהָיוּ זְקוּפוֹת וְהוֹלְכוֹת כְּנֶגֶד כְּתֵפָיו וּשְׁתֵּי אַבְנֵי הַשֹׁהַם קְבוּעוֹת בָּהֶן אַחַת בְּכָל אַחַת:
at both its ends: [I.e.,] to the width of the ephod. For its width was only against the Kohen’s back, and its height extended opposite his elbows, which are called coudes in French, as it is said: “they shall not gird themselves in a place that sweats” (Ezek. 44:18). [I.e.,] they should not gird themselves in a place of perspiration, [namely] neither above their elbows nor below their waists, but opposite their elbows. -[from Zev. 18b]   אֶל־שְׁנֵי קְצוֹתָיו: אֶל רָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל אֵפוֹד, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה רָחְבּוֹ אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד גַּבּוֹ שֶׁל כֹּהֵן וְגָבְהוֹ עַד כְּנֶגֶד הָאֲצִילִים, שֶׁקּוֹרִין קודי"ש בְּלַעַז, שֶׁנֶּ' לֹא יַחְגְּרוּ בַּיָּזַע (יחזקאל מ"ד) – אֵין חוֹגְרִין בִּמְקוֹם זֵיעָה, לֹא לְמַעְלָה מֵאֲצִילֵיהֶם וְלֹא לְמַטָּה מִמָּתְנֵיהֶם אֶלָּא כְּנֶגֶד אֲצִילֵיהֶם:
and it shall be entirely connected: the ephod with those two shoulder straps of the ephod. He shall connect them [by sewing them] with a needle below [the shoulder straps] to the band, and he shall not weave them [together] with it, but weave them separately and then connect them.   וְחֻבָּֽר: הָאֵפוֹד עִם אוֹתָן שְׁתֵּי כִתְפוֹת הָאֵפוֹד יְחַבֵּר אוֹתָם בְּמַחַט לְמַטָּה בַּחֵשֶׁב, וְלֹא יֶאֶרְגֵם עִמּוֹ אֶלָּא אוֹרְגָם לְבַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְחַבְּרָם:
8And its decorative band, which is above it, shall be of the same work, [emanating] from it: gold, blue, purple, and crimson wool, and twisted fine linen.   חוְחֵ֤שֶׁב אֲפֻדָּתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָלָ֔יו כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֖הוּ מִמֶּ֣נּוּ יִֽהְיֶ֑ה זָהָ֗ב תְּכֵ֧לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָ֛ן וְתוֹלַ֥עַת שָׁנִ֖י וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מָשְׁזָֽר:
And its decorative band: The belt, by which it [the ephod] decorates and enhances the kohen[’s appearance] and adorns him.   וְחֵשֶׁב אֲפֻדָּתוֹ: וְחָגוֹר שֶׁעַל יָדוֹ הוּא מְאַפְּדוֹ וּמְתַקְּנֵהוּ לַכֹּהֵן וּמְקַשְּׁטוֹ:
which is above it: Above, [i.e.,] at the edge of the apron was the belt.   אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו: לְמַעְלָה בִּשְׂפַת הַסִּינָר, הִיא הַחֲגוֹרָה:
of the same work: Just as the weaving of the apron was the work of a master weaver and of five kinds, so was the weaving of the band the work of a master weaver and of five kinds [of material].   כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂהוּ: כַּאֲרִיגַת הַסִּינָר מַעֲשֵׂה חוֹשֵׁב וּמֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינִים, כָּךְ אֲרִיגַת הַחֵשֶׁב מַעֲשֵׂה חוֹשֵׁב וּמֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינִין:
[emanating] from it: It shall be woven with it, and he shall not weave it separately and attach it. [Whereas the shoulder straps and the ephod were to be woven separately and then attached, the belt and the ephod were to be woven together from the start.]   מִמֶּנּוּ יִֽהְיֶה: עִמּוֹ יִהְיֶה אָרוּג וְלֹא יַאַרְגֶנּוּ לְבַד וִיחַבְּרֶנּוּ:
9And you shall take two shoham stones and engrave upon them the names of the sons of Israel.   טוְלָ֣קַחְתָּ֔ אֶת־שְׁתֵּ֖י אַבְנֵי־שֹׁ֑הַם וּפִתַּחְתָּ֣ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם שְׁמ֖וֹת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
10Six of their names on one stone and the names of the remaining six on the second stone, according to their births.   ישִׁשָּׁה֙ מִשְּׁמֹתָ֔ם עַ֖ל הָאֶ֣בֶן הָֽאֶחָ֑ת וְאֶת־שְׁמ֞וֹת הַשִּׁשָּׁ֧ה הַנּֽוֹתָרִ֛ים עַל־הָאֶ֥בֶן הַשֵּׁנִ֖ית כְּתֽוֹלְדֹתָֽם:
according to their births: According to the order in which they were born [i.e.,]: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, on the one; and on the second one, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin spelled full, [בִּנְיָמִין], for so it is written in the place of his birth (Gen. 35: 18) [totaling] twenty-five letters on each one [stone].   כְּתֽוֹלְדֹתָֽם: כַּסֵּדֶר שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ – רְאוּבֵן, שִׁמְעוֹן, לֵוִי, יְהוּדָה, דָּן, נַפְתָלִי עַל הָאַחַת, וְעַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה גָּד, אָשֵׁר, יִשָּׂשכָר זְבוּלֻן, יוֹסֵף, בִּנְיָמִין מָלֵא, שֶׁכֵּן הוּא כָתוּב בִּמְקוֹם תּוֹלַדְתּוֹ, כ"ה אוֹתִיּוֹת בְּכָל אַחַת וְאַחַת:
11[Similar to] the work of an engraver of gems, [similar to] the engravings of a seal, you shall engrave the two stones with the names of the sons of Israel; you shall make them enclosed in gold settings.   יאמַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה חָרַשׁ֘ אֶ֒בֶן֒ פִּתּוּחֵ֣י חֹתָ֗ם תְּפַתַּח֙ אֶת־שְׁתֵּ֣י הָֽאֲבָנִ֔ים עַל־שְׁמֹ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל מֻֽסַבֹּ֛ת מִשְׁבְּצ֥וֹת זָהָ֖ב תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָֽם:
[Similar to] the work of an engraver of gems: Heb. אֶבֶן מַעִשֵׂה חָרַשׁ. The work of a craftsman of precious stones. This [word] חָרַשׁ is connected to the following word. Therefore, it is vowelized with a “pattach” at the end, and likewise, “The carpenter (חָרַשׁ עֵצִים) stretched out a line” (Isa. 44:13). [This is like] חָרָשׁ שֶׁל עֵצִים. Likewise, “The iron smith (חָרַשׁ בַּרְזֶל)” (Isa. 44:12). All these are connected and are [therefore] vowelized with “pattach” s.   מַֽעֲשֵׂה חָרַשׁ אֶבֶן: מַעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּן שֶׁל אֲבָנִים, חָרַשׁ זֶה דָּבוּק הוּא לַתֵּבָה שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו וּלְפִיכָךְ הוּא נָקוּד פַּתָּח בְּסוֹפוֹ, וְכֵן חָרַשׁ עֵצִים נָטָה קָו (ישעיהו מ"ד) – חָרָשׁ שֶׁל עֵצִים, וְכֵן חָרַשׁ בַּרְזֶל מַעֲצָד, (שם), כָּל אֵלֶּה דְּבוּקִים וּפְתוּחִים:
[similar to] the engravings of a seal: Heb. פִּךְתּוּחֵי חֹתָם, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: כְּתַב מְפָרָשׁ כִּגְלָף דְּעִיזְקָא [a clear script like the engraving of a signet]. The letters are engraved inwardly, as they engrave the seals of signets, which are [used] to seal letters, [in] a clear and explanatory script.   פִּתּוּחֵי חֹתָם: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ כְּתַב מְפָרַשׁ כִּגְלֹף דְּעִזְקָא, חֲרוּצוֹת הָאוֹתִיּוֹת בְּתוֹכָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁחוֹרְצִין חוֹתְמֵי טַבָּעוֹת שֶׁהֵם לַחְתֹּם אִגְּרוֹת – כְּתָב נִכָּר וּמְפֹרָשׁ:
with the names: Heb. עַל-שְׁמֹת, בִּשְׁמוֹת.   עַל־שְׁמֹת: כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁמֹת:
enclosed in…settings: The stones shall be enclosed in gold settings, that he would make the “seat” of the stone in gold, like a sort of hole according to the measurement of the stone, and sink it [the stone] into the setting. Thus, the setting would encircle the stone, and the settings would be attached to the shoulder straps of the ephod.   מֻֽסַבֹּת מִשְׁבְּצוֹת: מֻקָּפוֹת הָאֲבָנִים בְּמִשְׁבְּצוֹת זָהָב, שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מוֹשַׁב הָאֶבֶן בְּזָהָב כְּמִין גֻּמָּא לְמִדַּת הָאֶבֶן וּמְשַׁקְּעָהּ בַּמִּשְׁבֶּצֶת, נִמְצֵאת הַמִּשְׁבֶּצֶת סוֹבֶבֶת אֶת הָאֶבֶן סָבִיב וּמְחַבֵּר הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת בְּכִתְפוֹת הָאֵפוֹד:
12And you shall put the two stones upon the shoulder straps of the ephod as stones of remembrance for the sons of Israel, and Aaron shall carry their names before the Lord upon his two shoulders as a remembrance.   יבוְשַׂמְתָּ֞ אֶת־שְׁתֵּ֣י הָֽאֲבָנִ֗ים עַ֚ל כִּתְפֹ֣ת הָֽאֵפֹ֔ד אַבְנֵ֥י זִכָּרֹ֖ן לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְנָשָׂא֩ אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן אֶת־שְׁמוֹתָ֜ם לִפְנֵ֧י יְהֹוָ֛ה עַל־שְׁתֵּ֥י כְתֵפָ֖יו לְזִכָּרֹֽן:
as a remembrance: So that the Holy One, blessed is He, will see the [progenitors of the] tribes written before Him, and He will remember their righteousness.   לְזִכָּרֹֽן: שֶׁיְּהֵא רוֹאֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים כְּתוּבִים לְפָנָיו וְיִזְכֹּר צִדְקָתָם:

Second Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 28

13You shall make settings of gold,   יגוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ מִשְׁבְּצֹ֖ת זָהָֽב:
You shall make settings: The minimum of settings is two. In this chapter, [the Torah] explains only part of what they [the settings] were needed for. In the chapter of the choshen, their explanation is completed for you.   וְעָשִׂיתָ מִשְׁבְּצֹת: מִעוּט מִשְׁבְּצוֹת שְׁתַּיִם; וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ לְךָ עַתָּה בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ אֶלָּא מִקְּצָת צָרְכָּן, וּבְפָרָשַׁת הַחֹשֶׁן גּוֹמֵר לְךָ פֵּרוּשָׁן:
14and two chains of pure gold you will make them attached to the edges, after the manner of cables, and you will place the cable chains upon the settings.   ידוּשְׁתֵּ֤י שַׁרְשְׁרֹת֙ זָהָ֣ב טָה֔וֹר מִגְבָּלֹ֛ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָ֖ם מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה עֲבֹ֑ת וְנָֽתַתָּ֛ה אֶת־שַׁרְשְׁרֹ֥ת הָֽעֲבֹתֹ֖ת עַל־הַמִּשְׁבְּצֹֽת:
chains of... gold: Heb. שַׁרְשְׁרֹת, [chains, equivalent to the Mishnaic], שַׁלְשְׁלָאוֹת.   שַׁרְשְׁרֹת זָהָב: שַׁלְשְׁלָאוֹת:
attached to the edges: Heb. מִגְבָּלֹת. At the end of the edge (גְּבוּל) of the choshen, you shall make them.   מִגְבָּלֹת: לְסוֹף גְּבוּל הַחֹשֶׁן תַּעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָם:
after the manner of cables: In the style of braiding strands, not made with holes and links like those produced for cisterns, but like those made for censers, which are called enzenseyrs [in Old French].   מַֽעֲשֵׂה עֲבֹת: מַעֲשֵׂה קְלִיעַת חוּטִין, וְלֹא מַעֲשֵׂה נְקָבִים וּכְפָלִים כְּאוֹתָן שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לְבוֹרוֹת, אֶלָּא כְּאוֹתָן שֶׁעוֹשִׂין לְעַרְדַּסְקָאוֹת שֶׁקּוֹרִין אנשנשוי"רש בְּלַעַז:
and you will place the… chains: of cables, made in the style of cables, on these two settings. This is not the place [i.e., the section] of the command for the making of the chains, nor the command for fastening them. The word ךְתַּעִשֶׂה stated here is not an imperative expression, and [the word] וְנָתַךְתָּה stated here is [also] not an imperative expression, rather [they are only] in the future tense. [This is so] because in the chapter of the choshen He commands them again concerning making them [the chains] and fastening them. It was written here only to let you know part of the need for the settings, which He commanded [you] to make with the ephod. He wrote this [here] for you, to inform you that you will need these settings so that when you make chains at the edge of the choshen, you will place them on these settings.   וְנָֽתַתָּה אֶת־שַׁרְשְׁרֹת: שֶׁל עֲבוֹתוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת מַעֲשֵׂה עֲבוֹת עַל מִשְׁבְּצוֹת הַלָּלוּ; וְלֹא זֶה הוּא מְקוֹם צַוָּאַת עֲשִׂיָּתָן שֶׁל שַׁרְשְׁרוֹת, וְלֹא צַוָּאַת קְבִיעָתָן, אֵין תַּעֲשֶׂה הָאָמוּר כָּאן לְשׁוֹן צִוּוּי, וְאֵין וְנָתַתָּה הָאָמוּר כָּאן לְשׁוֹן צִוּוּי, אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן עָתִיד, כִּי בְּפָרָשַׁת הַחֹשֶׁן חוֹזֵר וּמְצַוֶּה עַל עֲשִׂיָּתָן וְעַל קְבִיעָתָן, וְלֹא נִכְתַּב כָּאן אֶלָּא לְהוֹדִיעַ מִקְּצַת צֹרֶךְ הַמִּשְׁבְצוֹת שֶׁצִּוָּה לַעֲשׂוֹת עִם הָאֵפוֹד, וְכָתַב לְךָ זֹאת לוֹמַר לְךָ הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת הַלָּלוּ יִזָּקְקוּ לְךָ, לִכְשֶׁתַּעֲשֶׂה שַׁרְשְׁרוֹת מִגְבָּלוֹת עַל הַחֹשֶׁן, תִּתְּנֵם עַל הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת הַלָּלוּ:
15You shall make a choshen of judgment, the work of a master weaver. You shall make it like the work of the ephod; of gold, blue, purple, and crimson wool, and twisted fine linen shall you make it.   טווְעָשִׂ֜יתָ ח֤שֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה חשֵׁ֔ב כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה אֵפֹ֖ד תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֑נּוּ זָ֠הָ֠ב תְּכֵ֨לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָ֜ן וְתוֹלַ֧עַת שָׁנִ֛י וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מָשְׁזָ֖ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתֽוֹ:
a choshen of judgment: which atones for the perversion of justice (Zev. 88b). Another interpretation: [The choshen is referred to as] judgment because it clarifies its words [see Rashi on verse 30], and its promise comes true, dere(s)nement in Old French, [meaning] a clear statement. For [the word] מִשְׁפָּט has three usages: 1) the words of the pleas of the litigants, 2) the verdict, and 3) the punishment of the judgment, whether the punishment of death, the punishment of lashes, or the punishment of monetary payment. But this one [use of the word מִֹשְפָט] serves as an expression of the clarification of words, [meaning] that it explains and clarifies its words.   חשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט: שֶׁמְּכַפֵּר עַל קִלְקוּל הַדִּין. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מִשְׁפָּט שֶׁמְּבָרֵר דְּבָרָיו וְהַבְטָחָתוֹ אֱמֶת, דריש"נטנט בְּלַעַז; שֶׁהַמִּשְׁפָּט מְשַׁמֵּשׁ שָׁלֹשׁ לְשׁוֹנוֹת, דִּבְרֵי טַעֲנוֹת הַבַּעֲלֵי דִּינִים וּגְמַר הַדִּין וְעֹנֶשׁ הַדִּין, אִם עֹנֶשׁ מִיתָה, אִם עֹנֶשׁ מַכּוֹת, אִם עֹנֶשׁ מָמוֹן, וְזֶה מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְשׁוֹן בֵּרוּר דְּבָרִים, שֶׁמְּפָרֵשׁ וּמְבָרֵר דְּבָרָיו:
like the work of the ephod: The work of a master weaver and of five kinds [of material].   כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂה אֵפֹד: מַעֲשֵׂה חוֹשֵׁב וּמֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינִין:
16It shall be square [and] doubled; its length one span and its width one span.   טזרָב֥וּעַ יִֽהְיֶ֖ה כָּפ֑וּל זֶ֥רֶת אָרְכּ֖וֹ וְזֶ֥רֶת רָחְבּֽוֹ:
its length one span and its width one span: [It was] doubled, and [it was] suspended before him [the Kohen Gadol] against his heart, as it is said: “so that they will be over Aaron’s heart” (verse 30), suspended on the shoulder straps of the ephod, which come from behind him [the Kohen Gadol] over his shoulders and are folded over, descending somewhat in front of him. The choshen was suspended on them [the shoulder straps] by the chains and the rings, as is explained in the [section discussing the] matter [below, verses 22-29].   זֶרֶת אָרְכּוֹ וְזֶרֶת רָחְבּֽוֹ: כָּפוּל; וּמֻטָּל לוֹ לְפָנָיו כְּנֶגֶד לִבּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהָיוּ עַל לֵב אַהֲרֹן, תָּלוּי בְּכִתְפוֹת הָאֵפוֹד הַבָּאוֹת מֵאֲחוֹרָיו עַל כְּתֵפָיו וְנִקְפָּלוֹת וְיוֹרְדוֹת לְפָנָיו מְעַט, וְהַחֹשֶׁן תָּלוּי בָּהֶן בְּשַׁרְשְׁרוֹת וְטַבָּעוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בָּעִנְיָן:
17And you shall fill into it stone fillings, four rows of stones. One row: odem, pitdah, and bareketh; thus shall the one row be.   יזוּמִלֵּאתָ֥ בוֹ֙ מִלֻּ֣אַת אֶ֔בֶן אַרְבָּעָ֖ה טוּרִ֣ים אָ֑בֶן ט֗וּר אֹ֤דֶם פִּטְדָה֙ וּבָרֶ֔קֶת הַטּ֖וּר הָֽאֶחָֽד:
And you shall fill into it: Since the stones fill the holes of the settings, which are prepared for them, [the Torah] calls them by an expression of filling.   וּמִלֵּאתָ בוֹ: עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָאֲבָנִים מְמַלְּאוֹת גֻּמּוֹת הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת הַמְתֻקָּנוֹת לָהֶן, קוֹרֵא אוֹתָן בִּלְשׁוֹן מִלּוּאִים:
18The second row: nofech, sappir, and yahalom.   יחוְהַטּ֖וּר הַשֵּׁנִ֑י נֹ֥פֶךְ סַפִּ֖יר וְיָֽהֲלֹֽם:
19The third row: leshem, shevo, and achlamah.   יטוְהַטּ֖וּר הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֑י לֶ֥שֶׁם שְׁב֖וֹ וְאַחְלָֽמָה:
20And the fourth row: tarshish, shoham, and yashpheh; they shall be set in gold in their fillings.   כוְהַטּוּר֙ הָֽרְבִיעִ֔י תַּרְשִׁ֥ישׁ וְשֹׁ֖הַם וְיָֽשְׁפֵ֑ה מְשֻׁבָּצִ֥ים זָהָ֛ב יִֽהְי֖וּ בְּמִלּֽוּאֹתָֽם:
set in gold: The rows shall be [set in gold] in their fillings, encircled by settings of gold in the depth. According to the measure of the fullness of the thickness of the stone shall be the depth of the settings, no less and no more.   מְשֻׁבָּצִים זָהָב יִֽהְיוּ: הַטּוּרִים במלואתם – מֻקָּפִים מִשְׁבְּצוֹת זָהָב בְּעֹמֶק שִׁעוּר שֶׁיִּתְמַלֵּא בְּעֹבִי הָאֶבֶן, זֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן בְּמִלּוּאֹתָם, כְּשִׁעוּר מִלּוּי עָבְיָן שֶׁל אֲבָנִים יִהְיֶה עֹמֶק הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת, לֹא פָחוֹת וְלֹא יוֹתֵר:
21And the stones shall be for the names of the sons of Israel twelve, corresponding to their names; [similar to] the engravings of a seal, every one according to his name shall they be, for the twelve tribes.   כאוְ֠הָֽאֲבָנִ֠ים תִּֽהְיֶ֜יןָ עַל־שְׁמֹ֧ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל שְׁתֵּ֥ים עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה עַל־שְׁמֹתָ֑ם פִּתּוּחֵ֤י חוֹתָם֙ אִ֣ישׁ עַל־שְׁמ֔וֹ תִּֽהְיֶ֕יןָ לִשְׁנֵ֥י עָשָׂ֖ר שָֽׁבֶט:
every one according to his name: According to the order of their [the progenitors of the tribes] births shall be the order of the stones, odem for Reuben, pitdah for Simeon, and similarly for all of them.   אִישׁ עַל־שְׁמוֹ: כְּסֵדֶר תּוֹלְדוֹתָם סֵדֶר הָאֲבָנִים, אֹדֶם לִרְאוּבֵן, פִּטְדָה לְשִׁמְעוֹן, וְכֵן כֻּלָּם:
22You shall make for the choshen chains at the edges, of cable work, of pure gold.   כבוְעָשִׂ֧יתָ עַל־הַח֛שֶׁן שַׁרְשֹׁ֥ת גַּבְלֻ֖ת מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה עֲבֹ֑ת זָהָ֖ב טָהֽוֹר:
for the choshen: Heb. עַל-הַחשֶׁן, for the choshen, to fasten them with its rings, as is explained below in the [section devoted to this] topic [below, verses 23-28].   עַל־הַחשֶׁן: בִּשְׁבִיל הַחֹשֶׁן, לְקָבְעָם בְּטַבְּעוֹתָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ לְמַטָּה בָעִנְיָן:
chains: Heb. שַׁרְשֹׁת, a word related to [the word for] the roots (שָׁרְשֵׁי) of a tree, which are held to the tree, so it is held and inserted into the earth. These [chains] would also hold the choshen, for with them it [the choshen] would be suspended on the ephod. They are the two chains mentioned above (verse 14) in the [section devoted to the] topic of the settings. Menachem ben Saruk interpreted שַׁרְשְׁרֹת (verse 14) as well as an expression of roots (שָׁרָשִׁים). He said that the [second] “reish” (ר) is superfluous like the “mem” (מ) in שִׁלְשׁוֹם, [meaning] the day before yesterday (Exod. 5:8, 21:32, 36) [the word being derived from שָׁלשׁ, three], and the “mem” in רֵיקָם, empty (Gen. 31:42) [usually רֵיק, without the mem, is used] (Machbereth Menachem, p. 182). I do not agree with his statement, however, but [I hold that], שַׁרְשֶׁרֶת in Hebrew [of the Torah] is like שַׁלְשֶׁלֶת in the language of the Mishnah (Kelim 14:3).   שַׁרְשֹׁת: לְשׁוֹן שָׁרְשֵׁי אִילָן, הַמְאַחֲזִין לָאִילָן לְהֵאָחֵז וּלְהִתָּקַע בָּאָרֶץ, אַף אֵלּוּ יִהְיוּ מְאַחֲזִין לַחֹשֶׁן שֶׁבָּהֶם יִהְיֶה תָלוּי בָּאֵפוֹד, וְהֵן שְׁתֵּי שַׁרְשְׁרוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת לְמַעְלָה בְּעִנְיַן הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת; וְאַף שַׁרְשְׁרוֹת פָּתַר מְנַחֵם בֶּן סָרוּק לְשׁוֹן שָׁרָשִׁים, וְאָמַר שֶׁהָרֵי"שׁ יְתֵרָה כְּמוֹ מ"ם שֶׁבְּשִׁלְשׁוֹם וּמ"ם שֶׁבְּרֵיקָם, וְאֵינִי רוֹאֶה אֶת דְּבָרָיו, אֶלָּא שַׁרְשֶׁרֶת בִּלְשׁוֹן עִבְרִית כְּשַׁלְשֶׁלֶת בִּלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה:
at the edges: Heb. גַּבְלֻת This is מִגְבָּלֹת mentioned above (verse 14), [signifying] that you shall insert them into the rings that will be on the edge (גְּבוּל) of the choshen. Every [instance of] גְּבוּל is an expression denoting an end, as(s) omayl in Old French, end, limit.   גַּבְלֻת: הוּא מִגְבָּלוֹת הָאָמוּר לְמַעְלָה, שֶׁתִּתְקָעֵם בַּטַּבָּעוֹת שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בִּגְבוּל הַחֹשֶׁן, וְכָל גְּבוּל לְשׁוֹן קָצֶה, אשומי"יל בְּלַעַז:
of cable work: Plaited.   מַֽעֲשֵׂה עֲבֹת: מַעֲשֵׂה קְלִיעָה:
23You shall make for the choshen two golden rings, and you shall place the two rings on the two ends of the choshen,   כגוְעָשִׂ֨יתָ֙ עַל־הַח֔שֶׁן שְׁתֵּ֖י טַבְּע֣וֹת זָהָ֑ב וְנָֽתַתָּ֗ אֶת־שְׁתֵּי֙ הַטַּבָּע֔וֹת עַל־שְׁנֵ֖י קְצ֥וֹת הַחֽשֶׁן:
for the choshen: Heb. עַל-הַחשֶׁן. For the choshen, in order to affix them onto it. It is, however, impossible to say that they [the two golden rings] shall be made on it [the choshen] from the outset, for if so, what is [the meaning of] what [the text] repeats and says, “and you shall place the two rings” ? Are they not already placed on it? At the beginning of the verse, Scripture should have written, “And you shall make on the ends of the choshen two golden rings.” Also, regarding the chains, you must interpret [the text] in this manner.   עַל־הַחשֶׁן: לְצֹרֶךְ הַחֹשֶׁן – כְּדֵי לְקָבְעָם בּוֹ: וְלֹא יִתָּכֵן לוֹמַר שֶׁתְּהֵא תְּחִלַּת עֲשִׂיָּתָן עָלָיו, שֶׁאִם כֵּן מַה הוּא שֶׁחוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר וְנָתַתָּ אֶת שְׁתֵּי הַטַּבָּעוֹת וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נְתוּנִין בּוֹ? הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב בִּתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא וְעָשִׂיתָ עַל קְצוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן שְׁתֵּי טַבְּעוֹת זָהָב, וְאַף בְּשַׁרְשְׁרוֹת צָרִיךְ אַתָּה לִפְתֹּר כֵּן:
on the two ends of the choshen: On the two corners opposite the neck, on the right and on the left, which are opposite the shoulder straps of the ephod.   עַל־שְׁנֵי קְצוֹת הַחשֶׁן: לִשְׁתֵּי פֵּאוֹת שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הַצַּוָּאר, לַיְמָנִית וְלַשְּׂמָאלִית, הַבָּאִים מוּל כִּתְפוֹת הָאֵפוֹד:
24and you shall place the two golden cables on the two rings, at the ends of the choshen.   כדוְנָֽתַתָּ֗ה אֶת־שְׁתֵּי֙ עֲבֹתֹ֣ת הַזָּהָ֔ב עַל־שְׁתֵּ֖י הַטַּבָּעֹ֑ת אֶל־קְצ֖וֹת הַחֽשֶׁן:
and you shall place the two golden cables: They are the chains for the edges, mentioned above (verse 22). [The Torah] did not delineate [there] where they were to be affixed on the choshen. Now it explains to you that they should be inserted into the rings. You should know that they are indeed [referring to] the first ones, for in the parsha of אֵלֶה פְּקוּדֵי [i.e., in Exod. 39:15-19, where the Torah relates how the choshen was made], they were not doubled.   וְנָֽתַתָּה אֶת־שְׁתֵּי עֲבֹתֹת הַזָּהָב: הֵן הֵן שַׁרְשׁוֹת גַּבְלוּת הַכְּתוּבוֹת לְמַעְלָה, וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ מְקוֹם קִבּוּעָן בַּחֹשֶׁן, עַכְשָׁו מְפָרֵשׁ לְךָ שֶׁיְּהֵא תוֹחֵב אוֹתָן בַּטַּבָּעוֹת; וְתֵדַע לָךְ שֶׁהֵן הֵן הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּפָרָשַׁת אֵלֶּה פְקוּדֵי לֹא הֻכְפְּלוּ:
25And the two ends of the two cables you shall place upon the two settings, and [these] you shall place upon the shoulder straps of the ephod, on its front part.   כהוְאֵ֨ת שְׁתֵּ֤י קְצוֹת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הָֽעֲבֹתֹ֔ת תִּתֵּ֖ן עַל־שְׁתֵּ֣י הַמִּשְׁבְּצ֑וֹת וְנָֽתַתָּ֛ה עַל־כִּתְפ֥וֹת הָֽאֵפֹ֖ד אֶל־מ֥וּל פָּנָֽיו:
And the two ends: of the two cables, i.e., the two ends of each one.   וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי קְצוֹת: שֶׁל שתי עבתת, שְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁיהֶם שֶׁל כָּל אַחַת.
you shall place upon the two settings: They are the ones mentioned above, between the section dealing with the choshen and the section dealing with the ephod (verses 13 and 14), but [the Torah] did not explain their necessity or their place. Now it [the Torah] explains that he should insert into them the ends of the chains which are inserted into the rings of the choshen on the right and on the left beside the neck. The two ends of the right chain he inserts into the right setting, and similarly with the left one, the two ends of the left chain.   תִּתֵּן עַל־שְׁתֵּי הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת: הֵן הֵן הַכְּתוּבוֹת לְמַעְלָה, בֵּין פָּרָשַׁת הַחֹשֶׁן וּפָרָשַׁת הָאֵפוֹד, וְלֹא פֵּרֵשׁ אֶת צָרְכָּן וְאֶת מְקוֹמָן, עַכְשָׁו מְפָרֵשׁ שֶׁיִּתְקַע בָּהֶן רָאשֵׁי הָעֲבוֹתוֹת הַתְּחוּבוֹת בְּטַבְּעוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן לַיָּמִין וְלַשְּׂמֹאל אֵצֶל הַצַּוָּאר; שְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁי שַׁרְשֶׁרֶת הַיְמָנִית תּוֹקֵעַ בְּמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת שֶׁל יָמִין, וְכֵן בְּשֶׁל שְׂמֹאל שְׁנֵי רָאשֵׁי הַשַּׁרְשֶׁרֶת הַשְּׂמָאלִית:
and [these] you shall place: the settings.   וְנָֽתַתָּה: הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת
upon the shoulder straps of the ephod: One [setting] on this one [shoulder strap] and one on that one. Thus the shoulder straps of the ephod hold up the choshen so that it does not fall, and it is suspended on them. Yet the bottom edge of the choshen moves in and out and knocks on his [the Kohen Gadol’s] stomach and is not fastened to him well. Therefore, two more rings were needed for its lower part, as [the Torah] proceeds to explain.   עַל־כִּתְפוֹת האפוד: , אַחַת בְּזוֹ וְאַחַת בְּזוֹ, נִמְצְאוּ כִּתְפוֹת הָאֵפוֹד מַחֲזִיקִין אֶת הַחֹשֶׁן שֶׁלֹּא יִפֹּל, וּבָהֵן הוּא תָלוּי, וַעֲדַיִן שְׂפַת הַחֹשֶׁן הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה הוֹלֶכֶת וּבָאָה וְנוֹקֶשֶׁת עַל כְּרֵסוֹ וְאֵינָהּ דְּבוּקָה לוֹ יָפֶה, לְכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ עוֹד שְׁתֵּי טַבָּעוֹת לְתַחְתִּיתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפָרֵשׁ וְהוֹלֵךְ:
on its front part: [The front part] of the ephod, [meaning] that he should not place the settings on the side of the shoulder straps that is toward the robe, but instead [he should place the settings] on the upper side, which is toward the outside. That is called “on the front part” of the ephod, because the side that is not seen is not called the front [lit., the face].   אֶל־מוּל פָּנָֽיו: שֶׁל אֵפוֹד, שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת בְּעֵבֶר הַכְּתֵפוֹת שֶׁכְּלַפֵי הַמְּעִיל, אֶלָּא בָּעֵבֶר הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁכְּלַפֵּי הַחוּץ, וְהוּא קָרוּי מוּל פָּנָיו שֶׁל אֵפוֹד, כִּי אוֹתוֹ עֵבֶר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה אֵינוֹ קָרוּי פָּנִים:
26You shall make two golden rings, and you shall place them on the two ends of the choshen, on its edge that is toward the inner side of the ephod.   כווְעָשִׂ֗יתָ שְׁתֵּי֙ טַבְּע֣וֹת זָהָ֔ב וְשַׂמְתָּ֣ אֹתָ֔ם עַל־שְׁנֵ֖י קְצ֣וֹת הַח֑שֶׁן עַל־שְׂפָת֕וֹ אֲשֶׁ֛ר אֶל־עֵ֥בֶר הָֽאֵפ֖וֹד בָּֽיְתָה:
on the two ends of the choshen: [I.e.,] they are its two bottom corners, to its right and to its left.   עַל־שְׁנֵי קְצוֹת הַחשֶׁן: הֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹתָיו הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת לַיָּמִין וְלַשְּׂמֹאל:
on its edge that is toward the inner side of the ephod: Here you have two signs [for the placement of the rings]: One, that he should put them on the two ends of its [the choshen’s] bottom, which is opposite the ephod, since its top is not opposite the ephod, for it is near the neck; whereas the ephod he placed on his waist. [The Torah] gives another sign, namely that he should not attach them on the choshen’s outer side, but on the inner side, as it is said: “inner.” This side is towards the side of the ephod, since the band of the ephod girds the Kohen [Gadol], and the apron is folded in front of the Kohen [Gadol] on his waist and on part of his stomach from either side until it is against the ends of the choshen, and its ends lie on it [the ephod].   עַל־שְׂפָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר אֶל־עֵבֶר הָֽאֵפוֹד בָּֽיְתָה: הֲרֵי לְךָ שְׁנֵי סִימָנִין, הָאֶחָד שֶׁיִּתְּנֵם בִּשְׁנֵי קְצָווֹת שֶׁל תַּחְתִּיתוֹ שֶׁהוּא כְנֶגֶד הָאֵפוֹד, שֶׁעֶלְיוֹנוֹ אֵינוֹ כְנֶגֶד הָאֵפוֹד, שֶׁהֲרֵי סָמוּךְ לַצַּוָּאר הוּא וְהָאֵפוֹד נָתוּן עַל מָתְנָיו, וְעוֹד נָתַן סִימָן, שֶׁלֹּא יִקְבָּעֵם בְּעֵבֶר הַחֹשֶׁן שֶׁכְּלַפֵּי הַחוּץ, אֵלֶּא בָּעֵבֶר שֶׁכְּלַפֵּי פְּנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּיְתָה, וְאוֹתוֹ הָעֵבֶר הוּא לְצַד הָאֵפוֹד, שֶׁחֵשֶׁב הָאֵפוֹד חוֹגְרוֹ הַכֹּהֵן וְנִקְפָּל הַסִּינָר לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן עַל מָתְנָיו, וּקְצָת כְּרֵסוֹ מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן עַד כְּנֶגֶד קְצוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן וּקְצוֹתָיו שׁוֹכְבִין עָלָיו:
27And you shall make two golden rings and place them on the two shoulder straps of the ephod, from below, toward its front, adjacent to its seam, above the band of the ephod.   כזוְעָשִׂ֘יתָ֘ שְׁתֵּ֣י טַבְּע֣וֹת זָהָב֒ וְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה אֹתָ֡ם עַל־שְׁתֵּי֩ כִתְפ֨וֹת הָֽאֵפ֤וֹד מִלְּמַ֨טָּה֙ מִמּ֣וּל פָּנָ֔יו לְעֻמַּ֖ת מַחְבַּרְתּ֑וֹ מִמַּ֕עַל לְחֵ֖שֶׁב הָֽאֵפֽוֹד:
on the two shoulder straps of the ephod, from below: For the settings were placed on the upper ends of shoulder straps of the ephod, which were on his shoulders opposite his throat and were folded and descended in front of him. [Concerning] the rings, however, He commanded that they be placed on the second end [of the shoulder straps], which is attached to the ephod, and that is what [is meant when] it is said: “adjacent to its seam,” [i.e.,] near the place where they are attached to the ephod, slightly above the belt. The seam was adjacent to the belt, and these [rings] were placed slightly above where the shoulder straps begin to rise. That is [what is meant] when it is said: “above the band of the ephod.” They [these rings] were [placed] opposite the end of the choshen, and he inserted a blue cord in these rings and in the rings of the choshen. He fastened them with this cord to the right and to the left, so that the bottom of the choshen would not swing out in front and then come back and knock on his stomach, and thus it was well placed on the robe.   עַל־שְׁתֵּי כִתְפוֹת מִלְּמַטָּה: שֶׁהַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת נְתוּנוֹת בְּרָאשֵׁי כִתְפוֹת הָאֵפוֹד הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הַבָּאִים עַל כְּתֵפָיו, כְּנֶגֶד גְּרוֹנוֹ, וְנִקְפָּלוֹת וְיוֹרְדוֹת לְפָנָיו, וְהַטַּבָּעוֹת צִוָּה לִתֵּן בְּרֹאשָׁן הַשֵּׁנִי, שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר לָאֵפוֹד, וְהוּא שֶׁנֶּ' לְעֻמַּת מַחְבַּרְתּוֹ, סָמוּךְ לִמְקוֹם חִבּוּרָן בָּאֵפוֹד, לְמַעְלָה מִן הַחֲגוֹרָה מְעַט, שֶׁהַמַּחְבֶּרֶת לְעֻמַּת הַחֲגוֹרָה, וְאֵלּוּ נְתוּנִים מְעַט בְּגֹבַהּ זְקִיפַת הַכְּתֵפוֹת, הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר מִמַּעַל לְחֵשֶׁב הָאֵפוֹד, וְהֵן כְּנֶגֶד סוֹף הַחֹשֶׁן, וְנוֹתֵן פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת בְּאוֹתָן הַטַּבָּעוֹת וּבְטַבְּעוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן וְרוֹכְסָן בְּאוֹתוֹ פְּתִיל לְיָמִין וְלִשְׂמֹאל, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא תַחְתִּית הַחֹשֶׁן הוֹלֵךְ לְפָנִים וְחוֹזֵר לְאָחוֹר, וְנוֹקֵשׁ עַל כְּרֵסוֹ, וְנִמְצָא מְיֻשָּׁב עַל הַמְּעִיל יָפֶה:
toward its front: On the outer side.   מִמּוּל פָּנָיו: בָּעֵבֶר הַחִיצוֹן:
28And they shall fasten the choshen by its rings to the rings of the ephod with a blue cord, so that it may be upon the band of the ephod, and the choshen will not move off the ephod.   כחוְיִרְכְּס֣וּ אֶת־הַ֠ח֠שֶׁן מִטַּבְּעֹתָ֞יו (כתיב מטבעתו) אֶל־טַבְּעֹ֤ת הָֽאֵפוֹד֙ בִּפְתִ֣יל תְּכֵ֔לֶת לִֽהְי֖וֹת עַל־חֵ֣שֶׁב הָֽאֵפ֑וֹד וְלֹֽא־יִזַּ֣ח הַח֔שֶׁן מֵעַ֖ל הָֽאֵפֽוֹד:
And they shall fasten: Heb. וְיִרְכְּסוּ, a word of joining. Similarly, “from bands of (מֵרֻכְסֵי) men” (Ps. 31:21), [meaning] bands of wicked men joined together. Similarly, “and the close mountains (וְהָרְכָסִים), a valley” (Isa. 40:4). [הַרְכָסִים refers to] mountains that are close to one another, so that it is impossible to descend into the valley except with great difficulty. Because of their proximity, the valley is steep and deep. These [mountains] will become a straight valley, where it will be easy to walk.   וְיִרְכְּסוּ: לְשׁוֹן חִבּוּר; וְכֵן מֵרֻכְסֵי אִישׁ (תהילים ל"א) – חִבּוּרֵי חֶבְלֵי רְשָׁעִים, וְכֵן וְהָרְכָסִים לְבִקְעָה (ישעיהו מ') – הָרִים הַסְּמוּכִים זֶה לָזֶה, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לֵירֵד לַגַּיְא שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם אֶלָּא בְקֹשִׁי גָּדוֹל, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ סְמִיכָתָן הַגַּיְא זְקוּפָה וַעֲמֻקָּה – יְהֵא לְבִקְעַת מִישׁוֹר וְנוֹחָה לֵילֵךְ:
so that it may be upon the band of the ephod: So that the choshen would be fastened to the band of the ephod.   לִֽהְיוֹת עַל־חֵשֶׁב הָֽאֵפוֹד: לִהְיוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן דָּבוּק אֶל חֵשֶׁב הָאֵפוֹד:
will not move: Heb. וְלֹא-יִזַּח. יִזַּח is a word [meaning] severance. It is an Arabic expression, as is asserted by Dunash ben Labrat (Teshuvoth Dunash, p. 60, 61).   וְלֹֽא־יִזַּח: לְשׁוֹן נִתּוּק; וּלְשׁוֹן עֲרָבִי הוּא כְּדִבְרֵי דּוּנָשׁ בֶּן לָבְרָט:
29Thus shall Aaron carry the names of the sons of Israel in the choshen of judgment over his heart when he enters the Holy, as a remembrance before the Lord at all times.   כטוְנָשָׂ֣א אַֽ֠הֲרֹ֠ן אֶת־שְׁמ֨וֹת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל בְּח֧שֶׁן הַמִּשְׁפָּ֛ט עַל־לִבּ֖וֹ בְּבֹא֣וֹ אֶל־הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ לְזִכָּרֹ֥ן לִפְנֵֽי־יְהֹוָ֖ה תָּמִֽיד:
30You shall place the Urim and the Tummim into the choshen of judgment so that they will be over Aaron's heart when he comes before the Lord, and Aaron will carry the judgment of the children of Israel over his heart before the Lord at all times.   לוְנָֽתַתָּ֞ אֶל־ח֣שֶׁן הַמִּשְׁפָּ֗ט אֶת־הָֽאוּרִים֙ וְאֶת־הַתֻּמִּ֔ים וְהָיוּ֙ עַל־לֵ֣ב אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן בְּבֹא֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְנָשָׂ֣א אַֽ֠הֲרֹ֠ן אֶת־מִשְׁפַּ֨ט בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל עַל־לִבּ֛וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה תָּמִֽיד:
the Urim and the Tummim: This [refers to the] inscription of the explicit Name, which he [Moshe] would place within the folds of the choshen, through which it would light up its words (מֵאִיר) and perfect (מְךְתַּמֵם) its words. [I.e., the Urim and Tummim explain their words, and their predictions never fail (on Yoma 73b).] In the Second Temple there was the choshen, because it was impossible for the Kohen Gadol to be missing [any of the original] garments, but that Name was not inside it. Because of that Name, it was called “judgment,” as it is said: “and he shall inquire for him through the judgment of the Urim” (Num. 27:21).   אֶת־הָֽאוּרִים וְאֶת־הַתֻּמִּים: הוּא כְּתָב שֵׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ, שֶׁהָיָה נוֹתְנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ כִּפְלֵי הַחֹשֶׁן, שֶׁעַל יָדוֹ הוּא מֵאִיר דְּבָרָיו וּמְתַמֵּם אֶת דְּבָרָיו; וּבְמִקְדָּשׁ שֵׁנִי הָיָה הַחֹשֶׁן – שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל לִהְיוֹת מְחֻסַּר בְּגָדִים – אֲבָל אוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁם לֹא הָיָה בְּתוֹכוֹ, וְעַל שֵׁם אוֹתוֹ הַכְּתָב הוּא קָרוּי מִשְׁפָּט, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כ"ז), וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים (יומא ע"ג):
the judgment of the children of Israel: [I.e., the solution of] the matter about which they [the Israelites] are judging and debating, whether or not to do something. According to the aggadic midrash (Lev. Rabbah 10:6) that the choshen atoned for the perverters of justice-it was called “judgment” because of [its] forgiveness for the [sins of] judgment.   אֶת־מִשְׁפַּט בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל: דָּבָר שֶׁהֵם נִשְׁפָּטִים וְנוֹכָחִים עַל יָדוֹ, אִם לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר אוֹ לֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת; וּלְפִי מִדְרָשׁ אַגָדָה שֶׁהַחֹשֶׁן מְכַפֵּר עַל מְעַוְּתֵי הַדִּין, נִקְרָא מִשְׁפָּט עַל שֵׁם סְלִיחַת הַמִּשְׁפָּט:

Third Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 28

31And you shall make the robe of the ephod completely of blue wool.   לאוְעָשִׂ֛יתָ אֶת־מְעִ֥יל הָֽאֵפ֖וֹד כְּלִ֥יל תְּכֵֽלֶת:
the robe of the ephod: upon which the ephod is placed as a belt.   אֶת־מְעִיל הָֽאֵפוֹד: שֶׁהָאֵפוֹד נָתוּן עָלָיו לַחֲגוֹרָה:
completely of blue wool: Heb. כְּלִיל תְּכֵלֶת. All of it [the robe] was blue, without any other kind [of color or material] combined with it.   כְּלִיל תְּכֵֽלֶת: כֻּלּוֹ תְכֵלֶת, שֶׁאֵין מִין אַחֵר מְעֹרָב בּוֹ:
32Its opening at the top shall be turned inward; its opening shall have a border around it, the work of a weaver. It shall have [an opening] like the opening of a coat of armor; it shall not be torn.   לבוְהָיָ֥ה פִֽי־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ בְּתוֹכ֑וֹ שָׂפָ֡ה יִֽהְיֶה֩ לְפִ֨יו סָבִ֜יב מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה אֹרֵ֗ג כְּפִ֥י תַחְרָ֛א יִֽהְיֶה־לּ֖וֹ לֹ֥א יִקָּרֵֽעַ:
Its opening at the top: Heb. פִי רֹאשׁוֹ The opening of the robe at its top; that is the opening of the collar.   וְהָיָה פִֽי־רֹאשׁוֹ: פִּי הַמְּעִיל שֶׁבְּגָבְהוֹ – הוּא פְּתִיחַת בֵּית הַצַּוָּאר:
shall be turned inward: Heb. בְּתוֹכוֹ, folded inward. As the Targum [Onkelos] renders: כָּפִיל לְגַוִּהּ, folded inward, so that its fold should be a border for it. It was woven, not [sewn] with a needle.   בְּתוֹכוֹ: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ כָּפִיל לְגַוֵּהּ, כָּפוּל לְתוֹכוֹ, לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְשָׂפָה כְּפִילָתוֹ, וְהָיָה מַעֲשֵׂה אוֹרֵג וְלֹא בְמַחַט:
like the opening of a coat of armor: We learn [here] that their coats of armor had the opening folded inward [i.e., like a coat of mail].   כְּפִי תַחְרָא: לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַשִּׁרְיוֹנִים שֶׁלָּהֶם פִּיהֶם כָּפוּל:
it shall not be torn: [I.e.,] in order that it would not be torn, and the one who tears it transgresses a negative commandment, for this is [counted] in the number of the negative commandments in the Torah. Likewise, “and the choshen will not move” (verse 28), and likewise, “they shall not be removed from it” (Exod. 25:15), mentioned regarding the poles of the ark. -[from Yoma 72a]   לֹא יִקָּרֵֽעַ: כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקָּרֵעַ; וְהַקּוֹרְעוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּלָאו, שֶׁזֶּה מִמִּנְיַן לָאוִין שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, וְכֵן וְלֹא יִזַּח הַחֹשֶׁן, וְכֵן לֹא יָסֻרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ הַנֶּאֱמַר בְּבַדֵּי הָאָרוֹן:
33And on its bottom hem you shall make pomegranates of blue, purple, and crimson wool, on its bottom hem all around, and golden bells in their midst all around.   לגוְעָשִׂ֣יתָ עַל־שׁוּלָ֗יו רִמֹּנֵי֙ תְּכֵ֤לֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן֙ וְתוֹלַ֣עַת שָׁנִ֔י עַל־שׁוּלָ֖יו סָבִ֑יב וּפַֽעֲמֹנֵ֥י זָהָ֛ב בְּתוֹכָ֖ם סָבִֽיב:
pomegranates: They were round and hollow, like a sort of pomegranate, shaped like hens’ eggs.   רִמֹּנֵי: עֲגֻלִּים וַחֲלוּלִים הָיוּ כְּמִין רִמּוֹנִים הָעֲשׂוּיִים כְּבֵיצַת תַּרְנְגֹלֶת:
and golden bells: Heb. וּפַּעִמֹנֵי זָהָב. [Golden] bells with the clappers inside them.   וּפַֽעֲמֹנֵי זָהָב: זַגִּין עִם עִנְבָּלִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָם:
in their midst all around: [I.e.,] between them all around. [Meaning] between two pomegranates, one bell was attached and suspended on the bottom hem of the robe.   בְּתוֹכָם סָבִיב: בֵּינֵיהֶם סָבִיב – בֵּין שְׁנֵי רִמּוֹנִים פַּעֲמוֹן אֶחָד דָּבוּק וְתָלוּי בְּשׁוּלֵי הַמְּעִיל:
34A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, on the bottom hem of the robe, all around.   לדפַּֽעֲמֹ֤ן זָהָב֙ וְרִמּ֔וֹן פַּֽעֲמֹ֥ן זָהָ֖ב וְרִמּ֑וֹן עַל־שׁוּלֵ֥י הַמְּעִ֖יל סָבִֽיב:
A golden bell and a pomegranate: A golden bell and a pomegranate beside it.   פַּֽעֲמֹן זָהָב וְרִמּוֹן פַּֽעֲמֹן זָהָב וְרִמּוֹן: אֶצְלוֹ:
35It shall be on Aaron when he performs the service, and its sound shall be heard when he enters the Holy before the Lord and when he leaves, so that he will not die.   להוְהָיָ֥ה עַל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לְשָׁרֵ֑ת וְנִשְׁמַ֣ע ק֠וֹל֠וֹ בְּבֹא֨וֹ אֶל־הַקֹּ֜דֶשׁ לִפְנֵ֧י יְהֹוָ֛ה וּבְצֵאת֖וֹ וְלֹ֥א יָמֽוּת:
so that he will not die: From the negative you deduce the positive. If he has them [the garments], he will not be liable to death, but if he enters [when he is] lacking one of these garments, he is liable to death by the hands of Heaven. -[from Tanchuma Buber, Acharei 7]   וְלֹא יָמֽוּת: מִכְּלַל לָאו אַתָּה שׁוֹמֵעַ הֵן – אִם יִהְיוּ לוֹ לֹא יִתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה, הָא אִם יִכָּנֵס מְחֻסָּר אֶחָד מִן הַבְּגָדִים הַלָּלוּ, חַיָּב מִיתָה בִידֵי שָׁמַיִם (סנהדרין פ"ג):
36And you shall make a showplate of pure gold, and you shall engrave upon it like the engraving of a seal: Holy to the Lord."   לווְעָשִׂ֥יתָ צִּ֖יץ זָהָ֣ב טָה֑וֹר וּפִתַּחְתָּ֤ עָלָיו֙ פִּתּוּחֵ֣י חֹתָ֔ם קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
a showplate: It was like a sort of golden plate, two fingerbreadths wide, encircling the forehead from ear to ear. -[from Shab. 63b]   צּיץ: כְּמִין טַס שֶׁל זָהָב הָיָה, רֹחַב שְׁתֵּי אֶצְבָּעוֹת, מַקִּיף עַל הַמֵּצַח מֵאֹזֶן לְאֹזֶן:
37And you shall place it upon a cord of blue wool and it shall go over the cap, and it shall be opposite the front side of the cap.   לזוְשַׂמְתָּ֤ אֹתוֹ֙ עַל־פְּתִ֣יל תְּכֵ֔לֶת וְהָיָ֖ה עַל־הַמִּצְנָ֑פֶת אֶל־מ֥וּל פְּנֵֽי־הַמִּצְנֶ֖פֶת יִֽהְיֶֽה:
upon a cord of blue wool: But elsewhere, it says: “And they placed upon it a cord of blue wool” (Exod. 39:31). Moreover, here it is written: “and it shall go over the cap,” whereas below it says: “It shall be upon Aaron’s forehead.” (verse 38). [A clue to the solution is] in [tractate] Shechitath Kodashim (Zev. 19a) [where] we learn: “His hair was visible between the showplate and the cap, where he would place the tefillin.” [Thus] we learn that the cap was above, on the crown of the head, and it was not deep [enough] for the entire head up to the forehead to fit into it. The showplate was below [the cap], and the cords were in holes and hanging on it at its two ends and in its center. [Thus, there were] six [cords] in these three places: [one] cord on top, one from outside, and one from inside opposite it. He tied the three ends from behind the nape of his neck. Thus, the combination of the length of the plate and the cords of its ends encircled the crown. The middle cord, which was on his head, was tied with the ends of the two [other cords], and it passed along the surface of the width of the head from above. Thus, it is was like a sort of hat. Concerning the middle cord it says: “and it shall go over the cap.” He would place the showplate on his head like a sort of hat over the cap, and the middle cord would hold it so that it would not fall, and the plate was suspended opposite his forehead. [Thus,] all the verses are explained: the cord was on the showplate, the showplate on the cord, and the cord was on the cap from above.   עַל־פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת: וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלָיו פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת? וְעוֹד כְּתִיב כָּאן וְהָיָה עַל הַמִּצְנָפֶת, וּלְמַטָּה הוּא אוֹמֵר וְהָיָה עַל מֵצַח אַהֲרֹן? וּבִשְׁחִיטַת קָדָשִׁים שָׁנִינוּ שְׂעָרוֹ הָיָה נִרְאֶה בֵּין צִיץ לַמִּצְנֶפֶת שֶׁשָּׁם מֵנִיחַ תְּפִלִּין? לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַמִּצְנֶפֶת לְמַעְלָה בְּגֹבַהּ הָרֹאשׁ וְאֵינָהּ עֲמֻקָּה לִכָּנֵס בָּהּ כָּל הָרֹאשׁ עַד הַמֵּצַח, וְהַצִּיץ מִלְּמַטָּה, וְהַפְּתִילִים הָיוּ בִנְקָבִים וּתְלוּיִין בּוֹ בִּשְׁנֵי רָאשִׁים וּבְאֶמְצָעוֹ, שִׁשָּׁה בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת הַלָּלוּ, פְּתִיל מִלְמַעְלָה אֶחָד מִבַּחוּץ וְאֶחָד מִבִּפְנִים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, וְקוֹשֵׁר רָאשֵׁי הַפְּתִילִים מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הָעֹרֶף שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, וְנִמְצְאוּ בֵין אֹרֶךְ הַטַּס וּפְתִילֵי רָאשָׁיו מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַקָּדְקֹד, וְהַפְּתִיל הָאֶמְצָעִי שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁוֹ, קָשׁוּר עִם רָאשֵׁי הַשְּׁנַיִם, וְהוֹלֵךְ עַל פְּנֵי רֹחַב הָרֹאשׁ מִלְמַעְלָה, נִמְצָא עָשׂוּי כְּמִין כּוֹבַע; וְעַל פְּתִיל הָאֶמְצָעִי הוּא אוֹמֵר וְהָיָה עַל הַמִּצְנָפֶת, וְהָיָה נוֹתֵן הַצִּיץ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ כְּמִין כּוֹבַע עַל הַמִּצְנֶפֶת, וְהַפְּתִיל הָאֶמְצָעִי מַחֲזִיקוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹפֵל וְהַטַּס תָּלוּי כְּנֶגֶד מִצְחוֹ, וְנִתְקַיְּמוּ כָּל הַמִּקְרָאוֹת – פְּתִיל עַל הַצִּיץ, וְצִיץ עַל הַפְּתִיל, וּפְתִיל עַל הַמִּצְנֶפֶת מִלְמַעְלָה:
38It shall be upon Aaron's forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things that the children of Israel sanctify, for all their holy gifts. It shall be upon his forehead constantly to make them favorable before the Lord.   לחוְהָיָה֘ עַל־מֵ֣צַח אַֽהֲרֹן֒ וְנָשָׂ֨א אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־עֲוֹ֣ן הַקֳּדָשִׁ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר יַקְדִּ֨ישׁוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לְכָל־מַתְּנֹ֖ת קָדְשֵׁיהֶ֑ם וְהָיָ֤ה עַל־מִצְחוֹ֙ תָּמִ֔יד לְרָצ֥וֹן לָהֶ֖ם לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
and Aaron shall bear: Heb. וְנָשָׂא [This is] an expression of forgiveness. Nevertheless, it does not move from its apparent [literal] meaning. Aaron shall indeed bear the burden of iniquity; thereby, it [the iniquity] is removed from the holy things.   וְנָשָׂא אַֽהֲרֹן: לְשׁוֹן סְלִיחָה; וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ זָז מִמַּשְׁמָעוֹ – אַהֲרֹן נוֹשֵׂא אֶת הַמַּשָּׂא שֶׁל עָוֹן – נִמְצָא מְסֻלָּק הֶעָוֹן מִן הַקֳּדָשִׁים (חולין קל"ח):
the iniquity of the holy things: to appease [God] for the blood and the fat [of the sacrifices] that were offered up in [a state of] uncleanness, as we learned: Which iniquity does he bear? If [it is] the iniquity of פִּגּוּל, it was already said: “it will not be accepted” (Lev. 19:7). [I.e., if the one who performed the sacrificial service intended to partake of the flesh outside the area designated for this sacrifice, the sacrifice is rendered פִּגּוּל, meaning an abominable thing. It consequently may not be eaten or offered up. The showplate on the Kohen Gadol’s forehead does not make the פִּגּוּל acceptable.] If [it is] the iniquity of נוֹתָר, [i.e.,] leftover sacrificial flesh, it was already said: “it will not be credited” (Lev. 7:18). [I.e., if the one who performed the sacrificial service intended to partake of the flesh after the time allotted for eating the flesh of this sacrifice, it is disqualified, and the showplate does not render it acceptable. Likewise,] we cannot say that it will atone for the iniquity of the kohen who offered up the sacrifice while unclean, for it says [here]: “the iniquity of the holy things,” not the iniquity of those who offer them up. Consequently, it does not appease except to render the sacrifice acceptable. -[from Men. 25a]   אֶת־עֲוֹן הַקֳּדָשִׁים: לְרַצּוֹת עַל הַדָּם וְעַל הַחֵלֶב שֶׁקָּרְבוּ בְטֻמְאָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ: אֵי זֶה עָוֹן הוּא נוֹשֵׂא? אִם עֲוֹן פִּגּוּל, הֲרֵי כְבָר נֶאֱמַר לֹא יֵרָצֶה (ויקרא י"ט), וְאִם עֲוֹן נוֹתָר הֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר לֹא יֵחָשֵׁב (שם ז') – וְאֵין לוֹמַר שֶׁיְּכַפֵּר עַל עֲוֹן הַכֹּהֵן שֶׁהִקְרִיב טָמֵא, שֶׁהֲרֵי עֲוֹן הַקֳּדָשִׁים נֶאֱמַר וְלֹא עֲוֹן הַמַּקְרִיבִים – הָא אֵינוֹ מְרַצֶּה אֶלָא לְהַכְשִׁיר הַקָּרְבָּן (יומא ז'):
It shall be upon his forehead constantly: It is impossible to say that it should always be on his forehead, for it was not on him except at the time of the service. But [it means that] it will always make them [the sacrifices] favorable Even when it is not on his forehead, namely if the Kohen Gadol was not ministering at that time. Now, according to the one who says that [only] when it was on his forehead it appeased [and made the sacrifices acceptable], and otherwise, it did not appease, “upon his forehead constantly” is interpreted to mean that he must touch it [the showplate] while it is upon his forehead, so that he would not take his mind off it. -[from Yoma 7b]   וְהָיָה עַל־מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד: אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר שֶׁיְּהֵא עַל מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ עָלָיו אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת הָעֲבוֹדָה, אֶלָּא תָּמִיד לְרַצּוֹת לָהֶם אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ עַל מִצְחוֹ – שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עוֹבֵד בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה, וּלְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמֵר עוֹדֵהוּ עַל מִצְחוֹ מְכַפֵּר וּמְרַצֶּה, וְאִם לָאו אֵינוֹ מְרַצֶּה, נִדְרָשׁ עַל מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁמְּמַשְׁמֵשׁ בּוֹ בְּעוֹדוֹ עַל מִצְחוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יַסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ (שם):
39You shall make the linen tunic of checker work, and you shall make a linen cap; and you shall make a sash of embroidery work.   לטוְשִׁבַּצְתָּ֙ הַכְּתֹ֣נֶת שֵׁ֔שׁ וְעָשִׂ֖יתָ מִצְנֶ֣פֶת שֵׁ֑שׁ וְאַבְנֵ֥ט תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה רֹקֵֽם:
You shall make…of checker work: Make them [the tunics] of boxes, and all of them [shall be made] of linen.   וְשִׁבַּצְתָּ: עֲשֵׂה אוֹתָם מִשְׁבְּצוֹת מִשְׁבְּצוֹת, וְכֻלָּהּ שֶׁל שֵׁשׁ:
40For Aaron's sons you shall make tunics and make them sashes, and you shall make them high hats for honor and glory.   מוְלִבְנֵ֤י אַֽהֲרֹן֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה כֻתֳּנֹ֔ת וְעָשִׂ֥יתָ לָהֶ֖ם אַבְנֵטִ֑ים וּמִגְבָּעוֹת֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה לָהֶ֔ם לְכָב֖וֹד וּלְתִפְאָֽרֶת:
For Aaron’s sons you shall make tunics: These four garments and no more: a tunic, a sash, the hats, which are [the same as] the cap, and the pants written below (verse 42) for all of them.   וְלִבְנֵי אַֽהֲרֹן תַּֽעֲשֶׂה כֻתֳּנֹת: אַרְבָּעָה בְגָדִים הַלָּלוּ וְלֹא יוֹתֵר, כֻּתֹּנֶת וְאַבְנֵט וּמִגְבָּעוֹת – הִיא מִצְנֶפֶת – וּמִכְנָסַיִם כְּתוּבִים לְמַטָּה בַּפָּרָשָׁה:
41With these you shall clothe Aaron, your brother, and his sons along with him, and you shall anoint them and invest them with full authority and sanctify them so that they may serve Me [as kohanim].   מאוְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ֤ אֹתָם֙ אֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן אָחִ֔יךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֖יו אִתּ֑וֹ וּמָֽשַׁחְתָּ֨ אֹתָ֜ם וּמִלֵּאתָ֧ אֶת־יָדָ֛ם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ֥ אֹתָ֖ם וְכִֽהֲנוּ־לִֽי:
With these you shall clothe Aaron: [I.e., with] those [garments] stated in connection with Aaron: a choshen, an ephod, a robe, a checker work tunic, a cap, a sash, a showplate, and pants mentioned further on in connection with them all.   וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם אֶת־אַֽהֲרֹן: אוֹתָם הָאֲמוּרִין בְּאַהֲרֹן – חֹשֶׁן, וְאֵפוֹד, וּמְעִיל, וּכְתֹנֶת תַּשְׁבֵּץ, מִצְנֶפֶת, וְאַבְנֵט, וְצִיץ, וּמִכְנָסַיִם הַכְּתוּבִים לְמַטָּה בְּכֻלָּם:
and his sons along with him: [with] those [garments] mentioned in connection with them.   וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ: אוֹתָם הַכְּתוּבִים בָּהֶם:
and you shall anoint them: [i.e.,] Aaron and his sons, with the anointing oil.   וּמָֽשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם: אֶת אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת בָּנָיו בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה:
and invest them with full authority: Heb. וּמִלֵאתָ אֶת-יָדָם, [lit., and you shall fill their hands.] Every [mention of] “filling of the hands” is an expression of initiation. When he [a person] begins something [such as a position] that he will be in possession of from that day on [it is referred to as “filling” a position]. In Old French, when they appoint a person to be in charge of something, the ruler puts in his hand a leather glove, called guanto [gant in modern French], and thereby he grants him authority over the matter. They call this transmission revestir, invest, transmit [this glove], and this is the [expression] “filling of the hands.”   וּמִלֵּאתָ אֶת־יָדָם: כָּל מִלּוּי יָדַיִם לְשׁוֹן חִנּוּךְ, כְּשֶׁהוּא נִכְנָס לְדָבָר לִהְיוֹת מֻחְזָק בּוֹ מֵאוֹתוֹ יוֹם וָהָלְאָה הוּא: וּבְלְשׁוֹן לַעַז כְּשֶׁמְּמַנִּין אָדָם עַל פְּקִידַת דָּבָר, נוֹתֵן הַשַּׁלִּיט בְּיָדוֹ בֵּית יָד שֶׁל עוֹר, שֶׁקּוֹרִין גאנ"ט בְּלַעַז, וְעַל יָדוֹ הוּא מַחֲזִיקוֹ בַּדָּבָר, וְקוֹרִין לְאוֹתוֹ מְסִירָה רווישט"יר בְּלַעַז, וְהוּא מִלּוּי יָדַיִם:
42And make for them linen pants to cover the flesh of [their] nakedness; they shall reach from the waist down to the thighs.   מבוַֽעֲשֵׂ֤ה לָהֶם֙ מִכְנְסֵי־בָ֔ד לְכַסּ֖וֹת בְּשַׂ֣ר עֶרְוָ֑ה מִמָּתְנַ֥יִם וְעַד־יְרֵכַ֖יִם יִֽהְיֽוּ:
And make for them: For Aaron and for his sons.   וַֽעֲשֵׂה לָהֶם: לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו:
linen pants: Thus [we have] eight garments for the Kohen Gadol and four for the ordinary kohen.   מִכְנְסֵי־בָד: הֲרֵי שְׁמוֹנָה בְגָדִים לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל וְאַרְבָּעָה לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט:
43They shall be worn by Aaron and by his sons when they enter the Tent of Meeting or when they approach the altar to serve in the Holy, so they will not bear iniquity and die. It shall be a perpetual statute for him and for his descendants after him.   מגוְהָיוּ֩ עַל־אַֽהֲרֹ֨ן וְעַל־בָּנָ֜יו בְּבֹאָ֣ם | אֶל־אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֗ד א֣וֹ בְגִשְׁתָּ֤ם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ לְשָׁרֵ֣ת בַּקֹּ֔דֶשׁ וְלֹֽא־יִשְׂא֥וּ עָוֹ֖ן וָמֵ֑תוּ חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם ל֖וֹ וּלְזַרְע֥וֹ אַֽחֲרָֽיו:
They shall be worn by Aaron: All these garments [shall be] worn by Aaron, [i.e.,] those that are appropriate for him.   וְהָיוּ עַל־אַֽהֲרֹן: כָּל הַבְּגָדִים הָאֵלֶּה, עַל אַהֲרֹן הָרְאוּיִין לוֹ:
and by his sons: those mentioned in connection with them.   וְעַל־בָּנָיו: הָאֲמוּרִין בָּהֶם:
when they enter the Tent of Meeting: To the Temple [proper], and so to the Mishkan.   בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: לַהֵיכָל, וְכֵן לַמִּשְׁכָּן:
and die: while lacking [the proper] garments is liable to death [by the hands of Heaven]. -[from Tanchuma, Acharei Moth 6]   וָמֵתוּ: הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁהַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ מְחֻסַּר בְּגָדִים בְּמִיתָה.
a perpetual statute for him: Wherever it says חֻקַתעוֹלָם, “a perpetual statute,” it means a decree that is [in effect] immediately and for [future] generations [as well]. [This statute is] to make invalid [the sacrifice if any requirement is missing]. -[See Men. 19a.]   חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לוֹ: כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר חֻקַּת עוֹלָם הוּא גְּזֵרָה מִיָּד וּלְדוֹרוֹת, לְעַכֵּב בּוֹ (מנחות י"ט):

Fourth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 29

1And this is the thing that you shall do for them to sanctify them to serve Me [as kohanim]: take one young bull and two rams, perfect ones.   אוְזֶ֨ה הַדָּבָ֜ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה לָהֶ֛ם לְקַדֵּ֥שׁ אֹתָ֖ם לְכַהֵ֣ן לִ֑י לְ֠קַ֠ח פַּ֣ר אֶחָ֧ד בֶּן־בָּקָ֛ר וְאֵילִ֥ם שְׁנַ֖יִם תְּמִימִֽם:
take: Heb. לְקַח, like קַח, and these are two roots, one of קִיחָה and one of לְקִיחָה, but they have the same meaning [i.e., take].   לְקַח: כְּמוֹ קַח. וּשְׁתֵּי גְזִירוֹת הֵן, אַחַת שֶׁל קִיחָה וְאַחַת שֶׁל לְקִיחָה, וְלָהֶן פִּתְרוֹן אֶחָד:
one young bull: This was to atone for the incident of the [golden] calf, which was a bull. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 10]   פַּר אֶחָד: לְכַפֵּר עַל מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל שֶׁהוּא פַּר:
2And unleavened bread and unleavened loaves mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil; you shall make them out of fine wheat flour.   בוְלֶ֣חֶם מַצּ֗וֹת וְחַלֹּ֤ת מַצֹּת֙ בְּלוּלֹ֣ת בַּשֶּׁ֔מֶן וּרְקִיקֵ֥י מַצּ֖וֹת מְשֻׁחִ֣ים בַּשָּׁ֑מֶן סֹ֥לֶת חִטִּ֖ים תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָֽם:
And unleavened bread and unleavened loaves… and unleavened wafers: These refer to three types [of matzah]: scalded dough, loaves, and wafers (Men. 78a). The unleavened bread is what is called further in the section (verse 23) “loaf of oil bread,” because he [Moses] would put as much oil into the scalded dough as in the loaves and the wafers (Men. 89a), and of each of the types [of unleavened bread referred to here], ten loaves were brought.   וְלֶחֶם מַצּוֹת וְחַלֹּת מַצֹּת וּרְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת: הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינִין רְבוּכָה, וְחַלּוֹת וּרְקִיקִים לֶחֶם מַצּוֹת, הִיא הַקְּרוּיָה לְמַטָּה בָּעִנְיָן (פסוק כג) חַלַּת לֶחֶם שֶׁמֶן, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁנּוֹתֵן שֶׁמֶן בָּרְבוּכָה כְּנֶגֶד הַחַלּוֹת וְהָרְקִיקִין, וְכָל הַמִּינִין בָּאִים עֶשֶׂר עֶשֶׂר חַלּוֹת:
mixed with oil: When it [the bread] was flour, he [Moses] would pour oil on them and mix them. -[from Men. 75a]   בְּלוּלֹת בַּשֶּׁמֶן: כְּשֶׁהֵן קֶמַח יוֹצֵק בָּהֶן שֶׁמֶן וּבוֹלְלָן:
anointed with oil: After they were baked, he [Moses] would anoint them like a sort of Greek “chaff,” which resembles our [Hebrew letter of the alphabet] “nun.” -[from Men. 74b]   מְשֻׁחִים בַּשֶּׁמֶן: אַחַר אֲפִיָּתָן מוֹשְׁחָן כְּמִין כִי (נ"א כ"ף) יְוָנִית, שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה כְּנוּ"ן שֶׁלָּנוּ:
3And you shall place them upon a basket, and you shall bring them in the basket, and the bull and the two rams.   גוְנָֽתַתָּ֤ אוֹתָם֙ עַל־סַ֣ל אֶחָ֔ד וְהִקְרַבְתָּ֥ אֹתָ֖ם בַּסָּ֑ל וְאֶ֨ת־הַפָּ֔ר וְאֵ֖ת שְׁנֵ֥י הָֽאֵילִֽם:
and you shall bring them: to the courtyard of the Mishkan on the day it will be erected.   וְהִקְרַבְתָּ אֹתָם: אֶל חֲצַר הַמִּשְׁכָּן בְּיוֹם הֲקָמָתוֹ:
4And you shall bring Aaron and his sons near the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and you shall bathe them in water.   דוְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו֙ תַּקְרִ֔יב אֶל־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְרָֽחַצְתָּ֥ אֹתָ֖ם בַּמָּֽיִם:
and you shall bathe them: This [refers to] the immersion of the entire body.   וְרָֽחַצְתָּ: זוֹ טְבִילַת כָּל הַגּוּף:
5And you shall take the garments and clothe Aaron with the tunic, with the robe of the ephod, with the ephod, and with the choshen, and you shall adorn him with the band of the ephod.   הוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֣ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִ֗ים וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ֤ אֶת־אַֽהֲרֹן֙ אֶת־הַכֻּתֹּ֔נֶת וְאֵת֙ מְעִ֣יל הָֽאֵפֹ֔ד וְאֶת־הָֽאֵפֹ֖ד וְאֶת־הַח֑שֶׁן וְאָֽפַדְתָּ֣ ל֔וֹ בְּחֵ֖שֶׁב הָֽאֵפֹֽד:
and you shall adorn: Adorn and affix the belt and the apron around him.   וְאָֽפַדְתָּ: קַשֵּׁט וְתַקֵּן הַחֲגוֹרָה וְהַסִּינָר סְבִיבוֹתָיו:
6You shall place the cap upon his head and place the holy crown upon the cap.   ווְשַׂמְתָּ֥ הַמִּצְנֶ֖פֶת עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וְנָֽתַתָּ֛ אֶת־נֵ֥זֶר הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ עַל־הַמִּצְנָֽפֶת:
the holy crown: Heb. נֵזֶר הַקֹּדֶשׁ. This is the showplate.   נֵזֶר הַקֹּדֶשׁ: זֶה הַצִּיץ:
upon the cap: As I explained above (Exod. 28:37): through the middle thread [of the showplate] and the two threads on his head, all three of which were tied behind the nape [of the Kohen Gadol’s neck], he places it [the showplate] upon the cap like a sort of hat.   עַל־הַמִּצְנֶפֶת: כְּמוֹ שֶׁפֵּרַשְׁתִּי לְמַעְלָה – עַל יְדֵי הַפְּתִיל הָאֶמְצָעִי וּשְׁנֵי פְתִילִין שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁוֹ, הַקְּשׁוּרִין שְׁלָשְׁתָּן מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הָעֹרֶף, הוּא נוֹתְנוֹ עַל הַמִּצְנֶפֶת כְּמִין כּוֹבַע:
7You shall take the anointing oil and pour [it] on his head and anoint him.   זוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֙ אֶת־שֶׁ֣מֶן הַמִּשְׁחָ֔ה וְיָֽצַקְתָּ֖ עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ וּמָֽשַׁחְתָּ֖ אֹתֽוֹ:
and anoint him: This anointment was also like a sort of Greek “chaff.” [See commentary above on verse 2, and Rambam, Laws of Temple Vessels 1:7.] He [Moses] would apply oil to his [Aaron’s] head and between his eyebrows and join them with his finger. -[from Kereithoth 5b]   וּמָֽשַׁחְתָּ אֹתֽוֹ: אַף מְשִׁיחָה זוֹ כְּמִין כִי, נוֹתֵן שֶׁמֶן עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וּבֵין רִסֵּי עֵינָיו וּמְחַבְּרָן בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ (כריתות ה'):
8And you shall bring his sons near, and you shall clothe them with tunics.   חוְאֶת־בָּנָ֖יו תַּקְרִ֑יב וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ֖ם כֻּתֳּנֹֽת:
9And you shall gird them with sashes, Aaron and his sons, and you shall dress them with high hats, and the kehunah will be a perpetual statute for them, and you shall invest Aaron and his sons with full authority.   טוְחָֽגַרְתָּ֩ אֹתָ֨ם אַבְנֵ֜ט אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן וּבָנָ֗יו וְחָֽבַשְׁתָּ֤ לָהֶם֙ מִגְבָּעֹ֔ת וְהָֽיְתָ֥ה לָהֶ֛ם כְּהֻנָּ֖ה לְחֻקַּ֣ת עוֹלָ֑ם וּמִלֵּאתָ֥ יַד־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וְיַד־בָּנָֽיו:
will be… for them: This investiture, for eternal kehunah.   וְהָֽיְתָה לָהֶם: מִלּוּי יָדַיִם זֶה לִכְהֻנַּת עוֹלָם:
and you shall invest: through these things.   וּמִלֵּאתָ: עַל יְדֵי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה:
Aaron and his sons: with the fulfillment (בְּמִלְוּי) and the appointment to the kehunah.   יַד־אַֽהֲרֹן וְיַד־בָּנָֽיו: בְּמִנּוּי וּפְקֻדַּת הַכְּהֻנָּה:
10You shall bring the bull to the front of the Tent of Meeting, and Aaron and his sons shall lean their hands upon the head of the bull.   יוְהִקְרַבְתָּ֙ אֶת־הַפָּ֔ר לִפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְסָמַ֨ךְ אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן וּבָנָ֛יו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הַפָּֽר:
11You shall [then] slaughter the bull before the Lord, at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   יאוְשָֽׁחַטְתָּ֥ אֶת־הַפָּ֖ר לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting: In the courtyard of the Mishkan, which is in front of the entrance.   פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵֽד: בַּחֲצַר הַמִּשְׁכָּן שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַפֶּתַח:
12And you shall take [some] of the blood of the bull and apply it on the horns of the altar with your finger, and you shall pour out all the blood upon the base of the altar.   יבוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֙ מִדַּ֣ם הַפָּ֔ר וְנָֽתַתָּ֛ה עַל־קַרְנֹ֥ת הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ בְּאֶצְבָּעֶ֑ךָ וְאֶת־כָּל־הַדָּ֣ם תִּשְׁפֹּ֔ךְ אֶל־יְס֖וֹד הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
on the horns: On top, actually on the horns. -[from Zev. 53a]   עַל־קַרְנֹת: לְמַעְלָה בַּקְּרָנוֹת מַמָּשׁ:
and… all the blood: [I.e.,] the remaining blood.   וְאֶת־כָּל־הַדָּם: שְׁיָרֵי הַדָּם:
upon the base of the altar: A sort of protruding receptacle was made all around it [the altar] after it was elevated a cubit from the ground. -[from Middoth 3:1]   אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: כְּמִין בְּלִיטַת בֵּית קִבּוּל עָשׂוּי לוֹ סָבִיב סָבִיב, לְאַחַר שֶׁעָלָה אַמָּה מִן הָאָרֶץ:
13You shall then take all the fat that covers the innards, and the diaphragm with the liver, also the two kidneys and the fat that is upon them, and make them go up in smoke upon the altar.   יגוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֗ אֶת־כָּל־הַחֵ֘לֶב֘ הַֽמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֒רֶב֒ וְאֵ֗ת הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד וְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֑ן וְהִקְטַרְתָּ֖ הַמִּזְבֵּֽחָה:
the fat that covers the innards: That is the membrane on the rumen [i.e., the first stomach of a ruminant animal], which is called tele [in Old French, toile in modern French]. -[from Tosefta Chullin 9:3]   הַחֵלֶב הַֽמְכַסֶּה אֶת־הַקֶּרֶב: הוּא הַקְּרוּם שֶׁעַל הַכֶּרֶס, שֶׁקּוֹרִין טי"לא:
and the diaphragm: הַיֹּתֶרֶת. This is the membrane of the liver, called ebres [in Old French].   וְאֵת הַיֹּתֶרֶת: הוּא טַרְפְּשָׁא דְּכַבְדָּא, שֶׁקּוֹרִין איבר"יש:
with the liver: He must also take part of the liver along with it. -[from Sifra, Lev. 3:8]   עַל־הַכָּבֵד: אַף מִן הַכָּבֵד טֹל עִמָּהּ (ספרא):
14But the flesh of the bull, its hide and its dung you shall burn in fire outside the camp; it is a sin offering.   ידוְאֶת־בְּשַׂ֤ר הַפָּר֙ וְאֶת־עֹר֣וֹ וְאֶת־פִּרְשׁ֔וֹ תִּשְׂרֹ֣ף בָּאֵ֔שׁ מִח֖וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה חַטָּ֖את הֽוּא:
you shall burn in fire: We do not find any [reference to an] “outside” sin offering burnt except this one.   תִּשְׂרֹף בָּאֵשׁ: לֹא מָצִינוּ חַטָּאת חִיצוֹנָה נִשְׂרֶפֶת אֶלָּא זוֹ:
15And you shall take the one ram, and Aaron and his sons shall lean their hands upon the ram's head.   טווְאֶת־הָאַ֥יִל הָֽאֶחָ֖ד תִּקָּ֑ח וְסָ֨מְכ֜וּ אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן וּבָנָ֛יו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הָאָֽיִל:
16You shall slaughter the ram, and you shall take its blood and sprinkle [it] on the altar all around.   טזוְשָֽׁחַטְתָּ֖ אֶת־הָאָ֑יִל וְלָֽקַחְתָּ֙ אֶת־דָּמ֔וֹ וְזָֽרַקְתָּ֥ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
and sprinkle: with a vessel. He [Moses] would grasp the sprinkling basin and sprinkle [the blood] opposite the horn [of the altar], in order that it [the blood would] be visible on both sides. The only sacrifice requiring the blood to be applied with the finger is the sin offering. The other sacrifices require neither [that the blood be sprinkled on the] horn, nor [that it be applied with the] finger, because the application of their [the other sacrifices’] blood is on the lower half of the altar, and [the kohen] does not ascend the ramp [of the altar], but he stands on the ground and sprinkles [the blood]. -[from Zev. 53b]   וְזָֽרַקְתָּ: בִּכְלִי; אוֹחֵז בַּמִּזְרָק וְזוֹרֵק כְּנֶגֶד הַקֶּרֶן כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּרָאֶה לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, וְאֵין קָרְבָּן טָעוּן מַתָּנָה בְּאֶצְבַּע אֶלָּא חַטָּאת בִּלְבַד, אֲבָל שְׁאָר זְבָחִים אֵינָן טְעוּנִין קֶרֶן וְלֹא אֶצְבַּע, שֶׁמַּתַּן דָּמָם מֵחֲצִי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְמַטָּה, וְאֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה בַּכֶּבֶשׁ אֶלָּא עוֹמֵד בָּאָרֶץ וְזוֹרֵק (זבחים נ"ג):
all around: Heb. סָבִיב. Thus it is delineated in Shechitath Kodashim (Zev. 53b) that סָבִיב refers to only two applications, which [actually] are four-one [application is] on this corner and one on the diagonally opposite corner. Each application was visible on both sides of the corner, thus the blood was applied on the four directions all around. Therefore, it [the sprinkling of the blood] is called סָבִיב, all around.   סָבִֽיב: כָּךְ מְפֹרָשׁ בִּשְׁחִיטַת קָדָשִׁים שֶׁאֵין סָבִיב אֶלָּא שְׁתֵּי מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע, הָאַחַת בְּקֶרֶן זָוִית זוֹ, וְהָאַחַת שֶׁכְּנֶגְדָהּ בַּאֲלַכְסוֹן, וְכָל מַתָּנָה נִרְאֵית בִּשְׁנֵי צִדֵּי הַקֶּרֶן אֵילָךְ וָאֵילָךְ, נִמְצָא הַדָּם נָתוּן בְּאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת סָבִיב, לְכָךְ קָרוּי סָבִיב:
17And you shall dissect the ram into its parts, and you shall wash its innards and its legs and put them with its parts and with its head,   יזוְאֶ֨ת־הָאַ֔יִל תְּנַתֵּ֖חַ לִנְתָחָ֑יו וְרָֽחַצְתָּ֤ קִרְבּוֹ֙ וּכְרָעָ֔יו וְנָֽתַתָּ֥ עַל־נְתָחָ֖יו וְעַל־רֹאשֽׁוֹ:
into its parts: Heb. עַל-נְתָחָיו, [equivalent to] עִם-נְתָחָיו, with its parts, in addition to the rest of the parts.   עַל־נְתָחָיו: עִם נְתָחָיו – מוּסָף עַל שְׁאָר הַנְּתָחִים:
18and you shall make the entire ram go up in smoke upon the altar; it is a burnt offering made to the Lord; it is a spirit of satisfaction, a fire offering for the Lord.   יחוְהִקְטַרְתָּ֤ אֶת־כָּל־הָאַ֨יִל֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה עֹלָ֥ה ה֖וּא לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה רֵ֣יחַ נִיח֔וֹחַ אִשֶּׁ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הֽוּא:
it is a spirit of satisfaction: It is satisfaction to Me that I commanded and My will was performed. -[from Zev. 46b]   רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ: נַחַת רוּחַ לְפָנַי, שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי וְנַעֲשָׂה רְצוֹנִי:
a fire offering: Heb. אִשֶׁה, a word related to fire אֵשׁ, and it means burning the limbs that are on the fire.   אִשֶּׁה: לְשׁוֹן אֵשׁ, וְהִיא הַקְטָרַת אֵבָרִים שֶׁעַל הָאֵשׁ:

Fifth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 29

19And you shall take the second ram, and Aaron and his sons shall lean their hands upon the ram's head.   יטוְלָ֣קַחְתָּ֔ אֵ֖ת הָאַ֣יִל הַשֵּׁנִ֑י וְסָמַ֨ךְ אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן וּבָנָ֛יו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־רֹ֥אשׁ הָאָֽיִל:
20You shall slaughter the ram, take [some] of its blood and put it upon the cartilage of Aaron's right ear and upon the cartilage of Aaron's sons' right ears, upon the thumbs of their right hands, and upon the big toes of their right feet, and you shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar all around.   כוְשָֽׁחַטְתָּ֣ אֶת־הָאַ֗יִל וְלָֽקַחְתָּ֤ מִדָּמוֹ֙ וְנָֽתַתָּ֡ה עַל־תְּנוּךְ֩ אֹ֨זֶן אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן וְעַל־תְּנ֨וּךְ אֹ֤זֶן בָּנָיו֙ הַיְמָנִ֔ית וְעַל־בֹּ֤הֶן יָדָם֙ הַיְמָנִ֔ית וְעַל־בֹּ֥הֶן רַגְלָ֖ם הַיְמָנִ֑ית וְזָֽרַקְתָּ֧ אֶת־הַדָּ֛ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
cartilage: Heb. תְּנוּךְ. That is the cartilage, the middle wall within the ear, which is known [in Old French] as tendron, tendrum, tenron, tenrum, or teneros.   תְּנוּךְ: הוּא הַסְּחוּס הָאֶמְצָעִי שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הָאֹזֶן, שֶׁקּוֹרִין טנדרו"ס בְּלַעַז:
the thumbs of their… hands: Heb. בֹּהֶן יָדָם This is the thumb, and [the blood was to be applied to] the middle joint. -[from Sifra on Lev. 8:24]   בֹּהֶן יָדָם: הַגּוּדָל וּבַפֶּרֶק הָאֶמְצָעִי (ספרא):
21You shall [then] take [some] of the blood that is upon the altar and [some] of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron and upon his garments, upon his sons and upon the garments of his sons with him; thus he will become holy along with his garments, and his sons and their garments with him.   כאוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֞ מִן־הַדָּ֨ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֘חַ֘ וּמִשֶּׁ֣מֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה֒ וְהִזֵּיתָ֤ עַל־אַֽהֲרֹן֙ וְעַל־בְּגָדָ֔יו וְעַל־בָּנָ֛יו וְעַל־בִּגְדֵ֥י בָנָ֖יו אִתּ֑וֹ וְקָדַ֥שׁ הוּא֙ וּבְגָדָ֔יו וּבָנָ֛יו וּבִגְדֵ֥י בָנָ֖יו אִתּֽוֹ:
22And you shall take out of the ram the fat and the fat tail and the fat that covers the innards, the diaphragm of the liver, the two kidneys along with the fat that is upon them, and the right thigh, for it is a ram of perfection.   כבוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֣ מִן־הָ֠אַ֠יִל הַחֵ֨לֶב וְהָֽאַלְיָ֜ה וְאֶת־הַחֵ֣לֶב | הַמְכַסֶּ֣ה אֶת־הַקֶּ֗רֶב וְאֵ֨ת יֹתֶ֤רֶת הַכָּבֵד֙ וְאֵ֣ת | שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֗ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֔ן וְאֵ֖ת שׁ֣וֹק הַיָּמִ֑ין כִּ֛י אֵ֥יל מִלֻּאִ֖ים הֽוּא:
the fat: This is the fat on the intestines or [the fat on] the maw [the obomasum, or the last stomach of a ruminant animal]. [from Chullin 49a, b]   הַחֵלֶב: זֶה חֵלֶב הַדַּקִּים אוֹ הַקֵּבָה:
and the fat tail: Below the kidneys, as is explained in [parshath] Vayikra, as it is said: “opposite the atzeh (הֶעָצֶה) he shall remove it” (Lev. 3:9), [meaning] the place where the kidneys give advice (יוֹעִצוֹת) (Chul. 11a). In connection with the sacrificial parts of the bull, however, the fat tail is not mentioned, because the fat tail is sacrificed only with a male lamb, a ewe lamb, and a ram, but a bull and a goat do not require the [sacrifice of] the fat tail. [In fact, bulls and goats have no fat tails. Rashi means that the tail need not be sacrificed.]   וְהָֽאַלְיָה: מִן הַכְּלָיוֹת וּלְמַטָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּוַיִּקְרָא שֶׁנֶּ' (ויקרא ג'), לְעֻמַּת הֶעָצֶה יְסִירֶנָּה – מָקוֹם שֶׁהַכְּלָיוֹת יוֹעֲצוֹת (חולין י"א), וּבְאֵמוּרֵי הַפָּר לֹא נֶאֱמַר אַלְיָה, שֶׁאֵין אַלְיָה קְרֵבָה אֶלָּא בְכֶבֶשׂ וְכִבְשָׂה וְאַיִל, אֲבָל שׁוֹר וְעֵז אֵין טְעוּנִין אַלְיָה:
and the right thigh: We do not find that the right thigh should be sent up in smoke with the sacrificial parts except this one alone.   וְאֶת־שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין: לֹא מָצִינוּ הַקְטָרָה בְשׁוֹק הַיָּמִין עִם הָאֵמוּרִים אֶלָּא זוֹ בִלְבָד:
for it is a ram of perfection: Heb. מִלֻאִים, [the same as] שְׁלָמִים, an expression denoting perfection שְׁלֵמוּת i.e., it has been completed with everything. Scripture informs [us] that the perfection offering is a peace offering, because it makes peace for the altar, for the one who performs the service, and for the owner (Mid. Tanchuma, Tzav 4; Sifra 8:19). Therefore, I [God] require that the breast be given to the one who performs the service, as a portion. This was Moses, who officiated at the investiture rites, and the rest was eaten by Aaron and his sons, who were the owners [of the sacrifices], as is explained in [the section dealing with] this topic.   כִּי אֵיל מִלֻּאִים הֽוּא: שְׁלָמִים; לְשׁוֹן שְׁלֵמוּת – שֶׁהֻשְׁלַם בַּכֹּל; מַגִּיד הַכָּתוּב שֶׁהַמִּלּוּאִים שְׁלָמִים, שֶׁמְּשִׂימִים שָׁלוֹם לַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְעוֹבֵד הָעֲבוֹדָה וְלַבְּעָלִים, לְכָךְ אֲנִי מַצְרִיכוֹ הֶחָזֶה, לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעוֹבֵד הָעֲבוֹדָה לְמָנָה, וְזֶהוּ מֹשֶׁה שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ בַּמִּלּוּאִים, וְהַשְּׁאָר אָכְלוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו שֶׁהֵם בְּעָלִים, כַּמְפֹרָשׁ בָּעִנְיָן:
23And one loaf of bread, one loaf of oil bread, and one wafer from the basket of matzoth that stands before the Lord,   כגוְכִכַּ֨ר לֶ֜חֶם אַחַ֗ת וְחַלַּ֨ת לֶ֥חֶם שֶׁ֛מֶן אַחַ֖ת וְרָקִ֣יק אֶחָ֑ד מִסַּל֙ הַמַּצּ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
and one loaf of bread: of the loaves.   וְכִכַּר לֶחֶם: מִן הַחַלּוֹת:
one loaf of oil bread: of the kind [of bread known as] the scalded dough. -[from Men. 78a]   וְחַלַּת לֶחֶם שֶׁמֶן: מִמִּין הָרְבוּכָה:
and one wafer: of the wafers, one out of ten of each kind (Men. 76a). We do not find that the offering of bread that comes with any sacrifice should be burned except this [bread] only, for the offering of the loaves of the thanksgiving offering and the ram of the Nazirite are given to the kohanim with the breast and the thigh, but from this [sacrifice] Moses had for [his] portion only the breast.   וְרָקִיק: מִן הָרְקִיקִין, אֶחָד מֵעֲשָׂרָה שֶׁבְּכָל מִין וָמִין. וְלֹא מָצִינוּ תְרוּמַת לֶחֶם הַבָּא עִם זֶבַח נִקְטֶרֶת אֶלָּא זוֹ בִּלְבַד, שֶׁתְּרוּמַת לַחְמֵי תוֹדָה וְאֵיל נָזִיר נְתוּנָה לַכֹּהֲנִים עִם חָזֶה וְשׁוֹק, וּמִזֶּה לֹא הָיָה לְמֹשֶׁה לְמָנָה אֶלָּא חָזֶה בִּלְבָד:
24and you shall place it all upon Aaron's palms and upon his sons' palms, and you shall wave them as a waving before the Lord.   כדוְשַׂמְתָּ֣ הַכֹּ֔ל עַ֚ל כַּפֵּ֣י אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן וְעַ֖ל כַּפֵּ֣י בָנָ֑יו וְהֵֽנַפְתָּ֥ אֹתָ֛ם תְּנוּפָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
upon Aaron’s palms…, and you shall wave: Both of them were engaged in the waving, the owner [of the animal] and the kohen. How so? The kohen placed his hand under the owner’s hand and waved (Men. 61b). In this case, Aaron and his sons were the owners, and Moses was the kohen.   עַל כַּפֵּי אהרן: וְהֵֽנַפְתָּ: שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲסוּקִים בִּתְנוּפָה – הַבְּעָלִים וְהַכֹּהֵן, הָא כֵּיצַד? כֹּהֵן מַנִּיחַ יָדוֹ תַּחַת יַד הַבְּעָלִים וּמֵנִיף; וּבָזֶה הָיוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו בְּעָלִים, וּמֹשֶׁה כֹּהֵן:
as a waving: He would wave it to and fro to the One to Whom the four directions of the world belong. The waving keeps back and does away with punishment and harmful winds. The lifting up [consisted of] raising and lowering, to the One to Whom the heavens and earth belong, and it keeps back harmful dews. -[from Men. 62a]   תְּנוּפָה: מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא לְמִי שֶׁאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הָעוֹלָם שֶׁלּוֹ; תְנוּפָה מְעַכֶּבֶת וּמְבַטֶּלֶת פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת וְרוּחוֹת רָעוֹת, מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד לְמִי שֶׁהַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ שֶׁלּוֹ, וּמְעַכֶּבֶת טְלָלִים רָעִים (מנחות ס"ב):
25You shall then take them from their hand[s] and make them go up in smoke upon the altar with the burnt offering as a spirit of satisfaction before the Lord; it is a fire offering for the Lord.   כהוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֤ אֹתָם֙ מִיָּדָ֔ם וְהִקְטַרְתָּ֥ הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חָה עַל־הָֽעֹלָ֑ה לְרֵ֤יחַ נִיח֨וֹחַ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה אִשֶּׁ֥ה ה֖וּא לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
with the burnt offering: With the first ram that you [already] offered up as a burnt offering.   עַל־הָֽעֹלָה: עַל הָאַיִל הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהֶעֱלִיתָ עוֹלָה:
as a spirit of satisfaction: Heb. לְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ, as satisfaction for the One Who commanded and [saw that] His will was performed.   לְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ: לְנַחַת רוּחַ לְמִי שֶׁאָמַר וְנַעֲשָׂה רְצוֹנוֹ:
a fire offering: It is given to the fire.   אִשֶּׁה: לְאֵשׁ נִתָּן:
for the Lord: For the name of the Omnipresent.   לה': לִשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם:
26And you shall take the breast of the ram of perfection which is Aaron's, and wave it as a waving before the Lord, and it will become your portion.   כווְלָֽקַחְתָּ֣ אֶת־הֶֽחָזֶ֗ה מֵאֵ֤יל הַמִּלֻּאִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן וְהֵֽנַפְתָּ֥ אֹת֛וֹ תְּנוּפָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְהָיָ֥ה לְךָ֖ לְמָנָֽה:
waving: Heb. תְּנוּפָה, an expression of moving to and fro, vantiler or ventiller in Old French, to make [horizontal] movements to and fro.   תנופה: לְשׁוֹן הוֹלָכָה וַהֲבָאָה, ונטלי"ה בְּלַעַז:
27And you shall sanctify the breast of the waving and the thigh of the uplifting, which was waved and which was lifted up, of the ram of perfection, of that which is Aaron's and of that which is his sons'.   כזוְקִדַּשְׁתָּ֞ אֵ֣ת | חֲזֵ֣ה הַתְּנוּפָ֗ה וְאֵת֙ שׁ֣וֹק הַתְּרוּמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר הוּנַ֖ף וַֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר הוּרָ֑ם מֵאֵיל֙ הַמִּלֻּאִ֔ים מֵֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּמֵֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר לְבָנָֽיו:
And you shall sanctify the breast of the waving and the thigh of the uplifting, etc.: Sanctify them for generations [to come], that their uplifting and their waving shall prevail like the breast and the thigh of the peace offering, but not [in reference] to the burning. Rather, [in the future, the ram’s breast and thigh] “shall remain for Aaron and his sons” (verse 28) to eat.   וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֵת חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וגו': קַדְּשֵׁם לְדוֹרוֹת, לִהְיוֹת נוֹהֶגֶת תְּרוּמָתָם וַהֲנָפָתָם בְּחָזֶה וְשׁוֹק שֶׁל שְׁלָמִים, אֲבָל לֹא לְהַקְטָרָה, אֶלָּא וְהָיָה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו לֶאֱכֹל:
was lifted up: Heb. הוּרָם, an expression of raising and lowering.   הוּרָם: לְשׁוֹן מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד:
28And so it shall remain for Aaron and his sons as a perpetual allotment from the children of Israel; for it is an offering, and it shall remain an offering from the children of Israel of their peace offerings; it is their offering to the Lord.   כחוְהָיָה֩ לְאַֽהֲרֹ֨ן וּלְבָנָ֜יו לְחָק־עוֹלָ֗ם מֵאֵת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּ֥י תְרוּמָ֖ה ה֑וּא וּתְרוּמָ֞ה יִֽהְיֶ֨ה מֵאֵ֤ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִזִּבְחֵ֣י שַׁלְמֵיהֶ֔ם תְּרֽוּמָתָ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
as a perpetual allotment from the children of Israel: [i. e.,] that the peace offerings shall belong to the owners [of the animals], but the breast and the thigh they shall give to the kohen.   לְחָק־עוֹלָם מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: שֶׁהַשְּׁלָמִים לַבְּעָלִים, וְאֶת הֶחָזֶה וְאֶת הַשּׁוֹק יִתְּנוּ לַכֹּהֵן:
for it is an offering: This breast and thigh.   כִּי תְרוּמָה הוּא: הֶחָזֶה וְשׁוֹק הַזֶּה:
29The holy garments that are Aaron's shall be for his sons after him, to be exalted through them and invested with full authority through them.   כטוּבִגְדֵ֤י הַקֹּ֨דֶשׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן יִֽהְי֥וּ לְבָנָ֖יו אַֽחֲרָ֑יו לְמָשְׁחָ֣ה בָהֶ֔ם וּלְמַלֵּא־בָ֖ם אֶת־יָדָֽם:
for his sons after him: for [the one] who comes into greatness after him.   לְבָנָיו אַֽחֲרָיו: לְמִי שֶׁבָּא בִּגְדֻלָּה אַחֲרָיו:
to be exalted: Heb. לְמָשְׁחָה, [which usually means “for anointment,” here signifies] to be exalted through them. There are [instances of] מְִִשִׁיחָה that are an expression of authority, like “I have given them to you for greatness (לְמָשְׁחָה)” (Num. 18:8); “Do not touch My great ones (בִמְשִׁיחָי)” (Ps. 105:15).   לְמָשְׁחָה: לְהִתְגַדֵּל בָּהֶם, שֶׁיֵּשׁ מְשִׁיחָה שֶׁהִיא לְשׁוֹן שְׂרָרָה, כְּמוֹ לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה (במדבר י"ח), אַל תִּגְּעוּ בִּמְשִׁיחָי (דהי"א טז):
and invested with full authority through them: Through the garments, he is invested with the Kehunah Gedolah.   וּלְמַלֵּא־בָם אֶת־יָדָֽם: עַל יְדֵי הַבְּגָדִים הוּא מִתְלַבֵּשׁ בִּכְהֻנָּה גְדוֹלָה:
30Seven days shall the one of his sons [who will be] the kohen in his place wear them, the one who is to enter the Tent of Meeting to serve in the Holy.   לשִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֗ים יִלְבָּשָׁ֧ם הַכֹּהֵ֛ן תַּחְתָּ֖יו מִבָּנָ֑יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָבֹ֛א אֶל־אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד לְשָׁרֵ֥ת בַּקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
Seven days: [I.e., seven] consecutive [days].   שִׁבְעַת יָמִים: רְצוּפִין:
shall… [who will be] the kohen in his place wear them: [The son] who will arise from his [Aaron’s] sons in his place to the Kehunah Gedolah, whom they will appoint to be Kohen Gadol.   יִלְבָּשָׁם הַכֹּהֵן: אֲשֶׁר יָקוּם מִבָּנָיו תַּחְתָּיו לִכְהֻנָּה גְדוֹלָה, כְּשֶׁיְּמַנּוּהוּ לִהְיוֹת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל:
the one who is to enter the Tent of Meeting: [I.e.,] that kohen who is prepared to enter the inner sanctum on Yom Kippur, and that is the Kohen Gadol, for the service of Yom Kippur is acceptable only through him. -[from Yoma 73a]   אֲשֶׁר יָבֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד: אוֹתוֹ כֹהֵן הַמּוּכָן לִכָּנֵס לִפְנַי וְלִפְנִים בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וְזֶהוּ כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, שֶׁאֵין עֲבוֹדַת יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כְּשֵׁרָה אֶלָּא בּוֹ:
one of his sons… in his place: [This] teaches [us] that if the Kohen Gadol has a son who equals him, they must appoint him Kohen Gadol in his place [i.e., after him]. -[from Sifra on Lev. 6:15]   תַּחְתָּיו מִבָּנָיו: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל בֵּן מְמַלֵּא אֶת מְקוֹמוֹ, יְמַנּוּהוּ כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל תַּחְתָּיו:
[who will be] the kohen in his place: From here there is proof that every expression of כֹּהֵן is an expression of doing, of actually serving. Therefore, the cantillation of the “tevir” extends before it [indicating a connection to the following word].   הַכֹּהֵן תַּחְתָּיו מִבָּנָיו: מִכָּאן רְאָיָה כָּל לְשׁוֹן כֹהֵן פוֹעֵל עוֹבֵד מַמָּשׁ, לְפִיכָךְ נִגּוּן תְּבִיר נִמְשָׁךְ לְפָנָיו):
31You shall take the ram of perfection and cook its flesh in a holy place.   לאוְאֵ֛ת אֵ֥יל הַמִּלֻּאִ֖ים תִּקָּ֑ח וּבִשַּׁלְתָּ֥ אֶת־בְּשָׂר֖וֹ בְּמָקֹ֥ם קָדֽשׁ:
in a holy place: [I.e.,] in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting, for these peace offerings were most holy sacrifices [which had to be eaten in the courtyard of the Tent of Meeting or the courtyard of the Temple, and not in the camp of Israel or the city of Jerusalem].   בְּמָקֹם קָדֽשׁ: בַּחֲצַר אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, שֶׁהַשְּׁלָמִים הַלָּלוּ קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים הָיוּ:
32Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram and the bread that is in the basket, at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.   לבוְאָכַ֨ל אַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וּבָנָיו֙ אֶת־בְּשַׂ֣ר הָאַ֔יִל וְאֶת־הַלֶּ֖חֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּסָּ֑ל פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting: The entire courtyard is called thus.   פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵֽד: כָּל הֶחָצֵר קָרוּי כֵּן:
33They shall eat those things with which atonement has been effected, in order to invest them with full authority, to sanctify them, but a stranger shall not eat [of them], because they are a sacred thing.   לגוְאָֽכְל֤וּ אֹתָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר כֻּפַּ֣ר בָּהֶ֔ם לְמַלֵּ֥א אֶת־יָדָ֖ם לְקַדֵּ֣שׁ אֹתָ֑ם וְזָ֥ר לֹֽא־יֹאכַ֖ל כִּי־קֹ֥דֶשׁ הֵֽם:
They shall eat those things: Aaron and his sons [shall eat them] because they are their [the ram’s and the bread’s] owners.   וְאָֽכְלוּ אֹתָם: אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו, לְפִי שֶׁהֵם בַּעֲלֵיהֶם:
with which atonement has been effected: [I.e., with which] all alienism and repugnance [have been atoned for] for them [Aaron and his sons].   אֲשֶׁר כֻּפַּר בָּהֶם: כָּל זָרוּת וְתִעוּב:
in order to invest them with full authority: with this ram and this bread.   לְמַלֵּא אֶת־יָדָם: בְּאַיִל וְלֶחֶם הַלָּלוּ:
to sanctify them: For through these investitures, they were fully initiated into and sanctified for the kehunah.   לְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם: שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַמִּלּוּאִים הַלָּלוּ נִתְמַלְּאוּ יְדֵיהֶם וְנִתְקַדְּשׁוּ לִכְהֻנָּה:
because they are a sacred thing: [I.e., they are] the most holy sacrifices. From here we learned a warning [a prohibition] against a stranger [a non-kohen] who eats the most holy sacrifices, since the Torah text gives as the reason for the matter, [the fact] that they are a sacred thing.   כִּי־קֹדֶשׁ הֵֽם: קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים; וּמִכָּאן לָמַדְנוּ אַזְהָרָה לְזָר הָאוֹכֵל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, שֶׁנָּתַן הַמִּקְרָא טַעַם לַדָּבָר מִשּׁוּם דְּקֹדֶשׁ הֵם (פסח' כ"ד):
34If any of the flesh of the perfection [offering] or of the bread is left over until the next morning, what is left over you shall burn in fire; it shall not be eaten because it is a sacred thing.   לדוְאִם־יִוָּתֵ֞ר מִבְּשַׂ֧ר הַמִּלֻּאִ֛ים וּמִן־הַלֶּ֖חֶם עַד־הַבֹּ֑קֶר וְשָֽׂרַפְתָּ֤ אֶת־הַנּוֹתָר֙ בָּאֵ֔שׁ לֹ֥א יֵֽאָכֵ֖ל כִּי־קֹ֥דֶשׁ הֽוּא:
35So shall you do to Aaron and his sons, according to all that I have commanded you; for seven days you shall perform their investiture.   להוְעָשִׂ֜יתָ לְאַֽהֲרֹ֤ן וּלְבָנָיו֙ כָּ֔כָה כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוִּ֖יתִי אֹתָ֑כָה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים תְּמַלֵּ֥א יָדָֽם:
So shall you do to Aaron and his sons: The Torah text repeated this and doubled it to render it essential, that if he [Moses] omitted anything of all that was stated in [the section dealing with] this matter, they [Aaron and his sons] would not be invested to be kohanim, and their service would be invalid. -[from Yoma 5a]   וְעָשִׂיתָ לְאַֽהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו כָּכָה: שָׁנָה הַכָּתוּב וְכָפַל לְעַכֵּב – שֶׁאִם חָסַר דָּבָר אֶחָד מִכָּל הָאָמוּר בָּעִנְיָן, לֹא נִתְמַלְּאוּ יְדֵיהֶם לִהְיוֹת כֹּהֲנִים וַעֲבוֹדָתָם פְּסוּלָה:
you: Heb. אֹתָכָה, like אוֹתָ.   אֹתָכָה: כְּמוֹ אוֹתָךְ:
for seven days you shall perform their investiture: in this manner and with these sacrifices, daily.   שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תְּמַלֵּא וגו': בָּעִנְיָן הַזֶּה וּבַקָּרְבָּנוֹת הַלָּלוּ בְּכָל יוֹם:
36And a bull as a sin offering you shall offer up every day for the atonements, and you shall purify the altar by performing atonement upon it, and you shall anoint it, in order to sanctify it.   לווּפַ֨ר חַטָּ֜את תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֤ה לַיּוֹם֙ עַל־הַכִּפֻּרִ֔ים וְחִטֵּאתָ֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ בְּכַפֶּרְךָ֖ עָלָ֑יו וּמָֽשַׁחְתָּ֥ אֹת֖וֹ לְקַדְּשֽׁוֹ:
for the atonements -: Heb. עַל-הַכִּפֻּרִים, for the atonements, [meaning] to atone for the altar for all alienism and repugnance. Since it is stated: “for seven days you shall perform their investiture,” I know only [that] what is offered up for their [the kohanim’s] sake [must be brought all seven days], such as the rams and the bread, but what is offered up for the sake of the altar, such as the bull, which is for the purification of the altar, we did not [yet] hear [that it must be brought for seven days]. Therefore, this verse was necessary. The midrash of Torath Kohanim (Lev. 8:14) states: The atonement for the altar was necessary because perhaps someone had donated a stolen article for the work of the Mishkan and the altar.   עַל־הַכִּפֻּרִים: בִּשְׁבִיל הַכִּפּוּרִים, לְכַפֵּר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִכָּל זָרוּת וְתִעוּב; וּלְפִי שֶׁנֶּ' שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תְּמַלֵּא יָדָם, אֵין לִי אֶלָּא דָּבָר הַבָּא בִּשְׁבִילָם, כְּגוֹן הָאֵילִים וְהַלֶּחֶם, אֲבָל הַבָּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, כְּגוֹן פַּר שֶׁהוּא לְחִטּוּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ, לְכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ מִקְרָא זֶה; וּמִדְרַשׁ תּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים אוֹמֵר כַּפָּרַת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הֻצְרְכָה שֶׁמָּא הִתְנַדֵּב אִישׁ דְּבַר גֶּזֶל בִּמְלֶאכֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְהַמִּזְבֵּחַ:
and you shall purify: Heb. וְחִטֵאתָ, [which Onkelos renders:] וּתְדַכֵּי, and you shall purify. An expression of placing the blood that is applied with the finger is called חִטּוּי.   וְחִטֵּאתָ: וּתְדַכֵּי, לְשׁוֹן מַתְּנַת דָּמִים הַנְּתוּנִים בְּאֶצְבַּע קָרוּי חִטּוּי:
and you shall anoint it: with the anointing oil [as below (Exod. 30:22-33)]. All anointings [were made] like a sort of Greek “chaff.” [See above on verse 2.]   וּמָֽשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ: בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, וְכָל הַמְּשִׁיחוֹת כְּמִין כִי:
37For seven days you shall perform atonement upon the altar and sanctify it. Henceforth, the altar shall be a holy of holies. Whatever touches the altar will be holy.   לזשִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֗ים תְּכַפֵּר֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ֖ אֹת֑וֹ וְהָיָ֤ה הַמִּזְבֵּ֨חַ֙ קֹ֣דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֔ים כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בַּמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ יִקְדָּֽשׁ:
Henceforth the altar shall be a holy: Now what was its [the altar’s] sanctity? “Whatever touches the altar will be holy.” Even an invalid sacrifice that was placed upon it-the altar sanctified it to render it fit so that it would not be taken off [the altar]. Since it is said: “Whatever touches the altar will be holy,” I understand it to mean whether it is fit or whether it is unfit, such as something whose disqualification did not come in the sanctuary, such as a male animal or a female animal that was intimate with a human, [or] an animal set aside for a sacrifice to idols, [or] an animal that was worshipped as a god, or an animal that suffered a mortal wound or terminal illness, or [any other disqualification] like them. Therefore, the Torah states: “And this is what you shall offer upon the altar,” immediately following it [this verse]. Just as the burnt offering is fit, so is it with anything that was already fit and became disqualified after entering the courtyard, such as a sacrifice that stayed overnight, a sacrifice that was taken out of the courtyard, a sacrifice that was ritually unclean, [a sacrifice] that was slaughtered with an intention of [offering it up or eating its flesh] outside the time allotted for it or outside the proper place, and [any other disqualification] like them. -[from Zev. 83a, Sifra on Lev. 6:2]   וְהָיָה הַמִּזְבֵּחַ קֹדֶשׁ: וּמַה הִיא קְדֻשָּׁתוֹ? כל הנגע במזבח יקדש. אֲפִלּוּ קָרְבָּן פָּסוּל שֶׁעָלָה עָלָיו קִדְּשׁוֹ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֵרֵד; מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּל הַנֹּגֵעַ בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ יִקְדָּשׁ, שׁוֹמֵעַ אֲנִי בֵּין רָאוּי בֵּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי – כְּגוֹן דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה פְסוּלוֹ בַּקֹּדֶשׁ, כְּגוֹן הָרוֹבֵעַ וְהַנִּרְבָּע וּמֻקְצֶה וְנֶעֱבָד וְהַטְּרֵפָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן – תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה הַסָּמוּךְ אַחֲרָיו, מָה עוֹלָה רְאוּיָה, אַף כָּל רָאוּי שֶׁנִּרְאָה לוֹ כְבָר וְנִפְסַל מִשֶּׁבָּא לָעֲזָרָה, כְּגוֹן הַלָּן וְהַיּוֹצֵא וְהַטָּמֵא וְשֶׁנִּשְׁחַט בְּמַחֲשֶׁבֶת חוּץ לִזְמַנּוֹ וְחוּץ לִמְקוֹמוֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן (זבחים פ"ג):

Sixth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 29

38And this is what you shall offer upon the altar: lambs in their first year, two a day, continually.   לחוְזֶ֕ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה שְׁנַ֥יִם לַיּ֖וֹם תָּמִֽיד:
39The one lamb you shall offer up in the morning and the other lamb you shall offer up in the afternoon.   לטאֶת־הַכֶּ֥בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָ֖ד תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה בַבֹּ֑קֶר וְאֵת֙ הַכֶּ֣בֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בֵּ֥ין הָֽעַרְבָּֽיִם:
40And one tenth of fine flour, thoroughly mixed with a quarter of a hin of crushed [olive] oil, and a libation of one quarter of a hin of wine, for the one lamb.   מוְעִשָּׂרֹ֨ן סֹ֜לֶת בָּל֨וּל בְּשֶׁ֤מֶן כָּתִית֙ רֶ֣בַע הַהִ֔ין וְנֵ֕סֶךְ רְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִ֖ין יָ֑יִן לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָֽד:
And one-tenth of fine flour: A tenth of an ephah, [the volume of] forty-three and one-fifth eggs.   וְעִשָּׂרֹן סֹלֶת: עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה – מ"ג בֵּיצִים וְחֹמֶשׁ בֵּיצָה:
of crushed [olive] oil: Crushed is not stated as being obligatory, but [simply] to make it acceptable. Since it says: “crushed for lighting” (Exod. 27:20), implying “for [use as] lighting” but not [to be used] for meal offerings, I would possibly think [that the verse means] to disqualify it for meal offerings. Therefore, the Torah states here, “crushed.” Consequently, “crushed for lighting” was stated only to exclude meal offerings, that they do not require crushed [oil], for even oil ground in a mill is acceptable for them. -[from Men. 86b]   בְּשֶׁמֶן כָּתִית: לֹא לְחוֹבָה נֶאֱמַר כָּתִית, אֶלָּא לְהַכְשִׁיר, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר – וּמַשְׁמָע לַמָּאוֹר וְלֹא לַמְּנָחוֹת – יָכוֹל לְפָסְלוֹ לַמְּנָחוֹת, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר כָּאן כָּתִית וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר, אֶלָּא לְמַעֵט מְנָחוֹת שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כָּתִית, שֶׁאַף הַטָּחוּן בָּרֵיחַיִם כָּשֵׁר בָּהֶן (מנחות פ"ו):
a quarter of a hin: Three logs.   רֶבַע הַהִין: שְׁלֹשָׁה לֻגִּין:
and a libation: for the basins, as we learned in tractate Succah (48a): Two silver basins were at the top of the altar, and they were perforated like two fine nostrils. He [the kohen] would pour the wine into it [these basins], and it would flow and exit through the “nostril” and fall on the roof of the altar, from where it would descend [through holes in the altar] to the foundations, in the altar of the Temple, and in the copper altar it would descend from the altar to the ground.   וְנֵסֶךְ: לַסְּפָלִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְמַסֶּכֶת סֻכָּה (מ"ח) – שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ בְרֹאשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמְנֻקָּבִים כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּים, נוֹתֵן הַיַּיִן לְתוֹכוֹ וְהוּא מְקַלֵּחַ וְיוֹצֵא דֶּרֶךְ הַחֹטֶם וְנוֹפֵל עַל גַּג הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וּמִשָּׁם יוֹרֵד לַשִּׁיתִין, בְּמִזְבַּח בֵּית עוֹלָמִים, וּבְמִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת יוֹרֵד מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לָאָרֶץ:
41And the other lamb you shall offer up in the afternoon; you shall offer [it] up like the meal offering of the morning and its libation, as a spirit of satisfaction, a fire offering to the Lord.   מאוְאֵת֙ הַכֶּ֣בֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בֵּ֣ין הָֽעַרְבָּ֑יִם כְּמִנְחַ֨ת הַבֹּ֤קֶר וּכְנִסְכָּהּ֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לָּ֔הּ לְרֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
as a spirit of satisfaction: This is stated regarding the meal offering, for the meal offering of libations is entirely burned, and the order of their sacrifice is: first the limbs [of the burnt offering] and afterwards the meal offering, as it is said: “burnt offering and meal offering” (Lev. 23:37).   לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ: עַל הַמִּנְחָה נֶאֱמַר, שֶׁמִּנְחַת נְסָכִים כֻּלָּהּ כָּלִיל, וְסֵדֶר הַקְרָבָתָם הָאֵבָרִים בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַמִּנְחָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עֹלָה וּמִנְחָה:
42It shall be a continual burnt offering for your generations, at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting before the Lord, where I will arrange meetings with you, to speak to you there.   מבעֹלַ֤ת תָּמִיד֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם פֶּ֥תַח אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אִוָּעֵ֤ד לָכֶם֙ שָׁ֔מָּה לְדַבֵּ֥ר אֵלֶ֖יךָ שָֽׁם:
continual: Daily, without a day intervening.   תָּמִיד: מִיּוֹם אֶל יוֹם – וְלֹא יַפְסִיק יוֹם בֵּינְתַיִם:
where I will arrange meetings with you: When I arrange a time to speak to you, I will arrange it to come there. Some of our Rabbis derive from here that since the time the Mishkan was erected, the Holy One, blessed is He, spoke to Moses from above the copper altar. Others, however, say that [He spoke to Moses] from above the ark cover, as it is said: “and I will speak with you from atop the ark cover” (Exod. 25:22), and “where I will arrange meetings with you,” stated here, is not stated about the altar but about the Tent of Meeting mentioned in the verse. -[from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 14]   אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לָכֶם: כְּשֶׁאֶקְבַּע מוֹעֵד לְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיךָ, שָׁם אֶקְבָּעֶנּוּ לָבֹא. וְיֵשׁ מֵרַבּוֹתֵינוּ לֹמְדִים מִכָּאן שֶׁמֵּעַל מִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְדַבֵּר עִם מֹשֶׁה מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְדִבַּרְתִּי אִתְּךָ מֵעַל הַכַּפֹּרֶת (שמות כ"ו), וַאֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לָכֶם הָאָמוּר כָּאן אֵינוֹ אָמוּר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֶלָּא עַל אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד הַנִּזְכָּר בַּמִּקְרָא:
43There I will arrange meetings with the children of Israel, and it will be sanctified by My glory.   מגוְנֹֽעַדְתִּ֥י שָׁ֖מָּה לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְנִקְדַּ֖שׁ בִּכְבֹדִֽי:
There I will arrange meetings: I will arrange to speak with them [the children of Israel], as a king who arranges a place to speak there with his servants.   וְנֹֽעַדְתִּי שָׁמָּה: אֶתְוַעֵד עִמָּם בְּדִבּוּר, כְּמֶלֶךְ הַקּוֹבֵעַ מְקוֹם מוֹעֵד לְדַבֵּר עִם עֲבָדָיו שָׁם:
and it will be sanctified: [I.e.,] the Mishkan [will be sanctified].   וְנִקְדַּשׁ: הַמִּשְׁכָּן:
by My glory: Heb. בִּכְבֹדִי. That My Shechinah will dwell in it. The aggadic midrash, however, says: Do not read בִּכְבֹדִי, but בִּמְכֻבָּדַי, with My honored ones. Here He hinted to him [Moses] about the death of Aaron’s sons on the day it [the Mishkan] was erected. This is what Moses [meant when he] said, “This is what the Lord spoke, saying, ‘With those close to Me I will be sanctified’” (Lev. 10:3). Now where did He speak? “And it will be sanctified by My glory.” -[from Sifra, Lev. 10:3; Zev. 115b]   בִּכְבֹדִֽי: – שֶׁתִּשְׁרֶה שְׁכִינָתִי בּוֹ. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה אַל תִּקְרֵי בִּכְבֹדִי אֶלָּא בִּכְבוּדַי – בִּמְכֻבָּדִים שֶׁלִּי – כָּאן רָמַז לוֹ מִיתַת בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן בְּיוֹם הֲקָמָתוֹ, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר מֹשֶׁה הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה' לֵאמֹר בִּקְרֹבַי אֶקָּדֵשׁ, וְהֵיכָן דִּבֶּר? וְנִקְדַּשׁ בִּכְבֹדִי (זבחים קט"ו):
44I will sanctify the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and I will sanctify Aaron and his sons to serve Me [as kohanim].   מדוְקִדַּשְׁתִּ֛י אֶת־אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ וְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן וְאֶת־בָּנָ֛יו אֲקַדֵּ֖שׁ לְכַהֵ֥ן לִֽי:
45I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel and I will be their God.   מהוְשָׁ֣כַנְתִּ֔י בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהָיִ֥יתִי לָהֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִֽים:
46They will know that I, the Lord, am their God, Who brought them out of the land of Egypt in order that I may dwell in their midst; I am the Lord, their God.   מווְיָֽדְע֗וּ כִּ֣י אֲנִ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הוֹצֵ֧אתִי אֹתָ֛ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לְשָׁכְנִ֣י בְתוֹכָ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶֽם:
in order that I may dwell in their midst: With the intention that I dwell in their midst.   לְשָׁכְנִי בְתוֹכָם: עַל מְנָת לִשְׁכֹּן אֲנִי בְּתוֹכָם:

Seventh Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 30

1You shall make an altar for bringing incense up in smoke; you shall make it out of acacia wood.   אוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ מִזְבֵּ֖חַ מִקְטַ֣ר קְטֹ֑רֶת עֲצֵ֥י שִׁטִּ֖ים תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתֽוֹ:
for bringing incense up in smoke: Heb. מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת, to raise smoke up on it, namely the smoke of incense.   מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת: לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו קִטּוּר עֲשַׁן סַמִּים:
2It shall be one cubit long and one cubit wide, a square, and two cubits high; its horns shall be [one piece] with it.   באַמָּ֨ה אָרְכּ֜וֹ וְאַמָּ֤ה רָחְבּוֹ֙ רָב֣וּעַ יִֽהְיֶ֔ה וְאַמָּתַ֖יִם קֹֽמָת֑וֹ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ קַרְנֹתָֽיו:
3You shall overlay it with pure gold, its top, its walls all around, and its horns; and you shall make for it a golden crown all around.   גוְצִפִּיתָ֨ אֹת֜וֹ זָהָ֣ב טָה֗וֹר אֶת־גַּגּ֧וֹ וְאֶת־קִֽירֹתָ֛יו סָבִ֖יב וְאֶת־קַרְנֹתָ֑יו וְעָשִׂ֥יתָ לּ֛וֹ זֵ֥ר זָהָ֖ב סָבִֽיב:
its top: This one [altar] had a top. The altar for burnt offerings [i.e., the copper altar], however, did not have a top, but the hollow space within it was filled with earth whenever they camped.   אֶת־גַּגּוֹ: זֶה הָיָה לוֹ גַּג, אֲבָל מִזְבַּח הָעוֹלָה לֹא הָיָה לוֹ גַּג אֶלָּא מְמַלְּאִים חֲלָלוֹ אֲדָמָה בְּכָל חֲנִיָּתָן:
a golden crown: This symbolized the crown of the kehunah.   זֵר זָהָב: סִימָן הוּא לְכֶתֶר כְּהֻנָּה:
4You shall make two golden rings for it underneath its crown on its two corners, you shall make [them] on its two sides, so that it should serve as holders for poles with which to carry it.   דוּשְׁתֵּי֩ טַבְּעֹ֨ת זָהָ֜ב תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־לּ֣וֹ | מִתַּ֣חַת לְזֵר֗וֹ עַ֚ל שְׁתֵּ֣י צַלְעֹתָ֔יו תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה עַל־שְׁנֵ֣י צִדָּ֑יו וְהָיָה֙ לְבָתִּ֣ים לְבַדִּ֔ים לָשֵׂ֥את אֹת֖וֹ בָּהֵֽמָּה:
its… corners: Heb. צַלְעֹתָיו. Here it is a term meaning corners, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders, [unlike in Exod. 25:12, 26:20, 26, 27, where צֶלַע means a side,] because it says [further in the verse]: “on its two sides,” [meaning] on its two corners that are on its two sides.   צַלְעֹתָיו: כָּאן הוּא לְשׁוֹן זָוִיּוֹת, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עַל שְׁנֵי צִדָּיו – עַל שְׁתֵּי זָוִיּוֹת שֶׁבִּשְׁנֵי צִדָּיו:
it should serve: Heb. וְהָיָה, lit., and it shall be [in the singular, referring to] the making of these rings.   וְהָיָה: מַעֲשֵׂה הַטַּבָּעוֹת הָאֵלֶּה:
as holders for the poles: The ring [itself] shall be a holder for a pole.   לְבָתִּים לְבַדִּים: בַּיִת תִּהְיֶה הַטַּבַּעַת לַבַּד:
5You shall make the poles out of acacia wood and overlay them with gold.   הוְעָשִׂ֥יתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּ֖ים עֲצֵ֣י שִׁטִּ֑ים וְצִפִּיתָ֥ אֹתָ֖ם זָהָֽב:
6And you shall place it in front of the dividing curtain, which is upon the Ark of Testimony, in front of the ark cover, which is upon the testimony, where I will arrange to meet with you.   ווְנָֽתַתָּ֤ה אֹתוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַפָּרֹ֔כֶת אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־אֲרֹ֣ן הָֽעֵדֻ֑ת לִפְנֵ֣י הַכַּפֹּ֗רֶת אֲשֶׁר֙ עַל־הָ֣עֵדֻ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֛ר אִוָּעֵ֥ד לְךָ֖ שָֽׁמָּה:
in front of the dividing curtain: Perhaps you will say [that the altar should be] removed or at a distance opposite the ark, either to the north or to the south. Therefore, the Torah says: “in front of the ark cover,” meaning directly opposite the ark on the outside [of the Holy of Holies]. -[from Baraitha Melecheth HaMishkan, ch. 4,]   לִפְנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת: שֶׁמָּא תֹאמַר מָשׁוּךְ מִכְּנֶגֶד הָאָרוֹן לַצָּפוֹן אוֹ לַדָּרוֹם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר לִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד הָאָרוֹן מִבַּחוּץ:
7Aaron shall make incense of spices go up in smoke upon it; every morning when he sets the lamps in order, he shall make it go up in smoke.   זוְהִקְטִ֥יר עָלָ֛יו אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן קְטֹ֣רֶת סַמִּ֑ים בַּבֹּ֣קֶר בַּבֹּ֗קֶר בְּהֵֽיטִיב֛וֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹ֖ת יַקְטִירֶֽנָּה:
when he sets… in order: Heb. בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ, a word referring to the cleaning of the cups of the menorah from the ashes of the wicks that burned at night. He would clean them every morning.   בְּהֵֽיטִיבוֹ: לְשׁוֹן נִקּוּי הַבָּזִיכִין שֶׁל הַמְּנוֹרָה מִדֶּשֶן הַפְּתִילוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׂרְפוּ בַלַּיְלָה, וְהָיָה מְטִיבָן בְּכָל בֹּקֶר וָבֹקֶר:
the lamps: Heb. הַנֵּרֹת. luzes, lozes, luses, luces in Old French, [i.e.,] lamps. This is true of all נֵרוֹת mentioned in the context of the menorah, except where הַעִלָאָה, which is an expression of kindling, is mentioned.   הַנֵּרֹת: לו"שיש בְּלַעַז, וְכֵן כָּל נֵרוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּמְּנוֹרָה, חוּץ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר שָׁם הַעֲלָאָה שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן הַדְלָקָה:
8And when Aaron kindles the lights in the afternoon, he shall make it go up in smoke, continual incense before the Lord for your generations.   חוּבְהַֽעֲלֹ֨ת אַֽהֲרֹ֧ן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹ֛ת בֵּ֥ין הָֽעַרְבַּ֖יִם יַקְטִירֶ֑נָּה קְטֹ֧רֶת תָּמִ֛יד לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
And when… kindles: Heb. וּבְהַעִלֹת, lit., and when… causes to ascend. When he will kindle them to cause their flame to ascend.   וּבְהַֽעֲלֹת: כְּשֶׁיַּדְלִיקֵם לְהַעֲלוֹת לַהַבְתָן:
he shall make it go up in smoke: Every day, one pras in the morning and [one] pras in the afternoon. -[from Ker. 6b]   יַקְטִירֶנָּה: בְּכָל יוֹם, פְּרָס מַקְטִיר שַׁחֲרִית וּפְרָס מַקְטִיר בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם (כריתות ו'):
9You shall offer up on it no alien incense, burnt offering, or meal offering, and you shall pour no libation upon it.   טלֹא־תַֽעֲל֥וּ עָלָ֛יו קְטֹ֥רֶת זָרָ֖ה וְעֹלָ֣ה וּמִנְחָ֑ה וְנֵ֕סֶךְ לֹ֥א תִסְּכ֖וּ עָלָֽיו:
You shall offer up on it: On this [golden] altar.   לֹא־תַֽעֲלוּ עָלָיו: עַל מִזְבֵּחַ זֶה:
alien incense: Any donated incense; they are all alien except for this one. -[from Men. 50a, b]   קְטֹרֶת זָרָה: שׁוּם קְטֹרֶת שֶׁל נְדָבָה – כֻּלָּן זָרוֹת לוֹ חוּץ מִזּוֹ:
burnt offering, or meal offering: Neither burnt offerings nor meal offerings. A burnt offering is one of an animal or fowl. A meal offering is one of bread.   וְעֹלָה וּמִנְחָה: וְלֹא עוֹלָה וּמִנְחָה, עוֹלָה שֶׁל בְּהֵמָה וָעוֹף, מִנְחָה הִיא שֶׁל לֶחֶם:
10But Aaron shall make atonement upon its horns once a year; with the blood of the sin offering of the atonements, once a year he shall effect atonement upon it for your generations; it is a holy of holies to the Lord.   יוְכִפֶּ֤ר אַֽהֲרֹן֙ עַל־קַרְנֹתָ֔יו אַחַ֖ת בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה מִדַּ֞ם חַטַּ֣את הַכִּפֻּרִ֗ים אַחַ֤ת בַּשָּׁנָה֙ יְכַפֵּ֤ר עָלָיו֙ לְדֹרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁ֥ים ה֖וּא לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
But Aaron shall make atonement: [This refers to] applications of blood [on the horns of the altar].   וְכִפֶּר אַֽהֲרֹן: מַתַּן דָּמִים:
once a year: On Yom Kippur. This is what is stated in [parshath] “Acharei Moth” : “And he shall go out to the altar that is before the Lord and make atonement upon it” (Lev. 16:18).   אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה: בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, הוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּאַחֲרֵי מוֹת וְיָצָא אֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי ה' וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו (ויקרא ט"ז):
the sin offering of the atonements: They are the bull and the kid of Yom Kippur, which atone for ritual contamination regarding the sanctuary and its holy things. -[from Shevuoth 2b]   חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים: הֵם פַּר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים הַמְכַפְּרִים עַל טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו:
a holy of holies: Heb. קֹדֶשׁ-קָדָשִׁים. The altar is sanctified for these things only, and for no other service.   קֹֽדֶשׁ־קָֽדָשִׁים: הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְקֻדָּשׁ לִדְבָרִים הַלָּלוּ בִּלְבַד וְלֹא לַעֲבוֹדָה אַחֶרֶת:

Maftir Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 25

17You shall remember what Amalek did to you on the way, when you went out of Egypt,   יזזָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
You shall remember what [Amalek] did to you: [The juxtaposition of these passages teaches us that] if you use fraudulent measures and weights, you should be worried about provocation from the enemy, as it is said: “Deceitful scales are an abomination of the Lord” (Prov. 11:1), after which the [next] verse continues, “When willful wickedness comes, then comes disgrace.” [That is, after you intentionally sin by using deceitful scales, the enemy will come to provoke you into war, and this will be a disgraceful matter to you]. — [Tanchuma 8]   זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְךָ: אִם שִׁקַּרְתָּ בְמִדּוֹת וּבְמִשְׁקָלוֹת הֱוֵי דוֹאֵג מִגֵּרוּי הָאוֹיֵב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי י"א) "מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה תּוֹעֲבַת ה'", וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ "בָּא זָדוֹן וַיָּבֹא קָלוֹן" (תנחומא):
18how he happened upon you on the way and cut off all the stragglers at your rear, when you were faint and weary, and he did not fear God.   יחאֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כָּל־הַנֶּֽחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחֲרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים:
how he happened upon you on the way: Heb. קָרְךָ, an expression denoting a chance occurrence (מִקְרֶה). - [Sifrei 25:167] Alternatively, an expression denoting seminal emission (קֶרִי) and defilement, because Amalek defiled the Jews by [committing] homosexual acts [with them]. — [Tanchuma 9] Yet another explanation: an expression denoting heat and cold (קוֹר). He cooled you off and made you [appear] tepid, after you were boiling hot, for the nations were afraid to fight with you, [just as people are afraid to touch something boiling hot]. But this one, [i.e., Amalek] came forward and started and showed the way to others. This can be compared to a bathtub of boiling water into which no living creature could descend. Along came an irresponsible man and jumped headlong into it! Although he scalded himself, he [succeeded to] make others think that it was cooler [than it really was]. — [Tanchuma 9]   אֲשֶׁר קָֽרְךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ: לְשׁוֹן מִקְרֶה; דָּבָר אַחֵר — לְשׁוֹן קֶרִי וְטֻמְאָה שֶׁהָיָה מְטַמְּאָן בְּמִשְׁכַּב זְכוּר; דָּבָר אַחֵר — לְשׁוֹן קֹר וְחֹם, צִנֶּנְךָ וְהִפְשִׁירְךָ מֵרְתִיחָתְךָ, שֶׁהָיוּ כָל הָאֻמּוֹת יְרֵאִים לְהִלָּחֵם בָּכֶם וּבָא זֶה וְהִתְחִיל וְהֶרְאָה מָקוֹם לַאֲחֵרִים; מָשָׁל לְאַמְבָּטִי רוֹתַחַת שֶׁאֵין כָּל בְּרִיָּה יְכוֹלָה לֵירֵד בְּתוֹכָהּ, בָּא בֶן בְּלִיַּעַל אֶחָד קָפַץ וְיָרַד לְתוֹכָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְוָה הֵקֵרָהּ אוֹתָהּ בִּפְנֵי אֲחֵרִים (תנחומא):
and cut off: [The word וַיְזַנֵּב is derived from the word זָנָב, meaning “tail.” Thus, the verse means: Amalek] “cut off the tail.” This refers to the fact that Amalek cut off the members [of the male Jews,] where they had been circumcised, and cast them up [provocatively] towards Heaven [exclaiming to God: “You see! What good has Your commandment of circumcision done for them?”]- [Tanchuma 9]   וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ: מַכַּת זָנָב, חוֹתֵךְ מִילוֹת וְזוֹרֵק כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה (תנחומא):
all the stragglers at your rear: Those who lacked strength on account of their transgression. [And because these Jews had sinned,] the cloud [of glory] had expelled them [thereby leaving them vulnerable to Amalek’s further attack]. - [Tanchuma 10]   כָּל־הַנֶּֽחֱשָׁלִים אַֽחֲרֶיךָ: חַסְרֵי כֹחַ מֵחֲמַת חֶטְאָם, שֶׁהָיָה הֶעָנָן פּוֹלְטָן (תנחומא):
you were faint and weary: faint from thirst, as it is written, “The people thirsted there for water” (Exod. 17:3), and [immediately] afterwards it says, “Amalek came [and fought with Israel]” (verse 17:8). - [Tanchuma 10]   וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ: עָיֵף בַּצָּמָא, דִּכְתִיב "וַיִּצְמָא שָׁם הָעָם לַמַּיִם" (שמות י"ז) וּכְתִיב אַחֲרָיו "וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק":
and weary: from the journey. - [Tanchuma 10]   וְיָגֵעַ: בַּדֶּרֶךְ:
He did not fear [God]: i.e., Amalek did not fear God [so as to refrain] from doing you harm. — [Sifrei 25:167]   וְלֹא יָרֵא: עֲמָלֵק אלהים מִלְּהָרַע לְךָ:
19[Therefore,] it will be, when the Lord your God grants you respite from all your enemies around [you] in the land which the Lord, your God, gives to you as an inheritance to possess, that you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens. You shall not forget!   יטוְהָיָ֡ה בְּהָנִ֣יחַ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֣יךָ | לְ֠ךָ֠ מִכָּל־אֹ֨יְבֶ֜יךָ מִסָּבִ֗יב בָּאָ֨רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְהֹוָה־אֱלֹהֶ֠יךָ נֹתֵ֨ן לְךָ֤ נַֽחֲלָה֙ לְרִשְׁתָּ֔הּ תִּמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר * (זֶ֣כֶר) עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לֹ֖א תִּשְׁכָּֽח:
you shall obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep [camel and donkey] (God’s command to King Saul: see I Sam. 15:3), so that the name of Amalek should never again be mentioned (נִזְכָּר), from the word (זֵכֶר), even regarding an animal, to say: “This animal was from Amalek.” - [Midrash Lekach Tov]   תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק: מֵאִישׁ עַד אִשָּׁה מֵעוֹלֵל וְעַד יוֹנֵק מִשּׁוֹר וְעַד שֶׂה (שמואל א ט"ו), שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שֵׁם עֲמָלֵק נִזְכָּר אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה, לוֹמַר בְּהֵמָה זוֹ מִשֶּׁל עֲמָלֵק הָיְתָה (פסיק' זוטר'):


Shmuel I (I Samuel) Chapter 15

1And Samuel said to Saul, "The Lord sent me to anoint you to be king over His people, over Israel; and now hearken to the voice of the words of the Lord.   אוַיֹּ֚אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל אֹתִ֨י שָׁלַ֚ח יְהֹוָה֙ לִמְשָׁחֲךָ֣ לְמֶ֔לֶךְ עַל־עַמּ֖וֹ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְעַתָּ֣ה שְׁמַ֔ע לְק֖וֹל דִּבְרֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
and now, hearken to the voice of the words of the Lord: Once you acted foolishly. Now, take heed.   ועתה שמע לקול דברי ה': פעם אחת נסכלת, עתה הזהר בעצמך:
2So said the Lord of Hosts, 'I remember that which Amalek did to Israel, how he laid (wait) for him on the way, when he came up out of Egypt.   בכֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת פָּקַ֕דְתִּי אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָֹ֥ה עֲמָלֵ֖ק לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲשֶׁר־שָֹ֥ם לוֹ֙ בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ בַּעֲלֹת֖וֹ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
3Now, go, and you shall smite Amalek, and you shall utterly destroy all that is his, and you shall not have pity on him: and you shall slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.' "   געַתָּה֩ לֵ֨ךְ וְהִכִּֽיתָ֜ה אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֗ק וְהַֽחֲרַמְתֶּם֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א תַחְמֹ֖ל עָלָ֑יו וְהֵמַתָּ֞ה מֵאִ֣ישׁ עַד־אִשָּׁ֗ה מֵֽעֹלֵל֙ וְעַד־יוֹנֵ֔ק מִשּׁ֣וֹר וְעַד־שֶֹ֔ה מִגָּמָ֖ל וְעַד־חֲמֽוֹר:
ox and sheep: for they were sorcerers, and they would change themselves to resemble animals.   משור ועד שה: שהיו בעלי כשפים, ומשנין עצמן ודומין לבהמה:
4And Saul called the people together, and he counted them in Telaim, two hundred thousand footmen, and ten thousand, the men of Judah.   דוַיְשַׁמַּ֚ע שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַֽיִּפְקְדֵם֙ בַּטְּלָאִ֔ים מָאתַ֥יִם אֶ֖לֶף רַגְלִ֑י וַעֲשֶֹ֥רֶת אֲלָפִ֖ים אֶת־אִ֥ישׁ יְהוּדָֽה:
And Saul called… together: An expression of announcing, as though it would say, שאול ויזעק.   וישמע שאול: לשון הכרזה, כמו (לעיל יד כ): ויזעק שאול:
and he counted them in Telaim: (According to ‘peshat,’ this is the name of a place, as in Jos. 15:24. Our Rabbis, however, take it as a common noun, meaning ‘with lambs,’ explaining thus:) He told everyone to take a lamb from the King’s flocks, since it is forbidden to count Jews, for it is stated concerning them: “which will not be counted for multitude” (Gen. 32:12).   ויפקדם בטלאים: אמר לכל אחד ואחד, שיקח טלה מצאנו של מלך, ואחר כך מנה את הטלאים, לפי שאסור למנות את ישראל, שנאמר בם (בראשית לב יב): לא יספר מרוב:
5And Saul came as far as the city of Amalek, and he fought in the valley.   הוַיָּבֹ֥א שָׁא֖וּל עַד־עִ֣יר עֲמָלֵ֑ק וַיָּ֖רֶב בַּנָּֽחַל:
and he fought in the valley: (וירב) and he fought in the valley (from ריב, a quarrel). Our Rabbis said: Concerning the valley, he argued and concluded, thus: if for the sake of one soul, the Torah said, “decapitate a calf in the valley” (Deut. 21), how much more for the sake of all these souls. If man has sinned, what have the animals sinned?   וירב בנחל: וילחם בנחל ורבותינו אמרו (יומא כב ב): על עסקי נחל רב ודן את עצמו, ומה בשביל נפש אחת אמרה תורה ערוף עגלה בנחל, בשביל כל הנפשות האלו לא כל שכן, אם אדם חטא, בהמה מה חטאה:
6And Saul said to the Kenite, "Turn away and go down from among the Amalekites, lest I destroy you with them, and you did kindness with all the children of Israel, when they went up out of Egypt." And the Kenites turned away from amidst Amalek.   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֣וּל אֶֽל־הַקֵּינִ֡י לְכוּ֩ סֻּ֨רוּ רְד֜וּ מִתּ֣וֹךְ עֲמָלֵקִ֗י פֶּן־אֹֽסִפְךָ֙ עִמּ֔וֹ וְאַתָּ֞ה עָשִֹ֚יתָה חֶ֙סֶד֙ עִם־כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּעֲלוֹתָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַיָּ֥סַר קֵינִ֖י מִתּ֥וֹךְ עֲמָלֵֽק:
to the Kenites: the descendants of Jethro, who were residing in the wilderness of Judea, in the south of Arad, who went to Jabez to learn Torah, Arad being Amalek. The Canaanite king of Arad was Amalek, for it is stated: “the dweller of the South” (Num. 21:1), and “Amalek dwells in the Southland” (ibid. 12:29).   אל הקיני: בני יתרו, שהיו יושבין במדבר יהודה בנגב ערד, שהלכו אצל יעבץ ללמוד תורה, וערד הוא עמלק, הכנעני מלך ערד, עמלק היה, שנאמר (במדבר כא א): יושב הנגב, ועמלק יושב בארץ הנגב (שם יג כט):
with all the children of Israel: for Moses, Aaron, and all the elders of Israel partook of his (Jethro’s) repast (Ex. 18:12). (The Scripture, therefore) considers it as though he had done kindness with all the children of Israel.   עם כל בני ישראל: שנהנו מסעודתו משה ואהרן וכל זקני ישראל, והרי מעלה עליו כאלו עשה חסד עם כל בני ישראל:
7And Saul smote Amalek, from Havilah until you come to Shur, which is in front of Egypt.   זוַיַּ֥ךְ שָׁא֖וּל אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֑ק מֵֽחֲוִילָה֙ בּוֹאֲךָ֣ שׁ֔וּר אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מִצְרָֽיִם:
8And he seized Agag, the king of Amalek, alive; and he completely destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword.   חוַיִּתְפֹּ֛שׂ אֶת־אֲגַ֥ג מֶֽלֶךְ־עֲמָלֵ֖ק חָ֑י וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם הֶחֱרִ֥ים לְפִי־חָֽרֶב:
9And Saul and the people had pity on Agag, and on the best of the sheep and the cattle, and the fatlings, and on the fattened sheep, and on all that was good; and they did not want to destroy them; but everything which was vile and feeble, that they utterly destroyed.   טוַיַּחְמֹל֩ שָׁא֨וּל וְהָעָ֜ם עַל־אֲגָ֗ג וְעַל־מֵיטַ֣ב הַצֹּאן֩ וְהַבָּקָ֨ר וְהַמִּשְׁנִ֚ים וְעַל־הַכָּרִים֙ וְעַל־כָּל־הַטּ֔וֹב וְלֹ֥א אָב֖וּ הַחֲרִימָ֑ם וְכָל־הַמְּלָאכָ֛ה נְמִבְזָ֥ה וְנָמֵ֖ס אֹתָ֥הּ הֶחֱרִֽימוּ:
and the fatlings: (Heb. ‘vehamishnim.’) It has no likeness (to any other word in the Scriptures). These are the fatlings, and I say that the expression of ‘mishnim’ is like ‘kesef mishneh’ (double money Gen. 43:15) because they are doubled over with flesh and fat. Similarly, (we explain:) “And the ox which was fattened (sheni) seven years.” (Jud. 6:25).   והמשנים: אין לו דמיון, והם הבריאים ואומר אני: לשון 'משנים', כמו (בראשית מג יב): כסף משנה, על שם שהוא כפול בבשר ובשומן, וכן (שופטים ו כה): ופר השני שבע שנים:
vile and feeble: (נמבזה) like נבזה (despised), and the ‘mem’ is superfluous.   נמבזה ונמס: כמו נבזה, והמ"ם טפילה בו:
10And the word of the Lord came to Samuel, saying,   יוַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹֽר:
11"I regret that I have made Saul king, for he has turned back from following Me, and he has not fulfilled My words." And it distressed Samuel, and he cried out to the Lord all night.   יאנִחַ֗מְתִּי כִּֽי־הִמְלַ֚כְתִּי אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ לְמֶ֔לֶךְ כִּֽי־שָׁב֙ מֵאַֽחֲרַ֔י וְאֶת־דְּבָרַ֖י לֹ֣א הֵקִ֑ים וַיִּ֙חַר֙ לִשְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וַיִּזְעַ֥ק אֶל־יְהֹוָ֖ה כָּל־הַלָּֽיְלָה:
I regret: A thought has arisen in my heart concerning the kingdom of Saul, whom I have appointed king.   נחמתי: מחשבה עלתה בלבי על מלכות שאול שהמלכתי:
12And Samuel arose early in the morning to meet Saul; and it was told to Samuel, saying, "Saul has come to Carmel, and behold, he is setting up a place for himself, and he passed and went down to Gilgal."   יבוַיַּשְׁכֵּ֧ם שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל לִקְרַ֥את שָׁא֖וּל בַּבֹּ֑קֶר וַיֻּגַּ֨ד לִשְׁמוּאֵ֜ל לֵאמֹ֗ר בָּֽא־שָׁא֚וּל הַכַּרְמֶ֙לָה֙ וְהִנֵּ֨ה מַצִּ֥יב לוֹ֙ יָ֔ד וַיִּסֹּב֙ וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֔ר וַיֵּ֖רֶד הַגִּלְגָּֽל:
he is setting up a place for himself: He is building an altar for himself. That is the altar referred to concerning Elijah, “And he repaired the altar of the Lord, which had been torn down.” Jonathan however, renders: and behold, he is setting up there a place for himself, to divide the spoils.   מציב לו יד: בונה לו מזבח הוא המזבח שנאמר באליהו (מלכים-א יח ל): וירפא את מזבח ה' ההרוס. ויונתן תרגם: והא מתקן ליה תמן אתר לפלגא ביה ביזתא:
13And Samuel came to Saul, and Saul said to him, "May you be blessed of the Lord; I have fulfilled the word of the Lord."   יגוַיָּבֹ֥א שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אֶל־שָׁא֑וּל וַיֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ שָׁא֗וּל בָּר֚וּךְ אַתָּה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה הֲקִימֹ֖תִי אֶת־דְּבַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
14And Samuel said, "What then is this bleating of the sheep in my ears? And the lowing of the oxen which I hear?"   ידוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל וּמֶ֛ה קֽוֹל־הַצֹּ֥אן הַזֶּ֖ה בְּאָזְנָ֑י וְק֣וֹל הַבָּקָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י שֹׁמֵֽעַ:
15And Saul said, "They brought them from the Amalekites, for the people had pity on the best of the sheep, and the oxen, in order to sacrifice to the Lord your God: and the rest we have utterly destroyed."   טווַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל מֵעֲמָלֵקִ֣י הֱבִיא֗וּם אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָמַ֚ל הָעָם֙ עַל־מֵיטַ֚ב הַצֹּאן֙ וְהַבָּקָ֔ר לְמַ֥עַן זְבֹ֖חַ לַיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְאֶת־הַיּוֹתֵ֖ר הֶחֱרַֽמְנוּ:
16And Samuel said to Saul, "Desist, and I shall tell you what the Lord spoke to me last night." And he said to him, "Speak."   טזוַיֹּ֚אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל ֤הֶרֶף וְאַגִּ֣ידָה לְּךָ֔ אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֵלַ֖י הַלָּ֑יְלָה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר (כתיב וַיֹּ֥אמֶרו) ל֖וֹ דַּבֵּֽר:
Desist: Like the Targum, ‘orich,’ meaning ‘wait’.   הרף: כתרגומו: אוריך, פירוש המתן:
17And Samuel said, "Even if you are small in your own eyes, are you not the head of the tribes of Israel? And the Lord anointed you as king over Israel.   יזוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל הֲל֗וֹא אִם־קָטֹ֚ן אַתָּה֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ רֹ֛אשׁ שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אָ֑תָּה וַיִּמְשָׁחֲךָ֧ יְהֹוָ֛ה לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
are you not the head of the tribes of Israel: Jonathan renders: The tribe of Benjamin crossed the Reed Sea at the head of the people, as it is said: “Benjamin, the youngest, rules over them” (Ps. 68: 28).   ראש שבטי ישראל אתה: תרגם יונתן: שבטא דבנימין עבר בימא בריש כל עמא, כמה שנאמר (תהלים סח כח): בנימין צעיר רודם:
18And the Lord sent you on a mission, and said, 'Go, and you shall utterly destroy the sinners, the Amalekites, and you shall wage war against them until they destroy them.'   יחוַיִּשְׁלָחֲךָ֥ יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּדָ֑רֶךְ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לֵ֣ךְ וְהַחֲרַמְתָּ֞ה אֶת־הַֽחַטָּאִים֙ אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֔ק וְנִלְחַמְתָּ֣ ב֔וֹ עַ֥ד כַּלּוֹתָ֖ם אֹתָֽם:
until they destroy them: The people who are with you will destroy them.   עד כלותם אותם: העם אשר אתך יכלו אותם:
19Now, why did you not hearken to the voice of the Lord, but you flew upon the spoil, and you did what was evil in the eyes of the Lord?"   יטוְלָ֥מָּה לֹא־שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ בְּק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֑ה וַתַּ֙עַט֙ אֶל־הַשָּׁלָ֔ל וַתַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
but you flew: (ותעט,) like ותעף (and you flew), an expression relating to עיט, bird of prey (Gen. 15:11).   ותעט: כמו ותעף, לשון עיט (בראשית טו יא):
20And Saul said to Samuel, "Yes, I did hearken to the voice of the Lord. I did go on the mission on which the Lord sent me, and I brought Agag, the king of Amalek alive, and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites.   כוַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֚ר שָׁמַ֙עְתִּי֙ בְּק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֔ה וָאֵלֵ֕ךְ בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־שְׁלָחַ֣נִי יְהֹוָ֑ה וָאָבִ֗יא אֶת־אֲגַג֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמָלֵ֔ק וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵ֖ק הֶחֱרַֽמְתִּי:
21And the people took from the spoil, sheep and oxen, the best of the ban, to sacrifice to your God in Gilgal."   כאוַיִּקַּ֨ח הָעָ֧ם מֵהַשָּׁלָ֛ל צֹ֥אן וּבָקָ֖ר רֵאשִׁ֣ית הַחֵ֑רֶם לִזְבֹּ֛חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בַּגִּלְגָּֽל:
the best of the ban: (ראשית, lit., the beginning), and similarly, “the best of your corn” (Deut. 18: 4), as it is said: “When you separate the best part of it therefrom” (Num. 18:30). Jonathan however, renders: before they banned it.   ראשית החרם: מיטב החרם, וכן (דברים יח ד): ראשית דגנך, כמה שנאמר (במדבר יח ל): בהרימכם את חלבו ממנו. ויונתן תרגם: קדם דיחרמון:
22And Samuel said, "Has the Lord (as much) desire in burnt offerings and peace-offerings, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than a peace-offering; to hearken (is better) than the fat of rams.   כבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל הַחֵ֚פֶץ לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בְּעֹל֣וֹת וּזְבָחִ֔ים כִּשְׁמֹ֖עַ בְּק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֑ה הִנֵּ֚ה שְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ מִזֶּ֣בַח ט֔וֹב לְהַקְשִׁ֖יב מֵחֵ֥לֶב אֵילִֽים:
Behold, to obey: His command is better than a peace-offering.   הנה שמוע: בקולו, טוב מזבח:
to hearken, than the fat of rams.: This refers to: Behold, to obey is better than a peace- offering, and to hearken (is better) than the fat of rams.   להקשיב מחלב אילים: זה מוסב על הנה שמוע מזבח טוב, ולהקשיב, מחלב אילים:
23For rebellion is as the sin of divination, and stubbornness is as idolatry and teraphim. Since you rejected the word of the Lord, He has rejected you from being a king."   כגכִּ֚י חַטַּאת־קֶ֙סֶם֙ מֶ֔רִי וְאָ֥וֶן וּתְרָפִ֖ים הַפְצַ֑ר יַ֗עַן מָאַ֙סְתָּ֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיִּמְאָסְךָ֖ מִמֶּֽלֶךְ:
For rebellion is as the sin of divination, and stubbornness is as idolatry and teraphim: And like the penalty for idolatry and teraphim, so is the penalty for stubbornness. Jonathan renders: for, as the sin of a people who divine, so is the sin of any man who disobeys the word of the Lord; and as the sins of a nation who has strayed after idols, so is the sin of any person who adds to the words of a prophet.   כי חטאת קסם מרי ואון ותרפים הפצר: וכעונש של און ותרפים, כן עונש של הפצר ויונתן תרגם: ארי כחוב גבריא וכו' וכחובי עמא דטעו בתר טעותא, כן חובת כל אנש דפצר ומוסיף וכו':
stubbornness: An expression of adding, and similarly, (Gen. 36:11) He prevailed upon him (ויפצר). He spoke many words to convince him.   הפצר: לשון תוספת, וכן (בראשית לג יא): ויפצר בו, הרבה עליו דברים:
24And Saul said to Samuel, "I have sinned, for I transgressed the Lord's command, and your words, for I feared the people, and I hearkened to their voice.   כדוַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֚וּל אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל֙ חָטָ֔אתִי כִּֽי־עָבַ֥רְתִּי אֶת־פִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֖ה וְאֶת־דְּבָרֶ֑יךָ כִּ֚י יָרֵ֙אתִי֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וָאֶשְׁמַ֖ע בְּקוֹלָֽם:
I feared the people: Doeg the Edomite, who was as esteemed as all of them.   יראתי את העם: דואג האדומי, שהיה חשוב כולם:
25And now, forgive now my sin, and return with me, and I shall prostrate myself to the Lord."   כהוְעַתָּ֕ה שָֹ֥א נָ֖א אֶת־חַטָּאתִ֑י וְשׁ֣וּב עִמִּ֔י וְאֶֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
26And Samuel said to Saul, "I shall not return with you, for you have rejected the word of the Lord, and the Lord has rejected you from being a king over Israel."   כווַיֹּ֚אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל לֹ֥א אָשׁ֖וּב עִמָּ֑ךְ כִּ֚י מָאַ֙סְתָּה֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיִּמְאָסְךָ֣ יְהֹוָ֔ה מִהְי֥וֹת מֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
27And Samuel turned to go, and he seized the skirt of his robe, and it tore.   כזוַיִּסֹּ֥ב שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל לָלֶ֑כֶת וַיַּחֲזֵ֥ק בִּכְנַף־מְעִיל֖וֹ וַיִּקָּרַֽע:
and he seized the skirt of his robe: According to the simple interpretation, the implication is that when Samuel turned to go away from following Saul, Saul seized the skirt of Samuel’s robe, since Saul was entreating him to return until he would prostrate himself in Gilgal, where the tent of meeting had been. In Midrash Aggadah, however, Amoraim differ on this point. Some say that Saul tore Samuel’s robe, and some say that Samuel tore Saul’s robe, thereby giving over to him this sign, that whoever would sever the skirt of his robe would reign in his place. And that is what Saul said to David on the day that he severed the robe, “I know that you will reign” (infra 24:21).   ויחזק בכנף מעילו: לפי פשוטו משמעו, שכשפנה שמואל ללכת מאחרי שאול, אחז שאול בכנף של שמואל, לפי שהיה שאול מבקש ממנו שישוב עד שישתחוה בגלגל שהיה שם אהל מועד ומדרש אגדה (שוחר טוב) חולקים אמוראים, יש אומרים: מעילו של שמואל קרע שאול. ויש אומרים: מעילו של שאול קרע שמואל, ומסר לו סימן זה, מי שיכרות כנף מעילו, הוא ימלוך תחתיו, והוא שאמר לו שאול לדוד ביום שכרת את המעיל (לקמן כד כ): ידעתי כי מלוך תמלוך:
28And Samuel said to him, "The Lord has torn the kingdom of Israel from you, today; and has given it to your fellow who is better than you.   כחוַיֹּ֚אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל קָרַ֨ע יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶֽת־מַמְלְכ֧וּת יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵעָלֶ֖יךָ הַיּ֑וֹם וּנְתָנָ֕הּ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ הַטּ֥וֹב מִמֶּֽךָּ:
29And also, the Strength of Israel will neither lie nor repent, for He is not a man to repent."   כטוְגַם֙ נֵ֣צַח יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א יְשַׁקֵּ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִנָּחֵ֑ם כִּ֣י לֹ֥א אָדָ֛ם ה֖וּא לְהִנָּחֵֽם:
And also, the Strength of Israel will neither lie: And if you say, “I shall repent of my sin before Him, it will no longer avail to take the kingdom from the one to whom it was given, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who is the Strength of Israel, will not lie by not giving the good to whom He promised to give it.”   וגם נצח ישראל לא ישקר: ואם תאמר אשוב מעוני לפניו, לא יועיל עוד ליטול את המלוכה ממי שנתנה לו, כי הקב"ה שהוא נצחונו של ישראל, לא ישקר מליתן הטובה לזה שאמר ליתן:
30And he said, "I have sinned. Now, honor me now in the presence of the elders of my people, and in the presence of Israel, and return with me, and I shall prostrate myself to the Lord your God."   לוַיֹּ֣אמֶר חָטָ֔אתִי עַתָּ֗ה כַּבְּדֵ֥נִי נָ֛א נֶ֥גֶד זִקְנֵֽי־עַמִּ֖י וְנֶ֣גֶד יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְשׁ֣וּב עִמִּ֔י וְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֵ֖יתִי לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
31And Samuel returned after Saul, and Saul prostrated himself to the Lord.   לאוַיָּ֥שָׁב שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל אַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ שָׁא֖וּל לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
32And Samuel said, "Bring Agag, the king of Amalek, near to me." And Agag went to him delicately. And Agag said, "Surely, the bitterness of death has turned."   לבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל הַגִּ֚ישׁוּ אֵלַי֙ אֶת־אֲגַג֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲמָלֵ֔ק וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אֵלָ֔יו אֲגַ֖ג מַעֲדַנֹּ֑ת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲגָ֔ג אָכֵ֖ן סָ֥ר מַר־הַמָּֽוֶת:
And Agag went to him delicately: (Heb. ‘ma’adanoth.’) Jonathan renders: delicately.   אגג מעדנות: יונתן תרגם: אגג מפנקא:
Surely, the bitterness of death has turned.: Indeed, I know that the bitterness of death has turned toward me, and is approaching.   אכן סר מר המות: באמת ידעתי כי סר וקרב עלי מרירת המות:
33And Samuel said, "As your sword bereaved women, so will your mother be bereaved among women." And Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal.   לגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר שִׁכְּלָ֚ה נָשִׁים֙ חַרְבֶּ֔ךָ כֵּן־תִּשְׁכַּ֥ל מִנָּשִׁ֖ים אִמֶּ֑ךָ וַיְשַׁסֵּ֨ף שְׁמוּאֵ֧ל אֶת־אֲגָ֛ג לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה בַּגִּלְגָּֽל:
As your sword bereaved women: to render them veritable widows from their husbands, for you would cut off the membrum virile of the youths of Israel.   כאשר שכלה נשים חרבך: להושיבם אלמנות מבעליהם, שהייתם חותכים זנבי בחורי ישראל:
And he hewed: (וישסף) He cut him into four pieces. There is no similarity to this word. The Targum renders: ‘ufashah.’ And in our Gemara (i.e., T.B., Bets. 33b) we find: He broke a branch off (‘m’fashah’), and gave us each several sticks, meaning that he split.   וישסף: חתכו לארבע, ואין לתיבה זו דמיון ותרגום וישסף, ופשח. ובגמרא שלנו יש הוה מפשח ויהיב לן אלותא, כלומר בוקע:
34And Samuel went to Ramah, and Saul went up to his house in Gibeah of Saul.   לדוַיֵּ֥לֶךְ שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל הָרָמָ֑תָה וְשָׁא֛וּל עָלָ֥ה אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ גִּבְעַ֥ת שָׁאֽוּל:
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