ב"ה

Torah Reading for Beshalach

Parshat Beshalach
Shabbat, 10 Shevat, 5785
8 February, 2025
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Complete: (Exodus 13:17 - 17:16; Judges 4:4 - 5:31)
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First Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 13

17It came to pass when Pharaoh let the people go, that God did not lead them [by] way of the land of the Philistines for it was near, because God said, Lest the people reconsider when they see war and return to Egypt   יזוַיְהִ֗י בְּשַׁלַּ֣ח פַּרְעֹה֘ אֶת־הָעָם֒ וְלֹֽא־נָחָ֣ם אֱלֹהִ֗ים דֶּ֚רֶךְ אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים כִּ֥י קָר֖וֹב ה֑וּא כִּ֣י | אָמַ֣ר אֱלֹהִ֗ים פֶּן־יִנָּחֵ֥ם הָעָ֛ם בִּרְאֹתָ֥ם מִלְחָמָ֖ה וְשָׁ֥בוּ מִצְרָֽיְמָה:
It came to pass when Pharaoh let…that God did not lead them: Heb. וְלֹא-נָחָם, and did not lead them, similar to “Go, lead (נְחֵה) the people” (Exod. 32:34) [and] “When you walk, it shall lead (תִּנְחֶה) you” (Prov. 6:22).   וַיְהִי בְּשַׁלַּח פַּרְעֹה וְלֹֽא־נָחָם: נְהָגָם, כְּמוֹ "לֵךְ נְחֵה אֶת הָעָם" (שמות ל"ב), "בְּהִתְהַלֶּכְךָ תַּנְחֶה אוֹתָךְ" (משלי ו'):
for it was near: and it was easy to return by that road to Egypt. There are also many aggadic midrashim [regarding this].   כִּי קָרוֹב הוּא: וְנֹחַ לָשׁוּב בְּאוֹתוֹ הַדֶּרֶךְ לְמִצְרַיִם; וּמִדְרְשֵׁי אַגָּדָה יֵשׁ הַרְבֵּה:
when they see war: For instance, the war of “And the Amalekites and the Canaanites descended, etc.” (Num. 14:45). If they had gone on a direct route, they would have returned. Now, if when He led them around in a circuitous route, they said, “Let us appoint a leader and return to Egypt” (Num. 14:4), how much more [would they have planned to do this] if He had led them on a direct route? [According to the sequence of the verse, the headings appear to be transposed. See Mizrachi, Gur Aryeh, and Minchath Yehudah for a correct solution of this problem.]   בִּרְאֹתָם מִלְחָמָה: כְּגוֹן מִלְחֶמֶת "וַיֵּרֶד הָעֲמָלֵקִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְגוֹ'" (במדבר י"ד), אִם הָלְכוּ דֶּרֶךְ יָשָׁר הָיוּ חוֹזְרִים, וּמָה אִם כְּשֶׁהִקִּיפָם דֶּרֶךְ מְעֻקָּם אָמְרוּ "נִתְּנָה רֹאשׁ וְנָשׁוּבָה מִצְרָיְמָה" (שם), אִם הוֹלִיכָם בִּפְשׁוּטָה עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה:
Lest…reconsider: They will have [second] thoughts about [the fact] that they left Egypt and they will think about returning.   פֶּן־יִנָּחֵם: יַחְשְׁבוּ מַחֲשָׁבָה עַל שֶׁיָּצְאוּ וְיִתְּנוּ לֵב לָשׁוּב:
18So God led the people around [by] way of the desert [to] the Red Sea, and the children of Israel were armed when they went up out of Egypt.   יחוַיַּסֵּ֨ב אֱלֹהִ֧ים | אֶת־הָעָ֛ם דֶּ֥רֶךְ הַמִּדְבָּ֖ר יַם־ס֑וּף וַֽחֲמֻשִׁ֛ים עָל֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
led…around: He led them around from a direct route to a circuitous route.   וַיַּסֵּב: הֱסִבָּם מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ הַפְּשׁוּטָה לַדֶּרֶךְ הָעֲקוּמָה:
the Red Sea: Heb. יַם-סוּף, like לְיַם-סוּף, to the Red Sea. סוּף means a marsh where reeds grow, similar to “and put [it] into the marsh (בַּסוּף)” (Exod. 2:3); “reeds and rushes (וַסוּף) shall be cut off” (Isa. 19:6).   יַם־סוּף: כְּמוֹ לְיַם סוּף, וְסוּף הוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲגַם שֶׁגְּדֵלִים בּוֹ קָנִים, כְּמוֹ "וַתָּשֶׂם בַּסּוּף" (שמות ב'), "קָנֶה וָסוּף קָמֵלוּ" (ישעיהו י"ט):
armed: Heb. חִמֻשִׁים וַחִמֻשִׁים [in this context] can only mean “armed.” (Since He led them around in the desert [circuitously], He caused them to go up armed, for if He had led them around through civilization, they would not have [had to] provide for themselves with everything that they needed, but only [part,] like a person who travels from place to place and intends to purchase there whatever he will need. But if he travels a long distance into a desert, he must prepare all his necessities for himself. This verse was written only to clarify the matter, so you should not wonder where they got weapons in the war with Amalek and in the wars with Sihon and Og and Midian, for the Israelites smote them with the point of the sword.) [In an old Rashi]) And similarly [Scripture] says: “and you shall cross over armed (חִמֻשִׁים)” (Josh. 1:14). And so too Onkelos rendered מְזָרְזִין just as he rendered: “and he armed (וְזָרֵיז) his trained men” (Gen. 14:14). Another interpretation: חִמֻשִׁים means “divided by five,” [meaning] that one out of five (חִמִֹשָה) [Israelites] went out, and four fifths [lit., parts of the people] died during the three days of darkness [see Rashi on Exod. 10:22]. — [from Mechilta, Tanchuma, Beshallach 1]   וַֽחֲמֻשִׁים: אֵין חֲמוּשִׁים אֶלָּא מְזֻיָּנִים; (לְפִי שֶׁהֱסִבָּן בַּמִּדְבָּר הוּא גָּרַם לָהֶם שֶׁעָלוּ חֲמוּשִׁים, שֶׁאִלּוּ הֱסִבָּן דֶּרֶךְ יִשּׁוּב, לֹא הָיוּ מְחֻמָּשִׁים לָהֶם כָּל מַה שֶּׁצְּרִיכִין, אֶלָּא כְּאָדָם שֶׁעוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם וּבְדַעְתּוֹ לִקְנוֹת שָׁם מַה שֶּׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהוּא פּוֹרֵשׁ לַמִּדְבָּר צָרִיךְ לְזַמֵּן לוֹ כָּל הַצֹּרֶךְ; וּמִקְרָא זֶה לֹא נִכְתַּב כִּי אִם לְשַׂבֵּר אֶת הָאֹזֶן, שֶׁלֹּא תִתְמַהּ בְּמִלְחֶמֶת עֲמָלֵק וּבְמִלְחֶמֶת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג וּמִדְיָן מֵהֵיכָן הָיוּ לָהֶם כְּלֵי זַיִן שֶׁהִכּוּ אוֹתָם בַּחֶרֶב) וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "וְאַתֶּם תַּעַבְרוּ חֲמֻשִׁים" (יהושע א'), וְכֵן תִּרְגְּמוֹ אֻנְקְלוֹס "מְזָרְזִין", כְּמוֹ "וַיָּרֶק אֶת חֲנִיכָיו" (בראשית י"ד) – וְזָרֵיז. דָּבָר אַחֵר, חֲמֻשִׁים אֶחָד מֵחֲמִשָּׁה יָצְאוּ וְאַרְבָּעָה חֲלָקִים מֵתוּ בִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת יְמֵי אֲפֵלָה (מכילתא):
19Moses took Joseph's bones with him, for he [Joseph] had adjured the sons of Israel, saying, God will surely remember you, and you shall bring up my bones from here with you   יטוַיִּקַּ֥ח משֶׁ֛ה אֶת־עַצְמ֥וֹת יוֹסֵ֖ף עִמּ֑וֹ כִּי֩ הַשְׁבֵּ֨עַ הִשְׁבִּ֜יעַ אֶת־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר פָּקֹ֨ד יִפְקֹ֤ד אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהַֽעֲלִיתֶ֧ם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַ֛י מִזֶּ֖ה אִתְּכֶֽם:
for he had adjured: Heb. הִֹשְבִּיעַ הַֹשְבֵּעַ. [The double expression indicates that] he [Joseph] had made them [his brothers] swear that they would make their children swear (Mechilta). Now why did he not make his sons swear to carry him to the land of Canaan immediately [when he died], as Jacob had made [him] swear? Joseph said, “I was a ruler in Egypt, and I had the ability to do [this]. As for my sons-the Egyptians will not let them do [it].” Therefore, he made them swear that when they would be redeemed and would leave there [Egypt], they would carry him [out]. — [from Mechilta]   הַשְׁבֵּעַ הִשְׁבִּיעַ: הִשְׁבִּיעָם שֶׁיַּשְׁבִּיעוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם. וְלָמָּה לֹא הִשְׁבִּיעַ בָּנָיו שֶׁיִּשָּׂאוּהוּ לְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן מִיָּד כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִשְׁבִּיעַ יַעֲקֹב? אָמַר יוֹסֵף, אֲנִי שַׁלִּיט הָיִיתִי בְמִצְרַיִם וְהָיָה סֵפֶק בְּיָדִי לַעֲשׂוֹת, אֲבָל בָנַי לֹא יַנִּיחוּם מִצְרַיִם לַעֲשׂוֹת, לְכָךְ הִשְׁבִּיעָם לִכְשֶׁיִּגָּאֲלוּ וְיֵצְאוּ מִשָּׁם שֶׁיִּשָּׂאוּהוּ:
and you shall bring up my bones from here with you: He made his brothers swear in this manner. We learn [from this] that the bones of all [the progenitors of] the tribes they brought up [out of Egypt] with them as it is said “with you” -[from Mechilta]   וְהַֽעֲלִיתֶם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַי מִזֶּה אִתְּכֶֽם: לְאֶחָיו הִשְׁבִּיעַ כֵּן, לִמְּדָנוּ שֶׁאַף עַצְמוֹת כָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים הֶעֱלוּ עִמָּהֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אִתְּכֶם (מכילתא):
20They traveled from Succoth, and they encamped in Etham, at the edge of the desert.   כוַיִּסְע֖וּ מִסֻּכֹּ֑ת וַיַּֽחֲנ֣וּ בְאֵתָ֔ם בִּקְצֵ֖ה הַמִּדְבָּֽר:
They traveled from Succoth: on the second day, for on the first day they came from Rameses to Succoth.   וַיִּסְעוּ מִסֻּכֹּת: בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי, שֶׁהֲרֵי בָרִאשׁוֹן בָּאוּ מֵרַעְמְסֵס לְסֻכּוֹת:
21And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to cause it to lead them on the way and at night in a pillar of fire to give them light, [they thus could] travel day and night.   כאוַֽיהֹוָ֡ה הֹלֵךְ֩ לִפְנֵיהֶ֨ם יוֹמָ֜ם בְּעַמּ֤וּד עָנָן֙ לַנְחֹתָ֣ם הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְלַ֛יְלָה בְּעַמּ֥וּד אֵ֖שׁ לְהָאִ֣יר לָהֶ֑ם לָלֶ֖כֶת יוֹמָ֥ם וָלָֽיְלָה:
to cause it to lead them on the way: Heb. לַנְחֹתָם. [The “lammed” is] vowelized with a “pattach,” which is equivalent to לְהַנְחֹתָם, like “to show you (לַראֹתְכֶם) on the way on which you shall go” (Deut. 1:33), which is like לְהַרְאֹתְכֶם. Here also, [it means] to cause to lead you (לְהַנְחֹתָם) through a messenger. Now who was that messenger? [It was] the pillar of cloud, and the Holy One, blessed be He, in His glory, led it before them. In any case, it was the pillar of cloud that He prepared so that they could be led by it, for they would travel by the pillar of cloud, and the pillar of cloud was not [meant] to provide light but to direct them [on] the way.   לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ: נָקוּד פַּתָּח שֶׁהוּא כְּמוֹ לְהַנְחוֹתָם, "לַרְאוֹתְכֶם בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכוּ בָהּ" (דברים א') שֶׁהוּא כְמוֹ לְהַרְאוֹתְכֶם, אַף כָּאן לְהַנְחֹתָם עַל יְדֵי שָׁלִיחַ, וּמִי הוּא הַשָּׁלִיחַ? עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן; וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּכְבוֹדוֹ מוֹלִיכוֹ לִפְנֵיהֶם, וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אֶת עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן הֵכִין לְהַנְחוֹתָם עַל יָדוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי עַל יְדֵי עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן הֵם הוֹלְכִים; עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן אֵינוֹ לְאוֹרָה אֶלָּא לְהוֹרוֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ:
22He did not move away the pillar of cloud by day or the pillar of fire at night [from] before the people.   כבלֹֽא־יָמִ֞ישׁ עַמּ֤וּד הֶֽעָנָן֙ יוֹמָ֔ם וְעַמּ֥וּד הָאֵ֖שׁ לָ֑יְלָה לִפְנֵ֖י הָעָֽם:
He did not move away: [I.e.,] the Holy One, blessed be He, [did not move away] the pillar of cloud by day or the pillar of fire at night. [This verse] tells that the pillar of cloud transmitted [its light to] the pillar of fire, and the pillar of fire transmitted [its light to] the pillar of cloud, for while one had not yet set, the other one would rise. — [from Shab. 23b]   לֹֽא־יָמִישׁ: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עמוד הענן יומם ועמוד האש לילה; מַגִּיד שֶׁעַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מַשְׁלִים לְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ מַשְׁלִים לְעַמּוּד הֶעָנָן, שֶׁעַד שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁקַע זֶה עוֹלֶה זֶה:

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 14

1The Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, and let them turn back and encamp in front of Pi hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea; in front of Baal Zephon, you shall encamp opposite it, by the sea.   בדַּבֵּר֘ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְיָשֻׁ֗בוּ וְיַחֲנוּ֙ לִפְנֵי֙ פִּ֣י הַֽחִירֹ֔ת בֵּ֥ין מִגְדֹּ֖ל וּבֵ֣ין הַיָּ֑ם לִפְנֵי֙ בַּ֣עַל צְפֹ֔ן נִכְח֥וֹ תַֽחֲנ֖וּ עַל־הַיָּֽם:
and let them turn back: to their rear. They approached nearer to Egypt during the entire third day in order to mislead Pharaoh, so that he would say, “They are astray on the road,” as it is said: “And Pharaoh will say about the children of Israel…” (Exod. 14:3).   וְיָשֻׁבוּ: לַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶם, לְצַד מִצְרַיִם הָיוּ מְקָרְבִין כָּל יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, כְּדֵי לְהַטְעוֹת אֶת פַּרְעֹה שֶׁיֹּאמַר תּוֹעִים הֵם בַּדֶּרֶךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְאָמַר פַּרְעֹה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ'":
and encamp in front of Pi-hahiroth: That is Pithom [one of the cities built by the Israelites, Exod 1:11], but now it was called Pi-hahiroth, since there they [the Israelites] became free men (בְּנֵי חוֹרִין). They [the Hiroth] are two high upright rocks, and [because there is] the valley between them [this] is called the mouth (פִּי) of the rocks. — [from Mechilta]   וְיַחֲנוּ לִפְנֵי פִּי הַֽחִירֹת: הוּא פִּיתוֹם, וְעַכְשָׁו נִקְרָא פִּי הַחִירֹת עַל שֵׁם שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ שָׁם בְּנֵי חֹרִין; וְהֵם שְׁנֵי סְלָעִים גְּבוֹהִים זְקוּפִים וְהַגַּיְא שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם קָרוּי פִּי הַסְּלָעִים:
in front of Ba’al Zephon: [Only] this was left from all the Egyptian deities in order to mislead them [the Egyptians], so they would say that their deity is powerful. Concerning this [tactic] Job explained: “He misleads nations and destroys them” (Job 12:23). — [from Mechilta]   לִפְנֵי בַּעַל צְפֹן: הוּא נִשְׁאַר מִכָּל אֱלֹהֵי מִצְרַיִם כְּדֵי לְהַטְעוֹתָן, שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ קָשָׁה יִרְאָתָן, וְעָלָיו פֵּרֵשׁ אִיּוֹב "מַשְׂגִּיא לַגּוֹיִם וַיְאַבְּדֵם" (איוב י"ב):
3And Pharaoh will say about the children of Israel, They are trapped in the land. The desert has closed in upon them.   גוְאָמַ֤ר פַּרְעֹה֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נְבֻכִ֥ים הֵ֖ם בָּאָ֑רֶץ סָגַ֥ר עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם הַמִּדְבָּֽר:
And Pharaoh will say: when he hears that they [the Israelites] are turning back.   וְאָמַר פַּרְעֹה: כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁמַע שֶׁהֵם שָׁבִים לַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶם:
about the children of Israel: Heb. לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, concerning the children of Israel. And so [the “lammed” is understood similarly in the phrase] "The Lord will fight for you (לָכֶם) (verse 14), on your behalf; [and similarly,] “say about me (לִי)” (Gen. 20:13), [which signifies] concerning me.   לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: עַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵן (פסוק יד) "ה' יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם" – עֲלֵיכֶם, (בראשית כ יג) "אִמְרִי לִי אָחִי הוּא" – אִמְרִי עָלַי:
They are trapped: Heb. נְבֻכִים, locked in and sunk, and in French serrer, [meaning] press, tighten, or squeeze, like “in the deep (הַבָּכָא) valley” (Ps. 84:7); [and like] “the depths of (מִבְּכִי) the rivers” (Job 28:11); [and likewise] “the locks of (נִבְכֵי) the sea” (Job 38:16). [In his commentary on this verse, Rashi follows Menachem (Machbereth Menachem, p. 45). Rashi on Psalms and Job 28:11, however, interprets those verses as expressions of weeping, from the root בכה. See Judaica Press commentary digest on Job 28:11.]   נְבֻכִים הֵם: כְּלוּאִים וּמְשֻׁקָּעִים, וּבְלַעַז שירי"ר, כְּמוֹ "נִבְכֵי יָם" (איוב ל"ח), "בְּעֵמֶק הַבָּכָא" (תהילים פ"ד) "מִבְּכִי נְהָרוֹת" (איוב כ"ח).
They are trapped: They are locked in the desert, for they do not know how to get out of it and where to go.   נְבֻכִים הֵם: , כְּלוּאִים הֵם בַּמִּדְבָּר, שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹדְעִין לָצֵאת מִמֶּנּוּ וּלְהֵיכָן יֵלֵכוּ:
4And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will pursue them, and I will be glorified through Pharaoh and through his entire force, and the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord. And they did so.   דוְחִזַּקְתִּ֣י אֶת־לֵֽב־פַּרְעֹה֘ וְרָדַ֣ף אַֽחֲרֵיהֶם֒ וְאִכָּֽבְדָ֤ה בְּפַרְעֹה֙ וּבְכָל־חֵיל֔וֹ וְיָֽדְע֥וּ מִצְרַ֖יִם כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵֽן:
and I will be glorified through Pharaoh: When the Holy One blessed be He wreaks vengeance upon the wicked, His name becomes magnified and glorified. So it [Scripture] says: “And I will judge against him, etc.” and afterwards [the prophet says], “And I will magnify and sanctify Myself and I will be known, etc.” (Ezek 38:22, 23) And [Scripture similarly] says: “There he broke the arrows of the bow,” [which refers to Sennacherib’s defeat,] and afterwards [i.e., the result of that], “God is known in Judah” (Ps. 76:2,4) And [Scripture similarly] says: “The Lord is known for the judgement that He performed” (Ps. 9:17). — [from Mechilta]   וְאִכָּֽבְדָה בְּפַרְעֹה: כְּשֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְנַקֵּם בָּרְשָׁעִים שְׁמוֹ מִתְגַּדֵּל וּמִתְכַּבֵּד, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּי אִתּוֹ וְגוֹ'" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "וְהִתְגַדִּלְתִּי וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתִּי וְנוֹדַעְתִּי וְגוֹ'" (יחזקאל ל"ח), וְאוֹמֵר "שָׁמָּה שִׁבַּר רִשְׁפֵי קָשֶׁת", וְאַחַר כָּךְ "נוֹדָע בִּיהוּדָה אֱלֹהִים" (תהלים ע"ו), וְאוֹמֵר "נוֹדַע ה' מִשְׁפָּט עָשָׂה" (שם ט'):
through Pharaoh and through his entire force: He [Pharaoh] initiated the sinful behavior, and [thus] the retribution started with him. — [from Mechilta]   בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל־חֵילוֹ: הוּא הִתְחִיל בַּעֲבֵרָה וּמִמֶּנּוּ הִתְחִילָה הַפֻּרְעָנוּת:
And they did so: [This is stated] to tell their praise, that they obeyed Moses and did not say, “How will we draw near to our enemies [by returning in the direction of Egypt]? We have to escape.” Instead they said, “All we have are the words of [Moses] the son of Amram.” [I.e., we have no other plan to follow, only the words of the son of Amram.]-[from Mechilta]   וַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵֽן: לְהַגִּיד שִׁבְחָן, שֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ לְקוֹל מֹשֶׁה, וְלֹא אָמְרוּ הַאֵיךְ נִתְקָרֵב אֶל רוֹדְפֵינוּ? אָנוּ צְרִיכִים לִבְרֹחַ אֶלָּא אָמְרוּ אֵין לָנוּ לְקַיֵם אֶלָּא דִּבְרֵי בֶן עַמְרָם (מכילתא):
5It was reported to Pharaoh that the people had fled; and Pharaoh and his servants had a change of heart toward the people, and they said, What is this that we have done, that we have released Israel from serving us?   הוַיֻּגַּד֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם כִּ֥י בָרַ֖ח הָעָ֑ם וַיֵּֽ֠הָפֵ֠ךְ לְבַ֨ב פַּרְעֹ֤ה וַֽעֲבָדָיו֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ מַה־זֹּ֣את עָשִׂ֔ינוּ כִּֽי־שִׁלַּ֥חְנוּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵֽעָבְדֵֽנוּ:
It was reported to Pharaoh: He [Pharaoh] sent officers with them, and as soon as the three days they [the Israelites] had set to go [into the desert] and return had elapsed, and they [the officers] saw that they were not returning to Egypt, they came and informed Pharaoh on the fourth day. On the fifth and the sixth [days after the Israelites’ departure], they pursued them. On the night preceding the seventh, they went down into the sea. In the morning [of the seventh day], they [the Israelites] recited the Song [of the Sea (Exod. 15:1-18)]. Therefore, we read [in the Torah] the Song on the seventh day, that is the seventh day of Passover.   וַיֻּגַּד לְמֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם: אִיקְטוֹרִין שָׁלַח עִמָּהֶם, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים שֶׁקָבְעוּ לֵילֵךְ וְלָשׁוּב וְרָאוּ שֶׁאֵינָן חוֹזְרִין לְמִצְרַיִם, בָּאוּ וְהִגִּידוּ לְפַרְעֹה בַּיּוֹם הָרְבִיעִי, בַּחֲמִישִׁי וּבַשִּׁשִּׁי רָדְפוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם, לֵיל שְׁבִיעִי יָרְדוּ לַיָּם, בַּשַּׁחֲרִית אָמְרוּ שִׁירָה וְהוּא יוֹם שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח; לְכָךְ אָנוּ קוֹרִין הַשִּׁירָה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי:
had a change: He [Pharaoh] had a change of heart from how he had felt [previously], for he had said to them [the Israelites], “Get up and get out from among my people” (Exod. 12:31). His servants [also] had a change of heart, for previously they had said to him, “How long will this one be a stumbling block to us?” (Exod. 10:7). Now they had a change of heart to pursue them [the Israelites] on account of the money that they had lent them. — [based on Mechilta]   וַיֵּֽהָפֵךְ: נֶהְפַּךְ מִמַּה שֶּׁהָיָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמַר לָהֶם "קוּמוּ צְּאוּ מִתּוֹךְ עַמִּי" (שמות י"ב), וְנֶהְפַּךְ לֵב עֲבָדָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי לְשֶׁעָבַר הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ "עַד מָתַי יִהְיֶה זֶה לָנוּ לְמוֹקֵשׁ" (שמות י'), וְעַכְשָׁיו נֶהֶפְכוּ לִרְדֹף אַחֲרֵיהֶם בִּשְׁבִיל מָמוֹנָם שֶׁהִשְׁאִילוּם:
from serving us: Heb. מֵעָבְדֵנוּ, from serving us.   מֵֽעָבְדֵֽנוּ: מֵעֲבֹד אוֹתָנוּ:
6So he [Pharaoh] harnessed his chariot, and took his people with him.   ווַיֶּאְסֹ֖ר אֶת־רִכְבּ֑וֹ וְאֶת־עַמּ֖וֹ לָקַ֥ח עִמּֽוֹ:
So he [Pharaoh] harnessed his chariot: He [did so] personally. — [from Mechilta]   וַיֶּאְסֹר אֶת־רִכְבּוֹ: הוּא בְעַצְמוֹ (מכילתא):
and took his people with him: He attracted them with [his] words, "We suffered, they took our money, and [then] we let them go! Come with me, and I will not behave with you as do other kings. With other kings, it is customary that their servants precede them in battle, but I will precede you," as [indeed] it is said: “Pharaoh drew near” (Exod. 14:10). [This means that Pharaoh] himself drew near and hastened before his armies. "It is customary for other kings to take plunder at the beginning, as much as he [the king] chooses. [But] I will share equally with you," as it is said: “I will share the booty” (Exod. 15:9).   וְאֶת־עַמּוֹ לָקַח עִמּֽוֹ: מְשָׁכָם בִּדְבָרִים, לָקִינוּ וְנָטְלוּ מָמוֹנֵנוּ וְשִׁלַּחְנוּם, בֹּאוּ עִמִּי וַאֲנִי לֹא אֶתְנַהֵג עִמָּכֶם כִּשְׁאָר מְלָכִים, דֶּרֶךְ שְׁאָר מְלָכִים עֲבָדָיו קוֹדְמִין לוֹ בַּמִּלְחָמָה, וַאֲנִי אַקְדִּים לִפְנֵיכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּפַרְעֹה הִקְרִיב – הִקְרִיב עַצְמוֹ וּמִהֵר לִפְנֵי חֵילוֹתָיו –, דֶּרֶךְ שְׁאָר מְלָכִים לִטֹּל בִּזָּה בָּרֹאשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּבְחַר, אֲנִי אֶשְׁוֶה עִמָּכֶם בַּחֵלֶק שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל" (שמות ט"ו):
7He took six hundred select chariots and all the chariots of Egypt, with officers over them all.   זוַיִּקַּ֗ח שֵֽׁשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת רֶ֨כֶב֙ בָּח֔וּר וְכֹ֖ל רֶ֣כֶב מִצְרָ֑יִם וְשָֽׁלִשִׁ֖ם עַל־כֻּלּֽוֹ:
select: Heb. בָּחוּר, chosen. [This is] a singular expression, [meaning that] every single chariot in this number was [a] chosen [chariot].   בָּחוּר: נִבְחָרִים, בָּחוּר לְשׁוֹן יָחִיד, כָּל רֶכֶב וָרֶכֶב שֶׁבְּמִנְיָן זֶה הָיָה בָּחוּר:
and all the chariots of Egypt: And with them, all the rest of the chariots. Now where did all these animals come from? If you say [that they belonged] to the Egyptians, it says already: “and all the livestock of the Egyptians died” (Exod. 9:6). And if [you say that they belonged] to the Israelites, does it not say: “also our cattle will go with us” (Exod. 10:26). Whose were they [from if that was the case]? They [belonged] to those who feared the word of the Lord [i.e., to those who drove their servants and their livestock into the houses as in Exod. 9:20]. From here Rabbi Simeon would say, "[Even] the best of the Egyptians --[you must] kill; [even] the best of the serpents-[you must] crush its head."-[from Mechilta]   וְכֹל רֶכֶב מִצְרָיִם: וְעִמָּהֶם כָּל שְׁאָר הָרֶכֶב; וּמֵהֵיכָן הָיוּ הַבְּהֵמוֹת הַלָּלוּ? אִם תֹּאמַר מִשֶּׁל מִצְרַיִם, הֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר "וַיָּמָת כֹּל מִקְנֵה מִצְרָיִם" (שמות ט'), וְאִם מִשֶּׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וַהֲלֹא נֶאֱמַר "וְגַם מִקְנֵנוּ יֵלֵךְ עִמָּנוּ", מִשֶּׁל מִי הָיוּ? מִן הַיָּרֵא אֶת דְּבַר ה'. מִכָּאן הָיָה רַ' שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כָּשֵׁר שֶׁבַּמִּצְרִים הֲרֹג, טוֹב שֶׁבַּנְּחָשִׁים רְצֹץ אֶת מֹחוֹ (מכילתא):
with officers over them all: Heb. וְשָׁלִשִׁם, officers over the legions, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders.   וְשָֽׁלִשִׁם עַל־כֻּלּֽוֹ: שָׂרֵי צְבָאוֹת, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
8And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and he chased after the children of Israel, and the children of Israel were marching out triumphantly.   חוַיְחַזֵּ֣ק יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶת־לֵ֤ב פַּרְעֹה֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּרְדֹּ֕ף אַֽחֲרֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יֹֽצְאִ֖ים בְּיָ֥ד רָמָֽה:
And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh: Because he vacillated about whether to pursue [the Israelites] or not. [So] He hardened his heart to pursue [them]. — [from Mechilta]   וַיְחַזֵּק ה' אֶת־לֵב פַּרְעֹה: שֶׁהָיָה תוֹלֶה אִם לִרְדֹּף אִם לָאו, וְחִזֵּק אֶת לִבּוֹ לִרְדֹּף (שם):
and the children of Israel were marching out triumphantly: Heb. בְּיָד רָמָה, lit., with a high hand. With lofty and openly displayed might.   בְּיָד רָמָֽה: בִּגְבוּרָה גְּבוֹהָה וּמְפֻרְסֶמֶת:

Second Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 14

9The Egyptians chased after them and overtook them encamped by the sea every horse of Pharaoh's chariots, his horsemen, and his force beside Pi hahiroth, in front of Ba'al Zephon.   טוַיִּרְדְּפ֨וּ מִצְרַ֜יִם אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֗ם וַיַּשִּׂ֤יגוּ אוֹתָם֙ חֹנִ֣ים עַל־הַיָּ֔ם כָּל־סוּס֙ רֶ֣כֶב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וּפָֽרָשָׁ֖יו וְחֵיל֑וֹ עַל־פִּי֙ הַֽחִירֹ֔ת לִפְנֵ֖י בַּ֥עַל צְפֹֽן:
10Pharaoh drew near, and the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold! the Egyptians were advancing after them. They were very frightened, and the children of Israel cried out to the Lord.   יוּפַרְעֹ֖ה הִקְרִ֑יב וַיִּשְׂאוּ֩ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל אֶת־עֵֽינֵיהֶ֜ם וְהִנֵּ֥ה מִצְרַ֣יִם | נֹסֵ֣עַ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֗ם וַיִּֽירְאוּ֙ מְאֹ֔ד וַיִּצְעֲק֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אֶל־יְהֹוָֽה:
Pharaoh drew near: Heb. וּפַרְעֹה הִקְרִיב, lit., and Pharaoh brought near. It [the verse] should have said: קָרַב. What is the meaning of הִקְרִיב ? He [Pharaoh] drew himself near and strove to go before them [his army], as he had stipulated with them. —   וּפַרְעֹה הִקְרִיב: הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב וּפַרְעֹה קָרַב, מַהוּ הִקְרִיב? הִקְרִיב עַצְמוֹ וְנִתְאַמֵּץ לְקַדֵּם לִפְנֵיהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמָּהֶם:
the Egyptians were advancing after them: Heb. נֹסֵעַ [in the singular]. With one accord, like one man. Alternatively, [in the singular it means that] and behold, Egypt was advancing after them, [denoting that] they [the Israelites] saw the heavenly prince of Egypt advancing from heaven to aid the Egyptians. [From] Tanchuma.   נֹסֵעַ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶם: בְּלֵב אֶחָד כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד. דָּבָר אַחֵר – וְהִנֵּה מִצְרַיִם נֹסֵעַ אַחֲרֵיהֶם, רָאוּ שַׂר שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם נוֹסֵעַ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם לַעֲזֹר לַמִּצְרִים; – תנחומא:
cried out: They seized the art of their ancestors [i.e., they prayed]. Concerning Abraham, it [Scripture] says: “to the place where he had stood before the Lord” (Gen. 19:27). Concerning Isaac, [it is stated] “to pray in the field” (Gen. 24:63). Concerning Jacob, “And he entreated the Omnipresent” (Gen. 28:11). (See Judaica Press comm. digest on that verse.)-[from Mechilta; Tanchuma Beshallach 9]   וַיִּצְעֲקוּ: תָּפְשׂוּ אֻמָּנוּת אֲבוֹתָם – בְּאַבְרָהָם הוּא אוֹמֵר "אֶל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר עָמַד שָׁם" (בראשית י"ט), בְּיִצְחָק "לָשׂוּחַ בַּשָּׂדֶה", (שם כ"ד), בְּיַעֲקֹב "וַיִּפְגַע בַּמָּקוֹם" (שם כ"ח):
11They said to Moses, Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us to die in the desert? What is this that you have done to us to take us out of Egypt?   יאוַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֘ אֶל־משֶׁה֒ הֲמִבְּלִ֤י אֵֽין־קְבָרִים֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם לְקַחְתָּ֖נוּ לָמ֣וּת בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר מַה־זֹּאת֙ עָשִׂ֣יתָ לָּ֔נוּ לְהֽוֹצִיאָ֖נוּ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
Is it because there are no graves: Heb. הִמִבְּלִי אֵין קְבָרִים. Is it because of the want? Namely that there are no graves in Egypt in which to be buried, that you have taken us out of there? Si por falyanze de non fosses in Old French [i.e., Is it for lack, that there are no graves?].   הֲמִבְּלִי אֵֽין־קְבָרִים: וְכִי מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן קְבָרִים – שֶׁאֵין קְבָרִים בְּמִצְרַיִם לִקָּבֵר שָׁם – לְקַחְתָּנוּ מִשָּׁם. ש"י פו"ר פלינ"צא ד"י נו"ן פוש"יש בְלַעַז:
12Isn't this the thing [about] which we spoke to you in Egypt, saying, Leave us alone, and we will serve the Egyptians, because we would rather serve the Egyptians than die in the desert?   יבהֲלֹא־זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֗ר אֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבַּ֨רְנוּ אֵלֶ֤יךָ בְמִצְרַ֨יִם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר חֲדַ֥ל מִמֶּ֖נּוּ וְנַֽעַבְדָ֣ה אֶת־מִצְרָ֑יִם כִּ֣י ט֥וֹב לָ֨נוּ֙ עֲבֹ֣ד אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם מִמֻּתֵ֖נוּ בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
Isn’t this the thing [about] which we spoke to you in Egypt: When had they said [this]? "And they said to them, “May the Lord look upon you and judge’ ” (Exod. 5:21). [from Mechilta]   אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְנוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּמִצְרָיִם: וְהֵיכָן דִּבְּרוּ? "יֵרֶא ה' עֲלֵיכֶם וְיִשְׁפֹּט" (שמות ה') (מכילתא):
than die: Heb. מִמֻּתֵנוּ, than we should die. If it [מִמֻּתֵנוּ] were vowelized with a “melupum” (i.e., a “cholam,” [מִמּוֹתֵנוּ] as it is known that the grammarians called a “cholam” a “melupum.” See Rashi below on Exod. 19:24), it would be explained as: “than our death.” Now that it is vowelized with a “shuruk” [מִמֻּתֵנוּ], it is explained as “than we should die.” Likewise [in the verse], “If only we had died (מּוּתֵנוּ)” (Exod. 16:3), [means] that we would die. [Similarly,] “If only I had died (מּוּתֵי) instead of you” (II Sam. 19:1), referring to Absalom [means, I should have died]; [And מּוּתִי is similar to (קוּמִי) in the verse:] “for the day that I will rise up (קוּמִי)” (Zeph. 3:8); [and also similar to (ֹשוּבִי) in the verse] “until I return (ֹשוּבִי) in peace” (II Chron. 18:26), [which mean respectively] that I rise up, that I return.   מִמֻּתֵנוּ: מֵאֲשֶׁר נָמוּת, וְאִם הָיָה נָקוּד מְלָאפוּם הָיָה נִבְאָר מִמִּיתָתֵנוּ, עַכְשָׁיו שֶׁנָּקוּד בְּשׁוּרֻק נִבְאָר מֵאֲשֶׁר נָמוּת וְכֵן "מִי יִתֵּן מוּתֵנוּ" (שמות ט"ז) – שֶׁנָּמוּת, וְכֵן "מִי יִתֵּן מוּתִי" דְּאַבְשָׁלוֹם (שמואל ב' י"ט) – שֶׁאָמוּת. כְּמוֹ "לְיוֹם קוּמִי לְעַד" (צפניה ג'), "עַד יוֹם שׁוּבִי בְשָׁלוֹם" (דברי הימים ב' י"ח) – שֶׁאָקוּם, שֶׁאָשׁוּב:
13Moses said to the people, Don't be afraid! Stand firm and see the Lord's salvation that He will wreak for you today, for the way you have seen the Egyptians is [only] today, [but] you shall no longer continue to see them for eternity.   יגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֣ה אֶל־הָעָם֘ אַל־תִּירָ֒אוּ֒ הִתְיַצְּב֗וּ וּרְאוּ֙ אֶת־יְשׁוּעַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם כִּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֨ר רְאִיתֶ֤ם אֶת־מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ הַיּ֔וֹם לֹ֥א תֹסִ֛פוּ לִרְאֹתָ֥ם ע֖וֹד עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
for the way you have seen the Egyptians, etc.: The way you have seen them-that is only today. It is [only] today that you have seen them, but you shall no longer continue [to see them].   כִּי אֲשֶׁר־רְאִיתֶם אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וגו': מַה שֶּׁרְאִיתֶם אוֹתָם אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא היום, הַיּוֹם הוּא שֶׁרְאִיתֶם אוֹתָם וְלֹא תוֹסִיפוּ עוֹד:
14The Lord will fight for you, but you shall remain silent.   ידיְהֹוָ֖ה יִלָּחֵ֣ם לָכֶ֑ם וְאַתֶּ֖ם תַּֽחֲרִשֽׁוּן:
The Lord will fight for you: Heb. לָכֶם, for you, and similarly [the “lammed” in the verse], “because the Lord is fighting for them (לָהֶם)” (verse 25), and similarly [in the verse] “Will you contend for God (לָאֵל) ?” (Job 13:8). And similarly, "and Who spoke about me (לִי) (Gen. 24:7), and similarly, “Will you contend for the Baal (לַבַּעַל) ?” (Jud. 6:31).   יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם: בִּשְׁבִילְכֶם; וְכֵן "כִּי ה' נִלְחָם לָהֶם", וְכֵן "אִם לָאֵל תְּרִיבוּן" (איוב י"ג), וְכֵן "וַאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לִי" (בראשית כ"ד), וְכֵן "הַאַתֶּם תְּרִיבוּן לַבַּעַל" (שופטים ו'):

Third Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 14

15The Lord said to Moses, Why do you cry out to Me? Speak to the children of Israel and let them travel.   טווַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה מַה־תִּצְעַ֖ק אֵלָ֑י דַּבֵּ֥ר אֶל־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְיִסָּֽעוּ:
Why do you cry out to Me: [This verse] teaches us that Moses was standing and praying. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, “This is no time to pray at length, when Israel is in distress.” Another explanation [of God’s question (Why do you cry out to me?) implies]: “The matter depends on Me and not on you,” as it is said further [in Scripture]: “Concerning My children and the work of My hands do you command Me?” (Isa. 45:11). — [from Mechilta, Exod. Rabbah 21:8]   מַה־תִּצְעַק אֵלָי: לִמְּדָנוּ שֶׁהָיָה מֹשֶׁה עוֹמֵד וּמִתְפַּלֵּל, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, לֹא עֵת עַתָּה לְהַאֲרִיךְ בִּתְפִלָּה, שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל נְתוּנִין בְּצָרָה (מכילתא). דָּבָר אַחֵר – מַה תִּצְעַק אֵלָי, עָלַי הַדָּבָר תָּלוּי וְלֹא עָלֶיךָ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן "עַל בָּנַי וְעַל פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי" (ישעיהו מ"ה):
Speak to the children of Israel and let them travel: They have nothing to do but to travel, for the sea will not stand in their way. The merit of their forefathers and their own [merit], and the faith they had in Me when they came out [of Egypt] are sufficient to split the sea for them. — [from Mechilta, Exod. Rabbah 21:8]   דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִסָּֽעוּ: אֵין לָהֶם אֶלָּא לִסַּע, שֶׁאֵין הַיָּם עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵיהֶם, כְּדַאי הוּא זְכוּת אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְהָאֱמוּנָה שֶׁהֶאֱמִינוּ בִי וְיָצְאוּ, לִקְרֹעַ לָהֶם הַיָּם (מכילתא):
16And you raise your staff and stretch out your hand over the sea and split it, and the children of Israel shall come in the midst of the sea on dry land.   טזוְאַתָּ֞ה הָרֵ֣ם אֶת־מַטְּךָ֗ וּנְטֵ֧ה אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֛ עַל־הַיָּ֖ם וּבְקָעֵ֑הוּ וְיָבֹ֧אוּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּ֖ם בַּיַּבָּשָֽׁה:
17And I, behold! I shall harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they will come after you, and I will be glorified through Pharaoh, and through all his force, through his chariots, and through his horsemen.   יזוַֽאֲנִ֗י הִנְנִ֤י מְחַזֵּק֙ אֶת־לֵ֣ב מִצְרַ֔יִם וְיָבֹ֖אוּ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם וְאִכָּֽבְדָ֤ה בְּפַרְעֹה֙ וּבְכָל־חֵיל֔וֹ בְּרִכְבּ֖וֹ וּבְפָֽרָשָֽׁיו:
18And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I will be glorified through Pharaoh, through his chariots, and through his horsemen   יחוְיָֽדְע֥וּ מִצְרַ֖יִם כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה בְּהִכָּֽבְדִ֣י בְּפַרְעֹ֔ה בְּרִכְבּ֖וֹ וּבְפָֽרָשָֽׁיו:
19Then the angel of God, who had been going in front of the Israelite camp, moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud moved away from in front of them and stood behind them.   יטוַיִּסַּ֞ע מַלְאַ֣ךְ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֗ים הַֽהֹלֵךְ֙ לִפְנֵי֙ מַֽחֲנֵ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ מֵאַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם וַיִּסַּ֞ע עַמּ֤וּד הֶֽעָנָן֙ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם וַיַּֽעֲמֹ֖ד מֵאַֽחֲרֵיהֶֽם:
and went behind them: to separate between the Egyptians’ camp and the Israelites’ camp and to catch the arrows and the catapult stones of the Egyptians. Everywhere it says: “the angel of the Lord (ה),” but here [it says]: “the angel of God (אֱלֹהִים).” Everywhere [in Scripture] אֱלֹהִים denotes [God’s attribute of] judgment. This teaches that at that moment, the Israelites were being judged whether to be saved or to perish with the Egyptians.   וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַֽחֲרֵיהֶם: לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַחֲנֵה מִצְרַיִם וּבֵין מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וּלְקַבֵּל חִצִּים וּבָלִיסְטְרָאוֹת שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם. בְּכָל מָקוֹם הוּא אוֹמֵר מַלְאַךְ ה' וְכָאן מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים, אֵין אֱלֹהִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֶלָּא דַּיָּן, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נְתוּנִין בַּדִּין בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אִם לְהִנָּצֵל אִם לְהֵאָבֵד עִם מִצְרַיִם (שם):
and the pillar of cloud moved away: When it became dark, and the pillar of cloud delivered the camp to the pillar of fire, the cloud did not go away as it would customarily go away completely in the evening, but it moved away and went behind them [the Israelites] to make it dark for the Egyptians.   וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶֽעָנָן: כְּשֶׁחָשְׁכָה וְהִשְׁלִים עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן אֶת הַמַּחֲנֶה לְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ, לֹא נִסְתַּלֵּק הֶעָנָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה רָגִיל לְהִסְתַּלֵּק עַרְבִית לְגַמְרִי, אֶלָּא נָסַע וְהָלַךְ לוֹ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם לְהַחֲשִׁיךְ לְמִצְרַיִם:
20And he came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel, and there were the cloud and the darkness, and it illuminated the night, and one did not draw near the other all night long.   כוַיָּבֹ֞א בֵּ֣ין | מַֽחֲנֵ֣ה מִצְרַ֗יִם וּבֵין֙ מַֽחֲנֵ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיְהִ֤י הֶֽעָנָן֙ וְהַח֔שֶׁךְ וַיָּ֖אֶר אֶת־הַלָּ֑יְלָה וְלֹֽא־קָרַ֥ב זֶ֛ה אֶל־זֶ֖ה כָּל־הַלָּֽיְלָה:
And he came between the camp of Egypt: This can be compared to a person walking along the road with his son walking in front of him. [When] bandits came to capture him [the son], he [the father] took him from in front of him and placed him behind him. A wolf came behind him; so he put him [his son] in front of him. [When] bandits came in front of him and wolves behind him, he put him [his son] on his arms and fought them off. Similarly [the prophet depicts the angel protecting Israel when they drew near to the Red Sea], “But I sent to train Ephraim, he took them on his arms” (Hos. 11:3). — [from Mechilta]   וַיָּבֹא בֵּין מַֽחֲנֵה מִצְרַיִם: מָשָׁל לִמְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וּבְנוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנָיו, בָּאוּ לִסְטִים לִשְׁבּוֹתוֹ, נְטָלוֹ מִלְּפָנָיו וּנְתָנוֹ לְאַחֲרָיו, בָּא זְאֵב מֵאַחֲרָיו, נְתָנוֹ לְפָנָיו, בָּאוּ לִסְטִים לְפָנָיו וּזְאֵבִים מֵאַחֲרָיו, נְתָנוֹ עַל זְרוֹעוֹ וְנִלְחַם בָּהֶם, כָּךְ "וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל זְרוֹעֹתָיו" (הושע י"א) (מכילתא):
and there were the cloud and the darkness: for the Egyptians.   וַיְהִי הֶֽעָנָן וְהַחשֶׁךְ: לְמִצְרַיִם:
and it illuminated: [I.e.,] the pillar of fire [illuminated] the night for the Israelites, and it went before them as it usually went all night long, and the thick darkness [from the cloud] was toward the Egyptians.   וַיָּאֶר: עַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ את הלילה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וְהוֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם כְּדַרְכּוֹ לָלֶכֶת כָּל הַלַּיְלָה וְהַחֹשֶׁךְ שֶׁל עֲרָפֶל לְצַד מִצְרַיִם:
and one did not draw near the other: [I.e., one] camp to [the other] camp. — [from Mechilta, Jonathan]   וְלֹֽא־קָרַב זֶה אֶל־זֶה: מַחֲנֶה אֶל מַחֲנֶה (שם):
21And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the Lord led the sea with the strong east wind all night, and He made the sea into dry land and the waters split.   כאוַיֵּ֨ט משֶׁ֣ה אֶת־יָדוֹ֘ עַל־הַיָּם֒ וַיּ֣וֹלֶךְ יְהֹוָ֣ה | אֶת־הַ֠יָּ֠ם בְּר֨וּחַ קָדִ֤ים עַזָּה֙ כָּל־הַלַּ֔יְלָה וַיָּ֥שֶׂם אֶת־הַיָּ֖ם לֶחָֽרָבָ֑ה וַיִּבָּֽקְע֖וּ הַמָּֽיִם:
with the strong east wind: [I.e.,] with the east wind, which is the strongest of the winds. That is the wind with which the Holy One, blessed be He, visits retribution upon the wicked, as it is said [in the following verses]: “With an east wind I will scatter them” (Jer. 18:17); “an east wind shall come, a wind of the Lord” (Hos. 13:15); “the east wind broke you in the heart of the seas” (Ezek. 27:26); “He spoke with His harsh wind on the day of the east wind” (Isa. 27:8). — [from Mechilta]   בְּרוּחַ קָדִים עַזָּה: בְּרוּחַ קָדִים שֶׁהִיא עַזָּה שֶׁבָּרוּחוֹת, הִיא הָרוּחַ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִפְרָע בָּהּ מִן הָרְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, "כְּרוּחַ קָדִים אֲפִיצֵם" (ירמיה י"ח), "יָבוֹא קָדִים רוּחַ ה'" (הושע י"ג), "רוּחַ הַקָּדִים שְׁבָרֵךְ בְּלֵב יַמִּים" (יחזקאל כ"ז), "הָגָה בְּרוּחוֹ הַקָּשָׁה בְּיוֹם קָדִים" (ישעיה כ"ז):
and the waters split: All the water in the world. — [from Mechilta Exod. Rabbah 21:6]   וַיִּבָּֽקְעוּ הַמָּֽיִם: כָּל מַיִם שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם:
22Then the children of Israel came into the midst of the sea on dry land, and the waters were to them as a wall from their right and from their left.   כבוַיָּבֹ֧אוּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּ֖ם בַּיַּבָּשָׁ֑ה וְהַמַּ֤יִם לָהֶם֙ חוֹמָ֔ה מִֽימִינָ֖ם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָֽם:
23The Egyptians pursued and came after them all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen, into the midst of the sea.   כגוַיִּרְדְּפ֤וּ מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֔ם כֹּ֚ל ס֣וּס פַּרְעֹ֔ה רִכְבּ֖וֹ וּפָֽרָשָׁ֑יו אֶל־תּ֖וֹךְ הַיָּֽם:
all Pharaoh’s horses: Heb. כֹּל סוּס פַּרְעֹה, lit., in the singular. Now was there only one horse? This informs us that they [the horses] are all considered by the Omnipresent as one horse. — [from Mechilta Shirah 2]   כֹּל סוּס פַּרְעֹה: וְכִי סוּס אֶחָד הָיָה? מַגִּיד שֶׁאֵין כֻּלָּם חֲשׁוּבִין לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם אֶלָּא כְּסוּס אֶחָד (מכילתא):
24It came about in the morning watch that the Lord looked down over the Egyptian camp through a pillar of fire and cloud, and He threw the Egyptian camp into confusion.   כדוַֽיְהִי֙ בְּאַשְׁמֹ֣רֶת הַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיַּשְׁקֵ֤ף יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־מַֽחֲנֵ֣ה מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּעַמּ֥וּד אֵ֖שׁ וְעָנָ֑ן וַיָּ֕הָם אֵ֖ת מַֽחֲנֵ֥ה מִצְרָֽיִם:
It came about in the morning watch: Heb. בְּאַֹשְמֹרֶת. The three parts of the night are called, אַשְׁמוּרוּת, watches (Ber. 3b), and the one [watch] before morning is called אַשְׁמֹרֶתהַבֹּקֶר, the morning watch. I say that because the night is divided into the watches of the songs of the ministering angels, one group after another into three parts, it is called אַשְׁמֹרֶת, watch. This is what Onkelos [means when he] renders מַטְּרַת.   בְּאַשְׁמֹרֶת הַבֹּקֶר: שְׁלֹשֶׁת חֶלְקֵי הַלַּיְלָה קְרוּיִין אַשְׁמוּרָה, וְאוֹתָהּ שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַבֹּקֶר קוֹרֵא אַשְׁמֹרֶת הַבֹּקֶר. וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי, לְפִי שֶׁהַלַּיְלָה חָלוּק לְמִשְׁמְרוֹת שִׁיר שֶׁל מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, כַּת אַחַר כַּת, לִשְׁלֹשָׁה חֲלָקִים, לְכָךְ קָרוּי אַשְׁמֹרֶת, וְזֶהוּ שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס "מַטְּרַת":
looked down: Heb. וַיַּשְׁקֵף, looked, that is to say that He turned toward them to destroy them, and the Targum [Onkelos] renders: וְאִסְךְתְּכֵי. This too is an expression of looking, like “to the field of seers” (Num. 23:14), [which Onkelos renders:] לַחִקַל סָכוּתָא   וַיַּשְׁקֵף: וַיַּבֵּט, כְּלוֹמַר פָּנָה אֲלֵיהֶם לְהַשְׁחִיתָם. וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ "וְאִסְתְּכִי" אַף הוּא לְשׁוֹן הַבָּטָה, כְּמוֹ "שְׂדֵה צוֹפִים", (במדבר כ"ג) – חֲקַל סָכוּתָא:
through a pillar of fire and cloud: The pillar of cloud descends and makes it [the earth] like mud, and the pillar of fire boils it [the earth], and the hoofs of their horses slip. — [from Mechilta]   בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ וְעָנָן: עַמּוּד עָנָן יוֹרֵד וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ כְּטִיט וְעַמּוּד אֵשׁ מַרְתִּיחוֹ, וְטַלְפֵי סוּסֵיהֶם מִשְׁתַּמְּטוֹת (מכילתא):
and He threw the Egyptian camp into confusion: Heb. וַיָּהָם, an expression of confusion, estordison in Old French. He confused them; He took away their intelligence. We learned in the chapters of Rabbi Eliezer the son of Rabbi Yose the Galilean [not found in our edition] [that] wherever it says מְהוּמָה [confusion], it means a tumultuous noise. And the “father” of them all, [the best example of the use of מְהוּמָה, is [in the verse:] “and the Lord thundered with a loud noise, etc., on the Philistines and threw them into confusion (וַיְהוּמֵּם)” (I Sam. 7:10).   וַיָּהָם: לְשׁוֹן מְהוּמָה, אשדורד"ישון בְּלַעַז, עִרְבְּבָם, נָטַל סִגְנִיּוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם. וְשָׁנִינוּ בְּפִרְקֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי: כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ מְהוּמָה הַרְעָמַת קוֹל הוּא, וְזֶה אָב לְכֻלָּן "וַיַּרְעֵם ה' בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וְגוֹ' עַל פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיְהֻמֵּם" (שמואל א ז'):
25And He removed the wheels of their chariots, and He led them with heaviness, and the Egyptians said, Let me run away from the Israelites because the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians   כהוַיָּ֗סַר אֵ֚ת אֹפַ֣ן מַרְכְּבֹתָ֔יו וַיְנַֽהֲגֵ֖הוּ בִּכְבֵדֻ֑ת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מִצְרַ֗יִם אָנ֨וּסָה֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה נִלְחָ֥ם לָהֶ֖ם בְּמִצְרָֽיִם:
And He removed the wheels of their chariots: With the fire the wheels were burned, and the chariots dragged, and those sitting in them were moved to and fro, and their limbs were wrenched apart. — [from an unknown source, similar to Mechilta]   וַיָּסַר אֵת אֹפַן מַרְכְּבֹתָיו: מִכֹּחַ הָאֵשׁ נִשְׂרְפוּ הַגַּלְגַּלִּים, וְהַמֶּרְכָּבוֹת נִגְרָרוֹת, וְהַיּוֹשְׁבִים בָּהֶם נָעִים וְאֵבָרֵיהֶן מִתְפָּרְקִין (מכילתא):
and He led them with heaviness: In a manner that was heavy and difficult for them. [This punishment was] in the measure that they [the Egyptians had] measured [to the Israelites], namely “and he made his heart heavy, he and his servants” (Exod. 9:34). Here too, “He led them with heaviness.” -[from an unknown source, similar to Mechilta]   וַיְנַֽהֲגֵהוּ בִּכְבֵדֻת: בְּהַנְהָגָה שֶׁהִיא כְבֵדָה וְקָשָׁה לָהֶם; בַּמִדָּה שֶׁמָּדְדוּ: "וַיַּכְבֵּד" לִבּוֹ הוּא וַעֲבָדָיו (שמות ט'), אַף כָּאן וַיְנַהֲגֵהוּ "בִּכְבֵדֻת":
is fighting for them against the Egyptians: Heb. בְּמִצְרָיִם, [is like] against the Egyptians. Alternatively: בְּמִצְרָיִם [means] in the land of Egypt, for just as these [Egyptians] were being smitten in the sea, so were those remaining in Egypt being smitten. — [from Mechilta]   נִלְחָם לָהֶם בְּמִצְרָֽיִם: בַּמִּצְרִיִּים. דָּבָר אַחֵר בְּמִצְרָיִם – בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵלּוּ לוֹקִים עַל הַיָּם כָּךְ לוֹקִים אוֹתָם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם (מכילתא):

Fourth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 14

26Thereupon, the Lord said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the sea, and let the water return upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen   כווַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה נְטֵ֥ה אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֖ עַל־הַיָּ֑ם וְיָשֻׁ֤בוּ הַמַּ֨יִם֙ עַל־מִצְרַ֔יִם עַל־רִכְבּ֖וֹ וְעַל־פָּֽרָשָֽׁיו:
and let the water return: [I.e., the water] that is standing upright like a wall [will] return to its place and cover up the Egyptians.   וְיָשֻׁבוּ הַמַּיִם: שֶׁזְּקוּפִין וְעוֹמְדִים כְּחוֹמָה, יָשׁוּבוּ לִמְקוֹמָם וִיכַסּוּ עַל מִצְרַיִם:
27So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and toward morning the sea returned to its strength, as the Egyptians were fleeing toward it, and the Lord stirred the Egyptians into the sea.   כזוַיֵּט֩ משֶׁ֨ה אֶת־יָד֜וֹ עַל־הַיָּ֗ם וַיָּ֨שָׁב הַיָּ֜ם לִפְנ֥וֹת בֹּ֨קֶר֙ לְאֵ֣יתָנ֔וֹ וּמִצְרַ֖יִם נָסִ֣ים לִקְרָאת֑וֹ וַיְנַעֵ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־מִצְרַ֖יִם בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּֽם:
toward morning: Heb. לִפְנוֹת בֹּקֶר, at the time the morning approaches [lit., turns (פּוֹנֶה) to come].   לִפְנוֹת בֹּקֶר: לְעֵת שֶׁהַבֹּקֶר פּוֹנֶה לָבֹא:
to its strength: Heb. לְאֵיתָנוֹ. To its original strength. — [from Mechilta]   לְאֵיתָנוֹ: לְתָקְפּוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן (מכילתא):
were fleeing toward it: Because they were confused and crazed and running toward the water.   נָסִים לִקְרָאתוֹ: שֶׁהָיוּ מְהֻמָּמִים וּמְטֹרָפִים וְרָצִין לִקְרַאת הַמַּיִם:
and the Lord stirred: Heb. וַיְנַעֵר. As a person stirs (מְנַעֵר) a pot [of food] and turns what is on the top to the bottom and what is on the bottom to the top, so were they [the Egyptians] bobbing up and down and being smashed in the sea, and the Holy One, blessed be He, kept them alive to bear their tortures. — [from Mechilta]   וַיְנַעֵר ה': כְּאָדָם שֶׁמְּנַעֵר אֶת הַקְּדֵרָה וְהוֹפֵךְ הָעֶלְיוֹן לְמַטָּה וְהַתַּחְתּוֹן לְמַעְלָה, כָּךְ הָיוּ עוֹלִין וְיוֹרְדִין וּמִשְׁתַּבְּרִין בַּיָּם, וְנָתַן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּהֶם חַיּוּת לְקַבֵּל הַיִּסּוּרִין (שם):
stirred: Heb. וַיְנַעֵר. [Onkelos renders it] וְֹשַנִּיק, which means stirring in the Aramaic language, and there are many [examples of this word] in aggadic midrashim.   וַיְנַעֵר: "וְשַׁנֵּיק", וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן טֵרוּף בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי, וְהַרְבֵּה יֵשׁ בְּמִקְרָא אַחֵר:
28And the waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen, the entire force of Pharaoh coming after them into the sea; not even one of them survived.   כחוַיָּשֻׁ֣בוּ הַמַּ֗יִם וַיְכַסּ֤וּ אֶת־הָרֶ֨כֶב֙ וְאֶת־הַפָּ֣רָשִׁ֔ים לְכֹל֙ חֵ֣יל פַּרְעֹ֔ה הבָּאִ֥ים אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֖ם בַּיָּ֑ם לֹֽא־נִשְׁאַ֥ר בָּהֶ֖ם עַד־אֶחָֽד:
and covered the chariots…the entire force of Pharaoh: Heb. לְכֹל חֵיל פַּרְעֹה So is the custom of Scriptural verses to write a superfluous “lammed,” such as in “all (לְכָל) its utensils you shall make copper” (Exod. 27:3); and similarly, “all (לְכֹל) the utensils of the Tabernacle for all its services” (Exod. 27:19); [and in the phrase] “their stakes and their ropes, along with all (לְכָל) their utensils” (Num. 4:32), and it [the “lammed”] is [used] merely to enhance the language.   וַיְכַסּוּ אֶת־הָרֶכֶב לְכֹל חֵיל פַּרְעֹה: כָּךְ דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּקְרָאוֹת לִכְתֹּב לָמֶ"ד יְתֵרָה, כְּמוֹ "לְכָל כֵּלָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה נְחֹשֶׁת" (שמות כ"ז), וְכֵן "לְכֹל כְּלֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן בְּכֹל עֲבֹדָתוֹ" (במדבר ד'), "וִיתֵדוֹתָם וּמֵיתְרֵיהֶם לְכָל כְּלֵיהֶם" (שם), וְאֵינָהּ אֶלָּא תִּקּוּן לָשׁוֹן:
29But the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea, and the water was to them like a wall from their right and from their left.   כטוּבְנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָֽלְכ֥וּ בַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה בְּת֣וֹךְ הַיָּ֑ם וְהַמַּ֤יִם לָהֶם֙ חֹמָ֔ה מִֽימִינָ֖ם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָֽם:
30On that day the Lord saved Israel from the hand[s] of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dying on the seashore.   לוַיּ֨וֹשַׁע יְהֹוָ֜ה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֛וּא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִיַּ֣ד מִצְרָ֑יִם וַיַּ֤רְא יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם מֵ֖ת עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת הַיָּֽם:
and Israel saw the Egyptians dying on the seashore: For the sea spewed them out on its shore, so that the Israelites would not say, "Just as we are coming up on this side [of the sea], so are they coming up on another side, far from us, and they will pursue us."-[from Mechilta and Pes. 118b]   וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מִצְרָיִם מֵת: שֶׁפְּלָטָן הַיָּם עַל שְׂפָתוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָנוּ עוֹלִים מִצַּד זֶה כָּךְ הֵם עוֹלִין מִצַּד אַחֵר, רָחוֹק מִמֶּנּוּ, וְיִרְדְּפוּ אַחֲרֵינוּ (פסחים קי"ח):
31And Israel saw the great hand, which the Lord had used upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in Moses, His servant.   לאוַיַּ֨רְא יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־הַיָּ֣ד הַגְּדֹלָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּֽירְא֥וּ הָעָ֖ם אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽאֲמִ֨ינוּ֙ בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה וּבְמשֶׁ֖ה עַבְדּֽוֹ:
the great hand: The great mighty deed that the hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, had performed. Many meanings fit the term יָד, and they are all expressions derived from an actual hand, and he who interprets it must adjust the wording according to the context.   אֶת־הַיָּד הגדולה: אֶת הַגְּבוּרָה הַגְּדוֹלָה שֶׁעָשְׂתָה יָדוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. וְהַרְבֵּה לְשׁוֹנוֹת נוֹפְלִין עַל לְשׁוֹן יָד וְכֻלָּן לְשׁוֹן יָד מַמָּשׁ הֵן, וְהַמְפָרְשׁוֹ יְתַקֵּן הַלָּשׁוֹן אַחַר עִנְיַן הַדִּבּוּר:

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 15

1Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to the Lord, and they spoke, saying, I will sing to the Lord, for very exalted is He; a horse and its rider He cast into the sea.   אאָ֣ז יָשִֽׁיר־משֶׁה֩ וּבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וַיֹּֽאמְר֖וּ לֵאמֹ֑ר אָשִׁ֤ירָה לַּֽיהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־גָאֹ֣ה גָּאָ֔ה ס֥וּס וְרֹֽכְב֖וֹ רָמָ֥ה בַיָּֽם:
Then…sang: Heb. אָז יָשִׁיר. [The future tense presents a problem. Therefore, Rashi explains:] Then, when he [Moses] saw the miracle, it occurred to him to recite a song, and similarly, “Then Joshua spoke (אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ)” (Josh. 10:12); and similarly, “and the house [which] he would make (יַעֲשֶׂה) for Pharaoh’s daughter” (I Kings 7: 8), [which means] he decided to make it for her. Here too, יָשִׁיר [in the future tense means that] his heart dictated to him that he should sing, and so he did, “and they spoke, saying, I will sing to the Lord.’ ” Likewise, with [the above reference to] Joshua, when he saw the miracle [of the defeat of the Amorite kings (Josh. 10:11)], his heart dictated to him that he speak [praises to God], and so he did, “and he said in the sight of Israel” (Josh. 10:12). Likewise, the song of the well, with which [Scripture] commences: “Then Israel sang (אָז יָשִׁיר)” (Num. 21:17), it explains after it, “Ascend, O well!, sing to it.” [I.e., in these three instances, the “yud” of the future tense denotes the thought, and after each one, Scripture continues that the thought was brought to fruition.] “Then did Solomon build (אָז יִבְנֶה) a high place” (I Kings 11:7); the Sages of Israel explain that he sought to build [it] but did not build [it] (Sanh. 91b). We [thus] learn that the “yud” may serve to indicate a thought. This is to explain its simple meaning, but the midrashic interpretation is [as follows]: Our Rabbis of blessed memory stated: From here is an allusion from the Torah to the resurrection of the dead (Sanh. 91b, Mechilta), and so it is [i.e., the future tense is used] with them all, except that of Solomon, which they explained as [implying] “he sought to build but did not build.” One cannot say and explain this form like other words written in the future, but which mean [that they occurred] immediately, such as “So would Job do (וָעִשֶׂה)” (Job 1:5); “by the command of the Lord would they encamp (יַחֲנוּ)” (Num. 9:23); “And sometimes the cloud would be (יִהְיֶה)” (Num. 9:21), because that is [an example of] something that occurs continually, and either the future or the past is appropriate for it, but that which occurred only once [i.e., the song that was sung], cannot be explained in this manner. —   אָז יָשִֽׁיר־משֶׁה: אָז כְּשֶׁרָאָה הַנֵּס עָלָה בְלִבּוֹ שֶׁיָּשִׁיר שִׁירָה. וְכֵן "אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ" (יהושע י'), וְכֵן "וּבַיִת יַעֲשֶׂה לְבַת פַּרְעֹה" (מלכים א ז') – חָשַׁב בְּלִבּוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לָהּ, אַף כָּאן יָשִׁיר אָמַר לוֹ לִבּוֹ שֶׁיָּשִׁיר וְכֵן עָשָׂה – וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַה', וְכֵן בִּיהוֹשֻׁעַ כְּשֶׁרָאָה הַנֵּס אָמַר לוֹ לִבּוֹ שֶׁיְּדַבֵּר וְכֵן עָשָׂה – "וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל" (יהושע י'), וְכֵן שִׁירַת הַבְּאֵר, שֶׁפָּתַח בָּהּ אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל, פֵּרֵשׁ אַחֲרָיו "עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ לָהּ" (במדבר י"א), "אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה" (מלכים א י"א), פֵּרְשׁוּ בוֹ חַכְמֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לִבְנוֹת וְלֹא בָנָה, לִמְּדָנוּ שֶׁהַיּוֹ"ד עַל שֵׁם הַמַּחֲשָׁבָה נֶאֶמְרָה, זֶהוּ לְיַשֵּׁב פְּשׁוּטוֹ. אֲבָל מִדְרָשׁוֹ אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִ"לִ "מִכָּאן רֶמֶז לִתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה" וְכֵן בְּכֻלָּן, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל שְׁלֹמֹה, שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּהוּ בִּקֵּשׁ לִבְנוֹת וְלֹא בָנָה. וְאֵין לוֹמַר וּלְיַשֵּׁב לָשׁוֹן הַזֶּה כִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַנִּכְתָּבִים בִּלְשׁוֹן עָתִיד וְהֵן מִיָּד, כְּגוֹן "כָּכָה יַעֲשֶׂה אִיּוֹב" (איוב א'), "עַל פִּי ה' יַחֲנוּ" (במדבר ט'), "וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הֶעָנָן" (שם), לְפִי שֶׁהֵן דָּבָר הַהוֹוֶה תָמִיד וְנוֹפֵל בּוֹ בֵּין לְשׁוֹן עָתִיד וּבֵין לְשׁוֹן עָבָר, אֲבָל זֶה שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אֶלָּא לְשָׁעָה, אֵינִי יָכוֹל לְיַשְּׁבוֹ בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה:
for very exalted is He: Heb. גָאֹה גָאָה, [to be interpreted] according to the Targum [He was exalted over the exalted, and the exaltation is His]. Another explanation: [The] doubling [of the verb] comes to say that He did something impossible for a flesh and blood [person] to do. When he fights with his fellow and overwhelms him, he throws him off the horse, but here, “a horse and its rider He cast into the sea,” [i.e., with the rider still on the horse]. Anything that cannot be done by anyone else is described as exaltation (גֵּאוּת), like “for He has performed an exalted act (גֵּאוּת)” (Isa. 12:5). Similarly, [throughout] the entire song you will find the repetitive pattern, such as: “My strength and my praise are the Eternal, and He was my salvation” (verse 2); “The Lord is a Master of war; the Lord is His Name,” (verse 3); and so on, all of them (in an old Rashi). Another explanation: גָאֹה גָאָה means for He is exalted beyond all songs, [i.e.,] for however I will praise Him, He still has more [praise]. [This is] unlike the manner of a human king, who is praised for something he does not possess. — [from Mechilta]   כִּֽי־גָאֹה גָּאָה: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ. (דָּבָר אַחֵר – בָּא הַכֵּפֶל לוֹמַר שֶׁעָשָׂה דָּבָר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְבָשָׂר וָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת; כְּשֶׁהוּא נִלְחָם בַּחֲבֵרוֹ וּמִתְגַּבֵּר עָלָיו, מַפִּילוֹ מִן הַסּוּס, וְכָאן הַסוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם, וְכָל שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי זוּלָתוֹ נוֹפֵל בּוֹ לְשׁוֹן גֵּאוּת, כְּמוֹ "כִּי גֵאוּת עָשָׂה" (ישעיהו י"ב), וְכֵן כָּל הַשִּׁירָה תִּמְצָא כְפוּלָה, עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ וַיְהִי לִי לִישׁוּעָה, ה' אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה ה' שְׁמוֹ, וְכֵן כֻּלָּם). דָּבָר אַחֵר – כי גאה גאה, עַל כָּל הַשִּׁירוֹת וְכָל מַה שֶּׁאֲקַלֵּס בּוֹ, עוֹד יֵשׁ בּוֹ תּוֹסֶפֶת, וְלֹא כְמִדַּת מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁמְּקַלְּסִין אוֹתוֹ וְאֵין בּוֹ:
a horse and its rider: Both bound to one another, and the water lifted them up high and brought them down into the depths, and [still] they did not separate. — [from Mechilta]   סוּס וְרֹֽכְבוֹ: שְׁנֵיהֶם קְשׁוּרִים זֶה בָּזֶה וְהַמַּיִם מַעֲלִין אוֹתָן וְיוֹרְדִין לָעֹמֶק וְאֵינָן נִפְרָדִין (מכילתא):
He cast: Heb. רָמָה, [meaning] He cast, and similarly, “and they were cast (וּרְמִיו) into the burning, fiery furnace” (Dan. 3:21). The aggadic midrash, however, [states as follows]: One verse (verse 1) says: רָמָה בַיָם, [derived from רוּם, meaning “to cast up,”] and one verse (verse 4) says: יָרָה בַיָם [meaning “to cast down”]. [This] teaches us that they [the horse and rider] went up and [then] descended into the deep, [i.e., they were thrown up and down]. [The meaning of יָרָה is here] similar to: “who laid (יָרָה) its cornerstone” (Job 38:6), [which signifies laying the stone] from above, downward. — [from Mechilta, Tanchuma, Beshallach 13]   רָמָה: הִשְׁלִיךְ, וְכֵן "וּרְמִיו לְגוֹא אַתּוּן נוּרָא" (דניאל ג'). וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה: כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר רָמָה, וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר יָרָה, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹלִין לָרוּם וְיוֹרְדִין לַתְּהוֹם, כְּמוֹ "מִי יָרָה אֶבֶן פִּנָּתָהּ" (איוב ל"ח), מִלְמַעְלָה לְמַטָּה:
2The Eternal's strength and His vengeance were my salvation; this is my God, and I will make Him a habitation, the God of my father, and I will ascribe to Him exaltation.   בעָזִּ֤י וְזִמְרָת֙ יָ֔הּ וַֽיְהִי־לִ֖י לִֽישׁוּעָ֑ה זֶ֤ה אֵלִי֙ וְאַנְוֵ֔הוּ אֱלֹהֵ֥י אָבִ֖י וַֽאֲרֹֽמְמֶֽנְהוּ:
The Eternal’s strength and His vengeance were my salvation: Heb. וְזִמְרָתיָ-ה עָזִי. Onkelos renders: My strength and my praise, [thus interpreting] עָזִי like עֻזִי [my strength] with a “shuruk,” and וְזִמְרָת like וְזִמְרָתִי [my song]. But I wonder about the language of the text, for there is nothing like it [the word עָזִי] in Scripture with its vowelization except in three places [i.e., here and in Isa. 12:2 and Ps. 118:14], where it is next to וְזִמְרָת, but [in] all other places, it is vowelized with a “shuruk" [now called a "kubutz"], [e.g., in the phrase] "O Lord, Who are my power (עֻזִי) and my strength” (Jer. 16:19); “[Because of] his strength (עֻזוֹ), I hope for You” (Ps. 59:10). Likewise, any word [noun] consisting of two letters, vowelized with a “melupum,” [i.e., a "cholam,"] when it is lengthened by [the addition of] a third letter, and the second letter is not punctuated with a “sheva” the first [letter] is vowelized with a “shuruk,” e.g., עֹז strength, becomes עֻזִי, my strength, spittle (Job 30:10), רֹק becomes רֹקִי, my spittle (Job 7:19). allotment (Gen. 47:22), חֹק becomes חֹקִי, my allotment (Prov. 30:8). עֹל, yoke (Deut. 28:48), becomes עֻלוֹ, his yoke, “shall be removed…his yoke עֻלוֹ” (Isa. 10:27). כֹּל, all (Gen. 21:12), becomes כֻּלוֹ, all of it, “with officers over them all כֻּלוֹ” (Exod. 14:7). But these three [examples of the phrase], עָזִי וְזִמְרָת, [namely] the one [written] here, the one [written in] Isaiah (12: 2), and the one [written in] Psalms (118:14) [all examples of the word עָזִי are vowelized with a short “kamatz.” Moreover, not one of them [i.e., of these examples] is written וְזִמְרָתִי but וְזִמְרָת, and next to each of them it says וַיְהִי-לִי לִיֹשוּעָה, were my salvation. Therefore, in order to reconcile the language of the text, I say that עָזִי is not like עֻזִי, nor is וְזִמְרָת like וְזִמְרָתִי, but עָזִי is a noun [and the final “yud” is only stylistic], like [the final “yud” in these examples:] “You Who dwell (הַישְׁבִי) in heaven” (Ps. 123:1); “who dwell (שֹׁכְנִי) in the clefts of the rock” (Obad. 1:3); “Who dwells (שֹׁכְנִי) in the thorn bush” (Deut. 33:16). And this is the praise [that Moses and the Israelites sing to God]: The strength and the vengeance of the Eternal--that was my salvation. [In brief, the “yud” at the end of the word is a stylistic suffix, which has no bearing on the meaning.] And the word וְזִמְרָת is connected to the word denoting the Divine Name, like “to the aid of (לְעֶזְרַת) the Lord” (Jud. 5:23); [and like the word בְּעֶבְרַת in] “By the wrath of (בְּעֶבְרַת) the Lord” (Isa. 9:18); [and the word דִבְרַת in:] “concerning the matter of (דִבְרַת)” (Eccl. 3:18). [In brief, the ַת or, ָת denotes the construct state of a feminine noun.] The expression וְזִמְרָת is an expression related to “and your vineyard you shall not prune (לֹא תִזְמֹר)” (Lev. 25:4); “the downfall of (זְמִיר) the tyrants” (Isa. 25:5), an expression denoting mowing down and cutting off. [Thus the phrase means:] The strength and the vengeance of our God was our salvation. Now [since this is the meaning of the phrase,] do not be puzzled about the expression וַיְהִי, [i.e.,] that it does not say הָיָה [without a “vav” since this is the verb following עָזִי וְזִמְרָת and does not begin a clause as the conversive “vav” usually does], for there are verses worded this way, and this is an example: “[against] the walls of the house around [both] the temple and the sanctuary, he made (וַיַּעַשׂ) chambers around [it]” (I Kings 6:5). It should have said עָשָׂה, “chambers around [it]” [instead of וַיַּעַשׂ]. Similarly, in (II) Chron. (10:17): “But the children of Israel who dwelt in the cities of Judah-Rehoboam reigned (וַיִמְלֹךְ) over them.” It should have said: “Rehoboam (מָלַךְ) over them.” [Similarly,] “Because the Lord was unable…He slaughtered them (וַיִשְׁחָטֵם) in the desert” (Num. 14:16). It should have said: שְׁחָטָם. [Similarly,] “But the men whom Moses sent…died (וַיָמוּתוּ)” (Num 14:36, 37). It should have said: מֵתוּ. [Similarly,] “But he who did not pay attention to the word of the Lord left (וַיַעִזֹב)” (Exod. 9:21). It should have said: עָזַב.   עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ: אֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם "תָּקְפִּי וְתֻשְׁבַּחְתִּי", עָזִּי כְּמוֹ עֻזִּי, וְזִמְרָת כְּמוֹ וְזִמְרָתִי, וַאֲנִי תָּמֵהַּ עַל לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא, שֶׁאֵין לְךָ כָמוֹהוּ בִּנְקֻדָּתוֹ בַּמִּקְרָא אֶלָּא בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ אֵצֶל וְזִמְרָת, וְכָל שְׁאָר מְקוֹמוֹת נָקוּד שׁוּרֻ"ק, "ה' עֻזִּי וּמָעֻזִּי" (ירמיהו ט"ז), "עֻזּוֹ אֵלֶיךָ אֶשְׁמֹרָה" (תהילים נ"ט). וְכֵן כָּל תֵּבָה בַּת שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת הַנְּקוּדָה מְלָאפוּם כְּשֶׁהִיא מַאֲרֶכֶת בְּאוֹת שְׁלִישִׁית וְאֵין הַשְּׁנִיָּה בַּחֲטָף, הָרִאשׁוֹנָה נְקוּדָה בְּשׁוּרֻק, כְּגוֹן עֹז עֻזִּי, רֹק רֻקִּי, חֹק חֻקִּי, עֹל עֻלּוֹ – "וְסָר מֵעֲלֵהֶם עֻלּוֹ" (ישעיהו י"ד), כֹּל כֻּלּוֹ – "וְשָׁלִשִׁם עַל כֻּלּוֹ" (שמות י"ד), וְאֵלּוּ ג' עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת שֶׁל כָּאן, וְשֶׁל יְשַׁעְיָה, וְשֶׁל תְּהִלִּים, נְקוּדִים בַּחֲטָף קָמָץ, וְעוֹד אֵין בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם כָּתוּב וְזִמְרָתִי אֶלָּא וְזִמְרָת, וְכֻלָּם סָמוּךְ לָהֶם "וַיְהִי לִי לִישׁוּעָה". לְכָךְ אֲנִי אוֹמֵר, לְיַשֵּׁב לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא, שֶׁאֵין עָזִּי כְּמוֹ עֻזִּי וְלֹא וְזִמְרָת כְּמוֹ וְזִמְרָתִי, אֶלָּא עָזִּי שֵׁם דָּבָר הוּא כְּמוֹ "הַיֹּשְׁבִי בַּשָּׁמָיִם" (תהילים קכ"ג), "שֹׁכְנִי בְחַגְוֵי סֶלַע" (עובדיה א'), "שֹׁכְנִי סְנֶה" (דברים ל"ג), וְזֶהוּ הַשֶּׁבַח עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ הוּא הָיָה לִי לִישׁוּעָה. וְזִמְרָת דָּבוּק הוּא לְתֵבַת הַשֵּׁם, כְּמוֹ "לְעֶזְרַת ה'" (שופטים ה'), "בְּעֶבְרַת ה'" (ישעיהו ט'), "עַל דִּבְרַת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם" (קהלת ג'). וּלְשׁוֹן וְזִמְרָת לְשׁוֹן "לֹא תִזְמֹר" (ויקרא כ"ה), "זְמִיר עָרִיצִים" (ישעיהו כ"ה), לְשׁוֹן כִּסּוּחַ וּכְרִיתָה – עֻזּוֹ וְנִקְמָתוֹ שֶׁל אֱלֹהֵינוּ הָיָה לָנוּ לִישׁוּעָה. וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל לְשׁוֹן וַיְהִי, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר הָיָה, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָנוּ מִקְרָאוֹת מְדַבְּרִים בְּלָשׁוֹן זֶה, וְזֶה דֻגְמָתוֹ: "אֶת קִירוֹת הַבַּיִת סָבִיב לַהֵיכָל וְלַדְּבִיר וַיַּעַשׂ צְלָעוֹת סָבִיב" (מלכים א ו'), הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר עָשָׂה צְלָעוֹת סָבִיב. וְכֵן בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים: "וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיֹּשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּמְלֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם רְחַבְעָם" (דברי הימים ב' י'), הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר מָלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶם רְחַבְעָם. "מִבִּלְתִּי יְכֹלֶת ה' וְגוֹ' וַיִּשְׁחָטֵם" (במדבר י"ד), הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר שְׁחָטָם. "וְהָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח מֹשֶׁה וְגוֹ' וַיָּמֻתוּ" (שם) מֵתוּ הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר, "וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא שָׂם לִבּוֹ אֶל דְּבַר ה' וַיַּעֲזֹב" (שמות ט'), הָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר עָזַב:
this is my God: He revealed Himself in His glory to them [the Israelites], and they pointed at Him with their finger [as denoted by זֶה, this]. By the sea, [even] a maidservant perceived what prophets did not perceive. — [from Mechilta]   זֶה אֵלִי: בִּכְבוֹדוֹ נִגְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם וְהָיוּ מַרְאִין אוֹתוֹ בְּאֶצְבַּע, רָאֲתָה שִׁפְחָה עַל הַיָּם מַה שֶּׁלֹּא רָאוּ נְבִיאִים (מכילתא):
and I will make Him a habitation: Heb. וְאַנְוֵה. Onkelos rendered it as an expression of habitation (נָוֶה) [as in the following phrases]: “a tranquil dwelling (נָוֶה)” (Isa. 33:20); “a sheepfold (נְוֵה)” (Isa. 65:10). Another explanation: וְאַנְוֵהוּ is an expression of beauty (נוּ). [Thus the phrase means] I will tell of His beauty and His praise to those who enter the world, such as: [When Israel is asked:] "How is your beloved more than another beloved…? [Israel will say] My beloved is white and ruddy…" and the entire section [of Song of Songs] (Song of Songs 5:9, 10). — [from Mechilta]   וְאַנְוֵהוּ: אֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם לְשׁוֹן נָוֶה – "נָוֶה שַׁאֲנָן" (ישעיהו ל"ג), "לִנְוֵה צֹאן" (שם ס"ה). דָּבָר אַחֵר – וְאַנְוֵהוּ לְשׁוֹן נוֹי, אֲסַפֵּר נוֹיוֹ וְשִׁבְחוֹ לְבָאֵי עוֹלָם, כְּגוֹן "מַה דּוֹדֵךְ מִדּוֹד וְגוֹ' דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם" (שיר השירים ה'), וְכָל הָעִנְיָן:
the God of my father: is this One, and I will exalt Him.   אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי: הוּא זֶה וארממנהו:
the God of my father: I am not the beginning of the sanctity [i.e., I am not the first to recognize His sanctity], but the sanctity has been established and has remained with me, and His Divinity has been upon me since the days of my forefathers. — [from Mechilta]   אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי: לֹא אֲנִי תְּחִלַּת הַקְּדֻשָּׁה אֶלָּא מֻחְזֶקֶת וְעוֹמֶדֶת לִי הַקְּדֻשָּׁה וֵאלֹהוּתוֹ עָלַי מִימֵי אֲבוֹתַי:
3The Lord is a Master of war; the Lord is His Name.   גיְהֹוָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֑ה יְהֹוָ֖ה שְׁמֽוֹ:
The Lord is a Master of war: Heb. אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה, lit., a man of war, [which is inappropriate in reference to the Deity. Therefore,] Rashi renders: Master of war, like “Naomi’s husband (אִישׁ נָעֳמִי)” (Ruth 1:3) and so, every [instance in the Torah of] אִישׁ, husband, and אִישֵׁךְ, your husband, is rendered: בַּעַל, master. Similarly, “You shall be strong and become a man (לְאִישׁ)” (I Kings 2:2), [meaning] a strong man. —   ה' אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה: בַּעַל מִלְחָמוֹת, כְּמוֹ "אִישׁ נָעֳמִי" (רות א'), וְכָל אִישׁ וְאִישֵׁךְ מְתֻרְגָּמִין בַּעַל, וְכֵן "וְחָזַקְתָּ וְהָיִיתָ לְאִישׁ" (מלכים א ב') – לְגִבּוֹר:
the Lord is His Name: His wars are not [waged] with weapons, but He wages battle with His Name, as David said [to Goliath before fighting him], “[You come to me with spear and javelin] and I come to you with the Name of the Lord of Hosts” (I Sam. 17:45). Another explanation: The Lord י-ה-ו-ה, denoting the Divine Standard of Clemency,] is His Name--Even when He wages war and takes vengeance upon His enemies, He sticks to His behavior of having mercy on His creatures and nourishing all those who enter the world, unlike the behavior of earthly kings. When he [an earthly king] is engaged in war, he turns away from all his [other] affairs and does not have the ability to do both this [i.e., wage war] and that [other things]. — [from Mechilta]   ה' שְׁמֽוֹ: מִלְחֲמוֹתָיו לֹא בִּכְלֵי זַיִן אֶלָּא בִּשְׁמוֹ הוּא נִלְחָם; כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַר דָּוִד "וְאָנֹכִי בָא אֵלֶיךָ בְּשֵׁם ה' צְבָאוֹת" (שמואל א י"ז). דָּבָר אַחֵר, ה' שמו – אַף בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא נִלְחָם וְנוֹקֵם מֵאוֹיְבָיו, אוֹחֵז הוּא בְּמִדָּתוֹ לְרַחֵם עַל בְּרוּאָיו וְלָזוּן אֶת כָּל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם; וְלֹא כְמִדַּת מַלְכֵי אֲדָמָה כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹסֵק בְּמִלְחָמָה פּוֹנֶה עַצְמוֹ מִכָּל עֲסָקִים וְאֵין בּוֹ כֹּחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת זוֹ וְזוֹ (מכילתא):
4Pharaoh's chariots and his army He cast into the sea, and the elite of his officers sank in the Red Sea.   דמַרְכְּבֹ֥ת פַּרְעֹ֛ה וְחֵיל֖וֹ יָרָ֣ה בַיָּ֑ם וּמִבְחַ֥ר שָֽׁלִשָׁ֖יו טֻבְּע֥וּ בְיַם־סֽוּף:
He cast into the sea: Heb. יָרָה בַיָם. [Onkelos renders:] שְׁדִי שְׁדִי בְיַמָּא is an expression of casting down (יָרָה), as [Scripture] says: “or shall surely be cast down (יָרֹה יִיָָּרֶה)” (Exod. 19:13), which Onkelos renders: יִשְׁתְּדִי אִשְׁתְּדָאָה. The “tav” serves in these [forms] in the hithpa’el form.   יָרָה בַיָּם: "שְׁדִי בְיַמָּא", שְׁדִי לְשׁוֹן יְרִיָּה, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "אוֹ יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה" (שמות י"ט) – אוֹ אִשְׁתְּדָאָה יִשְׁתְּדִי, וְהַתָּי"ו מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּאֵלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם יִתְפַּעֵל:
and the elite of: Heb. וּמִבְחַר, a noun, like מֶרְכָּב, riding gear (Lev. 15:9); מִשְׁכָּב, bed (Lev. 15:23); מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ, holy convocation (Exod. 12:16, Lev. 23:3).   וּמִבְחַר: שֵׁם דָּבָר. כְּמוֹ מֶרְכָּב, מִשְׁכָּב, מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ:
sank: Heb. טֻבְּעוּ. The term טְבִיעָה [for sinking] is used [in the Tanach] only [when referring] to a place where there is mud, like “I have sunk (טָבַעְתִּי) in muddy depths” (Ps. 69:3); “and Jeremiah sank (וַיִּטְבַּע) into the mud” (Jer. 38: 6). This informs [us] that the sea became mud, to recompense them [the Egyptians] according to their behavior, [namely] that they enslaved the Israelites with [work that entailed] clay and bricks. — [from Mechilta]   טֻבְּעוּ: אֵין טְבִיעָה אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם טִיט, כְּמוֹ "טָבַעְתִּי בִּיוֵן מְצוּלָה" (תהילים ס"ט), "וַיִּטְבַּע יִרְמְיָהוּ בַּטִּיט" (ירמיהו ל"ח), מְלַמֵּד, שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַיָּם טִיט, לִגְמֹל לָהֶם כְּמִדָּתָם שֶׁשִׁעְבְּדוּ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּחֹמֶר וּבִלְבֵנִים (מכילתא):
5The depths covered them; they descended into the depths like a stone.   התְּהֹמֹ֖ת יְכַסְיֻ֑מוּ יָֽרְד֥וּ בִמְצוֹלֹ֖ת כְּמוֹ־אָֽבֶן:
covered them: Heb. יְכַסְיֻמוּ, like יְכַסוּם. The “yud” in the middle of it is superfluous. This is, however, a common biblical style [to add an additional “yud”], like “and your cattle and your flocks will increase (יִרְבְּיֻן)” (Deut. 8:13); “They will be sated (יִרְוְיֻן) from the fat of Your house” (Ps. 36:9). The first “yud,” which denotes the future tense, is to be explained as follows: They sank in the Red Sea, so that the water would return and cover them up. There is no word in Scripture similar to יְכַסְיֻמוּ in its vowelization. It would usually be vowelized יְכַסְיֻמוּ with a “melupum.” [Here too it is obvious that Rashi means a “cholam,” as I explained above (Exod. 14:12).]   יְכַסְיֻמוּ: כְּמוֹ יְכַסּוּם, וְהַיּוֹ"ד הָאֶמְצָעִית יְתֵרָה בוֹ; וְדֶרֶךְ מִקְרָאוֹת בְּכָךְ, כְּמוֹ "וְצֹאנְךָ יִרְבְּיֻן" (דברים ח'), "יִרְוְיֻן מִדֶּשֶׁן בֵּיתֶךָ" (תהלים ל"ו), וְהַיּוֹ"ד רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁמַּשְׁמָעָהּ לְשׁוֹן עָתִיד, כָּךְ פָּרְשֵׁהוּ: טֻבְּעוּ בְיַם סוּף כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ הַמַּיִם וִיכַסּוּ אוֹתָן. יְכַסְיֻמוּ אֵין דּוֹמֶה לוֹ בַמִּקְרָא בִּנְקֻדָּתוֹ, וְדַרְכּוֹ לִהְיוֹת נָקוּד יְכַסְיֻמוֹ מְלָאפוּם:
like a stone: Elsewhere (verse 10), it says, “they sank like lead.” Still elsewhere (verse 7), it says, “it devoured them like straw.” [The solution is that] the [most] wicked were [treated] like straw, constantly tossed, rising and falling; the average ones like stone; and the best like lead-[i.e.,] they sank immediately [and thus were spared suffering]. — [from Mechilta]   כְּמוֹ־אָֽבֶן: וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר "צָלְלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת", וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר "יֹאכְלֵמוֹ כַּקַּשׁ", הָרְשָׁעִים כַּקַּשׁ, הוֹלְכִים וּמִטָּרְפִין עוֹלִין וְיוֹרְדִין, בֵּינוֹנִים כָּאֶבֶן, וְהַכְּשֵׁרִים כַּעוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁנָּחוּ מִיָּד (מכילתא):
6Your right hand, O Lord, is most powerful; Your right hand, O Lord, crushes the foe.   ויְמִֽינְךָ֣ יְהֹוָ֔ה נֶאְדָּרִ֖י בַּכֹּ֑חַ יְמִֽינְךָ֥ יְהֹוָ֖ה תִּרְעַ֥ץ אוֹיֵֽב:
Your right hand…Your right hand: twice. When the Israelites perform the will of the Omnipresent, [even] the left hand becomes a right hand. — [Rashi from Mechilta]   יְמִֽינְךָ יְמִֽינְךָ: שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים, כְּשֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין אֶת רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם הַשְּׂמֹאל נַעֲשֵׂית יָמִין (שם):
Your right hand, O Lord, is most powerful: to save Israel, and Your second right hand crushes the foe. It seems to me, however, that that very right hand [also] crushes the foe, unlike a human being, who cannot perform two kinds of work with the same hand. The simple meaning of the verse is: Your right hand, which is strengthened with might--what is its work? Your right hand, O Lord, crushes the foe. There are many verses resembling it [i.e., where parts of the verse are repeated]: “For behold Your enemies, O Lord, for behold Your enemies will perish” (Ps. 92:10); “How long will the wicked, O Lord, how long will the wicked rejoice?” (Ps. 94:3); “The rivers have raised, O Lord, the rivers have raised their voice” (Ps. 93:3); “Not for us, O Lord, not for us” (Ps. 115:1); “I will answer, says the Lord; I will answer the heavens” (Hos. 2:23); “I to the Lord, I shall sing” (Jud. 5:3); “Had it not been for the Lord, etc. Had it not been for the Lord Who was with us when men rose up against us” (Ps. 124:1, 2); “Praise! Praise! Deborah. Praise! Praise! Utter a song” (Jud. 5:12); “A foot shall trample it, the feet of a poor man” (Isa. 26:6); “And He gave their land as an inheritance, an inheritance to Israel His people” (Ps. 135:12).   יְמִֽינְךָ ה' נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ: לְהַצִּיל אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וִימִינְךָ הַשֵּׁנִית תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב. וְלִי נִרְאֶה אוֹתָהּ יָמִין עַצְמָהּ תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב, מַה שֶּׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְאָדָם – לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁתֵּי מְלָאכוֹת בְּיָד אַחַת; וּפְשׁוּטוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא יְמִינְךָ הַנֶּאֱדֶרֶת בַּכֹּחַ מַה מְּלַאכְתָּהּ? יְמִינְךָ ה' תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב; וְכַמָּה מִקְרָאוֹת דֻּגְמָתוֹ, "כִּי הִנֵּה אוֹיְבֶיךָ ה' כִּי הִנֵּה אוֹיְבֶיךָ יֹאבֵדוּ" (תהלים צ"ב), וְדוֹמֵיהֶם:
is most powerful: Heb. נֶאְדָּרִי The “yud” is superfluous, like “populous (רַבָּתִי עָם) …princess (שָׂרָתִי) among the provinces” (Lam. 1:1); “what was stolen by day” (גְּנֻבְתִי) (Gen. 31:39).   נֶאְדָּרִי: הַיּוֹ"ד יְתֵרָה, כְּמוֹ "רַבָּתִי עָם, שָׂרָתִי בַּמְּדִינוֹת" (איכה א'), "גְּנֻבְתִי יוֹם" (בראשית ל"א):
crushes the foe: Heb. תִּרְעַץ, [which means] it constantly crushes and breaks the foe. Similar to this, “And they crushed (וַיִרְעִצוּ) and broke the children of Israel,” in Jud. (10:8). (Another explanation: Your right hand, which is strengthened with might-it breaks and strikes the foe.)   תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵֽב: תָּמִיד הִיא רוֹעֶצֶת וּמְשַׁבֶּרֶת הָאוֹיֵב; וְדוֹמֶה לוֹ "וַיִּרְעֲצוּ וַיְרוֹצְצוּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל", בְּשׁוֹפְטִים (י, ח). (דָּבָר אַחֵר – יְמִינְךָ הַנֶּאֱדֶרֶת בַּכֹּחַ הִיא מְשַׁבֶּרֶת וּמַלְקָה אוֹיֵב):
7And with Your great pride You tear down those who rise up against You; You send forth Your burning wrath; it devours them like straw.   זוּבְרֹ֥ב גְּאֽוֹנְךָ֖ תַּֽהֲרֹ֣ס קָמֶ֑יךָ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ חֲרֹ֣נְךָ֔ יֹֽאכְלֵ֖מוֹ כַּקַּֽשׁ:
And with Your great pride: (If the hand alone crushes the foe, then when it is raised with its great pride, it will [definitely] tear down those who rise up against Him. And if with His great pride alone His foes are torn down, how much more so, when He sends upon them His burning wrath, will it consume them.)   וּבְרֹב גְּאֽוֹנְךָ: זֹאת הַיָּד בִּלְבָד רוֹעֶצֶת הָאוֹיֵב – כְּשֶׁהוּא מְרִימָהּ בְּרֹב גְּאוֹנוֹ אָז יַהֲרֹס קָמָיו – וְאִם בְּרֹב גְּאוֹנוֹ לְבַד אוֹיְבָיו נֶהֱרָסִים קַל וָחֹמֶר כְּשֶׁשִּׁלַּח בָּם חֲרוֹן אַף יֹאכְלֵמוֹ):
You tear down: You always tear down those who rise up against You. And who are those who rise up against Him? These are the ones who rise up against Israel, and so does he [the Psalmist] say, “For behold, Your enemies stir.” And what is that stirring? “Against Your people they plot cunningly” (Ps. 83:3, 4). For this reason, he calls them the enemies of the Omnipresent. — [from Mechilta]   תַּֽהֲרֹס: תָּמִיד אַתָּה הוֹרֵס קָמֶיךָ הַקָּמִים נֶגְדְּךָ, וּמִי הֵם הַקָּמִים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ? אֵלּוּ הַקָּמִים עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל; וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "כִּי הִנֵּה אוֹיְבֶיךָ יֶהֱמָיוּן" (תהלים פ"ג), וּמַה הִיא הַהֶמְיָה? "עַל עַמְּךָ יַעֲרִימוּ סוֹד" (שם), וְעַל זֶה קוֹרֵא אוֹתָם אוֹיְבָיו שֶׁל מָקוֹם:
8And with the breath of Your nostrils the waters were heaped up; the running water stood erect like a wall; the depths congealed in the heart of the sea.   חוּבְר֤וּחַ אַפֶּ֨יךָ֙ נֶ֣עֶרְמוּ מַ֔יִם נִצְּב֥וּ כְמוֹ־נֵ֖ד נֹֽזְלִ֑ים קָֽפְא֥וּ תְהֹמֹ֖ת בְּלֶב־יָֽם:
And with the breath of Your nostrils: Breath which comes out of the two nostrils of the nose. Scripture speaks anthropomorphically about the Shechinah, on the model of a mortal king, in order to enable the ears of the people to hear it [to understand God’s anger] as it usually occurs [in humans], so that they should be able to understand the matter. [Namely that] when a person becomes angry, wind comes out of his nostrils. Likewise, “Smoke went up from His nostrils” (Ps. 18:9), and similarly, “and from the wind of His nostrils they will be destroyed” (Job 4:9). And this is what it [Scripture] says: “For the sake of My Name, I defer My anger” (Isa. 48:9) [lit., I lengthen the breath of My nose]. [This means that] when his [a person’s] anger subsides, his breath becomes longer, and when he becomes angry, his breath becomes shorter; [the verse continues:] “and for My praise I restrain My wrath (אֶחֱטָם) for you” (Isa. 48: 9). [I.e.,] I put a ring (חִטָם) into My nostrils in front of the anger and the wind, [so] that they should not come out. “For you” means “for your sake.” [The word] אֶחֱטָם is like [the expression in the Mishnah:] “a dromedary with a nose ring” (בַּחִטָם) in tractate Shabbath (51b). This is how it appears to me. And concerning every [expression of] אַף and חָרוֹן in the Bible [which are expressions of anger] I say this: [The expression] חָרָה אַף, anger was kindled, is like [the word חָרָה in:] “and my bones dried out (חָרָה) from the heat” (Job 30:30); חָרָה is an expression of fire and burning, for the nostrils heat up and burn at the time of anger. חָרוֹן (burning) is from the root חרה (to burn) just as רָצוֹן (will) is from the root רצה (to desire). And likewise, חֵמָה is an expression of heat (חֲמִימוּת). Therefore, it [Scripture] says: “and his anger (וַחִמָתוֹ) burnt within him” (Esther 1:12), and when the anger subsides, we say, “His mind has cooled off (נִתְקָרְרָה דַעְתּוֹ).”   וּבְרוּחַ אַפֶּיךָ: הַיּוֹצֵא מִשְּׁנֵי נְחִירַיִם שֶׁל אַף. דִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב כִּבְיָכוֹל בַּשְּׁכִינָה דֻּגְמַת מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם, כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁמִיעַ אֹזֶן הַבְּרִיּוֹת כְּפִי הַהֹוֶה, שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לְהָבִין דָּבָר; כְּשֶׁאָדָם כּוֹעֵס יוֹצֵא רוּחַ מִנְּחִירָיו; וְכֵן "עָלָה עָשָׁן בְּאַפּוֹ" (תהלים י"ח), וְכֵן "וּמֵרוּחַ אַפּוֹ יִכְלוּ" (איוב ד'), וְזֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר "לְמַעַן שְׁמִי אַאֲרִיךְ אַפִּי", (ישעיהו מ"ח) – כְּשֶׁזַּעְפּוֹ נָח, נְשִׁימָתוֹ אֲרֻכָּה, וּכְשֶׁהוּא כּוֹעֵס נְשִׁימָתוֹ קְצָרָה, "וּתְהִלָּתִי אֶחֱטָם לָךְ" (שם) – וּלְמַעַן תְּהִלָּתִי אָשִׂים חֹטֶם בְּאַפִּי לִסְתֹּם נְחִירַי בִּפְנֵי הָאַף וְהָרוּחַ שֶׁלֹּא יֵצְאוּ, לָךְ – בִּשְׁבִילְךָ, אֶחֱטָם, כְּמוֹ "נְאָקָה בְּחֹטֶם" בְּמַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּת, כָּךְ נִרְאֶה בְּעֵינַי. וְכָל חֲרוֹן אַף שֶׁבַּמִּקְרָא אֲנִי אוֹמֵר כֵּן; חָרָה אַף כְּמוֹ "וְעַצְמִי חָרָה מִנִּי חֹרֶב" (איוב ל'), לְשׁוֹן שְׂרֵפָה וּמוֹקֵד, שֶׁהַנְּחִירַיִם מִתְחַמְּמִים וְנֶחֱרִים בְּעֵת הַקֶּצֶף, וְחָרוֹן מִגִּזְרַת חרה כְּמוֹ רָצוֹן מִגִּזְרַת רצה, וְכֵן חֵמָה לְשׁוֹן חֲמִימוּת, עַל כֵּן הוּא אוֹמֵר "וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ" (אסתר א'), וּבְנוֹחַ הַחֵמָה אוֹמֵר "נִתְקָרְרָה" דַּעְתּוֹ:
the waters were heaped up: Heb. נֶעֶרְמוּ. Onkelos rendered [this word] as an expression of cunning (עַרְמִימוּת). According to the clarity of Scripture, however, it is an expression related to “a stack (עִרֵמַת) of wheat” (Song of Songs 7:3), and [the phrase that follows:] “the running water stood erect like a wall” proves this.   נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם: אֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם לְשׁוֹן עַרְמִימוּת, וּלְשׁוֹן צַחוּת הַמִּקְרָא כְּמוֹ "עֲרֵמַת חִטִּים" (שיר השירים ז'), וְנִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ נֵד יוֹכִיחַ:
the waters were heaped up: From the heat of the wind that came out of Your nose, the water dried up, and it became like piles and heaps of grain stacks, which are tall.   נֶעֶרְמוּ: מִמּוֹקֵד רוּחַ שֶׁיָּצָא מֵאַפְּךָ יָבְשׁוּ הַמַּיִם, וְהֵם נַעֲשׂוּ כְּמִין גַּלִּים וּכְרִיּוֹת שֶׁל עֲרֵמָה, שֶׁהֵם גְּבוֹהִים:
like a wall: Heb. כְמוֹ-נֵד, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: כְּשׁוּר, like a wall. —   כְמוֹ־נֵד: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "כְּשׁוּר" – כְּחוֹמָה:
wall: Heb. נֵד, an expression of heaping and gathering, like “a heap (נֵד) of harvest on a day of sickness” (Isa. 17:11); “He gathers (כֹּנֵס) as a mound כַּנֵד” (Ps. 33:7). It does not say, “He brings in as a flask כַּנֹּאד,” but כַּנַּד. Now if כַּנַּד were the same as כַּנֹּאד, and כֹּנֵס were an expression of bringing in, it should have said, “He brings in as into a flask כִּבְנֹאד) (מַכְנִיס the waters of the sea.” Rather, כֹּנֵס is an expression of gathering and heaping, and so, “shall stand in one heap (נֵד)” ; “stood in one heap (נֵד).” (Josh. 3:13, 16); and the expression of rising and standing does not apply to flasks, but to walls and heaps. Moreover, we do not find נֹּאד, meaning a flask, vowelized [with any vowel] but with a “melupum,” (meaning a “cholam,” ) like [in the phrases:] “place my tears into Your flask (בְּנֹּאדֶ)” (Ps. 56:9); “the flask of נֹּאד milk” (Jud. 4:19).   נֵד: לְשׁוֹן צִבּוּר וְכִנּוּס, כְּמוֹ "נֵד קָצִיר בְּיוֹם נַחֲלָה" (ישעיהו י״ז:י״א), "כּוֹנֵס כַּנֵּד" (תהילים ל״ג:ז׳), לֹא כָתוּב כּוֹנֵס כַּנֹּאד אֶלָּא כַּנֵּד, וְאִלּוּ הָיָה כנד כְּמוֹ כנאד וְכוֹנֵס לְשׁוֹן הַכְנָסָה, הָיָה לוֹ לִכְתֹּב מַכְנִיס כִּבְנֹאד מֵי הַיָּם, אֶלָּא כוֹנֵס לְשׁוֹן אוֹסֵף וְצוֹבֵר הוּא, וְכֵן "קָמוּ נֵד אֶחָד" (יהושע ג׳:י״ג), "וַיַּעַמְדוּ נֵד אֶחָד" (שם), וְאֵין לְשׁוֹן קִימָה וַעֲמִידָה בְּנֹאדוֹת אֶלָּא בְּחוֹמוֹת וְצִבּוּרִים, וְלֹא מָצִינוּ נֹאד נָקוּד אֶלָּא בִּמְלָאפוּם כְּמוֹ "שִׂימָה דִמְעָתִי בְנֹאדֶךָ" (תהילים נ״ו:ט׳), "אֶת נֹאד הֶחָלָב" (שופטים ד׳:י״ט):
congealed: Heb. קָפְאוּ, like “and curdle me (תַּקְפִּיאֵנִי) like cheese” (Job 10:10). [I.e.,] that they [the depths] hardened and became like stones, and the water hurled the Egyptians against the stone with [all its] might and fought with them [the Egyptians] with all kinds of harshness.   קָֽפְאוּ: כְּמוֹ "וְכַגְּבִנָּה תַּקְפִּיאֵנִי" (איוב י׳:י׳), שֶׁהֻקְשׁוּ וְנַעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲבָנִים וְהַמַּיִם זוֹרְקִים אֶת הַמִּצְרִיִּים עַל הָאֶבֶן בְּכֹחַ וְנִלְחָמִים בָּם בְּכָל מִינֵי קֹשִׁי:
in the heart of the sea: Heb. בְּלֶב יָם, in the strongest part of the sea. It is customary for the Scriptures to speak in this manner, [for instance:] “until the heart of (לֵב) the heavens” (Deut. 4:11); in the heart of (בְּלֵב) the terebinth" (II Sam. 18:14). [The heart in these examples is] an expression denoting the root and the strength of anything. —   בְּלֶב־יָֽם: בְּחֹזֶק הַיָּם; וְדֶרֶךְ הַמִּקְרָאוֹת לְדַבֵּר כֵּן, "עַד לֵב הַשָּׁמַיִם" (דברים ד'), "בְּלֵב הָאֵלָה" (שמואל ב י"ח), לְשׁוֹן עִקָּרוֹ וְתָקְפּוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר:
9[Because] the enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will share the booty; my desire will be filled from them; I will draw my sword, my hand will impoverish them.   טאָמַ֥ר אוֹיֵ֛ב אֶרְדֹּ֥ף אַשִּׂ֖יג אֲחַלֵּ֣ק שָׁלָ֑ל תִּמְלָאֵ֣מוֹ נַפְשִׁ֔י אָרִ֣יק חַרְבִּ֔י תּֽוֹרִישֵׁ֖מוֹ יָדִֽי:
[Because] the enemy said: to his people, when he enticed them with [his] words, "I will pursue, and I will overtake them, and I will share the plunder with my officers and my servants."   אָמַר אוֹיֵב: לְעַמּוֹ, כְּשֶׁפִּתָּם בִּדְבָרִים, אֶרְדֹּף וְאַשִּׂיגֵם וַאֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל עִם שָׂרַי וַעֲבָדַי:
will be filled from them: Heb. תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ, equivalent to תִּמְלָא מֵהֶם, will be filled from them.   תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ: תִּתְמַּלֵא מֵהֶם:
my desire: Heb. נַפְשִׁי, lit., my soul, my spirit, and my will. Do not be surprised at [one] word speaking for two [words]; i.e., תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ, instead of תִּמְלָא מֵהֶם, because there are many such words [in Tanach like this], e.g., “you have given me (נְתַתָּנִי) dry land” (Jud. 1:15), [which is] like נָתַתָּ לִי “and they could not speak with him (דַּבְּרוּ) peacefully” (Gen. 37:4), [which is] like דַּבֵּר עִמוֹ“my children have left me (יְצָאוּנִי) ” (Jer. 10:20), [which is] like יָצְאוּ מִמֶנִי “I will tell him (אַגִּידֶנּוּ) ” (Job 31:37), [which is] like אַגִיד לוֹ. Here too, תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ is equivalent to תִִִּמְלָאֵמוֹ נַפְשִׁי מֵהֶם.   נַפְשִׁי: רוּחִי וּרְצוֹנִי. וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל תֵּבָה הַמְדַבֶּרֶת בִּשְׁתַּיִם, תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ – תִּמָּלֵא מֵהֶם, יֵשׁ הַרְבֵּה בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה "כִּי אֶרֶץ הַנֶּגֶב נְתַתָּנִי" (שופטים א׳:ט״ו), כְּמוֹ נָתַתָּ לִי, "וְלֹא יָכְלוּ דַּבְּרוֹ לְשָׁלוֹם" (בראשית ל״ז:ד׳), כְּמוֹ דַּבֵּר עִמּוֹ, "בָּנַי יְצָאוּנִי" (ירמיהו י׳:כ׳), כְּמוֹ יָצְאוּ מִמֶּנִּי, "מִסְפַּר צְעָדַי אֲגִידֶנּוּ" (איוב ל״א:ל״ז), כְּמוֹ אַגִּיד לוֹ, אַף כָּאן "תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ" – תִּמָּלֵא נַפְשִׁי מֵהֶם:
I will draw my sword: Heb. חַרְבִּי אָרִיק, lit., I will empty my sword. I will draw, and because one empties the sheath by drawing it [the sword], and it remains empty, an expression of emptying is appropriate, like “And it came to pass that they were emptying (מְרִיקִים) their sacks” (Gen. 42:35); “and they shall empty (יָרִיקוּ) his vessels” (Jer. 48:12). Do not say that the expression of emptiness [in these examples] does not apply to what comes out [of its container] but [instead applies] to the sheath, the sack, or the vessel from which it came out, but not to the sword or the wine, and [thus] to force an interpretation of אָרִיק חַרְבִּי like the language of “and he armed (וַיָרֶק) his trained men” (Gen. 14:14), [claiming that its] meaning [is] "I will arm myself with my sword.” [To this I answer that] we find the expression [of emptying] also applied to that which comes out, e.g., “oil poured forth (תּוּרַק) ” (Song of Songs 1:3); “and he has not been poured (הוּרַק) from one vessel to another vessel” (Jer. 48:11). It is not written: “the vessel was not emptied (הוּרַק)” but “the wine was not poured (הוּרַק) from one vessel to another vessel.” Similarly, “and they will draw (וְהֵרִיקוּ) their swords on the beauty of your wisdom” (Ezek. 28:7), referring to Hiram [the king of Tyre]-[following Onkelos, Jonathan].   אָרִיק חַרְבִּי: אֶשְׁלֹף, וְעַל שֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מֵרִיק אֶת הַתַּעַר בִּשְׁלִיפָתוֹ וְנִשְׁאָר רֵיק, נוֹפֵל בּוֹ לְשׁוֹן הֲרָקָה, כְּמוֹ "מְרִיקִים שַׂקֵּיהֶם" (בראשית מ״ב:ל״ה), "וְכֵלָיו יָרִיקוּ" (ירמיהו מ״ח:י״ב). וְאַל תֹּאמַר אֵין לְשׁוֹן רֵיקוּת נוֹפֵל עַל הַיּוֹצֵא, אֶלָּא עַל הַתִּיק וְעַל הַשַּׂק וְעַל הַכְּלִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנָּה, אֲבָל לֹא עַל הַחֶרֶב וְעַל הַיַּיִן, וְלִדְחֹק וּלְפָרֵשׁ "אָרִיק חַרְבִּי" כִּלְשׁוֹן "וַיָּרֶק אֶת חֲנִיכָיו" (בראשית י״ד:י״ד), אֶזְדַּיֵּן בְּחַרְבִּי, מָצִינוּ הַלָּשׁוֹן מוּסָב אַף עַל הַיּוֹצֵא, "שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק" (שיר השירים א׳:ג׳), "וְלֹא הוּרַק מִכְּלִי אֶל כֶּלִי" (ירמיהו מ״ח:י״א), לֹא הוּרַק הַכְּלִי אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא לֹא הוּרַק הַיַּיִן מִכְּלִי אֶל כְּלִי, מָצִינוּ הַלָּשׁוֹן מוּסָב עַל הַיַּיִן, וְכֵן "וְהֵרִיקוּ חַרְבוֹתָם עַל יְפִי חָכְמָתֶךָ", דְּחִירָם (יחזקאל כ״ח:ז׳):
my hand will impoverish them: Heb. תּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ, an expression of poverty (רֵישׁוּת) and destitution, like “The Lord impoverishes (מוֹרִישׁ) and makes rich” (I Sam. 2:7).   תּֽוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ: לְשׁוֹן רֵישׁוּת וְדַלּוּת, כְּמוֹ "מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר" (שמואל א' ב'):
10You blew with Your wind, the sea covered them; they sank like lead in the powerful waters.   ינָשַׁ֥פְתָּ בְרֽוּחֲךָ֖ כִּסָּ֣מוֹ יָ֑ם צָֽלֲלוּ֙ כַּֽעוֹפֶ֔רֶת בְּמַ֖יִם אַדִּירִֽים:
You blew: Heb. נָשַׁפְתָּ, an expression of blowing, and likewise: “and also He blew (נָשַׁף) on them” (Isa. 40:24).   נָשַׁפְתָּ: לְשׁוֹן הֲפָחָה, וְכֵן "וְגַם נָשַׁף בָּהֶם" (ישעיה מ'):
they sank: Heb. צָלִלוּ, [which means] they sank; they went down to the depths, an expression of מְצוּלָה, deep.   צָֽלֲלוּ: שָׁקְעוּ, עָמְקוּ, לְשׁוֹן מְצוּלָה:
like lead: Heb. כַּעוֹפֶרֶת, plomb in French, lead.   כַּֽעוֹפֶרֶת: אֲבָר, פלו"ם בְלַעַז:
11Who is like You among the powerful, O Lord? Who is like You, powerful in the holy place? Too awesome for praises, performing wonders!   יאמִֽי־כָמֹ֤כָה בָּֽאֵלִם֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה מִ֥י כָּמֹ֖כָה נֶאְדָּ֣ר בַּקֹּ֑דֶשׁ נוֹרָ֥א תְהִלֹּ֖ת עֹ֥שֵׂה פֶֽלֶא:
among the powerful: Heb. בָּאֵלִם, among the strong, like “and the powerful (אֵילֵי) of the land he took away” (Ezek. 17:13); “my strength איָלוּתִי, hasten to my assistance” (Ps. 22:20).   בָּֽאֵלִם: בַּחֲזָקִים, כְּמוֹ "וְאֶת אֵילֵי הָאָרֶץ לָקָח" (יחזקאל י"ז). "אֱיָלוּתִי לְעֶזְרָתִי חוּשָׁה" (תהלים כ"ב):
Too awesome for praises: [You are] too awesome for [one] to recite Your praises, lest they fall short, as it is written: “Silence is praise to You” (Ps. 65:2).   נוֹרָא תְהִלֹּת: יָרְאוּי מִלְּהַגִּיד תְּהִלּוֹתֶיךָ פֶן יִמְעֲטוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב "לְךָ דוּמִיָּה תְהִלָּה" (תהילים ס״ה:ב׳):
12You inclined Your right hand; the earth swallowed them up.   יבנָטִ֨יתָ֙ יְמִ֣ינְךָ֔ תִּבְלָעֵ֖מוֹ אָֽרֶץ:
You inclined Your right hand: When the Holy One, blessed be He, inclines His hand, the wicked perish and fall, because all are placed in His hand, and they fall when He inclines it. Similarly, it [Scripture] says: “and the Lord shall turn His hand, and the helper shall stumble, and the helped one shall fall” (Isa. 31:3). This can be compared to glass vessels placed in a person’s hand. If he inclines his hand a little, they fall and break. — [based on Mechilta]   נָטִיתָ יְמִינְךָ: כְּשֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נוֹטֶה יָדוֹ, הָרְשָׁעִים כָּלִים וְנוֹפְלִים, לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּל נָתוּן בְּיָדוֹ וְנוֹפְלִים בְּהַטָּיָתָהּ; וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "וַה' יַטֶּה יָדוֹ וְכָשַׁל עוֹזֵר וְנָפַל עָזֻר" (ישעיהו ל"א), מָשָׁל לִכְלֵי זְכוּכִית הַנְּתוּנִים בְּיַד אָדָם, מַטֶּה יָדוֹ מְעַט וְהֵן נוֹפְלִים וּמִשְׁתַּבְּרִין (מכילתא):
the earth swallowed them up: From here [we deduce] that they merited to be buried as a reward for saying, “The Lord is the righteous One” (Exod. 9:27). — [from Mechilta]   תִּבְלָעֵמוֹ אָֽרֶץ: מִכָּאן שֶׁזָּכוּ לִקְבוּרָה בִּשְׂכַר שֶׁאָמְרוּ ה' הַצַּדִּיק (מכילתא):
13With Your loving kindness You led the people You redeemed; You led [them] with Your might to Your holy abode.   יגנָחִ֥יתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ֖ עַם־ז֣וּ גּאָ֑לְתָּ נֵהַ֥לְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ֖ אֶל־נְוֵ֥ה קָדְשֶֽׁךָ:
You led: Heb. נֵהַלְתָּ, an expression of leading. Onkelos, however, rendered [it as] an expression of carrying and bearing, but he was not exact in explaining it in accordance with the Hebrew. [I.e., he explained the sense of the verse, but he did not translate the word literally.]   נֵהַלְתָּ: לְשׁוֹן מְנַהֵל, וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם לְשׁוֹן נוֹשֵׂא וְסוֹבֵל, וְלֹא דִקְדֵּק לְפָרֵשׁ אַחַר לְשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית:
14Peoples heard, they trembled; a shudder seized the inhabitants of Philistia.   ידשָֽׁמְע֥וּ עַמִּ֖ים יִרְגָּז֑וּן חִ֣יל אָחַ֔ז יֽשְׁבֵ֖י פְּלָֽשֶׁת:
they trembled: Heb. יִרְגָזוּן, [which means] they tremble.   יִרְגָּזוּן: מִתְרַגְּזִין:
the inhabitants of Philistia: [They trembled] since they slew the children of Ephraim, who hastened the end [of their exile] and went out [of Egypt] forcibly, as is delineated in (I) Chronicles (7:21). And the people of [the town of] Gath slew them [the children of Ephraim]. — [from Mechilta]   יֽשְׁבֵי פְּלָֽשֶׁת: מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָרְגוּ אֶת בְּנֵי אֶפְרַיִם – שֶׁמִּהֲרוּ אֶת הַקֵּץ וְיָצְאוּ בְחָזְקָה כַּמְפֹרָשׁ בְּדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים – וַהֲרָגוּם אַנְשֵׁי גַת (מכילתא):
15Then the chieftains of Edom were startled; [as for] the powerful men of Moab, trembling seized them; all the inhabitants of Canaan melted.   טואָ֤ז נִבְהֲלוּ֙ אַלּוּפֵ֣י אֱד֔וֹם אֵילֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב יֹֽאחֲזֵ֖מוֹ רָ֑עַד נָמֹ֕גוּ כֹּ֖ל יֽשְׁבֵ֥י כְנָֽעַן:
the chieftains of Edom…the powerful men of Moab: Now they had nothing to fear at all, because they [the Israelites] were not advancing upon them. Rather, [they trembled] because of grief, that they were grieving and suffering because of the glory of Israel.   אַלּוּפֵי אֱדוֹם אֵילֵי מוֹאָב: וַהֲלֹא לֹא הָיָה לָהֶם לִירֹא כְלוּם, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עֲלֵיהֶם הוֹלְכִים? אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי אֲנִינוּת שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְאוֹנְנִים וּמִצְטַעֲרִים עַל כְּבוֹדָם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל (ילקוט שמעוני):
melted: Heb. נָמֹגוּ, [as in the phrase] “with raindrops You dissolve it (תְּמֹגְגֶנָּה)” (Ps. 65:11). They [the inhabitants of Canaan] said, “They are coming upon us to annihilate us and possess our land.” -[from Mechilta]   נָמֹגוּ: נָמַסּוּ, כְּמוֹ "בִּרְבִיבִים תְּמוֹגְגֶנָּה" (תהלים ס"ה), אָמְרוּ, עָלֵינוּ הֵם בָּאִים, לְכַלּוֹתֵינוּ וְלִירַשׁ אֶת אַרְצֵנוּ (מכילתא):
16May dread and fright fall upon them; with the arm of Your greatness may they become as still as a stone, until Your people cross over, O Lord, until this nation that You have acquired crosses over.   טזתִּפֹּ֨ל עֲלֵיהֶ֤ם אֵימָ֨תָה֙ וָפַ֔חַד בִּגְדֹ֥ל זְרֽוֹעֲךָ֖ יִדְּמ֣וּ כָּאָ֑בֶן עַד־יַֽעֲבֹ֤ר עַמְּךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה עַד־יַֽעֲבֹ֖ר עַם־ז֥וּ קָנִֽיתָ:
May dread…fall upon them: Heb. אֵימָתָה, upon the distant ones. — [from Mechilta]   תִּפֹּל עֲלֵיהֶם אֵימָתָה: עַל הָרְחוֹקִים:
and fright: Heb. וָפַחַד. Upon the nearby ones, as the matter that is stated: “For we have heard how the Lord dried up [the water of the Red Sea for you, etc.]” (Josh. 2:10).[from Mechilta]   וָפַחַד: עַל הַקְּרוֹבִים, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כִּי שָׁמַעְנוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר הוֹבִישׁ וְגוֹ'" (יהושע ב'):
until…cross over, until…crosses over: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders.   עַד־יַֽעֲבֹר עַד־יַֽעֲבֹר: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
You have acquired: Heb. קָנִיתָ. [I.e., whom] You loved more than other nations, similar to an article purchased for a high price, which is dear to the person [who purchased it].   קָנִֽיתָ: חִבַּבְתָּ מִשְּׁאָר אֻמּוֹת, כְּחֵפֶץ הַקָּנוּי בְּדָמִים יְקָרִים שֶׁחָבִיב עַל הָאָדָם:
17You shall bring them and plant them on the mount of Your heritage, directed toward Your habitation, which You made, O Lord; the sanctuary, O Lord, [which] Your hands founded.   יזתְּבִאֵ֗מוֹ וְתִטָּעֵ֨מוֹ֙ בְּהַ֣ר נַֽחֲלָֽתְךָ֔ מָכ֧וֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ֛ פָּעַ֖לְתָּ יְהֹוָ֑ה מִקְּדָ֕שׁ אֲדֹנָ֖י כּֽוֹנְנ֥וּ יָדֶֽיךָ:
You shall bring them: Moses prophesied that he would not enter the land [of Israel]. Therefore, it does not say: “You shall bring us.” (It appears that it should read “that they would not enter the land, etc.” Indeed, this is the way it is stated in Baba Bathra 119b and in Mechilta: The sons will enter but not the fathers. Although the decree of the spies had not yet been pronounced, he [Moses] prophesied, not knowing what he was prophesying. — [Maharshal])   תְּבִאֵמוֹ: נִתְנַבֵּא מֹשֶׁה שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לָאָרֶץ לְכָךְ לֹא נֶאֱמַר "תְּבִיאֵנוּ" (בבא בתרא קי"ט):
directed toward Your habitation: The Temple below is directly opposite the Temple above, which You made. — [from Mechilta]   מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ: מִקְדָּשׁ שֶׁל מַטָּה מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד כִּסֵּא שֶׁל מַעְלָה אֲשֶׁר פָּעַלְתָּ (מכילתא):
the sanctuary: Heb. מִקְּדָשׁ. The cantillation sign over it is a “zakef gadol,” to separate it from the word ה following it. [The verse thus means:] the sanctuary which Your hands founded, O Lord. The Temple is beloved, since, whereas the world was created with “one hand,” as it is said: “Even My hand laid the foundation of the earth” (Isa. 48:13), the sanctuary [will be built] with “two hands.” When will it be built with "two hands"? At the time when “the Lord will reign to all eternity” [verse 18]. In the future, when the entire ruling power is His. — [from Mechilta and Keth. 5a]   מִקְּדָשׁ ה': הַטַּעַם עָלָיו זָקֵף גָּדוֹל, לְהַפְרִידוֹ מִתֵּבַת הַשֵּׁם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו, הַמִּקְדָּשׁ אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ ה'. חָבִיב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁהָעוֹלָם נִבְרָא בְּיָד אַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אַף יָדִי יָסְדָה אֶרֶץ" (ישעיהו מ"ח), וּמִקְדָּשׁ בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם, וְאֵימָתַי יִבָּנֶה בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם? בִּזְמַן שֶׁ"ה' יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד" – לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא שֶׁכָּל הַמְּלוּכָה שֶׁלּוֹ:
18The Lord will reign to all eternity   יחיְהֹוָ֥ה | יִמְלֹ֖ךְ לְעֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד:
to all eternity: Heb. לְעֹלָם וָעֶד. [This is] an expression of eternity, and the “vav” in it is part of the root. Therefore, it is punctuated with a “pattach.” But in “and I am He Who knows, and [I am] a witness וָעֵד” (Jer. 29:23), in which the “vav” is a prefix, it is punctuated with a “kamatz.”[The punctuation referred to here is the sound of the word, which would be the letter "ayin" not "vov". This is punctuated with a "segol" which is sometimes referred to as the "small pattach". ]   לְעֹלָם וָעֶֽד: לְשׁוֹן עוֹלָמוּת הוּא וְהַוָּי"ו בּוֹ יְסוֹד, לְפִיכָךְ הִיא פְּתוּחָה, אֲבָל "אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹדֵעַ וָעֵד" (ירמיהו כ"ט), שֶׁהַוָּי"ו בּוֹ שִׁמּוּשׁ, קְמוּצָה הִיא:
19When Pharaoh's horses came with his chariots and his horsemen into the sea, and the Lord brought the waters of the sea back upon them, and the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea,   יטכִּ֣י בָא֩ ס֨וּס פַּרְעֹ֜ה בְּרִכְבּ֤וֹ וּבְפָֽרָשָׁיו֙ בַּיָּ֔ם וַיָּ֧שֶׁב יְהֹוָ֛ה עֲלֵהֶ֖ם אֶת־מֵ֣י הַיָּ֑ם וּבְנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָֽלְכ֥וּ בַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּֽם:
When Pharaoh’s horses came: Heb. כִּי בָא When they came.   כִּי בָא סוּס פַּרְעֹה: כַּאֲשֶׁר בָּא:
20Miriam, the prophetess, Aaron's sister, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women came out after her with timbrels and with dances.   כוַתִּקַּח֩ מִרְיָ֨ם הַנְּבִיאָ֜ה אֲח֧וֹת אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן אֶת־הַתֹּ֖ף בְּיָדָ֑הּ וַתֵּצֶ֤אןָ כָל־הַנָּשִׁים֙ אַֽחֲרֶ֔יהָ בְּתֻפִּ֖ים וּבִמְחֹלֹֽת:
Miriam, the prophetess, Aaron’s sister, took: When did she prophesy? When she was [known only as] “Aaron’s sister,” before Moses was born, she said, “My mother is destined to bear a son” [who will save Israel], as is found in Sotah 12b, 13a). Another explanation: [It is written] Aaron’s sister since he [Aaron] risked his life for her when she was afflicted with zara’ath; [thus] she is called by his name (Mechilta).   וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה: הֵיכָן נִתְנַבְּאָה? כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, קֹדֶם שֶׁנּוֹלַד מֹשֶׁה, אָמְרָה עֲתִידָה אִמִּי שֶׁתֵּלֵד בֵּן וְכוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְּסוֹטָה. (דף י"ב). דָּבָר אַחֵר — אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, לְפִי שֶׁמָּסַר נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ כְּשֶׁנִּצְטָרְעָה נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ:
a timbrel: Heb. הַתֹּף, a type of musical instrument.   אֶת־הַתֹּף: כְּלִי שֶׁל מִינֵי זֶמֶר:
with timbrels and with dances: The righteous women of that generation were [so] certain that the Holy One, blessed be He, would perform miracles for them, they took timbrels out of Egypt. — [from Mechilta]   בְּתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלֹֽת: מֻבְטָחוֹת הָיוּ צַדְקָנִיּוֹת שֶׁבַּדּוֹר שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם נִסִּים וְהוֹצִיאוּ תֻפִּים מִמִּצְרַיִם (מכילתא):
21And Miriam called out to them, Sing to the Lord, for very exalted is He; a horse and its rider He cast into the sea   כאוַתַּ֥עַן לָהֶ֖ם מִרְיָ֑ם שִׁ֤ירוּ לַֽיהֹוָה֙ כִּֽי־גָאֹ֣ה גָּאָ֔ה ס֥וּס וְרֹֽכְב֖וֹ רָמָ֥ה בַיָּֽם:
And Miriam called out to them: Moses said the Song to the men, and they answered after him, and Miriam said the song to the women [and they too repeated it]. — [from Mechilta]   וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם: מֹשֶׁה אָמַר שִׁירָה לָאֲנָשִׁים – הוּא אוֹמֵר וְהֵם עוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו – וּמִרְיָם אָמְרָה שִׁירָה לַנָּשִׁים (סוטה ל'):
22Moses led Israel away from the Red Sea, and they went out into the desert of Shur; they walked for three days in the desert but did not find water.   כבוַיַּסַּ֨ע משֶׁ֤ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִיַּם־ס֔וּף וַיֵּֽצְא֖וּ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־שׁ֑וּר וַיֵּֽלְכ֧וּ שְׁלֽשֶׁת־יָמִ֛ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר וְלֹא־מָ֥צְאוּ מָֽיִם:
Moses led Israel away: lit., made Israel journey. He led them away against their will, for the Egyptians had adorned their steeds with ornaments of gold, silver, and precious stones, and the Israelites were finding them in the sea. The plunder at the sea was greater than the plunder in Egypt, as it is said: “We will make you rows of gold with studs of silver” (Song of Songs 1:11). Therefore, he had to lead them against their will. — [from Tanchuma Buber, Beshallach 16, Mechilta, Exod. 12:35, Song Rabbah 1:11]   וַיַּסַּע משֶׁה: הִסִּיעָן בְּעַל כָּרְחָם, שֶׁעִטְּרוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת סוּסֵיהֶם בְּתַכְשִׁיטֵי זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וַאֲבָנִים טוֹבוֹת, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹצְאִין אוֹתָן בַּיָּם – וּגְדוֹלָה הָיְתָה בִזַּת הַיָּם מִבִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "תּוֹרֵי זָהָב נַעֲשֶׂה לָּךְ עִם נְקֻדּוֹת הַכָּסֶף" (שיר השירים א') – לְפִיכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לְהַסִּיעָן בְּעַל כָּרְחָם:
23They came to Marah, but they could not drink water from Marah because it was bitter; therefore, it was named Marah.   כגוַיָּבֹ֣אוּ מָרָ֔תָה וְלֹ֣א יָֽכְל֗וּ לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת מַ֨יִם֙ מִמָּרָ֔ה כִּ֥י מָרִ֖ים הֵ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָֽרָא־שְׁמָ֖הּ מָרָֽה:
They came to Marah: Heb. מָרָתָה, like לְמָרָָה. The “hey” at the end מָרָתָה is instead of a “lammed” [prefix] at the beginning [of the word], and the “thav” is instead of the “hey” [that is part] of the root in the word מָרָָה. But when a suffix is added, when it is attached to a “hey” that replaces a “lammed,” the “hey” of the root is transformed into a “thav.” Similarly, every “hey” that is part of the root of the word is transformed into a “thav” when a suffix is added, like “I have no wrath (חֵמָה) ” (Isa. 27:4), [becomes] “and his wrath (וַחִמָתוֹ) burnt within him” (Esther 1:12). Note that the “hey” of the root is transformed into a “thav” when it is placed next to the added “vav.” Likewise,"bond servants and handmaids (וְאָמָה) “ (Lev. 25:44), [becomes] and "Here is my handmaid (אִמָתִי) Bilhah” (Gen. 30:3); “a living (חַיָה) soul” (Gen. 2:7), [becomes] “and his living spirit (חַיָתוֹ) causes him to abhor food” (Job 33:20); “between Ramah (הָרָמָה)” (Jud. 4:5), [becomes] “And his return was to Ramah (הָרָמָתָה)” (I Sam. 7:17).   וַיָּבֹאוּ מָרָתָה: כְּמוֹ לְמָרָה, ה"א בְּסוֹף תֵּבָה בִּמְקוֹם למ"ד בִּתְחִלָּתָהּ, וְהַתָּי"ו הִיא בִּמְקוֹם ה"א הַנִּשְׁרֶשֶׁת בְּתֵבַת מָרָה, וּבִסְמִיכָתָהּ, כְּשֶׁהִיא נִדְבֶּקֶת לַהֵ"א שֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף בִּמְקוֹם הַלָּמֶ"ד, תֵּהָפֵךְ הַהֵ"א שֶׁל שֹׁרֶשׁ לְתָי"ו; וְכֵן כָּל הֵ"א שֶׁהִיא שֹׁרֶשׁ בַּתֵּבָה תִּתְהַפֵּךְ לְתָי"ו בִּסְמִיכָתָהּ, כְּמוֹ "חֵמָה אֵין לִי" (ישעיהו כ"ז), "וַחֲמָתוֹ בָּעֲרָה בוֹ" (אסתר א'), הֲרֵי הֵ"א שֶׁל שֹׁרֶשׁ נֶהְפֶּכֶת לְתָי"ו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּסְמֶכֶת אֶל הַוָּי"ו הַנּוֹסֶפֶת, וְכֵן "עֶבֶד וְאָמָה" (ויקרא כ"ה), "הִנֵּה אֲמָתִי בִלְהָה" (בראשית ל'), "לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה" (בראשית ב׳:ז׳), "וְזִהֲמַתּוּ חַיָּתוֹ לָחֶם" (איוב ל"ג), "בֵּין הָרָמָה" (שופטים ד'), "וּתְשֻׁבָתוֹ הָרָמָתָה" (שמואל א ז'):
24The people complained against Moses, saying, What shall we drink?   כדוַיִּלֹּ֧נוּ הָעָ֛ם עַל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹ֖ר מַה־נִּשְׁתֶּֽה:
complained: Heb. וַיִלֹנוּ. This is in the niph’al conjugation. [In this case, the niph’al denotes the reflexive, as we see further in Rashi.] Likewise, in the Targum [Onkelos], it is also a niph’al expression: וְאִתְרַעִמוּ. The nature of the term denoting complaint תְּלוּנָה [is that it] reverts to the person [complaining], מִתְלוֹנֵן [complains] or מִתְרוֹעֵם [storms], but one does not say לוֹנֵן or רוֹעֵם [Hebrew]. The Frenchman also says, “Decomplenst sey.” He reverts the statement to himself when he says, “Sey.”   וַיִּלֹּנוּ: לְשׁוֹן נִפְעָל הוּא, וְכֵן הַתַּרְגּוּם לְשׁוֹן נִפְעָל הוּא וְאִתְרַעֲמוּ, וְכֵן דֶּרֶךְ לְשׁוֹן תְּלוּנָה לְהָסֵב הַדִּבּוּר אֶל הָאָדָם – מִתְלוֹנֵן, מִתְרוֹעֵם וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹנֵן, רוֹעֵם, וְכֵן יֹאמַר הַלּוֹעֵז דקומפ"לישנ"ט ש"י בְלַעַז, מֵסֵב הַדִּבּוּר אֵלָיו בְּאָמְרוֹ ש"י:
25So he cried out to the Lord, and the Lord instructed him concerning a piece of wood, which he cast into the water, and the water became sweet. There He gave them a statute and an ordinance, and there He tested them.   כהוַיִּצְעַ֣ק אֶל־יְהֹוָ֗ה וַיּוֹרֵ֤הוּ יְהֹוָה֙ עֵ֔ץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ֙ אֶל־הַמַּ֔יִם וַיִּמְתְּק֖וּ הַמָּ֑יִם שָׁ֣ם שָׂ֥ם ל֛וֹ חֹ֥ק וּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וְשָׁ֥ם נִסָּֽהוּ:
There He gave them: In Marah, He gave them some sections of the Torah so that they would busy themselves with them, namely [they were given the laws governing] the Sabbath, the red cow, and laws of jurisprudence. — [from Mechilta and Sanh. 56b]   שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ: בְּמָרָה נָתַן לָהֶם מִקְצָת פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁיִּתְעַסְּקוּ בָהֶם, שַׁבָּת וּפָרָה אֲדֻמָּה וְדִינִין (סנהדרין נ"ו):
and there He tested them: [He tested] the people and saw how stiff-necked they were, that they did not consult Moses with respectful language, “Entreat [God to have] mercy upon us that we should have water to drink,” but they complained. — [from Mechilta]   וְשָׁם נִסָּֽהוּ: לָעָם, וְרָאָה קְשִׁי עָרְפּוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא נִמְלְכוּ בְמֹשֶׁה בְּלָשׁוֹן יָפָה "בַּקֵּשׁ עָלֵינוּ רַחֲמִים שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לָנוּ מַיִם לִשְׁתּוֹת" אֶלָּא נִתְלוֹנְנוּ:
26And He said, If you hearken to the voice of the Lord, your God, and you do what is proper in His eyes, and you listen closely to His commandments and observe all His statutes, all the sicknesses that I have visited upon Egypt I will not visit upon you, for I, the Lord, heal you.   כווַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ אִם־שָׁמ֨וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַ֜ע לְק֣וֹל | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ וְהַיָּשָׁ֤ר בְּעֵינָיו֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה וְהַֽאֲזַנְתָּ֙ לְמִצְו‍ֹתָ֔יו וְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֖ כָּל־חֻקָּ֑יו כָּל־הַמַּֽחֲלָ֞ה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֤מְתִּי בְמִצְרַ֨יִם֙ לֹֽא־אָשִׂ֣ים עָלֶ֔יךָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה רֹֽפְאֶֽךָ:
If you hearken: This is the acceptance [of the law] that they should accept upon themselves.   אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע: זוֹ קַבָּלָה שֶׁיְּקַבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם:
and you do: This means the performance [of the commandments].   תַּֽעֲשֶׂה: הִיא עֲשִׂיָּה:
and you listen closely: [This means that] you [should] incline your ears to be meticulous in [fulfilling] them.   וְהַֽאֲזַנְתָּ: תַּטֶּה אָזְנַיִם לְדַקְדֵּק בָּהֶם:
all His statutes: Things that are only the decree of the King, without any [apparent] rationale, and with which the evil inclination finds fault, [saying,] “What is [the sense of] the prohibition of these [things]? Why were they prohibited?” For example, [the prohibitions of] wearing shatnes [a mixture of wool and linen] and eating pork, and [the ritual of] the red cow and their like. — [based on Yoma 67b]   כָּל־חֻקָּיו: דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן אֶלָּא גְּזֵרַת מֶלֶךְ, בְּלֹא שׁוּם טַעַם, וְיֵצֶר הָרָע מְקַנְטֵר עֲלֵיהֶם: מָה אִסּוּר בְּאֵלּוּ? לָמָּה נֶאֶסְרוּ? כְּגוֹן לְבִישַׁת כִּלְאַיִם וַאֲכִילַת חֲזִיר וּפָרָה אֲדֻמָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם (יומא ס"ז):
I will not visit upon you: And if I do bring [sickness upon you], it is as if it has not been brought, “for I, the Lord, heal you.” This is its midrashic interpretation (see Sanh. 101a, Mechilta). According to its simple meaning, [we explain:] “for I, the Lord, am your Physician” and [I] teach you the Torah and the mitzvoth in order that you be saved from them [illnesses], like this physician who says to a person, “Do not eat things that will cause you to relapse into the grip of illness.” This [warning] refers to listening closely to the commandments, and so [Scripture] says: “It shall be healing for your navel” (Prov. 3:8). — [from Mechilta]   לֹֽא־אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ: וְאִם אָשִׂים הֲרֵי הוּא כְּלֹא הוּשְׂמָה, כי אני ה' רפאך – זֶהוּ מִדְרָשׁוֹ. וּלְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ כִּי אֲנִי ה' רֹפְאֶךָ וּמְלַמֶּדְךָ תוֹרָה וּמִצְווֹת לְמַעַן תִּנָּצֵל מֵהֶם, כָּרוֹפֵא הַזֶּה הָאוֹמֵר לָאָדָם, אַל תֹּאכַל דָּבָר זֶה פֶּן יְבִיאֲךָ לִידֵי חֹלִי זֶה, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר "רִפְאוּת תְּהִי לְשָׁרֶּךָ" (משלי ג'):

Fifth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 15

27They came to Elim, and there were twelve water fountains and seventy palms, and they encamped there by the water.   כזוַיָּבֹ֣אוּ אֵילִ֔מָה וְשָׁ֗ם שְׁתֵּ֥ים עֶשְׂרֵ֛ה עֵינֹ֥ת מַ֖יִם וְשִׁבְעִ֣ים תְּמָרִ֑ים וַיַּֽחֲנוּ־שָׁ֖ם עַל־הַמָּֽיִם:
twelve water fountains: Corresponding to the twelve tribes, were prepared for them. — [from Mechilta]   שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה עֵינֹת מַיִם: כְּנֶגֶד י"ב שְׁבָטִים נִזְדַּמְּנוּ לָהֶם:
and seventy palms: Corresponding to the seventy elders. — [from Mechilta, Jonathan]   וְשִׁבְעִים תְּמָרִים: כְּנֶגֶד שִׁבְעִים זְקֵנִים (מכילתא):

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 16

1They journeyed from Elim, and the entire community of the children of Israel came to the desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departure from the land of Egypt.   אוַיִּסְעוּ֙ מֵֽאֵילִ֔ם וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ כָּל־עֲדַ֤ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־סִ֔ין אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּֽין־אֵילִ֖ם וּבֵ֣ין סִינָ֑י בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י לְצֵאתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
on the fifteenth day: The day of this encampment is stated because on that day the cakes that they had taken out of Egypt were depleted, and they needed manna. We learn [from this] that they ate of the remaining dough (or from the remaining matzoth) sixty- one meals. And the manna fell for them on the sixteenth of Iyar, which was a Sunday, as appears in tractate Shabbath (87b). — [from Mechilta]   בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם: נִתְפָּרֵשׁ הַיּוֹם שֶׁל חֲנָיָה זוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁבּוֹ בַיּוֹם כָּלְתָה הַחֲרָרָה שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם וְהֻצְרְכוּ לַמָּן, לְלַמְּדֵנוּ, שֶׁאָכְלוּ מִשְּׁיָרֵי הַבָּצֵק שִׁשִּׁים וְאַחַת סְעוּדוֹת וְיָרַד לָהֶם מָן בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּאִיָּר, וְיוֹם א' בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה כִּדְאִיתָא בְּמַסֶּכֶת שַׁבָּת (פ"ז):
2The entire community of the children of Israel complained against Moses and against Aaron in the desert.   בוַיִּלּ֜וֹנוּ (כתיב וילינו) כָּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל עַל־משֶׁ֥ה וְעַל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן בַּמִּדְבָּֽר:
complained: Because the bread [they had taken out of Egypt] was depleted.   וילונו: לְפִי שֶׁכָּלָה הַלֶּחֶם:
3The children of Israel said to them, If only we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat by pots of meat, when we ate bread to our fill! For you have brought us out into this desert, to starve this entire congregation to death.   גוַיֹּֽאמְר֨וּ אֲלֵהֶ֜ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל מִֽי־יִתֵּ֨ן מוּתֵ֤נוּ בְיַד־יְהֹוָה֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּשִׁבְתֵּ֨נוּ֙ עַל־סִ֣יר הַבָּשָׂ֔ר בְּאָכְלֵ֥נוּ לֶ֖חֶם לָשׂ֑בַע כִּי־הֽוֹצֵאתֶ֤ם אֹתָ֨נוּ֙ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה לְהָמִ֛ית אֶת־כָּל־הַקָּהָ֥ל הַזֶּ֖ה בָּֽרָעָֽב:
If only we had died: Heb. מוּתֵנוּ, that we would have died, but it is not a noun like מוֹתֵנוּ, our death, but like עִשׂוֹתֵנוּ, חִנוֹתֵנוּ, שׁוּבֵנוּ, that we do, that we encamp, [that we return,] that we die. [Literally, this would be translated: Who would grant that we die.] Its targum [Onkelos, however,] is: לְוַי דְמִיתְנָא, like “If only we had died לוּ מָתְנוּ” (Num. 14:2), if only we would have died.   מִֽי־יִתֵּן מוּתֵנוּ: שֶׁנָּמוּת; וְאֵינוֹ שֵׁם דָּבָר כְּמוֹ מִיתָתֵנוּ, אֶלָּא כְּמוֹ עֲשׂוֹתֵנוּ חֲנוֹתֵנוּ שׁוּבֵנוּ, לַעֲשׂוֹת אֲנַחְנוּ, לַחֲנוֹת אֲנַחְנוּ, לָמוּת אֲנַחְנוּ. תַּרְגּוּמוֹ לְוַי דְּמִיתְנָא, "לוּ מַתְנוּ" (במדבר יד, ב) — הַלְוַאי וְהָיִינוּ מֵתִים:
4So the Lord said to Moses, Behold! I am going to rain down for you bread from heaven, and the people shall go out and gather what is needed for the day, so that I can test them, whether or not they will follow My teaching.   דוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה הִֽנְנִ֨י מַמְטִ֥יר לָכֶ֛ם לֶ֖חֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְיָצָ֨א הָעָ֤ם וְלָֽקְטוּ֙ דְּבַר־י֣וֹם בְּיוֹמ֔וֹ לְמַ֧עַן אֲנַסֶּ֛נּוּ הֲיֵלֵ֥ךְ בְּתֽוֹרָתִ֖י אִם־לֹֽא:
what is needed for the day: Heb. דְבַר יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ, lit., the thing of a day in its day. What is needed for a day’s eating they will gather on its day, but they will not gather today for the needs of tomorrow. — [from Mechilta]   דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ: צֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת יוֹם יִלְקְטוּ בְּיוֹמוֹ וְלֹא הַיּוֹם לְצֹרֶךְ מָחָר (מכילתא):
so that I can test them, whether…they will follow My teaching: [Through giving the manna I will test] whether they will keep the commandments contingent upon it, [i.e.,] that they will not leave any of it over, and that they will not go out on the Sabbath to gather [the manna].   לְמַעַן אֲנַסֶּנּוּ הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתֽוֹרָתִי: אִם יִשְׁמְרוּ מִצְווֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בּוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא יֵצְאוּ בַּשַּׁבָּת לִלְקֹט:
5And it shall be on the sixth day that when they prepare what they will bring, it will be double of what they gather every day.   הוְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֔י וְהֵכִ֖ינוּ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־יָבִ֑יאוּ וְהָיָ֣ה מִשְׁנֶ֔ה עַ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יִלְקְט֖וּ י֥וֹם | יֽוֹם:
and it will be double: For that day and for the morrow.   וְהָיָה מִשְׁנֶה: לַיּוֹם וְלַמָּחֳרָת:
double: of what they were accustomed to gather each day of the rest of the days of the week. I believe that [the meaning of] “what they will bring, and it will be double” is that after they bring it [the manna], by measuring [it], they will find it [to be] double of what they gather and measure every day. That is [the meaning of] “they gathered a double portion of bread” (verse 22). Their gathering was found to be a double portion of bread. That is [the meaning of] “Therefore, on the sixth day, He gives you bread for two days” (verse 29). He gives you a blessing (foison [in French, meaning plenty, abundance]) in the house to fill the omer twice for two days of bread.   מִשְׁנֶה: עַל שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִים לִלְקֹט יוֹם יוֹם שֶׁל שְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁבוּעַ; אוֹמֵר אֲנִי "אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ וְהָיָה מִשְׁנֶה" – לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּבִיאוּ, יִמְצְאוּ מִשְׁנֶה בַּמְּדִידָה עַל אֲשֶׁר יִלְקְטוּ וְיָמֹדּוּ יוֹם יוֹם, וְזֶהוּ לָקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה – בִּלְקִיטָתוֹ הָיָה נִמְצָא לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה. וְזֶהוּ עַל כֵּן הוּא נוֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם – נוֹתֵן לָכֶם בְּרָכָה, פוי"שן, בַּבַּיִת לְמַלֹּאת הָעֹמֶר פַּעֲמַיִם לְלֶחֶם יוֹמַיִם:
6[Thereupon,] Moses and Aaron said to all the children of Israel, [In the] evening, you shall know that the Lord brought you out of the land of Egypt.   ווַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ וְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עֶ֕רֶב וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּ֧י יְהֹוָ֛ה הוֹצִ֥יא אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
evening: Heb. עֶרֶב. Like בָּעֶרֶב, toward evening. [According to Sifthei Chachamim, the correct reading is בָּעֶרֶב, in the evening.] [from Onkelos and Jonathan]   עֶרֶב: כְּמוֹ לָעֶרֶב:
you shall know that the Lord brought you out of the land of Egypt: Since you [the people of Israel] said to us [Moses and Aaron], “For you have brought us out” (verse 3), you shall know that we are not the ones who brought [you] out, but [it was] the Lord [Who] brought you out, for He will cause the quail to fly to you.[See commentary on verse 13]   וִֽידַעְתֶּם כִּי ה' הוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם: לְפִי שֶׁאֲמַרְתֶּם לָנוּ כִּי הוֹצֵאתֶם אוֹתָנוּ, תֵּדְעוּ כִּי לֹא אֲנַחְנוּ הַמּוֹצִיאִים אֶלָּא ה' הוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם שֶׁיָּגִיז לָכֶם אֶת הַשְּׂלָו:
7And [in the] morning, you shall see the glory of the Lord when He hears your complaints against the Lord but [of] what [significance] are we, that you make [the people] complain against us?   זוּבֹ֗קֶר וּרְאִיתֶם֙ אֶת־כְּב֣וֹד יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּשָׁמְע֥וֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶ֖ם עַל־יְהֹוָ֑ה וְנַ֣חְנוּ מָ֔ה כִּ֥י תַלִּ֖ינוּ (כתיב תלונו) עָלֵֽינוּ:
And [in the] morning, you shall see: This was not stated in reference to “and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud” (verse 10), but this is what he [Moses] said to them: In the evening you shall know that He has the ability to grant your desire, and He will give [you] meat; but He will not give it to you with a smiling countenance, because you requested it inappropriately and with a full stomach. As for the bread, which you requested out of necessity, however, when it comes down in the morning, you shall see the glory of the radiance of His countenance. For He will bring it down to you lovingly, in the morning, when there is time to prepare it, and with dew over it and dew under it as if it were lying in a box. — [from Mechilta Yoma 75a,b]   וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם: לֹא עַל הַכָּבוֹד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְהִנֵּה כְּבוֹד ה' נִרְאָה בֶּעָנָן" נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר לָהֶם, עֶרֶב וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי הַיְכֹלֶת בְּיָדוֹ לִתֵּן תַּאֲוַתְכֶם, וּבָשָׂר יִתֵּן, אַךְ לֹא בְּפָנִים מְאִירוֹת יִתְּנֶנָּה לָכֶם, כִּי שֶׁלֹּא כַּהֹגֶן שְׁאַלְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ וּמִכָּרֵס מְלֵאָה, וְהַלֶּחֶם שֶׁשְּׁאַלְתֶּם לְצֹרֶךְ, בִּירִידָתוֹ לַבֹּקֶר תִּרְאוּ אֶת כְּבוֹד אוֹר פָּנָיו – שֶׁיּוֹרִידֵהוּ לָכֶם דֶּרֶךְ חִבָּה, בַּבֹּקֶר, שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁעוֹת לַהֲכִינוֹ וְטַל מִלְמַעְלָה וְטַל מִלְּמַטָּה, כְּמֻנָּח בְּקֻפְסָא (יומא ע"ה):
your complaints against the Lord: As [if it would say]: "your complaints, which are against the Lord."   אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶם עַל־ה': כְּמוֹ אֲשֶׁר עַל ה':
but [of] what [significance] are we: Of what importance are we? -[from Jonathan Mechilta]   וְנַחְנוּ מָה: מָה אֲנַחְנוּ חֲשׁוּבִין?
that you make [the people] complain: Heb. תַלִּינוּ, that you make everyone complain against us: your sons, your wives, your daughters, and the mixed multitude. Perforce, I must interpret תַלִּינוּ, in the sense of “you make do something,” [i.e., the hiph’il conjugation] because of its [the “lammed’s”] “dagesh” and the way it is read [i.e., the keri as opposed to the kethiv]; because if it were weak [i.e., not punctuated with a “dagesh”], I would interpret it as “you do something,” [i.e., in the kal conjugation,] like “and the people complained (וַיָלֶן) against Moses” (Exod. 17:3), or if it [the “lammed”] were punctuated with a “dagesh” and it did not have a “yud” [after it], and read תִלּוֹנוּ, [as it is written], I would explain it as meaning “you complain.” Now, however, it means: “you cause others to complain,” like [the verse written in reference to] the spies: “and they caused the entire congregation to complain (וַיַלִינוּ) against him” (Num. 14:36).   כִּי תלינו עָלֵֽינוּ: שֶׁתַּרְעִימוּ עָלֵינוּ אֶת הַכֹּל, וְאֶת בְּנֵיכֶם וּנְשֵׁיכֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיכֶם וְעֵרֶב רַב. וְעַל כָּרְחִי אֲנִי זָקוּק לְפָרֵשׁ תַּלִּינוּ בִּלְשׁוֹן תַּפְעִילוּ מִפְּנֵי דַּגְשׁוּתוֹ וּקְרִיָּתוֹ, שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה רָפֶה, הָיִיתִי מְפָרְשׁוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן תִּפְעֲלוּ, כְּמוֹ "וַיָּלֶן הָעָם עַל מֹשֶׁה" (שמות י"ז), אוֹ אִם הָיָה דָגוּשׁ וְאֵין בּוֹ יוֹ"ד וְנִקְרָא תִלּוֹנוּ, הָיִיתִי מְפָרְשׁוֹ לְשׁוֹן תִּתְלוֹנְנוּ, עַכְשָׁיו הוּא מַשְׁמַע תַּלִּינוּ אֶת אֲחֵרִים, כְּמוֹ בַּמְּרַגְּלִים "וַיַּלִּינוּ עָלָיו אֶת כָּל הָעֵדָה" (במדבר י"ד):
8And Moses said, When the Lord gives you in the evening meat to eat and bread in the morning [with which] to become sated, when the Lord hears your complaints, which you are making [the people] complain against Him, but [of] what [significance] are we? Not against us are your complaints, but against the Lord.   חוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה בְּתֵ֣ת יְהֹוָה֩ לָכֶ֨ם בָּעֶ֜רֶב בָּשָׂ֣ר לֶֽאֱכֹ֗ל וְלֶ֤חֶם בַּבֹּ֨קֶר֙ לִשְׂבֹּ֔עַ בִּשְׁמֹ֤עַ יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּ֥ם מַלִּינִ֖ם עָלָ֑יו וְנַ֣חְנוּ מָ֔ה לֹֽא־עָלֵ֥ינוּ תְלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶ֖ם כִּ֥י עַל־יְהֹוָֽה:
meat to eat: But not to be satiated. The Torah [here] teaches us a rule of behavior we should not eat meat to satiety. What did He see [what reason did He have] to bring down bread in the morning and meat in the evening? Because they requested bread appropriately, since it is impossible for a person to get along without bread, but they requested meat inappropriately, because they had many animals, and furthermore, it was possible for them to get along without meat. Therefore, He gave it to them at a time when it would be a burden for them to prepare it, [at an] inappropriate [time]. — [from Mechilta Yoma 75b]   בָּשָׂר לֶֽאֱכֹל: וְלֹא לִשְׂבֹּעַ; לִמְּדָה תוֹרָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין בָּשָׂר לָשֹׂבַע. וּמָה רָאָה לְהוֹרִיד לֶחֶם בַּבֹּקֶר וּבָשָׂר בָּעֶרֶב? לְפִי שֶׁהַלֶּחֶם שָׁאֲלוּ כַּהֹגֶן, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לָאָדָם בְּלֹא לֶחֶם, אֲבָל בָּשָׂר שָׁאֲלוּ שֶׁלֹּא כַּהֹגֶן, שֶׁהַרְבֵּה בְהֵמוֹת הָיוּ לָהֶם, וְעוֹד שֶׁהָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם בְּלֹא בָשָׂר, לְפִיכָךְ נָתַן לָהֶם בִּשְׁעַת טֹרַח שֶׁלֹּא כַּהֹגֶן (יומא ע"ה):
which you are making [the people] complain against Him: [You are making] others who hear you complaining [complain].   אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מַלִּינִם עָלָיו: אֶת הָאֲחֵרִים הַשּׁוֹמְעִים אֶתְכֶם מִתְלוֹנְנִים:
9And Moses said to Aaron, Say to the entire community of the children of Israel, Draw near before the Lord, for He has heard your complaints.   טוַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן אֱמֹ֗ר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל קִרְב֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֣י שָׁמַ֔ע אֵ֖ת תְּלֻנֹּֽתֵיכֶֽם:
Draw near: to the place where the cloud has descended.   קִרְבוּ: לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהֶעָנָן יֵרֵד:
10And it came to pass when Aaron spoke to the entire community of the children of Israel, that they turned toward the desert, and behold! the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.   יוַיְהִ֗י כְּדַבֵּ֤ר אַֽהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּפְנ֖וּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּ֑ר וְהִנֵּה֙ כְּב֣וֹד יְהֹוָ֔ה נִרְאָ֖ה בֶּֽעָנָֽן:

Sixth Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 16

11The Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   יאוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
12I have heard the complaints of the children of Israel. Speak to them, saying, In the afternoon you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall be sated with bread, and you shall know that I am the Lord, your God.   יבשָׁמַ֗עְתִּי אֶת־תְּלוּנֹּת֘ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ דַּבֵּ֨ר אֲלֵהֶ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר בֵּ֤ין הָֽעַרְבַּ֨יִם֙ תֹּֽאכְל֣וּ בָשָׂ֔ר וּבַבֹּ֖קֶר תִּשְׂבְּעוּ־לָ֑חֶם וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
13It came to pass in the evening that the quails went up and covered the camp, and in the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp.   יגוַיְהִ֣י בָעֶ֔רֶב וַתַּ֣עַל הַשְּׂלָ֔ו וַתְּכַ֖ס אֶת־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה וּבַבֹּ֗קֶר הָֽיְתָה֙ שִׁכְבַ֣ת הַטָּ֔ל סָבִ֖יב לַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
the quails: Heb. הַשְׂלָיו, a species of bird that is very fat. -[from Yoma 75b]   הַשְּׂלָו: מִין עוֹף וְשָׁמֵן מְאֹד (יומא ע"ה):
there was a layer of dew: The dew lay on the manna. But elsewhere it states: “When the dew descended [on the camp at night, the manna would descend upon it]” (Num. 11:9). [The explanation of the matter is that] the dew would descend on the earth, then the manna would descend upon it, and then [more] dew would descend upon the manna, and it was as if [the manna] was stored in a box.   הָֽיְתָה שִׁכְבַת הַטּל: הַטַּל שׁוֹכֵב עַל הַמָּן, וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר (במדבר י"א) "וּבְרֶדֶת הַטַּל וְגוֹ'", הַטַּל יוֹרֵד עַל הָאָרֶץ, וְהַמָּן יוֹרֵד עָלָיו, וְחוֹזֵר וְיוֹרֵד טַל עָלָיו, הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמֻנָּח בְּקֻפְסָא (יומא שם):
14The layer of dew went up, and behold, on the surface of the desert, a fine, bare [substance] as fine as frost on the ground.   ידוַתַּ֖עַל שִׁכְבַ֣ת הַטָּ֑ל וְהִנֵּ֞ה עַל־פְּנֵ֤י הַמִּדְבָּר֙ דַּ֣ק מְחֻסְפָּ֔ס דַּ֥ק כַּכְּפֹ֖ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
The layer of dew went up, etc.: When the sun would shine, the dew upon the manna would rise toward the sun, as it is natural for dew to rise toward the sun. [This is similar to] even if you fill an egg shell with dew, close up its opening, and place it in the sun, it [the egg shell] will rise by itself in the air (Yoma 75b, Rashi s.v. כתיב ). Our Rabbis, however, explained that the dew would rise from the earth (into the air) (Mechilta verse 4; Tanchuma, Beshallach 20; Exod. Rabbah 38:4), and when the layer of dew rose, the manna was revealed, “and they saw, and behold, on the surface of the desert, etc.”   וַתַּעַל שִׁכְבַת הַטָּל וגו': כְּשֶׁהַחַמָּה זוֹרַחַת, עוֹלֶה הַטַּל שֶׁעַל הַמָּן לִקְרַאת הַחַמָּה, כְּדֶרֶךְ טַל עוֹלֶה לִקְרַאת הַחַמָּה; אַף אִם תְּמַלֵּא שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁל בֵּיצָה טַל וְתִסְתֹּם אֶת פִּיהָ וְתַנִּיחָהּ בַחַמָּה הִיא עוֹלָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ בָּאֲוִיר. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ, שֶׁהַטַּל עוֹלֶה מִן הָאָרֶץ בָּאֲוִיר, וְכַעֲלוֹת שִׁכְבַת הַטָּל נִתְגַלָּה הַמָּן וְרָאוּ והנה על פני המדבר וגו':
fine: Something thin.   דַּק: – דָּבָר דַּק:
bare: Heb. מְחֻסְפָּס, [which means bare] but there is no similarity to it [this word] in the Bible. It may be said that מְחֻסְפָּס is an expression related to חִפִיסָה “a leather bag and a case דְּלֻסְקְמָא” [found] in the language of the Mishnah (B.M. 1:8). When it [the manna] was uncovered [by the ascension] of the layer of dew, they saw that there was something thin encased in its midst [as a leather bag encases something] between the two layers of dew. Onkelos, however, rendered: מְקַלַּף, peeled, an expression derived from “baring (מַחְשׂף) the white” (Gen. 30:37).   מְחֻסְפָּס: מְגֻלֶּה, וְאֵין דּוֹמֶה לוֹ בַּמִּקְרָא. וְיֵשׁ לוֹמַר מְחֻסְפָּס לְשׁוֹן חֲפִיסָה וּדְלוּסְקְמָא שֶׁבִּלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה, כְּשֶׁנִּתְגַּלָּה מִשִּׁכְבַת הַטָּל רָאוּ שֶׁהָיָה דָּבָר דַּק מְחֻסְפָּס בְּתוֹכוֹ בֵּין שְׁתֵּי שִׁכְבוֹת הַטָּל. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם "מְקַלַּף", לְשׁוֹן מַחְשֹׂף הַלָּבָן:
as fine as frost: Heb. כַּכְּפֹר. כְּפֹר means gelede in Old French [meaning frost]. [Onkelos renders:] [hoarfrost] which was as fine as “gir,” [as in the phrase:] “like stones of gir” (Isa. 27:9). That is a type of black dye, as we say [in the Talmud] regarding covering the blood [of a slaughtered fowl or beast, i.e., the substances that we may use are:] “Gir and orpiment” (Chul. 88b). Which was thin as “gir,” like hoarfrost on the earth. [Onkelos explains:] it [the manna] was as fine as “gir” and lay congealed like frost on the earth. This is its meaning: It was as fine as hoarfrost, spread out thin, and joined together like hoarfrost. דַּק means tenves in Old French, [meaning thin] for it had a thin crust on the top. The words “like gir’” that Onkelos translated are added to the Hebrew text, but they have no [corresponding] word in the verse.   כַּכְּפֹר: כְּפוֹר יילי"דא בְלַעַז, דַּעֲדַק כְּגִיר, "כְּאַבְנֵי גִר" (ישעיהו כ"ז), וְהוּא מִין צֶבַע שָׁחֹר, כִּדְאָמְרִינַן גַּבֵּי כִּסּוּי הַדָּם "הַגִּיר וְהַזַּרְנִיךְ" (חולין פ"ח). "דַעְדַק כְּגִיר כִּגְלִידָא עַל אַרְעָא" – דַּק הָיָה כְּגִיר וְשׁוֹכֵב מֻגְלָד כְּקֶרַח עַל הָאָרֶץ, וְכֵן פֵּרוּשׁוֹ: דַּק כַּכְּפֹר – שָׁטוּחַ, קָלוּשׁ וּמְחֻבָּר כִּגְלִיד. דַּק טינב"ש בְּלַעַז, שֶׁהָיָה מַגְלִיד גֶּלֶד דַּק מִלְמַעְלָה; "וּכְגִיר" שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס תּוֹסֶפֶת הוּא עַל לְשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית וְאֵין לוֹ תֵבָה בַּפָּסוּק:
15When the children of Israel saw [it], they said to one another, It is manna, because they did not know what it was, and Moses said to them, It is the bread that the Lord has given you to eat.   טווַיִּרְא֣וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ אִ֤ישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו֙ מָ֣ן ה֔וּא כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יָֽדְע֖וּ מַה־ה֑וּא וַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם ה֣וּא הַלֶּ֔חֶם אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֧ן יְהֹוָ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם לְאָכְלָֽה:
It is manna: Heb. מָן הוּא. It is a preparation of food, like “The king allotted (וַיְמַן) them” (Dan. 1:5).   מָן הוּא: הֲכָנַת מָזוֹן הוּא, כְּמוֹ "וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ" (דניאל א'):
because they did not know what it was: that they were able to call it by its name.   כִּי לֹא יָֽדְעוּ מַה־הוּא: שֶׁיִּקְרָאוּהוּ בִשְׁמוֹ:
16This is the thing that the Lord has commanded, Gather of it each one according to his eating capacity, an omer for each person, according to the number of persons, each one for those in his tent you shall take.   טזזֶ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה לִקְט֣וּ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ אִ֖ישׁ לְפִ֣י אָכְל֑וֹ עֹ֣מֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּ֗לֶת מִסְפַּר֙ נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם אִ֛ישׁ לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּאָֽהֳל֖וֹ תִּקָּֽחוּ:
an omer: The name of a measure.   עֹמֶר: שֵׁם מִדָּה:
according to the number of persons: According to the number of people that a person has in his tent, they should take one omer per person.   מִסְפַּר נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם: כְּפִי מִנְיַן נְפָשׁוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְאִישׁ בְּאָהֳלוֹ תִּקְּחוּ עֹמֶר לְכָל גֻּלְגֹּלֶת:
17And the children of Israel did so: they gathered, both the one who gathered much and the one who gathered little.   יזוַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵ֖ן בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּלְקְט֔וּ הַמַּרְבֶּ֖ה וְהַמַּמְעִֽיט:
both the one who gathered much and the one who gathered little: Some gathered [too] much [manna] and some gathered [too] little, but when they came home, they measured with an omer, each one what he had gathered, and they found that the one who had gathered [too] much had not exceeded an omer for each person who was in his tent, and the one who had gathered [too] little did not find less than an omer for each person. This was a great miracle that occurred with it [the manna].   הַמַּרְבֶּה וְהַמַּמְעִֽיט: יֵשׁ שֶׁלָּקְטוּ הַרְבֵּה וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלָּקְטוּ מְעַט, וּכְשֶׁבָּאוּ לְבֵיתָם מָדְדוּ בָעֹמֶר אִישׁ אִישׁ מַה שֶּׁלָּקְטוּ, וּמָצְאוּ שֶׁהַמַּרְבֶּה לִלְקֹט לֹא הֶעְדִּיף עַל עֹמֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת אֲשֶׁר בְּאָהֳלוֹ, וְהַמַּמְעִיט לִלְקֹט לֹא מָצָא חָסֵר מֵעֹמֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת; וְזֶהוּ נֵס גָּדוֹל שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בּוֹ:
18And they measured [it] with an omer, and whoever gathered much did not have more, and whoever gathered little did not have less; each one according to his eating capacity, they gathered.   יחוַיָּמֹ֣דּוּ בָעֹ֔מֶר וְלֹ֤א הֶעְדִּיף֙ הַמַּרְבֶּ֔ה וְהַמַּמְעִ֖יט לֹ֣א הֶחְסִ֑יר אִ֥ישׁ לְפִֽי־אָכְל֖וֹ לָקָֽטוּ:
19And Moses said to them, Let no one leave over [any] of it until morning.   יטוַיֹּ֥אמֶר משֶׁ֖ה אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אִ֕ישׁ אַל־יוֹתֵ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר:
20But [some] men did not obey Moses and left over [some] of it until morning, and it bred worms and became putrid, and Moses became angry with them.   כוְלֹא־שָֽׁמְע֣וּ אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה וַיּוֹתִ֨רוּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ עַד־בֹּ֔קֶר וַיָּ֥רֻם תּֽוֹלָעִ֖ים וַיִּבְאַ֑שׁ וַיִּקְצֹ֥ף עֲלֵהֶ֖ם משֶֽׁה:
men: [Specifically these were] Dathan and Abiram. -[from Jonathan and Exod. Rabbah 25:10]   וַיּוֹתִרוּ אֲנָשִׁים: דָּתָן וַאֲבִירָם:
and it bred worms: Heb. וַיָּרֻם תּוֹלָעִים, an expression derived from רִמָה, worm. — [from Onkelos, Jonathan]   וַיָּרֻם תּֽוֹלָעִים: לְשׁוֹן רִמָּה:
and became putrid: This verse is transposed, because first it became putrid and later it bred worms, as it says: “and it did not become putrid, and not a worm was in it” (verse 24), and such is the nature of all things that become wormy. — [from Mechilta]   וַיִּבְאַשׁ: הֲרֵי זֶה מִקְרָא הָפוּךְ, שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה הִבְאִישׁ וּלְבַסּוֹף הִתְלִיעַ, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְלֹא הִבְאִישׁ וְרִמָּה לֹא הָיְתָה בּוֹ", וְכֵן דֶּרֶךְ כָּל הַמַּתְלִיעִים (מכילתא):
21They gathered it morning by morning, each one according to his eating capacity, and [when] the sun grew hot, it melted.   כאוַיִּלְקְט֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ בַּבֹּ֣קֶר בַּבֹּ֔קֶר אִ֖ישׁ כְּפִ֣י אָכְל֑וֹ וְחַ֥ם הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ וְנָמָֽס:
and [when] the sun grew hot, it melted: What remained [of the manna] in the field melted and became streams from which deer and gazelles drank. And the nations of the world would hunt some of them [these animals] and taste in them the flavor of manna and know how great Israel’s praise was. — [from Mechilta]. [Onkelos renders:] פָּשָׁר, an expression of lukewarm water (פּוֹשְׁרִים). Through the sun, it [the manna] would warm up and melt.   וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמָֽס: הַנִּשְׁאָר בַּשָּׂדֶה נַעֲשֶׂה נְחָלִים וְשׁוֹתִין מִמֶּנּוּ אַיָּלִים וּצְבָאִים, וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם צָדִין מֵהֶם וְטוֹעֲמִים בָּהֶם טַעַם מָן, וְיוֹדְעִים מַה שִּׁבְחָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל:
it melted: Heb. וְנָמָס, [French] destemprer, [meaning] to melt, thaw out. There is a similarity to it [the word פָּשָׁר] in [tractate] Sanhedrin, at the end of [the chapter beginning with the words:] “Four death penalties” (67b).   וְנָמָֽס: פָּשַׁר, לְשׁוֹן פּוֹשְׁרִים, עַל יְדֵי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מִתְחַמֵּם וּמַפְשִׁיר, דישטנ"פריר בְּלַעַז, וְדֻגְמָתוֹ בְּסַנְהֶדְרִין בְּסוֹף ד' מִיתוֹת:
22It came to pass on the sixth day that they gathered a double portion of bread, two omers for [each] one, and all the princes of the community came and reported [it] to Moses.   כבוַיְהִ֣י | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֗י לָֽקְט֥וּ לֶ֨חֶם֙ מִשְׁנֶ֔ה שְׁנֵ֥י הָעֹ֖מֶר לָֽאֶחָ֑ד וַיָּבֹ֨אוּ֙ כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵ֣י הָֽעֵדָ֔ה וַיַּגִּ֖ידוּ לְמשֶֽׁה:
they gathered a double portion of bread: When they measured in their tents what they had gathered, they discovered [it was] double, two omers for [each] one. The aggadic midrash, [however, explains it as] לֶחֶם מְֹשֻנֶּה, unusual bread. That day it was favorably different in its aroma and its flavor (Mechilta on verse 5). [Because if it [the Torah] means only to inform us that there were two [measures], is it not written "two omers for each one"? Rather, it means “different” in flavor and aroma.]-[also from Tanchuma Buber, Beshallach 24, and Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai on verse 5]   לָֽקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה: כְּשֶׁמָּדְדוּ אֶת לְקִיטָתָם בְּאָהֳלֵיהֶם מָצְאוּ כִפְלַיִם, שְׁנֵי הָעֹמֶר לָאֶחָד. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה: לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה – מְשֻׁנֶּה, אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם נִשְׁתַּנָּה לְשֶׁבַח בְּרֵיחוֹ וְטַעְמוֹ (שם):
and reported [it] to Moses: They asked him, “Why is this day different from other days?” From here we can deduce that Moses had not yet told them the section regarding the Sabbath that he was commanded to tell them, [namely:] “And it will come about on the sixth day that they shall prepare, etc.” (verse 5) until they asked him this [question]. [At that point] he said to them, “That is what the Lord spoke,” (verse 23) which I was commanded to tell you. Therefore, [because Moses had waited to convey this commandment,] Scripture punished him that He said to him “How long will you refuse [to observe My commandments…]” (verse 28) and [in saying this He] did not exclude him [Moses] from the general community [of sinners]. — [from Exod. Rabbah 25:17]   וַיַּגִּידוּ לְמשֶֽׁה: שְׁאָלוּהוּ מַה הַיּוֹם מִיּוֹמַיִם; וּמִכָּאן יֵשׁ לִלְמֹד שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִגִּיד לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה פָּרָשַׁת שַׁבָּת שֶׁנִּצְטַוָּה לוֹמַר לָהֶם וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וְהֵכִינוּ וְגוֹ', עַד שֶׁשָּׁאֲלוּ מַה זֹּאת, אָמַר לָהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה' שֶׁנִּצְטַוֵּיתִי לוֹמַר לָכֶם, וְלְכָךְ עֲנָשׁוֹ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ עַד אָנָה מֵאַנְתֶּם, וְלֹא הוֹצִיאוֹ מִן הַכְּלָל:
23So he said to them, That is what the Lord spoke, Tomorrow is a rest day, a holy Sabbath to the Lord. Bake whatever you wish to bake, and cook whatever you wish to cook, and all the rest leave over to keep until morning.   כגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם ה֚וּא אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה שַׁבָּת֧וֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה מָחָ֑ר אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפ֞וּ אֵפ֗וּ וְאֵ֤ת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ֙ בַּשֵּׁ֔לוּ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֹדֵ֔ף הַנִּ֧יחוּ לָכֶ֛ם לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת עַד־הַבֹּֽקֶר:
Bake whatever you wish to bake: Whatever you wish to bake in an oven, bake everything today for two days, and whatever [amount] of it you need to cook in water, cook today. [The word] אִפִיָה, baking applies to bread and the expression בִּשׁוּל to cooked dishes.   אֵת אֲשֶׁר תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ: מַה שֶּׁאַתֶּם רוֹצִים לֶאֱפוֹת בַּתַּנּוּר, אֵפוּ הַיּוֹם הַכֹּל לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים, וּמַה שֶּׁאַתֶּם צְרִיכִים לְבַשֵּׁל מִמֶּנּוּ בַּמַּיִם, בַּשְּׁלוּ הַיּוֹם. לְשׁוֹן אֲפִיָּה נוֹפֵל בְּלֶחֶם וּלְשׁוֹן בִּשּׁוּל בְּתַבְשִׁיל:
to keep: for storage.   לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת: לִגְנִיזָה:
24So they left it over until morning, as Moses had commanded, and it did not become putrid, and not a worm was in it.   כדוַיַּנִּ֤יחוּ אֹתוֹ֙ עַד־הַבֹּ֔קֶר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֣ה משֶׁ֑ה וְלֹ֣א הִבְאִ֔ישׁ וְרִמָּ֖ה לֹא־הָ֥יְתָה בּֽוֹ:
25And Moses said, Eat it today, for today is a Sabbath to the Lord; today you will not find it in the field.   כהוַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אִכְלֻ֣הוּ הַיּ֔וֹם כִּֽי־שַׁבָּ֥ת הַיּ֖וֹם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה הַיּ֕וֹם לֹ֥א תִמְצָאֻ֖הוּ בַּשָּׂדֶֽה:
And Moses said, “Eat it today, etc.”: In the morning, when they were accustomed to go out and gather, they came to ask, “Shall we go out or not?” He [Moses] said to them, “What you have in your possession eat.” In the evening, they came before him again and asked him whether they could go out. He said to them, “Today is the Sabbath.” He saw that they were concerned that perhaps the manna had ceased, and would no longer come down. [So] he said to them, “Today you will not find it.” What is the meaning of "today"? [This implies that] today you will not find it, but tomorrow you will find it. — [from Mechilta]   וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אִכְלֻהוּ הַיּוֹם וגו': שַׁחֲרִית שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִין לָצֵאת וְלִלְקֹט בָּאוּ לִשְׁאֹל: "אִם נֵצֵא אִם לָאו", אָמַר לָהֶם אֶת שֶׁבְּיֶדְכֶם אִכְלוּ, לָעֶרֶב חָזְרוּ לְפָנָיו וּשְׁאָלוּהוּ מַהוּ לָצֵאת? אָמַר לָהֶם שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם, רָאָה אוֹתָם דּוֹאֲגִים שֶׁמָּא פָסַק הַמָּן וְלֹא יֵרֵד עוֹד, אָמַר לָהֶם הַיּוֹם לֹא תִמְצָאוּהוּ, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר הַיּוֹם? הַיּוֹם לֹא תִמְצָאוּהוּ אֲבָל מָחָר תִּמְצָאוּהוּ:
26Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day [which is the] Sabbath on it there will be none.   כושֵׁ֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים תִּלְקְטֻ֑הוּ וּבַיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֛י שַׁבָּ֖ת לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־בּֽוֹ:
but on the seventh day [which is the] Sabbath: It is a Sabbath; on it [this day] there will be no manna. This verse comes only to include Yom Kippur and [the] festivals [that no manna will fall on those days as well]. — [from Mechilta]   וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת: שַׁבָּת הוּא, הַמָּן לא יהיה בו; וְלֹא בָא הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא לְרַבּוֹת יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְיָמִים טוֹבִים:
27It came about that on the seventh day, [some] of the people went out to gather [manna], but they did not find [any].   כזוַֽיְהִי֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י יָֽצְא֥וּ מִן־הָעָ֖ם לִלְקֹ֑ט וְלֹ֖א מָצָֽאוּ:
28The Lord said to Moses, How long will you refuse to observe My commandments and My teachings?   כחוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה עַד־אָ֨נָה֙ מֵֽאַנְתֶּ֔ם לִשְׁמֹ֥ר מִצְו‍ֹתַ֖י וְתֽוֹרֹתָֽי:
How long will you refuse: It is a common proverb: Along with the thorn, the cabbage is torn. Through the wicked, the good suffer disgrace. [from B.K. 92a]   עַד־אָנָה מֵֽאַנְתֶּם: מְשַׁל הֶדְיוֹט הוּא "בַּהֲדֵי הוּצָא לָקֵי כְרַבָּא" – עַל יְדֵי הָרְשָׁעִים מִתְגַּנִּין הַכְּשֵׁרִין:
29See that the Lord has given you the Sabbath. Therefore, on the sixth day, He gives you bread for two days. Let each man remain in his place; let no man leave his place on the seventh day.   כטרְא֗וּ כִּֽי־יְהֹוָה֘ נָתַ֣ן לָכֶ֣ם הַשַּׁבָּת֒ עַל־כֵּ֠ן ה֣וּא נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֖י לֶ֣חֶם יוֹמָ֑יִם שְׁב֣וּ | אִ֣ישׁ תַּחְתָּ֗יו אַל־יֵ֥צֵא אִ֛ישׁ מִמְּקֹמ֖וֹ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִֽי:
See: with your own eyes that the Lord in His glory warns you about the Sabbath, for this miracle was performed every Sabbath eve, to give you bread for two days.   רְאוּ: בְּעֵינֵיכֶם כִּי ה' בִּכְבוֹדוֹ מַזְהִיר אֶתְכֶם עַל הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֵס נַעֲשֶׂה בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לָתֵת לָכֶם לֶחֶם יוֹמַיִם:
Let each man remain in his place: From here the Sages supported [the law of] four cubits for one who leaves the Sabbath limits [i.e., the 2,000 cubits from one’s city that one is permitted to walk and no more than four cubits from one’s place], three [cubits] for his body and one [cubit] to stretch his hands and feet. — [from Er. 51b]   שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו: מִכָּאן סָמְכוּ חֲכָמִים ד' אַמּוֹת לַיּוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם (ערובין נ"א):
let no man leave, etc.: These are the 2,000 cubits of the Sabbath limits (Mechilta), but this is not explicit, for [the laws of Sabbath] limits are only Rabbinic enactments [lit., from the words of the scribes] (Sotah 30b), and the essence of the verse was stated regarding those who gathered the manna.   אַל־יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ: אֵלּוּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה שֶׁל תְּחוּם שַׁבָּת (מכילתא), וְלֹא בִמְפֹרָשׁ – שֶׁאֵין תְּחוּמִין אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – וְעִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא עַל לוֹקְטֵי הַמָּן נֶאֱמַר:
30So the people rested on the seventh day.   לוַיִשְׁבְּת֥וּ הָעָ֖ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִעִֽי:
31The house of Israel named it manna, and it was like coriander seed, [it was] white, and it tasted like a wafer with honey.   לאוַיִּקְרְא֧וּ בֵֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ מָ֑ן וְה֗וּא כְּזֶ֤רַע גַּד֙ לָבָ֔ן וְטַעְמ֖וֹ כְּצַפִּיחִ֥ת בִּדְבָֽשׁ:
and it was like coriander seed, [it was] white: Heb. גַּד, an herb named coliyandre [in Old French]. Its seed is round but it is not white. The manna, however, was white, and it is not compared to coriander seed except for its roundness. It was like coriander seed, and it was white (Yoma 75a).   וְהוּא כְּזֶרַע גַּד לָבָן: עֵשֶׂב שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ קול"יינדר, וְזֶרַע שֶׁלּוֹ עָגֹל וְאֵינוֹ לָבָן, וְהַמָּן הָיָה לָבָן, וְאֵינוֹ נִמְשָׁל לְזֶרַע גַּד אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן הָעִגּוּל, כְּזֶרַע גַּד הָיָה – וְהוּא לָבָן:
like a wafer: Dough that is fried in honey, and it is called “iskeritin” in the language of the Mishnah (Challah 1:4), and that is the translation of Onkelos.   כְּצַפִּיחִת: בָּצֵק שֶׁמְּטַגְּנִין אוֹתוֹ בִּדְבַשׁ, וְקוֹרִין לוֹ אִסְקְרִיטִין בִּלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה (פסחים ל"ז), וְהוּא תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס:
32Moses said, This is the thing that the Lord commanded: Let one omerful of it be preserved for your generations, in order that they see the bread that I fed you in the desert when I took you out of the land of Egypt.   לבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה זֶ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה מְלֹ֤א הָעֹ֨מֶר֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם לְמַ֣עַן | יִרְא֣וּ אֶת־הַלֶּ֗חֶם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶֽאֱכַ֤לְתִּי אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר בְּהֽוֹצִיאִ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
preserved: for safekeeping.   לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת: לִגְנִיזָה:
for your generations: In the days of Jeremiah, when Jeremiah rebuked them, [saying] “ Why do you not engage in the Torah?” They would say, “Shall we leave our work and engage in the Torah? From what will we support ourselves?” He brought out to them the jug of manna. He said to them, “You see the word of the Lord” (Jer. 2:31). It does not say ‘hear’ but ‘see.’ With this, your ancestors supported themselves. The Omnipresent has many agents to prepare food for those who fear Him."-[from Mechilta]   לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶם: בִּימֵי יִרְמְיָהוּ; כְּשֶׁהָיָה יִרְמְיָהוּ מוֹכִיחָם לָמָּה אֵין אַתֶּם עוֹסְקִים בַּתּוֹרָה? וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים נַנִּיחַ מְלַאכְתֵּנוּ וְנַעֲסֹק בַּתּוֹרָה, מֵהֵיכָן נִתְפַּרְנֵס? הוֹצִיא לָהֶם צִנְצֶנֶת הַמָּן אָמַר לָהֶם אַתֶּם רְאוּ דְּבַר ה', שִׁמְעוּ לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא רְאוּ, בָּזֶה נִתְפַּרְנְסוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם, הַרְבֵּה שְׁלוּחִין יֵשׁ לוֹ לַמָּקוֹם לְהָכִין מָזוֹן לִירֵאָיו:
33And Moses said to Aaron, Take one jug and put there an omerful of manna, and deposit it before the Lord to be preserved for your generations.   לגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן קַ֚ח צִנְצֶ֣נֶת אַחַ֔ת וְתֶן־שָׁ֥מָּה מְלֹֽא־הָעֹ֖מֶר מָ֑ן וְהַנַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
jug: Heb. צִּנְצֶנֶת, an earthenware jug, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders. — [from Mechilta]   צִנְצֶנֶת: צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל חֶרֶס, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
and deposit it before the Lord: Before the Ark. This verse was not said until the Tent of Meeting was built, but it was written here in the section dealing with the manna. —   וְהַנַּח אותו לִפְנֵי ה': לִפְנֵי הָאָרוֹן; וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר מִקְרָא זֶה עַד שֶׁנִּבְנָה אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּכְתַּב כָּאן בְּפָרָשַׁת הַמָּן:
34As the Lord had commanded Moses, Aaron deposited it before the testimony to be preserved.   לדכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיַּנִּיחֵ֧הוּ אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן לִפְנֵ֥י הָֽעֵדֻ֖ת לְמִשְׁמָֽרֶת:
35And the children of Israel ate the manna for forty years until they came to an inhabited land. They ate the manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan.   להוּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָֽכְל֤וּ אֶת־הַמָּן֙ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה עַד־בֹּאָ֖ם אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ נוֹשָׁ֑בֶת אֶת־הַמָּן֙ אָֽכְל֔וּ עַד־בֹּאָ֕ם אֶל־קְצֵ֖ה אֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
forty years: Now were not thirty days missing? The manna first fell on the fifteenth of Iyar, and on the fifteenth of Nissan it stopped, as it is said: “And the manna ceased on the morrow” (Josh. 5:12). Rather [this] tells [us] that in the cakes the Israelites took out of Egypt they tasted the flavor of manna. — [from Kid. 38a]   אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה: וַהֲלֹא חָסֵר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הֵם? שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּט"ו בְּאִיָּר יָרַד לָהֶם הַמָּן תְּחִלָּה וּבְט"ו בְּנִיסָן פָּסַק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיִּשְׁבֹּת הַמָּן מִמָּחֳרָת" (יהושע ה')? אֶלָּא מַגִּיד, שֶׁהָעֻגּוֹת שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם טָעֲמוּ בָהֶם טַעַם מָן (קידושין ל"ח):
to an inhabited land: After they crossed the Jordan (Other editions: For that [land] on the other side of the Jordan was inhabited and good, as it is said: “Let me now cross and see the good land on the other side of the Jordan” (Deut. 3:25). The Targum of נוֹשָׁבֶת is יָתְבָתא, inhabited, Old Rashi). — [from Kid. 38a]   אֶל־אֶרֶץ נוֹשָׁבֶת: לְאַחַר שֶׁעָבְרוּ אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן (שֶׁאוֹתָהּ שֶׁבְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן מְיֻשֶּׁבֶת וְטוֹבָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אֶעְבְּרָה נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת הָאָרֶץ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן", וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל נוֹשָׁבֶת "יָתְבָתָא", רָצָה לוֹמַר — מְיֻשֶּׁבֶת):
to the border of the land of Canaan: At the beginning of the border, before they crossed the Jordan, which is the plains of Moab. We find [the two clauses] contradicting each other. Rather, [it means that] in the plains of Moab, when Moses died on the seventh of Adar, the manna stopped coming down. They supplied themselves with the manna that they had gathered on that day until they sacrificed the omer on the sixteenth of Nissan, as it is said: “And they ate of the grain of the land on the morrow of the Passover” (Josh. 5:11). — [from Kid. 38a]   אֶל־קְצֵה אֶרֶץ כְּנָֽעַן: בִּתְחִלַּת הַגְּבוּל קֹדֶם שֶׁעָבְרוּ אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן, וְהוּא עַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב. נִמְצְאוּ מַכְחִישִׁין זֶה אֶת זֶה? אֶלָּא בְּעַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב כְּשֶׁמֵּת מֹשֶׁה בְּז' בַּאֲדָר פָּסַק הַמָּן מִלֵּירֵד, וְנִסְתַּפְּקוּ מִמָּן שֶׁלָּקְטוּ בוֹ בַיּוֹם עַד שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ הָעֹמֶר בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיֹּאכְלוּ מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח" (יהושע ה'):
36The omer is one tenth of an ephah.   לווְהָעֹ֕מֶר עֲשִׂרִ֥ית הָֽאֵיפָ֖ה הֽוּא:
one tenth of an ephah: The ephah equals three se’ahs, and the se’ah equals six kavs, and the kav equals four logs, and the log equals six eggs. [Hence, an ephah equals 3 x 6 x 4 x 6 = 432 eggs. I.e., the space displaced by 432 eggs.] We find that a tenth of an ephah equals forty-three and a fifth [43.2] eggs. This is the amount for challah [the minimum amount of flour that requires the separation of challah] and for meal offerings. — [from Eruvin 38b]   עֲשִׂרִית הָֽאֵיפָה: הָאֵיפָה שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וְהַסְּאָה ו' קַבִּין וְהַקַּב ד' לֻגִּין וְהַלֹּג ו' בֵּיצִים, נִמְצָא עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה מ"ג בֵּיצִים וְחֹמֶשׁ בֵּיצָה, וְהוּא שִׁעוּר לַחַלָּה וְלַמְּנָחוֹת:

Seventh Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 17

1The entire community of the children of Israel journeyed from the desert of Sin to their travels by the mandate of the Lord. They encamped in Rephidim, and there was no water for the people to drink.   אוַ֠יִּסְע֠וּ כָּל־עֲדַ֨ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל מִמִּדְבַּר־סִ֛ין לְמַסְעֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־פִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽחֲנוּ֙ בִּרְפִידִ֔ים וְאֵ֥ין מַ֖יִם לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת הָעָֽם:
2So the people quarreled with Moses, and they said, Give us water that we may drink Moses said to them, Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you test the Lord?   בוַיָּ֤רֶב הָעָם֙ עִם־משֶׁ֔ה וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ תְּנוּ־לָ֥נוּ מַ֖יִם וְנִשְׁתֶּ֑ה וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ משֶׁ֔ה מַה־תְּרִיבוּן֙ עִמָּדִ֔י מַה־תְּנַסּ֖וּן אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
Why do you test the Lord: saying, “Can He give water in an arid land?”   מַה־תְּנַסּוּן: לוֹמַר הֲיוּכַל לָתֵת מַיִם בְּאֶרֶץ צִיָּה?:
3The people thirsted there for water, and the people complained against Moses, and they said, Why have you brought us up from Egypt to make me and my children and my livestock die of thirst?   גוַיִּצְמָ֨א שָׁ֤ם הָעָם֙ לַמַּ֔יִם וַיָּ֥לֶן הָעָ֖ם עַל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ הֶֽעֱלִיתָ֣נוּ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם לְהָמִ֥ית אֹתִ֛י וְאֶת־בָּנַ֥י וְאֶת־מִקְנַ֖י בַּצָּמָֽא:
4Moses cried out to the Lord, saying, What shall I do for this people? Just a little longer and they will stone me!   דוַיִּצְעַ֤ק משֶׁה֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֣ה לֵאמֹ֔ר מָ֥ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה ע֥וֹד מְעַ֖ט וּסְקָלֻֽנִי:
Just a little longer: If I wait just a little longer, they will stone me.   עוֹד מְעַט: אִם אַמְתִּין עוֹד מְעַט וסקלני:
5And the Lord said to Moses, Pass before the people and take with you [some] of the elders of Israel, and take into your hand your staff, with which you struck the Nile, and go.   הוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה עֲבֹר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הָעָ֔ם וְקַ֥ח אִתְּךָ֖ מִזִּקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּמַטְּךָ֗ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכִּ֤יתָ בּוֹ֙ אֶת־הַיְאֹ֔ר קַ֥ח בְּיָֽדְךָ֖ וְהָלָֽכְתָּ:
Pass before the people: And see whether they stone you. Why have you slandered My children?-[from Tanchuma Beshallach 22]   עבור לִפְנֵי הָעָם: וּרְאֵה אִם יִסְקְלוּךָ, לָמָּה הוֹצֵאתָ לַעַז עַל בָּנַי? (שמות רבה):
and take with you [some] of the elders of Israel: for testimony, so that they shall witness that through you the water comes out of the rock, and they [the Israelites] will not say that there were water fountains there from days of yore. — [from Mechilta]   וְקַח אִתְּךָ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל: לְעֵדוּת, שֶׁיִּרְאוּ שֶׁעַל יָדְךָ מַיִם יוֹצְאִים מִן הַצּוּר, וְלֹא יֹאמְרוּ מַעְיָנוֹת הָיוּ שָׁם מִימֵי קֶדֶם:
your staff, with which you struck the Nile: Why must Scripture state "with which you struck the Nile"? [To point out what] the Israelites were saying about the staff, [namely] that it was ready only for retribution. With it, Pharaoh and the Egyptians were smitten with many plagues, both in Egypt and by the sea. Therefore, it is stated: “with which you struck the Nile.” Now they will see that it [the staff] is ready for good as well. — [from Mechilta, Exod. Rabbah 26:2]   וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת־הַיְאֹר: מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת הַיְאֹר"? אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים עַל הַמַּטֶּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוּכָן אֶלָּא לְפֻרְעָנוּת – בּוֹ לָקָה פַרְעֹה וּמִצְרַיִם כַּמָּה מַכּוֹת בְּמִצְרַיִם וְעַל הַיָּם – לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת הַיְאֹר, יִרְאוּ עַתָּה שֶׁאַף לְטוֹבָה הוּא מוּכָן (מכילתא):
6Behold, I shall stand there before you on the rock in Horeb, and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, and the people will drink Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of Israel.   והִנְנִ֣י עֹמֵד֩ לְפָנֶ֨יךָ שָּׁ֥ם | עַל־הַצּוּר֘ בְּחֹרֵב֒ וְהִכִּ֣יתָ בַצּ֗וּר וְיָֽצְא֥וּ מִמֶּ֛נּוּ מַ֖יִם וְשָׁתָ֣ה הָעָ֑ם וַיַּ֤עַשׂ כֵּן֙ משֶׁ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
and you shall strike the rock: Heb. וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר. It does not say עַל-הַצּוּר, upon the rock, but בַצּוּר, [lit., into the rock]. From here [we deduce] that the staff was of a hard substance called sapphire, and the rock was split by it. — [from Mechilta]   וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר: עַל הַצּוּר לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא בַצּוּר, מִכָּאן שֶׁהַמַּטֶּה הָיָה שֶׁל מִין דָּבָר חָזָק וּשְׁמוֹ סַנְפִּירִינוֹן, וְהַצּוּר נִבְקַע מִפָּנָיו (שם):
7He named the place Massah [testing] and Meribah [quarreling] because of the quarrel of the children of Israel and because of their testing the Lord, saying, Is the Lord in our midst or not?   זוַיִּקְרָא֙ שֵׁ֣ם הַמָּק֔וֹם מַסָּ֖ה וּמְרִיבָ֑ה עַל־רִ֣יב | בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְעַ֨ל נַסֹּתָ֤ם אֶת־יְהֹוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הֲיֵ֧שׁ יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּקִרְבֵּ֖נוּ אִם־אָֽיִן:
8Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim.   חוַיָּבֹ֖א עֲמָלֵ֑ק וַיִּלָּ֥חֶם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בִּרְפִידִֽם:
Amalek came, etc.: He [God] juxtaposed this section to this verse, ["Is the Lord in our midst or not? "] implying: “I am always among you, and [I am] always prepared for all your necessities, but you say, Is the Lord in our midst or not?’ By your life, the dog will come and bite you, and you will cry out to Me, and [then] you will know where I am ” This can be compared to a man who mounted his son on his shoulder and set out on the road. Whenever his son saw something, he would say, “Father, take that thing and give it to me,” and he [the father] would give it to him. They met a man, and the son said to him, “Have you seen my father?” So his father said to him, “You don’t know where I am?” He threw him [his son] down off him, and a dog came and bit him [the son]. — [from Tanchuma, Yithro 3; Exod. Rabbah 26:2]   וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק וגו': סָמַךְ פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ לְמִקְרָא זֶה, לוֹמַר, תָּמִיד אֲנִי בֵינֵיכֶם וּמְזֻמָּן לְכָל צָרְכֵּיכֶם וְאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים הֲיֵשׁ ה' בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ אִם אָיִן, חַיֵּיכֶם שֶׁהַכֶּלֶב בָּא וְנוֹשֵׁךְ אֶתְכֶם וְאַתֶּם צוֹעֲקִים לִי וְתֵדְעוּ הֵיכָן אֲנִי? מָשָׁל לְאָדָם שֶׁהִרְכִּיב בְּנוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ וְיָצָא לַדֶּרֶךְ, הָיָה אוֹתוֹ הַבֵּן רוֹאֶה חֵפֶץ וְאוֹמֵר, אַבָּא טֹל חֵפֶץ זֶה וְתֵן לִי וְהוּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ, וְכֵן שְׁנִיָּה, וְכֵן שְׁלִישִׁית, פָּגְעוּ בְאָדָם אֶחָד אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַבֵּן, רָאִיתָ אֶת אַבָּא? אָמַר לוֹ אָבִיו, אֵינְךָ יוֹדֵעַ הֵיכָן אֲנִי? הִשְׁלִיכוֹ מֵעָלָיו וּבָא הַכֶּלֶב וּנְשָׁכוֹ (תנחומא יתרו):
9So Moses said to Joshua, Pick men for us, and go out and fight against Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand   טוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֤ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֨עַ֙ בְּחַר־לָ֣נוּ אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְצֵ֖א הִלָּחֵ֣ם בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מָחָ֗ר אָֽנֹכִ֤י נִצָּב֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַגִּבְעָ֔ה וּמַטֵּ֥ה הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּיָדִֽי:
Pick…for us: For me and for you. From here the Sages stated: “Your disciple’s honor shall be as dear to you as your own honor” (Avoth 4:12). How do we know that you should honor your peer as you revere your mentor? For it is said: “Aaron said to Moses, I beseech you, my lord’ ” (Num. 12:11). Now was Aaron not older than Moses? Yet he [Aaron] considers his peer as his mentor. And how do we know that one must revere his mentor as he reveres Heaven? For it is said: “My lord, Moses, destroy them” (Num. 11:28). Destroy them [Eldad and Medad] from the world. They deserve to be annihilated because they are rebelling against you, [which is] tantamount to having rebelled against the Holy One, blessed be He. — [from Mechilta; Tanchuma, Beshallach 26]   בְּחַר־לָנוּ: לִי וּלְךָ – הִשְׁוָהוּ לוֹ; מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים יְהִי כְבוֹד תַּלְמִידְךָ חָבִיב עָלֶיךָ כְּשֶׁלָּךְ; וּכְבוֹד חֲבֵרְךָ כְּמוֹרָא רַבָּךְ מִנַּיִן? שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיֹּאמֶר אַהֲרֹן אֶל מֹשֶׁה בִּי אֲדֹנִי", וַהֲלֹא אַהֲרֹן גָּדוֹל מֵאָחִיו הָיָה וְעוֹשֶׂה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ כְּרַבּוֹ. וּמוֹרָא רַבָּךְ כְּמוֹרָא שָׁמַיִם מִנַּיִן? שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אֲדֹנִי מֹשֶׁה כְּלָאֵם" – כַּלֵּם מִן הָעוֹלָם, חַיָּבִין הֵם כְּלָיָה, הַמּוֹרְדִים בְּךָ כְּאִלּוּ מָרְדוּ בְּהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:
and go out and fight: Go out of the cloud and fight with them. — [from Mechilta and Exod. Rabbah, end of Beshallach]   וְצֵא הִלָּחֵם: צֵא מִן הֶעָנָן וְהִלָּחֵם בּוֹ:
Tomorrow: At the time of the battle, I will stand.   מָחָר: בְּעֵת הַמִּלְחָמָה, אָנֹכִי נִצָּב:
Pick men for us: Heb. אִנָשִׁים, mighty men, and God-fearing [men] so that their merit will help us (Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer ch. 44, Yalkut Shimoni, Jonathan). Another explanation: who know how to counteract witchcraft, because the Amalekites were sorcerers.   בְּחַר־לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים: גִּבּוֹרִים וְיִרְאֵי חֵטְא שֶׁתְּהֵא זְכוּתָן מְסַיַּעְתָּן. דָּבָר אַחֵר – בְּחַר לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁיּוֹדְעִין לְבַטֵּל כְּשָׁפִים, לְפִי שֶׁבְּנֵי עֲמָלֵק מְכַשְּׁפִין הָיוּ:
10Joshua did as Moses had told him, to fight against Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur ascended to the top of the hill.   יוַיַּ֣עַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁ֗עַ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר אָֽמַר־לוֹ֙ משֶׁ֔ה לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק וּמשֶׁה֙ אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן וְח֔וּר עָל֖וּ רֹ֥אשׁ הַגִּבְעָֽה:
and Moses, Aaron, and Hur: From here [we deduce] that on a fast day, three people are required to go before the ark [to lead the prayers], for they were fasting. — [from Mechilta]   וּמשֶׁה אַֽהֲרֹן וְחוּר: מִכָּאן לְתַעֲנִית שֶׁצְּרִיכִים שְׁלֹשָׁה לַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, שֶׁבְּתַעֲנִית הָיוּ שְׁרוּיִים (מכילתא):
Hur: He was the son of Miriam, and Caleb, her husband. — [from Sotah 11b]   חור: בְּנָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם הָיָה וְכָלֵב בַּעְלָהּ (סוטה י"א):
11It came to pass that when Moses would raise his hand, Israel would prevail, and when he would lay down his hand, Amalek would prevail.   יאוְהָיָ֗ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יָרִ֥ים משֶׁ֛ה יָד֖וֹ וְגָבַ֣ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְכַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָנִ֛יחַ יָד֖וֹ וְגָבַ֥ר עֲמָלֵֽק:
when Moses would raise his hand: Did Moses’ hands then make them victorious in battle, etc.? [Rather this is to tell you that when the Israelites looked up and subjugated their hearts to their Father in heaven, they would prevail, and if not, they would fall,] as is found in Rosh Hashanah (29a).   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יָרִים משֶׁה יָדוֹ: וְכִי יָדָיו שֶׁל מֹשֶׁה נוֹצְחוֹת הָיוּ הַמִּלְחָמָה וְכוּ' כִּדְאִיתָא בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה:
12Now Moses hands were heavy; so they took a stone and placed it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur supported his hands, one from this [side], and one from that [side]; so he was with his hands in faith until sunset.   יבוִידֵ֤י משֶׁה֙ כְּבֵדִ֔ים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶ֛בֶן וַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ תַחְתָּ֖יו וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב עָלֶ֑יהָ וְאַֽהֲרֹ֨ן וְח֜וּר תָּֽמְכ֣וּ בְיָדָ֗יו מִזֶּ֤ה אֶחָד֙ וּמִזֶּ֣ה אֶחָ֔ד וַיְהִ֥י יָדָ֛יו אֱמוּנָ֖ה עַד־בֹּ֥א הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ:
Now Moses’ hands were heavy: Since he had been lax in [the performance of] the commandment [of warring against Amalek] and had appointed someone else in his stead, his hands became heavy. — [from Mechilta]   וִידֵי משֶׁה כְּבֵדִים: בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁנִּתְעַצֵּל בַּמִּצְוָה וּמִנָּה אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, נִתְיַקְּרוּ יָדָיו:
so they took: [I.e.,] Aaron and Hur.   וַיִּקְחוּ־: אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר:
a stone and placed it under him: But he [Moses] did not sit on a mattress or on a pillow, [because] he said, "Israel is in a state of pain. I too will be with them in pain."-[from Ta’anith 11a]   אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו: וְלֹא יָשַׁב לוֹ עַל כַּר וָכֶסֶת. אָמַר: יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁרוּיִין בְּצַעַר, אַף אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּהֶם בְּצַעַר (תענית י"א):
so he was with his hands in faith: And Moses was with his hands in faith, spread out toward heaven in a faithful and proper prayer.   וַיְהִי יָדָיו אֱמוּנָה: וַיְהִי מֹשֶׁה יָדָיו בֶּאֱמוּנָה, פְּרוּשׂוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם בִּתְפִלָּה נֶאֱמָנָה וּנְכוֹנָה:
until sunset: For the Amalekites calculated the hours [i.e., the time] with their astrology [to determine] in what hour they would be victorious, but Moses caused the sun to stand still and confused the hours. — [from Tanchuma 28]   עַד־בֹּא הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ: שֶׁהָיוּ עֲמָלֵקִים מְחַשְּׁבִין אֶת הַשָּׁעוֹת בָּאִיצְטְרוּלוֹגִיאָה, בְּאֵיזוֹ שָׁעָה הֵם נוֹצְחִים, וְהֶעֱמִיד לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה חַמָּה וְעִרְבֵּב אֶת הַשָּׁעוֹת (תנחומא):
13Joshua weakened Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.   יגוַיַּֽחֲל֧שׁ יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ אֶת־עֲמָלֵ֥ק וְאֶת־עַמּ֖וֹ לְפִי־חָֽרֶב:
Joshua weakened: He decapitated their [the Amalekites’] strongest warriors, and he left over only the weak among them, but he did not slay them all. From here we learn that he did this according to the mandate of the Shechinah. — [from Mechilta]   וַיַּֽחֲלשׁ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ: חָתַךְ רָאשֵׁי גִבּוֹרָיו וְלֹא הִשְׁאִיר אֶלָּא חַלָּשִׁים שֶׁבָּהֶם, וְלֹא הֲרָגָם כֻּלָּם, מִכָּאן אָנוּ לְמֵדִים שֶׁעָשׂוּ עַל פִּי הַדִּבּוּר שֶׁל שְׁכִינָה (שם):
14The Lord said to Moses, Inscribe this [as] a memorial in the book, and recite it into Joshua's ears, that I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens   ידוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־ משֶׁ֗ה כְּתֹ֨ב זֹ֤את זִכָּרוֹן֙ בַּסֵּ֔פֶר וְשִׂ֖ים בְּאָזְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כִּֽי־מָחֹ֤ה אֶמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
Inscribe this [as] a memorial: namely that Amalek came to attack the Israelites before all [other] nations [dared to do so].   כְּתֹב זֹאת זִכָּרוֹן: שֶׁבָּא עֲמָלֵק לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לְיִשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם לְכָל הָאֻמּוֹת:
and recite it into Joshua’s ears: [Joshua] was destined to bring Israel into the land [of Israel and] to pay him [Amalek] his recompense. Here it was hinted to Moses that Joshua would bring Israel into the land. — [from Tanchuma 28, Mechilta]   וְשִׂים בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ: הַמַּכְנִיס אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ, שֶׁיְּצַוֶּה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ אֶת גְּמוּלוֹ; כָּאן נִרְמַז לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה שֶׁיְּהוֹשֻׁעַ מַכְנִיס אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ (שם):
I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Therefore, I admonish you in this manner, because I want to obliterate him.   כִּֽי־מָחֹה אֶמְחֶה: לְכָךְ אֲנִי מַזְהִירְךָ כֵּן, כִּי חָפֵץ אֲנִי לִמְחוֹתוֹ:
15Then Moses built an altar, and he named it The Lord is my miracle   טווַיִּ֥בֶן משֶׁ֖ה מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יְהֹוָ֥ה | נִסִּֽי:
and he named it: The altar. —   וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ: שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ:
“The Lord is my miracle”: Heb. ה נִסִּי. The Holy One, blessed be He, wrought a great miracle for us here. Not that the altar is called “The Lord,” but whoever mentions the name of the altar remembers the miracle that the Omnipresent performed: The Lord is our miracle. — [from Mechilta]   ה' נִסִּֽי: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָשָׂה לָנוּ כָּאן נֵס. לֹא שֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ קָרוּי ה', אֶלָּא הַמַּזְכִּיר שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ זוֹכֵר אֶת הַנֵּס שֶׁעָשָׂה הַמָּקוֹם – ה' הוּא נֵס שֶׁלָּנוּ:
16And he said, For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal, [that there shall be] a war for the Lord against Amalek from generation to generation.   טזוַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּי־יָד֙ עַל־כֵּ֣ס יָ֔הּ מִלְחָמָ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מִדֹּ֖ר דֹּֽר:
And he said: [I.e.,] Moses [said].   וַיֹּאמֶר: מֹשֶׁה:
For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal: Heb. כִּי-יָד עַל כֵּס יָ-הּ. The hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, was raised to swear by His throne, to have a war and [bear] hatred against Amalek for eternity. Now what is the meaning of כֵּס [as opposed to כִּסֵא and also [why is] the Divine Name divided in half? [I.e., why is the Name יָ-הּ used instead of י-ה-ו-ה ?] [The answer is that] the Holy One, blessed be He, swore that His Name will not be complete and His throne will not be complete until the name of Amalek is completely obliterated. And when his name is obliterated, the Divine Name will be complete, and the throne will be complete, as it is said: “The enemy has been destroyed; swords exist forever (לָנֶצַח)” (Ps. 9:7); this [who they are referring to] is Amalek, about whom it is written: “and kept their fury forever (נֶצַח)” (Amos 1:11). "And You have uprooted the cities-their remembrance is lost" (Ps. 9:7) [i.e., Amalek’s obliteration]. What does it say afterwards? “And the Lord (וַיהוה) shall sit forever” (Ps. 9:8); thus [after Amalek is obliterated] the Name is complete. "He has established His throne (כִּסְאוֹ) for judgment" (Ps. 9:8). Thus the throne is complete [i.e., thus the throne, here spelled with an “aleph,” is now complete]. — [from Midrash Tanchuma, end of Ki Theitzei]   כִּי־יָד עַל־כֵּס יָהּ: יָדוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוּרְמָה לִשָּׁבַע בְּכִסְאוֹ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ מִלְחָמָה וְאֵיבָה בַעֲמָלֵק עוֹלָמִית, וּמַהוּ כֵּס וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר כִּסֵּא? וְאַף הַשֵּׁם נֶחֱלַק לְחֶצְיוֹ? נִשְׁבַּע הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאֵין שְׁמוֹ שָׁלֵם וְאֵין כִּסְאוֹ שָׁלֵם עַד שֶׁיִּמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל עֲמָלֵק כֻּלּוֹ, וּכְשֶׁיִּמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ יִהְיֶה הַשֵּׁם שָׁלֵם וְהַכִּסֵּא שָׁלֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "הָאוֹיֵב תַּמּוּ חֳרָבוֹת לָנֶצַח" (תהלים ט'), זֶהוּ עֲמָלֵק שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ "וְעֶבְרָתוֹ שְׁמָרָה נֶצַח" (עמוס א'), "וְעָרִים נָתַשְׁתָּ אָבַד זִכְרָם הֵמָּה" (תהלים שם), מַהוּ אוֹמֵר אַחֲרָיו? "וַה' לְעוֹלָם יֵשֵׁב" — הֲרֵי הַשֵּׁם שָׁלֵם, "כּוֹנֵן לַמִּשְׁפָּט כִּסְאוֹ" — הֲרֵי כִּסְּאוֹ שָׁלֵם:

Maftir Portion

Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 17

14The Lord said to Moses, Inscribe this [as] a memorial in the book, and recite it into Joshua's ears, that I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek from beneath the heavens   ידוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־ משֶׁ֗ה כְּתֹ֨ב זֹ֤את זִכָּרוֹן֙ בַּסֵּ֔פֶר וְשִׂ֖ים בְּאָזְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כִּֽי־מָחֹ֤ה אֶמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
Inscribe this [as] a memorial: namely that Amalek came to attack the Israelites before all [other] nations [dared to do so].   כְּתֹב זֹאת זִכָּרוֹן: שֶׁבָּא עֲמָלֵק לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לְיִשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם לְכָל הָאֻמּוֹת:
and recite it into Joshua’s ears: [Joshua] was destined to bring Israel into the land [of Israel and] to pay him [Amalek] his recompense. Here it was hinted to Moses that Joshua would bring Israel into the land. — [from Tanchuma 28, Mechilta]   וְשִׂים בְּאָזְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ: הַמַּכְנִיס אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ, שֶׁיְּצַוֶּה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ אֶת גְּמוּלוֹ; כָּאן נִרְמַז לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה שֶׁיְּהוֹשֻׁעַ מַכְנִיס אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ (שם):
I will surely obliterate the remembrance of Amalek: Therefore, I admonish you in this manner, because I want to obliterate him.   כִּֽי־מָחֹה אֶמְחֶה: לְכָךְ אֲנִי מַזְהִירְךָ כֵּן, כִּי חָפֵץ אֲנִי לִמְחוֹתוֹ:
15Then Moses built an altar, and he named it The Lord is my miracle   טווַיִּ֥בֶן משֶׁ֖ה מִזְבֵּ֑חַ וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יְהֹוָ֥ה | נִסִּֽי:
and he named it: The altar. —   וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ: שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ:
“The Lord is my miracle”: Heb. ה נִסִּי. The Holy One, blessed be He, wrought a great miracle for us here. Not that the altar is called “The Lord,” but whoever mentions the name of the altar remembers the miracle that the Omnipresent performed: The Lord is our miracle. — [from Mechilta]   ה' נִסִּֽי: הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָשָׂה לָנוּ כָּאן נֵס. לֹא שֶׁהַמִּזְבֵּחַ קָרוּי ה', אֶלָּא הַמַּזְכִּיר שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מִזְבֵּחַ זוֹכֵר אֶת הַנֵּס שֶׁעָשָׂה הַמָּקוֹם – ה' הוּא נֵס שֶׁלָּנוּ:
16And he said, For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal, [that there shall be] a war for the Lord against Amalek from generation to generation.   טזוַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּי־יָד֙ עַל־כֵּ֣ס יָ֔הּ מִלְחָמָ֥ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מִדֹּ֖ר דֹּֽר:
And he said: [I.e.,] Moses [said].   וַיֹּאמֶר: מֹשֶׁה:
For there is a hand on the throne of the Eternal: Heb. כִּי-יָד עַל כֵּס יָ-הּ. The hand of the Holy One, blessed be He, was raised to swear by His throne, to have a war and [bear] hatred against Amalek for eternity. Now what is the meaning of כֵּס [as opposed to כִּסֵא and also [why is] the Divine Name divided in half? [I.e., why is the Name יָ-הּ used instead of י-ה-ו-ה ?] [The answer is that] the Holy One, blessed be He, swore that His Name will not be complete and His throne will not be complete until the name of Amalek is completely obliterated. And when his name is obliterated, the Divine Name will be complete, and the throne will be complete, as it is said: “The enemy has been destroyed; swords exist forever (לָנֶצַח)” (Ps. 9:7); this [who they are referring to] is Amalek, about whom it is written: “and kept their fury forever (נֶצַח)” (Amos 1:11). "And You have uprooted the cities-their remembrance is lost" (Ps. 9:7) [i.e., Amalek’s obliteration]. What does it say afterwards? “And the Lord (וַיהוה) shall sit forever” (Ps. 9:8); thus [after Amalek is obliterated] the Name is complete. "He has established His throne (כִּסְאוֹ) for judgment" (Ps. 9:8). Thus the throne is complete [i.e., thus the throne, here spelled with an “aleph,” is now complete]. — [from Midrash Tanchuma, end of Ki Theitzei]   כִּי־יָד עַל־כֵּס יָהּ: יָדוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוּרְמָה לִשָּׁבַע בְּכִסְאוֹ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ מִלְחָמָה וְאֵיבָה בַעֲמָלֵק עוֹלָמִית, וּמַהוּ כֵּס וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר כִּסֵּא? וְאַף הַשֵּׁם נֶחֱלַק לְחֶצְיוֹ? נִשְׁבַּע הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאֵין שְׁמוֹ שָׁלֵם וְאֵין כִּסְאוֹ שָׁלֵם עַד שֶׁיִּמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל עֲמָלֵק כֻּלּוֹ, וּכְשֶׁיִּמָּחֶה שְׁמוֹ יִהְיֶה הַשֵּׁם שָׁלֵם וְהַכִּסֵּא שָׁלֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "הָאוֹיֵב תַּמּוּ חֳרָבוֹת לָנֶצַח" (תהלים ט'), זֶהוּ עֲמָלֵק שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ "וְעֶבְרָתוֹ שְׁמָרָה נֶצַח" (עמוס א'), "וְעָרִים נָתַשְׁתָּ אָבַד זִכְרָם הֵמָּה" (תהלים שם), מַהוּ אוֹמֵר אַחֲרָיו? "וַה' לְעוֹלָם יֵשֵׁב" — הֲרֵי הַשֵּׁם שָׁלֵם, "כּוֹנֵן לַמִּשְׁפָּט כִּסְאוֹ" — הֲרֵי כִּסְּאוֹ שָׁלֵם:

Haftarah

Shoftim (Judges) Chapter 4

4Now Deborah was a woman prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth; she judged Israel at that time.   דוּדְבוֹרָה֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה נְבִיאָ֔ה אֵ֖שֶׁת לַפִּיד֑וֹת הִ֛יא שֹׁפְטָ֥ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִֽיא:
the wife of Lappidoth: She prepared wicks for the Sanctuary.   אשת לפידות: שהיתה עושה פתילות למקדש:
5And she sat under the palm tree of Deborah, between Ramah and Beth-el, in the mountain of Ephraim; and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment.   הוְ֠הִיא יוֹשֶׁ֨בֶת תַּֽחַת־תֹּ֜מֶר דְּבוֹרָ֗ה בֵּ֧ין הָרָמָ֛ה וּבֵ֥ין בֵּֽית־אֵ֖ל בְּהַ֣ר אֶפְרָ֑יִם וַיַּעֲל֥וּ אֵלֶ֛יהָ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לַמִּשְׁפָּֽט:
under the palm tree: She had palm trees in Jericho.   תחת תומר: תמרים היו לה ביריחו:
between Ramah and Beth-el, in the mountain of Ephraim: According to Targum Jonathan’s rendering, we can derive that this verse is not to be taken literally. These were not her places of lodging but rather she was a wealthy woman and from these places she earned a livelihood and dwelt in her city Ataroth. Hence:   בין הרמה ובין בית אל בהר אפרים: לפי תרגומו של יונתן יש ללמוד שאין מקרא זה כמשמעו, ואין אלו סימני מקום ישיבתה, אלא למדנו שאשה עשירה היתה ומן המקומות האלו היתה פרנסתה, והיא יושבת בעירה, עטרות שמה:
under the palm tree: She had palm trees in Jericho, vineyards in Ramah, olives in the plain of Beth-el where oil was abundant, and (עָפָר חִיוֵר) white earth in the mountain of Ephraim in Tur Malka. I say that this was sold to potters. Some interpret עפר חיור - A sown field like a grain field.   תחת תומר: תמרים היו לה ביריחו, וכרמים ברמה, וזיתים בבקעת בית אל, שהוא מקום שמן, ועפר חיוור בהר אפרים, (תרגום:) 'בטור מלכא', אומר אני שמוכרין אותה ליוצרי חרש. ויש פותרין: 'עפר חיוור', שדה זרע, כמו (שביעית ב א): שדה הלבן:
6And she sent and called Barak the son of Abinoam out of Kedesh-naphtali. And she said to him, "Indeed the Lord, God of Israel, commanded, 'Go and draw toward Mount Tabor, and take with you ten thousand men of the children of Naphtali and of the children of Zebulun.   ווַתִּשְׁלַ֗ח וַתִּקְרָא֙ לְבָרָ֣ק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹ֔עַם מִקֶּ֖דֶשׁ נַפְתָּלִ֑י וַתֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו הֲלֹ֥א צִוָּ֣ה | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לֵ֚ךְ וּמָֽשַׁכְתָּ֙ בְּהַ֣ר תָּב֔וֹר וְלָקַחְתָּ֣ עִמְּךָ֗ עֲשֶֹ֚רֶת אֲלָפִים֙ אִ֔ישׁ מִבְּנֵ֥י נַפְתָּלִ֖י וּמִבְּנֵ֥י זְבֻלֽוּן:
“Indeed… commanded”: Through Moses (Deut. 20:17), “You shall totally destroy them.” So it is stated in the Mechilta.   הלא צוה: ביד משה (דברים כ יז): כי החרם תחרימם, כך שנויה במכילתא (בא יב):
7And I shall draw to you, to the brook Kishon, Sisera, the chieftain of Jabin's army, with his chariots and his multitude; and I will give him into your hand.' "   זוּמָשַׁכְתִּ֨י אֵלֶ֜יךָ אֶל־נַ֣חַל קִישׁ֗וֹן אֶת־סִֽיסְרָא֙ שַׂר־צְבָ֣א יָבִ֔ין וְאֶת־רִכְבּ֖וֹ וְאֶת־הֲמוֹנ֑וֹ וּנְתַתִּ֖יהוּ בְּיָדֶֽךָ:
8And Barak said to her, "If you will go with me then I shall go, but if you will not go with me, I shall not go."   חוַיֹּ֚אמֶר אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ בָּרָ֔ק אִם־תֵּלְכִ֥י עִמִּ֖י וְהָלָ֑כְתִּי וְאִם־לֹ֥א תֵלְכִ֛י עִמִּ֖י לֹ֥א אֵלֵֽךְ:
9And she said, "I shall surely go with you, but your glory will not be on the way which you go, for into the hand of a woman will the Lord deliver Sisera." And Deborah arose and went with Barak to Kedesh.   טוַתֹּ֜אמֶר הָלֹ֧ךְ אֵלֵ֣ךְ עִמָּ֗ךְ אֶ֚פֶס כִּי֩ לֹ֨א תִֽהְיֶ֜ה תִּֽפְאַרְתְּךָ֗ עַל־הַדֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתָּ֣ה הוֹלֵ֔ךְ כִּ֣י בְֽיַד־אִשָּׁ֔ה יִמְכֹּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־סִֽיסְרָ֑א וַתָּ֧קָם דְּבוֹרָ֛ה וַתֵּ֥לֶךְ עִם־בָּרָ֖ק קֵֽדְשָׁה:
10And Barak gathered Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and ten thousand men went up at his feet; and Deborah went up with him.   יוַיַּזְעֵ֨ק בָּרָ֜ק אֶת־זְבוּלֻ֚ן וְאֶת־נַפְתָּלִי֙ קֶ֔דְשָׁה וַיַּ֣עַל בְּרַגְלָ֔יו עֲשֶֹ֥רֶת אַלְפֵ֖י אִ֑ישׁ וַתַּ֥עַל עִמּ֖וֹ דְּבוֹרָֽה:
went up at his feet: (An expression meaning) with him.   ויעל ברגליו: עמו:
11Now Heber the Kenite had separated from the Kenites, of the children of Hobab the father-in-law of Moses; and he pitched his tent as far as Elon-bezaanannim, which is by Kedesh.   יאוְחֶ֚בֶר הַקֵּינִי֙ נִפְרָ֣ד מִקַּ֔יִן מִבְּנֵ֥י חֹבָ֖ב חֹתֵ֣ן משֶׁ֑ה וַיֵּ֣ט אָהֳל֔וֹ עַד־אֵל֥וֹן בְּצַעֲנַנִּ֖ים (כתיב בְּצַעֲנַּ֖יִם) אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶת־קֶֽדֶשׁ:
Elon-bezaanannim: Targum Jonathan renders מֵישָׁר אַגְנַיָא the site of a plain (אֵלוֹן) of pits (בְּצָעִים), mariscusm in O.F. This (i.e., בְּצָעִים) means אַגְנַיָא, being cavities similar to pits where water gathers, as in (Kiddushin 61a) “They are called pits (אגני) of the ground.”   אילון בצעננים: (תרגום:) מישר אגניא, מקום מישר של בצעים, מריש"ק בלע"ז והוא אגניא גבים, כמין גומות שהמים נקבצים שם, 'אגני דארעא מקרון' (קידושין סא א):
12And they told Sisera that Barak, the son of Abinoam, had gone up to Mount Tabor.   יבוַיַּגִּ֖דוּ לְסִֽיסְרָ֑א כִּ֥י עָלָ֛ה בָּרָ֥ק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹ֖עַם הַר־תָּבֽוֹר:
13And Sisera gathered all his chariots, nine hundred iron chariots, and all the people that were with him, from Harosheth-goiim, to the brook Kishon.   יגוַיַּזְעֵ֨ק סִֽיסְרָ֜א אֶת־כָּל־רִכְבּ֗וֹ תְּשַׁ֚ע מֵאוֹת֙ רֶ֣כֶב בַּרְזֶ֔ל וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ מֵחֲר֥שֶׁת הַגּוֹיִ֖ם אֶל־נַ֥חַל קִישֽׁוֹן:
from Harosheth-goiim, to the brook Kishon: He gathered them to go to the brook Kishon from Harosheth-goiim where he dwelt.   מחרושת הגוים אל נחל קישון: הזעיקם שילכו אל נחל קישון מחרושת הגוים שהוא יושב שם:
14And Deborah said to Barak, "Rise, for this is the day which the Lord has given Sisera into your hand. Did not the Lord go out before you?" And Barak went down from Mount Tabor, with ten thousand men after him.   ידוַתֹּאמֶר֩ דְּבֹרָ֨ה אֶל־בָּרָ֜ק ק֗וּם כִּ֣י זֶ֚ה הַיּוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁר֩ נָתַ֨ן יְהֹוָ֚ה אֶת־סִֽיסְרָא֙ בְּיָדֶ֔ךָ הֲלֹ֥א יְהֹוָ֖ה יָצָ֣א לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וַיֵּ֚רֶד בָּרָק֙ מֵהַ֣ר תָּב֔וֹר וַעֲשֶֹ֧רֶת אֲלָפִ֛ים אִ֖ישׁ אַחֲרָֽיו:
15And the Lord confused Sisera and all the chariots and all of the camp with the edge of the sword before Barak; and Sisera alighted from his chariot, and fled on foot.   טווַיָּ֣הָם יְ֠הֹוָה אֶת־סִֽיסְרָ֨א וְאֶת־כָּל־הָרֶ֧כֶב וְאֶת־כָּל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֛ה לְפִי־חֶ֖רֶב לִפְנֵ֣י בָרָ֑ק וַיֵּ֧רֶד סִֽיסְרָ֛א מֵעַ֥ל הַמֶּרְכָּבָ֖ה וַיָּ֥נָס בְּרַגְלָֽיו:
16And Barak pursued the chariots and the camp, to Harosheth-goiim; and all of Sisera's camp fell by the edge of the sword, not even one was left.   טזוּבָרָ֗ק רָדַ֞ף אַחֲרֵ֚י הָרֶ֙כֶב֙ וְאַחֲרֵ֣י הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה עַ֖ד חֲר֣שֶׁת הַגּוֹיִ֑ם וַיִּפֹּ֞ל כָּל־מַחֲנֵ֚ה סִֽיסְרָא֙ לְפִי־חֶ֔רֶב לֹ֥א נִשְׁאַ֖ר עַד־אֶחָֽד:
17And Sisera fled on foot to the tent of Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite; for there was peace between Jabin the king of Hazor and the house of Heber the Kenite.   יזוְסִֽיסְרָא֙ נָ֣ס בְּרַגְלָ֔יו אֶל־אֹ֣הֶל יָעֵ֔ל אֵ֖שֶׁת חֶ֣בֶר הַקֵּינִ֑י כִּ֣י שָׁל֗וֹם בֵּ֚ין יָבִ֣ין מֶֽלֶך־חָצ֔וֹר וּבֵ֕ין בֵּ֖ית חֶ֥בֶר הַקֵּינִֽי:
18And Jael went out to meet Sisera and said to him, "Turn in, my lord, turn in to me; fear not." And he turned in to her into the tent, and she covered him with a garment.   יחוַתֵּצֵ֣א יָעֵל֘ לִקְרַ֣את סִֽיסְרָא֒ וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו סוּרָ֧ה אֲדֹנִ֛י סוּרָ֥ה אֵלַ֖י אַל־תִּירָ֑א וַיָּ֚סַר אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ הָאֹ֔הֱלָה וַתְּכַסֵּ֖הוּ בַּשְּׂמִיכָֽה:
with a garment: Targum Jonathan renders בְּגוּנְכָא which Rav Hai Gaon explains: a garment. Coate in O.F.   בשמיכה: תרגם יונתן: בגונכא, ופירש רב האי (שבת נא א): גונכא - גלופקרין, קוט"א בלע"ז:
19And he said to her, "Give me now a little water to drink, for I am thirsty;" and she opened the flask of milk and gave him to drink, and covered him.   יטוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלֶ֛יהָ הַשְׁקִינִי־נָ֥א מְעַט־מַ֖יִם כִּ֣י צָמֵ֑אתִי וַתִּפְתַּ֞ח אֶת־נֹ֧אוד הֶחָלָ֛ב וַתַּשְׁקֵ֖הוּ וַתְּכַסֵּֽהוּ:
the flask of milk: She gave him milk because it slackens the body and causes drowsiness.   נאד החלב: שהחלב מכביד את הגוף להיות נרדם:
20And he said to her, "Stand in the doorway of the tent; and it shall be, if any man comes and asks you and says, 'Is a man here?,' then you shall say, 'There is not.' "   כוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלֶ֔יהָ עֲמֹ֖ד פֶּ֣תַח הָאֹ֑הֶל וְהָיָה֩ אִם־אִ֨ישׁ יָב֜וֹא וּשְׁאֵלֵ֗ךְ וְאָמַ֛ר הֲיֵֽשׁ־פֹּ֥ה אִ֖ישׁ וְאָמַ֥רְתְּ אָֽיִן:
Stand in the doorway of the tent: (עֲמֹד) is masc.) Hasten like a man. And some interpret עֲמֹד as (לַעֲמוֹד) “to stand”.   עמוד פתח האהל: זרזי עצמך בדבר ויש פותרים: 'עמוד', כמו לעמוד:
21And Jael, the wife of Heber, took the tent-pin, and placed the hammer in her hand, and came to him stealthily, and thrust the pin into his temple, and it pierced through into the ground; and he was in a deep sleep and weary; and he died.   כאוַתִּקַּ֣ח יָעֵ֣ל אֵֽשֶׁת־חֶ֠בֶר אֶת־יְתַ֨ד הָאֹ֜הֶל וַתָּ֧שֶׂם אֶת־הַמַּקֶּ֣בֶת בְּיָדָ֗הּ וַתָּב֚וֹא אֵלָיו֙ בַּלָּ֔אט וַתִּתְקַ֚ע אֶת־הַיָּתֵד֙ בְּרַקָּת֔וֹ וַתִּצְנַ֖ח בָּאָ֑רֶץ וְהֽוּא־נִרְדָּ֥ם וַיָּ֖עַף וַיָּמֹֽת:
Tent pin: Chevilles in O.F. A peg which is inserted into the ground together with the lower portion of a tent to stretch it out.   יתד האהל: קבילי"ל בלע"ז, שתוקעין בארץ עם שיפולי האהל לפושטו:
the hammer: Targum Jonathan renders , martel in Old French (a hammer).   המקבת: (תרגום:) ארזפתא, מרטי"ל בלע"ז:
stealthily: Targum Jonathan renders i.e., stealthily.   בלאט: (תרגום:) ברז, חרש:
and it pierced through into the ground: Targum Jonathan renders : and it pierced through into the ground.   ותצנח בארץ: (תרגום:) ונעצת בארעא:
22And behold, Barak pursued Sisera, and Jael came out to meet him, and she said to him, "Come and I will show you the man whom you seek," and he came to her, and behold, Sisera lay dead, and the pin was in his temple.   כבוְהִנֵּ֣ה בָרָק֘ רֹדֵ֣ף אֶת־סִֽיסְרָא֒ וַתֵּצֵ֚א יָעֵל֙ לִקְרָאת֔וֹ וַתֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ לֵ֣ךְ וְאַרְאֶ֔ךָּ אֶת־הָאִ֖ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֣ה מְבַקֵּ֑שׁ וַיָּבֹ֣א אֵלֶ֔יהָ וְהִנֵּ֚ה סִֽיסְרָא֙ נֹפֵ֣ל מֵ֔ת וְהַיָּתֵ֖ד בְּרַקָּתֽוֹ:
in his temple: Targum Jonathan renders בְצִידְעֵיה (in his temple) tenplia in O.F. She had thrust it through his temple into the ground.   ברקתו: (תרגום:) בצידעיה, ניל"ה טימפי"ה בלע"ז, ותחבה ברקתו ובארץ:
23And God subdued on that day Jabin the king of Canaan, before the children of Israel.   כגוַיַּכְנַ֚ע אֱלֹהִים֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא אֵ֖ת יָבִ֣ין מֶֽלֶךְ־כְּנָ֑עַן לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
24And the hand of the children of Israel prevailed constantly harder against Jabin the king of Canaan, until they had destroyed Jabin, king of Canaan.   כדוַתֵּ֜לֶךְ יַ֚ד בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ הָל֣וֹךְ וְקָשָׁ֔ה עַ֖ל יָבִ֣ין מֶֽלֶךְ־כְּנָ֑עַן עַ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִכְרִ֔יתוּ אֵ֖ת יָבִ֥ין מֶֽלֶךְ־כְּנָֽעַן:

Shoftim (Judges) Chapter 5

1Now Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam sang on that day, saying.   אוַתָּ֣שַׁר דְּבוֹרָ֔ה וּבָרָ֖ק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹ֑עַם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא לֵאמֹֽר:
2"When breaches are made in Israel, when the people offer themselves willingly, bless the Lord.   בבִּפְרֹ֚עַ פְּרָעוֹת֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּהִתְנַדֵּ֖ב עָ֑ם בָּֽרְכ֖וּ יְהֹוָֽה:
When breaches are made in Israel, when the people offer themselves willingly: When breaches come upon Israel, for their enemies made breaches in them because they forsook their God and the masses feel motivated to repent, as of now it is proper to bless God (out of thankfulness) for the salvation He has wrought.   בפרע פרעות בישראל בהתנדב עם: כשבאו פרצות על ישראל שפרצו בהם אויביהם על עזבם את ה', והתנדב העם לשוב בתשובה, מעתה ברכו את ה' על התשועות שעשה:
3Hear, O kings, give ear, O princes; I, to the Lord I shall sing, I shall sing to the Lord, the God of Israel.   גשִׁמְע֣וּ מְלָכִ֔ים הַאֲזִ֖ינוּ רֹֽזְנִ֑ים אָֽנֹכִ֗י לַֽיהֹוָה֙ אָנֹכִ֣י אָשִׁ֔ירָה אֲזַמֵּ֕ר לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
אָנֹכִי אָנֹכִי: This word is repeated. I have heard an Aggadic interpretation: The Holy One did not rob (by withholding) the reward of Mount Tabor and Mount Carmel who arrived at the giving of the Torah, expecting it to be given upon them, and turned away in shame. The Holy One said to them, “I will pay you double fold. It was said at Sinai, (Ex. 20:2) ‘(אָנֹכִי) I am the Lord your God,’ at Tabor it will be said, ‘I… I…’ (אָנֹכִי אָנֹכִי). It was said at Sinai, ‘I am the Lord your God (ה׳ אֱלֹקֶיךָ),’ at Carmel it will be said twice, (I Kings 18:39) ‘The Lord He is God, the Lord He is God (ה׳ הוּא הָאֱלֹקִים)’ in the days of Elijah.”   אנכי אנכי: כפול, שמעתי מדרש אגדה (ילקוט שמעוני ב מז) לא קפח הקדוש ברוך הוא שכר תבור וכרמל, שבאו למתן תורה לתת עליהם את התורה וחזרו בבשת הפנים, אמר להם הקדוש ברוך הוא, סוף שאני פורע לכם כפלים, נאמר בסיני (שמות כ ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך, בתבור יאמר: אנכי אנכי. נאמר בסיני (שם) אנכי ה' אלהיך, בכרמל יאמר, כפול (מלכים א יח לט) ה' הוא האלהים, ה' הוא האלהים, בימי אליהו:
4Lord, when You went forth out of Seir, when You marched out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dripped; also the clouds dripped water.   דיְהֹוָ֗ה בְּצֵאתְךָ֚ מִשֵּׂעִיר֙ בְּצַעְדְּךָ֙ מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֱד֔וֹם אֶ֣רֶץ רָעָ֔שָׁה גַּם־שָׁמַ֖יִם נָטָ֑פוּ גַּם־עָבִ֖ים נָ֥טְפוּ מָֽיִם:
Lord, when You went forth out of Seir: This refers to the giving of the Torah as it says, “And He appeared to them from Seir” (Deut. 33:2). The relation here is that thus said Deborah: “The Torah is detrimental to forsake and rewarding to cling to it for amidst awe and might it was given. Therefore Israel was delivered into the hands of their adversaries because they forsook it, but when they decided to engage in it they were saved.” This can be derived from Targum Jonathan’s translation.   ה' בצאתך משעיר: זה מתן תורה, כמה שנאמר (דברים לג ב) וזרח משעיר למו, ומה עניינה לכאן, כך אמרה דבורה: קשה היא התורה לפרוש ממנה וטובה היא לדבק בה, שהרי במורא ובגבורה נתנה, ולכך נמסרו ישראל ביד אויביהם על פרישתם הימנה וכשהתנדבו לעסוק בה נושעו, כל זה יש ללמוד מתרגומו של יונתן:
dripped: Dripped a life sustaining dew   נטפו: הזילו טל תחיה:
5The mountains melted at the presence of the Lord, this (was at) Sinai, because of the presence of the Lord, the God of Israel.   ההָרִ֥ים נָזְל֖וּ מִפְּנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה זֶ֣ה סִינַ֔י מִפְּנֵ֕י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
The mountains melted: (Heb. נָזְלוּ) Like flowing water (נוֹזְלִים) they melted away.   הרים נזלו: כמים נוזלים נמוגו:
this (was at) Sinai: It is already stated what appeared there. (See Ex. 19:16 19, 20:15.) It was completely in smoke and amidst thunder, torches, and fire.   זה סיני: כבר מפורש (שמות יט כ) מה נראה בו: עשן כולו, וקול, ולפידים ואש:
because of the presence of the Lord: This is an abbreviated verse: This was at Sinai; that which occurred there was because God descended upon it.   מפני ה': והרי זה מקרא קצר 'זה סיני', מה אירע בו, מפני אשר ירד עליו ה':
6In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, caravans ceased, and travellers walked on crooked paths.   ובִּימֵ֞י שַׁמְגַּ֚ר בֶּן־עֲנָת֙ בִּימֵ֣י יָעֵ֔ל חָדְל֖וּ אֳרָח֑וֹת וְהֹלְכֵ֣י נְתִיב֔וֹת יֵלְכ֕וּ אֳרָח֖וֹת עֲקַלְקַלּֽוֹת:
In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael: (Since they are equated,) This teaches us that Jael also judged Israel in her days.   בימי שמגר בן ענת בימי יעל: מלמד שאף יעל שפטה את ישראל בימיה:
caravans ceased: Israel was afraid to travel because of the enemy, hence they followed winding roads in secrecy.   חדלו ארחות: היו יראים ישראל לצאת לדרכם מפני האויבים והיו הולכים דרך עקלתון בהחבא:
7The open cities ceased, in Israel they ceased, until I Deborah arose; I arose as a mother in Israel.   זחָדְל֧וּ פְרָז֛וֹן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל חָדֵ֑לּוּ עַ֚ד שַׁקַּ֙מְתִּי֙ דְּבוֹרָ֔ה שַׁקַּ֥מְתִּי אֵ֖ם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
The open cities ceased: Heb. פְרָזוֹן. Open cities (פְּרָזִי), without walls, ceased to be inhabited because of the enemies, and they gathered into the fortified cities.   חדלו פרזון: ערי הפרזי שאין להם חומה חדלו מהיות יושבים בהם מפני אויביהם, ונאספו אל ערי המבצר:
until I (Deborah) arose: Heb. שַׁקַּמְתִּי. Interpreted as שֶׁקַּמְתִּי as below (6:17) “שָׁאַתָּה מְדַבֵּר עִמִּי” (That you are speaking with me, understood as שֶׁאַתָּה.)   עד שקמתי: כמו שקמתי, וכן (שופטים ו יז): שאתה מדבר עמי:
8When they chose new gods, then there was war in the cities; was there seen a shield or a spear (when the) forty thousand (went against) Israel?   חיִבְחַר֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים חֲדָשִׁ֔ים אָ֖ז לָחֶ֣ם שְׁעָרִ֑ים מָגֵ֚ן אִם־יֵֽרָאֶה֙ וָרֹ֔מַח בְּאַרְבָּעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
When they chose new gods then there was war in the cities: When Israel chose new gods (cf. Deut. 32:17), they were then subject to war within their cities. However, look now when they were willing, will there be seen among Israel a shield or a spear to use in battle against the 40,000 generals the heathens brought upon them. The Almighty confused all of them in the battle with the stars, and the brook of Kishon raked them away.   יבחר אלהים חדשים אז לחם שערים: כשבחר לו ישראל אלהים חדשים, אז הוזקקו למלחמה בשעריהם, ראו עתה בהתנדבם, אם יראה בישראל מגן ורומח, שצריך להלחם בארבעים אלף ראשי גייסות שהביא הגוי עליהם, וכולם הממם המקום במלחמת הכוכבים (פסוק כא) ונחל קישון גרפם:
cities: (שְׁעָרִים is usually interpreted as gates, however, here it means cities,) as in (Deut. 17:2), “When it will be found among you, within one of your cities” (שְׁעָרֶיךָ).   שערים: כמו (דברים יז ב) כי ימצא בקרבך באחד שעריך, עיירות:
9My heart is toward the lawgivers of Israel, that offered themselves willingly among the people, (saying,) 'Bless the Lord.'   טלִבִּי֙ לְחוֹקְקֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַמִּֽתְנַדְּבִ֖ים בָּעָ֑ם בָּרֲכ֖וּ יְהֹוָֽה:
My heart…: I, Deborah, (my heart) is out to the lawgivers of Israel; to love the wise men of Israel who volunteered to tell the people, “Bless the Lord and return to Him.”   לבי: אני דבורה לחוקקי ישראל, לאהוב את חכמי ישראל שהתנדבו בעם, לאמר: ברכו את ה' ושובו אליו:
10The riders of white donkeys, those that sit in judgment, and those that walk on the path, tell of it.   ירֹכְבֵי֩ אֲתֹנ֨וֹת צְחֹר֜וֹת ישְׁבֵ֧י עַל־מִדִּ֛ין וְהֹלְכֵ֥י עַל־דֶּ֖רֶךְ שִֹֽיחוּ:
The riders of white donkeys: The merchants and nobles who may now ride on the precious white donkeys without fear or worry of the heathens, and those that sit in judgment (מִדִּין is an expression of דַיָּינִים, judges), who were afraid to practice justice publicly, and those that travel on foot, recite and tell of this salvation; (v. 11) that instead of the noise of your adversaries, the ambushers, bandits, and tax collectors who banded together to ambush at the water crossings, there the donkey riders and wayfarers will recite the righteous deeds of the Lord. What are His righteous deeds? Deeds of restoring open cities for Israel, for He granted tranquility to Israel to dwell in open cities and go about scattered, singly, without massing together as a group. Then… went down to the cities They now returned to their home cities whence they had fled to gather in the fortified cities.   רכבי אתנות צחורות: הסוחרים והשרים שירכבו מעתה על אתונות לבנות החשובות, מבלי יראה ודאגת אויביהם, ואותן שיושבין על מדין, לשון דיינים, שהיו יראים לעשות משפט בפרהסיא, וכן תרגם יונתן: דהוו מתחברין למיתב על דינא, ואותן שהולכין רגלי על דרך, שיחו וספרו את התשועה הזאת, אשר מקול המחצצים אתכם, אורבים, ליסטים ומוכסין, היושבין גדודים במערכות לארוב בעברי המים, שם יתנו עתה רוכבי האתונות והולכי על דרך את צדקות ה', ומה הן הצדקות (פסוק יא) צדקות פרזנו בישראל שהשקיט את ישראל, לשכון פרזון ולצאת מפוזרים ביחידי, שלא באסיפת עם:
11Instead of the noise of adversaries, between the places of drawing water, there they will tell the righteous acts of the Lord, the righteous acts of restoring open cities in Israel. Then the people of the Lord went down to the cities.   יאמִקּ֣וֹל מְחַֽצְצִ֗ים בֵּ֚ין מַשְׁאַבִּ֔ים שָׁ֚ם יְתַנּוּ֙ צִדְק֣וֹת יְהֹוָ֔ה צִדְקֹ֥ת פִּרְזֹנ֖וֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אָ֛ז יָרְד֥וּ לַשְּׁעָרִ֖ים עַם־יְהֹוָֽה:
  אז ירדו לשערים: חזרו לערי מושבותם שברחו מהם ליאסף אל ערי המבצר:
adversaries: Heb. מְחַצְצִים. Menachem (ben Seruk, a Hebrew Grammarian,) interprets, “those that wage war and array battles,” therefore he classifies this along with, (Prov. 30:27) “The locusts have no king, yet they march (חֹצֵץ) together;” an expression of “troops”. Another interpretation is   מחצצים: פתר מנחם: עורכי מלחמה וסודרי קרב, וחברו עם (משלי ל כז): מלך אין לארבה ויצא חצץ כולו, לשון גדודים. דבר אחר:
Instead of the noise of adversaries, between the places of drawing water: מִקּוֹל מְחַצְצִים בֵּין מַשְׁאַבִּים , When you went to the river to draw water, you feared the sound of the pebbles smoothened by the river, Kiesels in German (cailloux in French is of Celtic origin), for their sound is heard when one passes over them, and you feared being detected by the heathens. However, now you do not have to worry about this. Therefore, it is incumbent upon you to give thanks to His name. מְחַצְצִים (is then) an expression of “pebbles smoothened by the river,” as in (Lam. 3:16) “and he broke with the stones (בֶחָצָץ) my teeth.”   מקול מחצצים בין משאבים: כשהייתם הולכים בין משאבים לשאוב מים, הייתם יראים מקול אבנים, חלוקי הנחל, קיזל"ש בלע"ז, שהעובר עליהם נשמע קולם, והייתם יראים שלא ירגישו בכם אויביכם, מעכשיו אין לחוש על זאת, ומשום הכי מצוה עליכם ליתן הודיה לשמו:
adversaries: (is then) an expression of “pebbles smoothened by the river,” as in (Lam. 3:16) “and he broke with the stones (בֶחָצָץ) my teeth.”   מחצצים: לשון אבני חלוקי הנחל, כמו (איכה ג טז) ויגרס בחצץ:
12Praise! Praise! Deborah. Praise! Praise! Utter a song. Arise Barak, and capture your captives, son of Abinoam.   יבעוּרִ֚י עוּרִי֙ דְּבוֹרָ֔ה ע֥וּרִי ע֖וּרִי דַּבְּרִי־שִׁ֑יר ק֥וּם בָּרָ֛ק וּֽשֲׁבֵ֥ה שֶׁבְיְךָ֖ בֶּן־אֲבִינֹֽעַם:
Praise! Praise! Deborah: (עוּרִי is) An expression of praise, as in its plain meaning: Become firm in your praise. But our Rabbis said, because she praised herself by saying (v. 7) “Until I Deborah arose,” the Divine spirit left her (therefore she had to arouse (עוֹרֵר) it).   עורי עורי דבורה: לשון שבח כפשוטו, התגברי בשירתך ורבותינו אמרו (פסחים סו ב) מפני שנתהללה ואמרה (פסוק ז) עד שקמתי דבורה, נסתלקה הימנה רוח הקודש:
13Then ruled a remnant among the mighty of the nations; the Lord dominated the strong for me.   יגאָ֚ז יְרַ֣ד שָׂרִ֔יד לְאַדִּירִ֖ים עָ֑ם יְהֹוָ֕ה יְרַד־לִ֖י בַּגִּבּוֹרִֽים:
Then ruled a remnant among the mighty: יְרַד = ירדה meaning “ruled,” as in (Isaiah 45:1) “Who rules (לְרַד) nations before Him.” The remnants of Israel ruled over the mighty (אַדִּירֵי) gentiles.   אז ירד שריד לאדירים: ירד - ירדה, כמו (ישעיהו מה א) לרד לפניו גוים, שרידי ישראל רדו באדירי הגוים:
the Lord dominated the strong for me: He gave me dominion (יְרַד לִי) over the mighty of the gentiles.   ה' ירד לי בגבורים: ירדה לי את גבורי הגוים:
14Out of Ephraim, whose root was against Amalek; after you (will be) Benjamin with your abaters; out of Machir came down officers, and out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the scribe.   ידמִנִּ֣י אֶפְרַ֗יִם שָׁרְשָׁם֙ בַּעֲמָלֵ֔ק אַחֲרֶ֥יךָ בִנְיָמִ֖ין בַּֽעֲמָמֶ֑יךָ מִנִּ֣י מָכִ֗יר יָֽרְדוּ֙ מְחֹ֣קְקִ֔ים וּמִ֨זְּבוּלֻ֔ן מֹשְׁכִ֖ים בְּשֵׁ֥בֶט סֹפֵֽר:
Out of Ephraim: From Ephraim issued the root (שׁוֹרֶשׁ, referring to Joshua the son of Nun (their prince), to subdue Amalek and weaken him by the sword (Ex. 17:13). This verse is connected to the previous one and explains: The Lord dominated the strong for me by establishing Joshua to subdue Amalek.   מני אפרים: מן אפרים יצא שורש יהושע בן נון, לרדות בעמלק לחלש אותו לפי חרב, ומחובר מקרא זה לעליון, לפרש: ה' ירד לי בגבורים, את יהושע הקים לרד בעמלק:
after you: Will arise from the tribe of Benjamin, Saul the son of Kish who will stone him and slacken (עֲמָם) him like dying (עוֹמְמוֹת) embers. We can (also) interpret בַּעֲמָמֶיךָ referring to the army of 200,000 soldiers with which Saul came upon them (I Sam. 15:4).   אחריך: יקום משבט בנימין שאול בן קיש שיגרמנו ויעמם אותו כגחלים עוממות ויש לפתור: 'בעממיך', בחיל של מאתים אלף רגלי שבא שאול עליהם:
Out of Machir came down officers: Outstanding officers who conquered the Amorites. This refers to those who captured sixty cities, the whole royal stretch conquered under Jair (of Menasseh See Deut. 3: 4, 14).   מני מכיר ירדו מחקקים: שרים גדולים שכבשו את האמורי, אשר כבשו (דברים ג ד) ששים עיר כל חבל ארגוב שכבש יאיר:
15And the princes of Issachar were with Deborah, as was Issachar with Barak; into the valley they rushed forth with their feet. (But) among the divisions of Reuben, (there were) great resolves of heart.   טווְשָׂרַ֚י בְּיִשָּׂשׂכָר֙ עִם־דְּבֹרָ֔ה וְיִשָּׂשׂכָר֙ כֵּ֣ן בָּרָ֔ק בָּעֵ֖מֶק שֻׁלַּ֣ח בְּרַגְלָ֑יו בִּפְלַגּ֣וֹת רְאוּבֵ֔ן גְּדֹלִ֖ים חִקְקֵי־לֵֽב:
And the princes of Issachar: The princes of Issachar are the Sanhedrin who were occupied in Torah and “knew how to treat the times” (I Chron. 12:32). They are always (cooperating) with Deborah to teach Israel statutes and laws.   ושרי ביששכר: שרים שביששכר, הם סנהדראות עוסקין בתורה, (דברי הימים א יא לב) יודעי בינה לעתים, הם תמיד עם דבורה ללמד בישראל חק ומשפט:
And the princes of Issachar: Heb. שָׂרַי. The “yud” is inconsequential and does not serve any purpose, as the “yud” in (Ps. 8:8) “the cattle of the field (שָׂדַי);” (Jer. 22: 14) “Expand the windows (חַלּוֹנָי).”   ושרי ביששכר: יו"ד זו טפילה היא ואינה משמשת כלום, והרי היא כיו"ד (תהלים ח ח) בהמות שדי, (ירמיהו כב יד) וקרע לו חלוני:
as was Issachar with Barak: (The princes) And the rest of the people of Issachar are faithful to Barak in all that he will instruct.   ויששכר כן ברק: ושאר העם של יששכר, כן הם עם ברק לכל אשר יצוה:
into the valley they rushed forth with their feet: He sent them for all his errands; to gather the people and for all the needs of war.   בעמק שלח ברגליו: שלחם בכל שליחותו, ולאסוף את העם ולכל צרכי המלחמה:
(But) among the divisions of Reuben: But in the divisions of Reuben’s heart were vast חִקְקֵי לֵב, (which Targum Jonathan renders) נִכְלֵי לִיבָּא i.e., shrewdness. And what was his shrewdness? He dwelt by the edges (מִשִׂפְתֵי) of the battle to hear who would win so that he should join with him.   בפלגות ראובן: אבל בחילוקי לבו של ראובן רבו חקקי לב. (תרגום:) נכלי ליבא, ערמומית, ומה היא ערמומיתו, ישב לו בין משפתי המלחמה לשמוע מי נוצח ויהיה עמו:
16Why do you sit between the borders, to hear the bleatings of the flocks? At the divisions of Reuben, (there are) great searchings of heart.   טזלָ֣מָּה יָשַׁ֗בְתָּ בֵּ֚ין הַֽמִּשְׁפְּתַ֔יִם לִשְׁמֹ֖עַ שְׁרִק֣וֹת עֲדָרִ֑ים לִפְלַגּ֣וֹת רְאוּבֵ֔ן גְּדוֹלִ֖ים חִקְרֵי־לֵֽב:
the bleatings of the flocks: To hear the sound of the flocks in battle; to whom is the sound of victory and to whom is the sound of defeat.   שרקות עדרים: לשמוע קול עדרי המלחמה, למי קול ענות גבורה ולמי קול ענות חלושה:
17Gilead abides beyond the Jordan; and Dan, why does he gather into the ships? Asher dwelt at the shore of the seas, and by his breaches he abides.   יזגִּלְעָ֗ד בְּעֵ֚בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן֙ שָׁכֵ֔ן וְדָ֕ן לָ֥מָּה יָג֖וּר אֳנִיּ֑וֹת אָשֵׁ֗ר יָשַׁב֙ לְח֣וֹף יַמִּ֔ים וְעַ֥ל מִפְרָצָ֖יו יִשְׁכּֽוֹן:
abides beyond the Jordan: And he did not come to the battle, and likewise Dan gathered his wealth into ships to be prepared to escape.   בעבר הירדן שכן: ולא בא אל המלחמה, וכן דן הכניס ממונו בספינות לעמוד ולברוח:
and by his breaches: To watch the vulnerable parts of his land.   ועל מפרציו: לשמור פרצות ארצו:
18Zebulun is a people that jeopardized their lives to die, as did Naphtali, upon the high places of the field.   יחזְבֻל֗וּן עַ֣ם חֵרֵ֥ף נַפְשׁ֛וֹ לָמ֖וּת וְנַפְתָּלִ֑י עַ֖ל מְרוֹמֵ֥י שָׂדֶֽה:
Zebulun is a people that jeopardized…: He scorned himself and submitted himself to die in battle with Barak, and likewise Naphtali on the high places of the field, on Mount Tabor.   זבלון עם חרף וגו': בזה נפשו והפקיר עצמו למות במלחמה עם ברק, וכן נפתלי על מרומי שדה על הר תבור:
19The kings came and fought; then fought the kings of Canaan in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo; they took no gain of money.   יטבָּ֚אוּ מְלָכִים֙ נִלְחָ֔מוּ אָ֚ז נִלְחֲמוּ֙ מַלְכֵ֣י כְנַ֔עַן בְּתַעְנַ֖ךְ עַל־מֵ֣י מְגִדּ֑וֹ בֶּ֥צַע כֶּ֖סֶף לֹ֥א לָקָֽחוּ:
in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo: Jonathan renders: In Taanach they dwelt and reached until the waters of Megiddo. The edge of the camp was in Taanach and it reached until the waters of Megiddo.   בתענך על מי מגדו: תרגם יונתן: בתענך הוו שרן ומטן על מי מגדו, ראש המחנה בתענך ומגיע עד מי מגידו:
they took no gain of money: Without payment they came to aid Sisera, they asked no reward.   בצע כסף לא לקחו: חנם באו לעזרת סיסרא, לא בקשו ממנו שכר:
20From heaven they fought; the stars from their courses fought against Sisera.   כמִן־שָׁמַ֖יִם נִלְחָ֑מוּ הַכּֽוֹכָבִים֙ מִמְּסִלּוֹתָ֔ם נִלְחֲמ֖וּ עִם־סִיסְרָֽא:
From heaven they fought: (As they sought no gain,) likewise the Holy One sent against them His hosts who do not desire any reward.   מן שמים נלחמו: ואף הקדוש ברוך הוא שלח בם צבאיו שאינם רוצים שום שכר:
from their courses: The tip of the star being in heaven and its edge upon earth (see following verses). From here it was said: The thickness of the firmament is equivalent to the space between heaven and earth, since the star is inserted in the firmament like a bolt into a door (this refers to an old fashioned bolt which went through the thickness of the door), i.e., the size of its length equaling the thickness of the firmament. Thus from this verse, which attests that from their courses they fought, we derive that the thickness of the firmament is equal to the height between heaven and earth.   ממסלותם: ראש הכוכב בשמים וסופו בארץ, מכאן אמרו (תנחומא בראשית ה) עוביו של רקיע כאויר שבין שמים לארץ, שהכוכב תקוע ברקיע כמין נגר בדלת, מדת ארכו כעביו של רקיע, ומן המקרא שמעיד 'ממסילותם נלחמו', אנו שומעין שעוביו של רקיע כגובה שמים מן הארץ:
21The brook Kishon swept them away, that ancient brook, the brook Kishon; tread down, O my soul, (their) strength.   כאנַ֚חַל קִישׁוֹן֙ גְּרָפָ֔ם נַ֥חַל קְדוּמִ֖ים נַ֣חַל קִישׁ֑וֹן תִּדְרְכִ֥י נַפְשִׁ֖י עֹֽז:
swept them away: Heb. גְּרָפָם. It swept them from the world like a rake (מַגְרֵפָה) that rakes ashes from an oven.   גרפם: טאטם מן העולם, כמגרפה זו שגורפת את האפר מן הכירה:
that ancient brook: It became a guarantor to the sea concerning this from the days of Egypt as it is stated in Pesachim (118b).   נחל קדומים: שנעשה ערב לים על זה מימות מצרים, כדאיתא בפסחים (קיח ב):
tread down, O my soul: By using my feet upon the strength (עוֹז) of the mighty of Canaan.   תדרכי נפשי: ברגלים את עוז גבורי כנען:
22Then were pounded the heels of the horses by reason of the prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones.   כבאָ֥ז הָלְמ֖וּ עִקְּבֵי־ס֑וּס מִֽדַּהֲר֖וֹת דַּהֲר֥וֹת אַבִּירָֽיו:
were pounded the heels of the horses: The hoofs of their horses slipped off because the heat of the star would boil the mud and the nail would slip off, as one scalds the feet in boiling water and the hoofs would slip off. And since they slipped off, the feet were stricken (הָלְמוּ) (Mechilta Ex. 14:24).   הלמו עקבי סוס: נשתלפו טלפי סוסיהם, שהיה חום הכוכב מרתיח את הטיט והציפורן נשמטה, כמו שמולגין את הרגלים ברותחין והטלפים נשמטים, מתוך שנשתלפו נהלמו הרגלים:
by reason of the prancings, the prancings of their mighty ones: They would cause their horses to prance in war as in (Nachum 3:2) “And a horse prancing” (דוֹהֵר). This is an expression of the prancing of a horse.   מדהרות דהרות אביריו: שהיו מרקידים את סוסיהם במלחמה, כמו (נחום ג ב) וסוס דהר, הוא לשון הרקדת הסוס:
23'Curse you Meroz,' said the messenger of the Lord, 'curse you bitterly (you) inhabitants thereof,' because they came not to the aid of the Lord, to the aid of the Lord against the mighty.   כגא֣וֹרוּ מֵר֗וֹז אָמַר֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה אֹ֥רוּ אָר֖וֹר יֹשְׁבֶ֑יהָ כִּ֚י לֹֽא־בָ֙אוּ֙ לְעֶזְרַ֣ת יְהֹוָ֔ה לְעֶזְרַ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה בַּגִּבּוֹרִֽים:
“Curse you Meroz,”: Some say it was a star and some say he was a prominent person who was near the battle area and yet did not come.   אורו מרוז: אמרי לה כוכבא הוה, ואמרי לה גברא חשיבא הוה (מועד קטן טז א), והיה סמוך למקום המלחמה ולא בא:
said the messenger of the Lord: Said Barak as an agent of the Holy One.   אמר מלאך ה': אמר ברק בשליחותו של הקדוש ברוך הוא:
the inhabitants thereof: Those that dwell within his four cubits. With (the blast of) four hundred horns, Barak excommunicated Meroz.   יושביה: היושבים בארבע אמות שלו (שם) בארבע מאות שפורי שמתיה ברק למרוז:
to the aid of the Lord: Speaking as though it could be done, for he who aids Israel is as if he is aiding the Divine Presence.   לעזרת ה': כביכול, שמי שהוא עוזר את ישראל, כעוזר את השכינה:
24Blessed above women shall Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, be; above women in the tent shall she be blessed.   כדתְּבֹרַךְ֙ מִנָּשִׁ֔ים יָעֵ֕ל אֵ֖שֶׁת חֶ֣בֶר הַקֵּינִ֑י מִנָּשִׁ֥ים בָּאֹ֖הֶל תְּבֹרָֽךְ:
above women in the tent: Heb. אֹהֶל. Referring to Sarah of whom it is said, (Gen. 18:9) “She is in the tent,” Rebecca of whom it is said, (ibid. 24:67) “And Isaac brought her into the tent,” and Rachel and Leah of whom it is said, (ibid 31:33) “And he went out of Leah’s tent and he entered Rachel’s tent”.   מנשים באהל: שרה, שנאמר בה (בראשית יח ט) הנה באהל רבקה, שנאמר בה (שם כד סז) ויביאה יצחק האהלה. רחל ולאה, שנאמר בהן (שם לא לג) ויצא מאהל לאה וגו':
above women in the tent shall she be blessed: (Referring to) Jael, because they bore and raised children, but if not Jael, this evil one (i.e., Sisera) would have come and destroyed them. So it states in Genesis Rabbah 48. Another interpretation is that Jael also dwelt in tents (above 4:18), therefore she was mentioned in the blessing of tents.   מנשים באהל תבורך: יעל למה - הן ילדו וגידלו, ואם לא יעל הרי הרשע הזה בא ומאבדן, כך הוא בבראשית רבה (מח טו). דבר אחר, אף יעל היתה יושבת אהלים, לפיכך הזכיר אותה בברכת אהלים:
25Water he requested, (but) milk she gave him: in a lordly bowl she brought him cream.   כהמַ֥יִם שָׁאַ֖ל חָלָ֣ב נָתָ֑נָה בְּסֵ֥פֶל אַדִּירִ֖ים הִקְרִ֥יבָה חֶמְאָֽה:
(but) milk she gave him: To test his state of consciousness, if he could discern between the taste of water and the taste of milk. So does Targum Jonathan paraphrase.   חלב נתנה: לדעת אם לבו עליו שיבין בין טעם מים לטעם חלב, כן תרגם יונתן:
in a lordly bowl: Heb. אַדִּירִים. In a vessel that one drinks water, since water is called “mighty” (or lordly i. e., אַדִּירִים), as it says, (Ex. 15:10) “In the mighty (אַדִּירִים) waters”.   בספל אדירים: בספל ששותין בו מים, שהמים נקראו 'אדירים', שנאמר (שמות טו י) במים אדירים:
26She put forth her hand to the pin, and her right hand to strike the weary; she struck Sisera, pierced his head, and wounded and penetrated his temple.   כויָדָהּ֙ לַיָּתֵ֣ד תִּשְׁלַ֔חְנָה וִֽימִינָ֖הּ לְהַלְמ֣וּת עֲמֵלִ֑ים וְהָלְמָ֚ה סִֽיסְרָא֙ מָחֲקָ֣ה רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וּמָחֲצָ֥ה וְחָלְפָ֖ה רַקָּתֽוֹ:
to strike the weary: Heb. עֲמֵלִים. Referring to Sisera who was exhausted (עָמֵל) and tired.   להלמות עמלים: סיסרא, שהיה עמל ויגע:
(she) pierced: Heb. מָחֲקָה. An expression of piercing (חִיקוּי).   מחקה: לשון חיקוי:
and (she) wounded: Heb. מָחֲצָה. An expression of wounding (מַחַץ).   ומחצה: לשון מחץ:
and penetrated: Heb. חָלְפָה means “she made pass through” (referring to the pin which pierced his head) coming out on the other side.   וחלפה: יוצא מצד אחר:
27At her feet he sank, fell, lay; at her feet he sank (and) fell; where he sank, there he fell down dead.   כזבֵּ֣ין רַגְלֶ֔יהָ כָּרַ֥ע נָפַ֖ל שָׁכָ֑ב בֵּ֚ין רַגְלֶ֙יהָ֙ כָּרַ֣ע נָפָ֔ל בַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר כָּרַ֔ע שָׁ֖ם נָפַ֥ל שָׁדֽוּד:
28Through the window the mother of Sisera looked forth, and peered through the window; why is his chariot late in coming? Why tarry the strides of his chariots?   כחבְּעַד֩ הַחַלּ֨וֹן נִשְׁקְפָ֧ה וַתְּיַבֵּ֛ב אֵ֥ם סִֽיסְרָ֖א בְּעַ֣ד הָֽאֶשְׁנָ֑ב מַדּ֗וּעַ בֹּשֵׁ֚שׁ רִכְבּוֹ֙ לָב֔וֹא מַדּ֣וּעַ אֶֽחֱר֔וּ פַּעֲמֵ֖י מַרְכְּבוֹתָֽיו:
and peered: Heb. וַתְּיַבֵּב. An expression of speaking, as in (Isa. 57:19) “The speech (נִיב) of the lips.” But our Rabbis explained (Rosh Hashanah 33b) מְיַבֵּב as an expression of wailing, as in (Num. 29:1), “Of wailing” (תְּרוּעָה) which is rendered יַבָּבָא. However, I say it is an expression of looking, as in, (Zach. 2:12) “The pupil (בָבַת) of his eye,” and so has Menachem classified it. הָאֶשְׁנָב, the window.   ותיבב: לשון דבור, כמו (ישעיהו יז יט) ניב שפתים ורבותינו פירשוהו (ראש השנה לג ב) לשון גניחה, כתרועה, דמתרגמינן 'יבבא' (ויקרא כג כד). ואני אומר: לשון ראייה, כמו (זכריה ב ב) בבת עיני, וכן חברו מנחם:
the window: the window.   אשנב: חלון:
29The wisest of her princesses answer her, she too returns answers to herself.   כטחַכְמ֥וֹת שָׂרוֹתֶ֖יהָ תַּעֲנֶ֑ינָּה אַף־הִ֕יא תָּשִׁ֥יב אֲמָרֶ֖יהָ לָֽהּ:
The wisest of her princesses answer her: Heb. חַכְמוֹת is interpreted as “the wise of her princesses” (an adjective in the constructive form), therefore the “Heth” is vocalized with a “patach” (“ah” sounding vowel). חָכְמוֹת as a noun is vocalized “hatof kamatz” (an “aw” sound), as in (Prov. 24:7) “Wisdom (חָכְמוֹת) to a fool is like a rare jewel.” However, this form is vocalized חַכְמוֹת and similarly, (Prov. 14:1) “The wise (חַכְמוֹת) of the women establish their house.”   חכמות שרותיה תענינה: החכמות שבשרותיה, לכך נקוד חי"ת פת"ח, חכמות שהוא שם דבר נקוד חט"ף קמ"ץ, כמו (משלי יד א) ראמות לאויל חכמות, וזה נקוד חכמות, וכן (שם יד א) חכמות נשים בנתה ביתה, חכמות שבנשים:
answer her: The dot in the (second) “nun” replaces the third “nun” (which would be needed to replace the word “her”). It thus means “they answer her.” The dot of a “nun” replaces the word “her” as in (Lev. 6:14) “Scalded he shall bring it,” (lit., her) (תְּבִיאֶנָּה).   תענינה: דגשות של נו"ן משמשת במקום נו"ן שלישית, ופתרונו תענינה אותה, דגשות נו"ן משמשת במקום 'אותה', כמו (ויקרא ו יד) מרבכת תביאנה:
she too returns answers: (Of) Consolation to herself saying: Why am I wondering about my son’s delay? (Are they not, etc.)   אף היא תשיב אמריה: תנחומין לעצמה: מה אני מתמה תמיה על עכוב בני:
30'Are they not finding (and) dividing the spoils? A damsel, two damsels to every man; a spoil of dyed garments to Sisera, a spoil of dyed garments of embroidery; dyed garments of embroidery for the neck of the spoiler.'   להֲלֹ֨א יִמְצְא֜וּ יְחַלְּק֣וּ שָׁלָ֗ל רַ֚חַם רַחֲמָתַ֙יִם֙ לְרֹ֣אשׁ גֶּ֔בֶר שְׁלַ֚ל צְבָעִים֙ לְסִ֣יסְרָ֔א שְׁלַ֥ל צְבָעִ֖ים רִקְמָ֑ה צֶ֥בַע רִקְמָתַ֖יִם לְצַוְּארֵ֥י שָׁלָֽל:
Are they not finding (and) dividing the spoils?: And that is delaying them.   הלא ימצאו יחלקו שלל: והוא מעכבן:
two damsels to every man: They are ravishing the pretty women of Israel and every one of the men has two or three women in his bed.   רחמתים לראש גבר: מענים נשים יפות בישראל, וכל איש מהם יש לו במטתו שתים ושלש נשים:
31So may perish all Your enemies, O Lord; but they that love Him (should be) as the sun when he goes forth in his might." And the land rested forty years.   לאכֵּ֠ן יֹאבְד֚וּ כָל־אוֹיְבֶ֙יךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וְאֹ֣הֲבָ֔יו כְּצֵ֥את הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ בִּגְבֻרָת֑וֹ וַתִּשְׁקֹ֥ט הָאָ֖רֶץ אַרְבָּעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה:
So may perish: Deborah said, “This is for her a vain consolation, for so may perish all your enemies, O Lord, as he was destroyed.”   כן יאבדו: דבורה אמרה: תנחומין של הבל הן לה, כן יאבדו כל אויביך ה', כאשר אבד הוא:
but they that love Him (should be) as the sun when he goes forth in his might: Which will occur in the coming future seven times seven the light of all the seven days of creation which is 343 times as much (as one day). This equals the sum of forty nine times seven. [Tanchuma].   ואהביו כצאת השמש בגברתו: לעתיד לבא, (ישעיהו ל כו) שבעתים כאור שבעת הימים, שהיא על אחת שלש מאות וארבעים ושלש כמספר ארבעים ותשע שביעיות:
And the land rested: These are not Deborah’s words, but rather the words of the writer of this book.   ותשקט הארץ: אין זה מדברי דבורה אלא מדברי כותב הספר:
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