Leviticus Chapter 18

6No man shall come near to any of his close relatives, to uncover [their] nakedness. I am the Lord.   ואִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵ֣ר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ לֹ֥א תִקְרְב֖וּ לְגַלּ֣וֹת עֶרְוָ֑ה אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֹֽה:
No man shall come near: Heb. תִקְרְבוּ לֹא. [This comes] to admonish the female as [it does] the male. Therefore, it is stated in the plural form. — [Torath Kohanim 18:136]   לא תקרבו: להזהיר הנקבה כזכר, לכך נאמר לשון רבים:
I am the Lord: faithful to pay a reward [not only for fulfilling positive commandments but also to the one who saves himself from sinning]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:145]   אני ה': נאמן לשלם שכר:
7You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father or the nakedness of your mother; she is your mother; you shall not uncover her nakedness.   זעֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֛יךָ וְעֶרְוַ֥ת אִמְּךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה אִמְּךָ֣ הִ֔וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ:
the nakedness of your father: This [refers to] your father’s wife. [But how do we know this?] Perhaps it is only to be interpreted literally [as an admonition against relations with one’s father, in addition to the general admonition against pederasty]. [The answer is:] It says here, “The nakedness of your father,” and it says further, “has uncovered his father’s nakedness” (Lev. 20:11). Just as in the latter verse, Scripture is speaking of his father’s wife [as that verse begins with, “And a man who cohabits with his father’s wife”], here, too, [Scripture is speaking of] his father’s wife. - [Sanh. 54a]   ערות אביך: זו אשת אביך, או אינו אלא כמשמעו, נאמר כאן ערות אביך, ונאמר להלן (ויקרא כ יא) ערות אביו גלה, מה להלן אשת אביו, אף כאן אשת אביו:
or the nakedness of your mother: [It comes] to include [in the prohibition,] his mother who is not his father’s wife. — [Sanh. 54a]   וערות אמך: להביא אמו שאינה אשת אביו:
8You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's wife; it is your father's nakedness.   חעֶרְוַ֥ת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה עֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֖יךָ הִֽוא:
the nakedness of your father’s wife: [This admonition is repeated] to include [in the prohibition, one’s father’s wife, even] after the death [of one’s father]. — [Sanh. 54a]   ערות אשת אביך: לרבות לאחר מיתה:
9The nakedness of your sister, whether your father's daughter or your mother's daughter, whether born to one who may remain in the home or born to one who must be sent outside you shall not uncover their nakedness.   טעֶרְוַ֨ת אֲחֽוֹתְךָ֤ בַת־אָבִ֨יךָ֙ א֣וֹ בַת־אִמֶּ֔ךָ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת בַּ֔יִת א֖וֹ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת ח֑וּץ לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽן:
your father’s daughter: Included in the meaning [of the verse] is also a daughter born from a woman [the father] raped [i.e., not the father’s wife]. — [Yev. 22b]   בת אביך: אף בת אנוסה במשמע:
whether born to one who may remain in the home or to one who must remain outside: מוֹלֶדֶת בַּית אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ, lit. born in the house or born outside. Whether they say to your father, “[You may] keep her mother [as your wife],” or whether they say to your father, “[You must] send her mother away,” for example, a mamzereth, or a nethinah [an offspring of the Gibeonites (see Josh. 9:327)]. — [Yev. 23a]   מולדת בית או מולדת חוץ: בין שאומרים לו לאביך קיים את אמה ובין שאומרים לו לאביך הוצא את אמה, כגון ממזרת או נתינה:
10The nakedness of your son's daughter or your daughter's daughter you shall not uncover their nakedness, for they are your own nakedness.   יעֶרְוַ֤ת בַּת־בִּנְךָ֙ א֣וֹ בַת־בִּתְּךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָ֑ן כִּ֥י עֶרְוָֽתְךָ֖ הֵֽנָּה:
The nakedness of your son’s daughter [or your daughter’s daughter]: Scripture is speaking of his daughter born from a woman he had raped. [The case, however,] of [his son’s] daughter and his daughter’s daughter [who stem] from his wife, we learn from (verse 17 below), “You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; you shall not take [in marriage] her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter” about [whose nakedness] Scripture says, “You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter” whether this daughter stems from him or from another man. — [Yev. 22b]   ערות בת בנך וגו: בבתו מאנוסתו הכתוב מדבר, ובתו ובת בתו מאשתו אנו למדין מערות אשה ובתה לא תגלה, בין שהיא ממנו ובין שהיא מאיש אחר:
The nakedness of your son’s daughter: How much more so, then, should one’s own daughter [be prohibited]! But since a Scriptural admonition must not be derived from an inference from minor to major, [but must be explicitly mentioned], they learned it from a gezeirah shavah [an exposition linking common words within verses of this passage, which is considered as if explicitly mentioned] in Tractate Yevamoth (3a).   ערות בת בנך: קל וחומר לבתך, אלא לפי שאין מזהירין מן הדין למדוה מגזרה שוה במסכת יבמות (ג א):
11The nakedness of the daughter of your father's wife, born to your father she is your sister: you shall not uncover her nakedness.   יאעֶרְוַ֨ת בַּת־אֵשֶׁ֤ת אָבִ֨יךָ֙ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת אָבִ֔יךָ אֲחֽוֹתְךָ֖ הִ֑וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ:
The nakedness of the daughter of your father’s wife: [This verse] teaches us that one is not liable to the punishment [of excision, if he cohabited with] his sister who stems from a handmaid or a non-Jewess. Therefore, it says, “the daughter of your father’s wife” - [i.e.,] a woman fit to enter into marriage [thus excluding a handmaid and non-Jewess, marriage with whom is not binding]. — [Yev. 23a]   ערות בת אשת אביך: לימד שאינו חייב על אחותו משפחה ונכרית לכך נאמר בת אשת אביך בראויה לקידושין:
12You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's sister; she is the close relative of your father.   יבעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחֽוֹת־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה שְׁאֵ֥ר אָבִ֖יךָ הִֽוא:
13You shall not uncover the nakedness of your mother's sister, for she is the close relative of your mother.   יגעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחֽוֹת־אִמְּךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה כִּֽי־שְׁאֵ֥ר אִמְּךָ֖ הִֽוא:
14You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's brother you shall not come near his wife; she is your aunt.   ידעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחִֽי־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה אֶל־אִשְׁתּוֹ֙ לֹ֣א תִקְרָ֔ב דֹּדָֽתְךָ֖ הִֽוא:
You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother: And what is “his nakedness?” “you shall not come near his wife.”   ערות אחי אביך לא תגלה: ומה היא ערותו, אל אשתו לא תקרב:
15You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter in law; she is your son's wife you shall not uncover her nakedness.   טועֶרְוַ֥ת כַּלָּֽתְךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה אֵ֤שֶׁת בִּנְךָ֙ הִ֔וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ:
[she is] your son’s wife: [Scripture says:] I have stated [the law] only [in the case of a woman] with whom your son has a marital tie. [This] excludes a woman he has raped, a handmaid, or a non-Jewess [with whom the son has cohabited]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:108]   אשת בנך היא: לא אמרתי אלא בשיש לבנך אישות בה, פרט לאנוסה ושפחה ונכרית:
16You shall not uncover the nakedness of your brother's wife: it is your brother's nakedness.   טזעֶרְוַ֥ת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָחִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה עֶרְוַ֥ת אָחִ֖יךָ הִֽוא:
17You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; you shall not take [in marriage] her son's daughter or her daughter's daughter, to uncover her nakedness they are close relatives, it is evil counsel.   יזעֶרְוַ֥ת אִשָּׁ֛ה וּבִתָּ֖הּ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה אֶת־בַּת־בְּנָ֞הּ וְאֶת־בַּת־בִּתָּ֗הּ לֹ֤א תִקַּח֙ לְגַלּ֣וֹת עֶרְוָתָ֔הּ שַֽׁאֲרָ֥ה הֵ֖נָּה זִמָּ֥ה הִֽוא:
You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter: Scripture prohibits [relations with the second woman] only through a marital tie with the first one [whether the woman or her daughter]. Hence, Scripture says, לֹא תִקַּח, denoting “taking (קִיחָה) in marriage.” Similarly, when it comes to stating the punishment [of those who transgress this matter, Scripture says], “[And a man] who takes (יִקַּח) a woman and her mother [in marriage…they shall burn him and them in fire]” (Lev. 20:14), [also using] the expression of קִיחָה, “taking [in marriage].” But if he raped a woman, he is permitted to marry her daughter. — [Yev. 97a]   ערות אשה ובתה: לא אסר הכתוב אלא ע"י נשואי הראשונה, לכך נאמר לא תקח, לשון קיחה, וכן לענין העונש אשר יקח את אשה ואת אמה (ויקרא כ יד), לשון קיחה, אבל אנס אשה מותר לישא בתה:
they are close relatives: Heb. שַׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה, they are related to one another.   שארה הנה: קרובות (הן) זו לזו:
evil counsel: Heb. זִמָּה, counsel [like the word זָמַם, plotted]; as the Targum renders: עֲצַת חֶטְאִין, counsel of sins, which your [evil] inclination has counseled you to sin.   זמה: עצה כתרגומו עצת חטאין, שיצרך יועצך לחטוא:
18And you shall not take a woman with her sister [in marriage] as rivals, to uncover the nakedness of one upon the other, in her lifetime.   יחוְאִשָּׁ֥ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָ֖הּ לֹ֣א תִקָּ֑ח לִצְרֹ֗ר לְגַלּ֧וֹת עֶרְוָתָ֛הּ עָלֶ֖יהָ בְּחַיֶּֽיהָ:
a woman with her sister: both at the same time.   אל אחתה: שתיהן כאחת:
as rivals: Heb. לִצְרֹר, an expression similar to צָרָה, rival, to make one a rival to the other.   לצרר: לשון צרה לעשות את זו צרה לזו:
in her lifetime: This teaches you that if he divorced her, he may not marry her sister while she is still alive. — [Yev.. 8b]   בחייה: למדך שאם גרשה לא ישא את אחותה כל זמן שהיא בחיים:
19And to a woman during the uncleanness of her separation, you shall not come near to uncover her nakedness.   יטוְאֶל־אִשָּׁ֖ה בְּנִדַּ֣ת טֻמְאָתָ֑הּ לֹ֣א תִקְרַ֔ב לְגַלּ֖וֹת עֶרְוָתָֽהּ:
20You shall not lie carnally with your neighbor's wife, to become defiled by her.   כוְאֶל־אֵ֨שֶׁת֙ עֲמִ֣יתְךָ֔ לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֥ן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ֖ לְזָ֑רַע לְטָמְאָה־בָֽהּ:
21And you shall not give any of your offspring to pass through for Molech. And you shall not profane the Name of your God. I am the Lord.   כאוּמִזַּרְעֲךָ֥ לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֖ן לְהַֽעֲבִ֣יר לַמֹּ֑לֶךְ וְלֹ֧א תְחַלֵּ֛ל אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֹֽה:
for Molech: A form of idolatry, named Molech, and this was the manner of its worship, that one would hand over one’s child to the pagan priests, who would make two huge fires. The child was then passed through on foot between these two fires. — [Sanh. 64b, see Rashi there.]   למלך: עבודה זרה היא ששמה מולך, וזו היא עבודתה, שמוסר בנו לכומרים ועושין שתי מדורות גדולות ומעבירין את הבן ברגליו בין שתי מדורות האש:
And you shall not give: This refers to the handing him over to the pagan priests.   לא תתן: זו היא מסירתו לכומרים:
to pass through for Molech: This refers to passing [the child] between the fire[s].   להעביר למלך: זו (היא) העברת האש: