Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 16

11The Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   יאוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
12I have heard the complaints of the children of Israel. Speak to them, saying, In the afternoon you shall eat meat, and in the morning you shall be sated with bread, and you shall know that I am the Lord, your God.   יבשָׁמַ֗עְתִּי אֶת־תְּלוּנֹּת֘ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ דַּבֵּ֨ר אֲלֵהֶ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר בֵּ֤ין הָֽעַרְבַּ֨יִם֙ תֹּֽאכְל֣וּ בָשָׂ֔ר וּבַבֹּ֖קֶר תִּשְׂבְּעוּ־לָ֑חֶם וִֽידַעְתֶּ֕ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
13It came to pass in the evening that the quails went up and covered the camp, and in the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp.   יגוַיְהִ֣י בָעֶ֔רֶב וַתַּ֣עַל הַשְּׂלָ֔ו וַתְּכַ֖ס אֶת־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה וּבַבֹּ֗קֶר הָֽיְתָה֙ שִׁכְבַ֣ת הַטָּ֔ל סָבִ֖יב לַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
the quails: Heb. הַשְׂלָיו, a species of bird that is very fat. -[from Yoma 75b]   הַשְּׂלָו: מִין עוֹף וְשָׁמֵן מְאֹד (יומא ע"ה):
there was a layer of dew: The dew lay on the manna. But elsewhere it states: “When the dew descended [on the camp at night, the manna would descend upon it]” (Num. 11:9). [The explanation of the matter is that] the dew would descend on the earth, then the manna would descend upon it, and then [more] dew would descend upon the manna, and it was as if [the manna] was stored in a box.   הָֽיְתָה שִׁכְבַת הַטּל: הַטַּל שׁוֹכֵב עַל הַמָּן, וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר (במדבר י"א) "וּבְרֶדֶת הַטַּל וְגוֹ'", הַטַּל יוֹרֵד עַל הָאָרֶץ, וְהַמָּן יוֹרֵד עָלָיו, וְחוֹזֵר וְיוֹרֵד טַל עָלָיו, הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמֻנָּח בְּקֻפְסָא (יומא שם):
14The layer of dew went up, and behold, on the surface of the desert, a fine, bare [substance] as fine as frost on the ground.   ידוַתַּ֖עַל שִׁכְבַ֣ת הַטָּ֑ל וְהִנֵּ֞ה עַל־פְּנֵ֤י הַמִּדְבָּר֙ דַּ֣ק מְחֻסְפָּ֔ס דַּ֥ק כַּכְּפֹ֖ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
The layer of dew went up, etc.: When the sun would shine, the dew upon the manna would rise toward the sun, as it is natural for dew to rise toward the sun. [This is similar to] even if you fill an egg shell with dew, close up its opening, and place it in the sun, it [the egg shell] will rise by itself in the air (Yoma 75b, Rashi s.v. כתיב ). Our Rabbis, however, explained that the dew would rise from the earth (into the air) (Mechilta verse 4; Tanchuma, Beshallach 20; Exod. Rabbah 38:4), and when the layer of dew rose, the manna was revealed, “and they saw, and behold, on the surface of the desert, etc.”   וַתַּעַל שִׁכְבַת הַטָּל וגו': כְּשֶׁהַחַמָּה זוֹרַחַת, עוֹלֶה הַטַּל שֶׁעַל הַמָּן לִקְרַאת הַחַמָּה, כְּדֶרֶךְ טַל עוֹלֶה לִקְרַאת הַחַמָּה; אַף אִם תְּמַלֵּא שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁל בֵּיצָה טַל וְתִסְתֹּם אֶת פִּיהָ וְתַנִּיחָהּ בַחַמָּה הִיא עוֹלָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ בָּאֲוִיר. וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָרְשׁוּ, שֶׁהַטַּל עוֹלֶה מִן הָאָרֶץ בָּאֲוִיר, וְכַעֲלוֹת שִׁכְבַת הַטָּל נִתְגַלָּה הַמָּן וְרָאוּ והנה על פני המדבר וגו':
fine: Something thin.   דַּק: – דָּבָר דַּק:
bare: Heb. מְחֻסְפָּס, [which means bare] but there is no similarity to it [this word] in the Bible. It may be said that מְחֻסְפָּס is an expression related to חִפִיסָה “a leather bag and a case דְּלֻסְקְמָא” [found] in the language of the Mishnah (B.M. 1:8). When it [the manna] was uncovered [by the ascension] of the layer of dew, they saw that there was something thin encased in its midst [as a leather bag encases something] between the two layers of dew. Onkelos, however, rendered: מְקַלַּף, peeled, an expression derived from “baring (מַחְשׂף) the white” (Gen. 30:37).   מְחֻסְפָּס: מְגֻלֶּה, וְאֵין דּוֹמֶה לוֹ בַּמִּקְרָא. וְיֵשׁ לוֹמַר מְחֻסְפָּס לְשׁוֹן חֲפִיסָה וּדְלוּסְקְמָא שֶׁבִּלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה, כְּשֶׁנִּתְגַּלָּה מִשִּׁכְבַת הַטָּל רָאוּ שֶׁהָיָה דָּבָר דַּק מְחֻסְפָּס בְּתוֹכוֹ בֵּין שְׁתֵּי שִׁכְבוֹת הַטָּל. וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם "מְקַלַּף", לְשׁוֹן מַחְשֹׂף הַלָּבָן:
as fine as frost: Heb. כַּכְּפֹר. כְּפֹר means gelede in Old French [meaning frost]. [Onkelos renders:] [hoarfrost] which was as fine as “gir,” [as in the phrase:] “like stones of gir” (Isa. 27:9). That is a type of black dye, as we say [in the Talmud] regarding covering the blood [of a slaughtered fowl or beast, i.e., the substances that we may use are:] “Gir and orpiment” (Chul. 88b). Which was thin as “gir,” like hoarfrost on the earth. [Onkelos explains:] it [the manna] was as fine as “gir” and lay congealed like frost on the earth. This is its meaning: It was as fine as hoarfrost, spread out thin, and joined together like hoarfrost. דַּק means tenves in Old French, [meaning thin] for it had a thin crust on the top. The words “like gir’” that Onkelos translated are added to the Hebrew text, but they have no [corresponding] word in the verse.   כַּכְּפֹר: כְּפוֹר יילי"דא בְלַעַז, דַּעֲדַק כְּגִיר, "כְּאַבְנֵי גִר" (ישעיהו כ"ז), וְהוּא מִין צֶבַע שָׁחֹר, כִּדְאָמְרִינַן גַּבֵּי כִּסּוּי הַדָּם "הַגִּיר וְהַזַּרְנִיךְ" (חולין פ"ח). "דַעְדַק כְּגִיר כִּגְלִידָא עַל אַרְעָא" – דַּק הָיָה כְּגִיר וְשׁוֹכֵב מֻגְלָד כְּקֶרַח עַל הָאָרֶץ, וְכֵן פֵּרוּשׁוֹ: דַּק כַּכְּפֹר – שָׁטוּחַ, קָלוּשׁ וּמְחֻבָּר כִּגְלִיד. דַּק טינב"ש בְּלַעַז, שֶׁהָיָה מַגְלִיד גֶּלֶד דַּק מִלְמַעְלָה; "וּכְגִיר" שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם אֻנְקְלוֹס תּוֹסֶפֶת הוּא עַל לְשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית וְאֵין לוֹ תֵבָה בַּפָּסוּק:
15When the children of Israel saw [it], they said to one another, It is manna, because they did not know what it was, and Moses said to them, It is the bread that the Lord has given you to eat.   טווַיִּרְא֣וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ אִ֤ישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו֙ מָ֣ן ה֔וּא כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יָֽדְע֖וּ מַה־ה֑וּא וַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם ה֣וּא הַלֶּ֔חֶם אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֧ן יְהֹוָ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם לְאָכְלָֽה:
It is manna: Heb. מָן הוּא. It is a preparation of food, like “The king allotted (וַיְמַן) them” (Dan. 1:5).   מָן הוּא: הֲכָנַת מָזוֹן הוּא, כְּמוֹ "וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ" (דניאל א'):
because they did not know what it was: that they were able to call it by its name.   כִּי לֹא יָֽדְעוּ מַה־הוּא: שֶׁיִּקְרָאוּהוּ בִשְׁמוֹ:
16This is the thing that the Lord has commanded, Gather of it each one according to his eating capacity, an omer for each person, according to the number of persons, each one for those in his tent you shall take.   טזזֶ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה לִקְט֣וּ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ אִ֖ישׁ לְפִ֣י אָכְל֑וֹ עֹ֣מֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּ֗לֶת מִסְפַּר֙ נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם אִ֛ישׁ לַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּאָֽהֳל֖וֹ תִּקָּֽחוּ:
an omer: The name of a measure.   עֹמֶר: שֵׁם מִדָּה:
according to the number of persons: According to the number of people that a person has in his tent, they should take one omer per person.   מִסְפַּר נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם: כְּפִי מִנְיַן נְפָשׁוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְאִישׁ בְּאָהֳלוֹ תִּקְּחוּ עֹמֶר לְכָל גֻּלְגֹּלֶת:
17And the children of Israel did so: they gathered, both the one who gathered much and the one who gathered little.   יזוַיַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵ֖ן בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּלְקְט֔וּ הַמַּרְבֶּ֖ה וְהַמַּמְעִֽיט:
both the one who gathered much and the one who gathered little: Some gathered [too] much [manna] and some gathered [too] little, but when they came home, they measured with an omer, each one what he had gathered, and they found that the one who had gathered [too] much had not exceeded an omer for each person who was in his tent, and the one who had gathered [too] little did not find less than an omer for each person. This was a great miracle that occurred with it [the manna].   הַמַּרְבֶּה וְהַמַּמְעִֽיט: יֵשׁ שֶׁלָּקְטוּ הַרְבֵּה וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלָּקְטוּ מְעַט, וּכְשֶׁבָּאוּ לְבֵיתָם מָדְדוּ בָעֹמֶר אִישׁ אִישׁ מַה שֶּׁלָּקְטוּ, וּמָצְאוּ שֶׁהַמַּרְבֶּה לִלְקֹט לֹא הֶעְדִּיף עַל עֹמֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת אֲשֶׁר בְּאָהֳלוֹ, וְהַמַּמְעִיט לִלְקֹט לֹא מָצָא חָסֵר מֵעֹמֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת; וְזֶהוּ נֵס גָּדוֹל שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בּוֹ:
18And they measured [it] with an omer, and whoever gathered much did not have more, and whoever gathered little did not have less; each one according to his eating capacity, they gathered.   יחוַיָּמֹ֣דּוּ בָעֹ֔מֶר וְלֹ֤א הֶעְדִּיף֙ הַמַּרְבֶּ֔ה וְהַמַּמְעִ֖יט לֹ֣א הֶחְסִ֑יר אִ֥ישׁ לְפִֽי־אָכְל֖וֹ לָקָֽטוּ:
19And Moses said to them, Let no one leave over [any] of it until morning.   יטוַיֹּ֥אמֶר משֶׁ֖ה אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אִ֕ישׁ אַל־יוֹתֵ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר:
20But [some] men did not obey Moses and left over [some] of it until morning, and it bred worms and became putrid, and Moses became angry with them.   כוְלֹא־שָֽׁמְע֣וּ אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה וַיּוֹתִ֨רוּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים מִמֶּ֨נּוּ֙ עַד־בֹּ֔קֶר וַיָּ֥רֻם תּֽוֹלָעִ֖ים וַיִּבְאַ֑שׁ וַיִּקְצֹ֥ף עֲלֵהֶ֖ם משֶֽׁה:
men: [Specifically these were] Dathan and Abiram. -[from Jonathan and Exod. Rabbah 25:10]   וַיּוֹתִרוּ אֲנָשִׁים: דָּתָן וַאֲבִירָם:
and it bred worms: Heb. וַיָּרֻם תּוֹלָעִים, an expression derived from רִמָה, worm. — [from Onkelos, Jonathan]   וַיָּרֻם תּֽוֹלָעִים: לְשׁוֹן רִמָּה:
and became putrid: This verse is transposed, because first it became putrid and later it bred worms, as it says: “and it did not become putrid, and not a worm was in it” (verse 24), and such is the nature of all things that become wormy. — [from Mechilta]   וַיִּבְאַשׁ: הֲרֵי זֶה מִקְרָא הָפוּךְ, שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה הִבְאִישׁ וּלְבַסּוֹף הִתְלִיעַ, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וְלֹא הִבְאִישׁ וְרִמָּה לֹא הָיְתָה בּוֹ", וְכֵן דֶּרֶךְ כָּל הַמַּתְלִיעִים (מכילתא):
21They gathered it morning by morning, each one according to his eating capacity, and [when] the sun grew hot, it melted.   כאוַיִּלְקְט֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ בַּבֹּ֣קֶר בַּבֹּ֔קֶר אִ֖ישׁ כְּפִ֣י אָכְל֑וֹ וְחַ֥ם הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ וְנָמָֽס:
and [when] the sun grew hot, it melted: What remained [of the manna] in the field melted and became streams from which deer and gazelles drank. And the nations of the world would hunt some of them [these animals] and taste in them the flavor of manna and know how great Israel’s praise was. — [from Mechilta]. [Onkelos renders:] פָּשָׁר, an expression of lukewarm water (פּוֹשְׁרִים). Through the sun, it [the manna] would warm up and melt.   וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמָֽס: הַנִּשְׁאָר בַּשָּׂדֶה נַעֲשֶׂה נְחָלִים וְשׁוֹתִין מִמֶּנּוּ אַיָּלִים וּצְבָאִים, וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם צָדִין מֵהֶם וְטוֹעֲמִים בָּהֶם טַעַם מָן, וְיוֹדְעִים מַה שִּׁבְחָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל:
it melted: Heb. וְנָמָס, [French] destemprer, [meaning] to melt, thaw out. There is a similarity to it [the word פָּשָׁר] in [tractate] Sanhedrin, at the end of [the chapter beginning with the words:] “Four death penalties” (67b).   וְנָמָֽס: פָּשַׁר, לְשׁוֹן פּוֹשְׁרִים, עַל יְדֵי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מִתְחַמֵּם וּמַפְשִׁיר, דישטנ"פריר בְּלַעַז, וְדֻגְמָתוֹ בְּסַנְהֶדְרִין בְּסוֹף ד' מִיתוֹת:
22It came to pass on the sixth day that they gathered a double portion of bread, two omers for [each] one, and all the princes of the community came and reported [it] to Moses.   כבוַיְהִ֣י | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֗י לָֽקְט֥וּ לֶ֨חֶם֙ מִשְׁנֶ֔ה שְׁנֵ֥י הָעֹ֖מֶר לָֽאֶחָ֑ד וַיָּבֹ֨אוּ֙ כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵ֣י הָֽעֵדָ֔ה וַיַּגִּ֖ידוּ לְמשֶֽׁה:
they gathered a double portion of bread: When they measured in their tents what they had gathered, they discovered [it was] double, two omers for [each] one. The aggadic midrash, [however, explains it as] לֶחֶם מְֹשֻנֶּה, unusual bread. That day it was favorably different in its aroma and its flavor (Mechilta on verse 5). [Because if it [the Torah] means only to inform us that there were two [measures], is it not written "two omers for each one"? Rather, it means “different” in flavor and aroma.]-[also from Tanchuma Buber, Beshallach 24, and Mechilta d’Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai on verse 5]   לָֽקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה: כְּשֶׁמָּדְדוּ אֶת לְקִיטָתָם בְּאָהֳלֵיהֶם מָצְאוּ כִפְלַיִם, שְׁנֵי הָעֹמֶר לָאֶחָד. וּמִדְרַשׁ אַגָּדָה: לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה – מְשֻׁנֶּה, אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם נִשְׁתַּנָּה לְשֶׁבַח בְּרֵיחוֹ וְטַעְמוֹ (שם):
and reported [it] to Moses: They asked him, “Why is this day different from other days?” From here we can deduce that Moses had not yet told them the section regarding the Sabbath that he was commanded to tell them, [namely:] “And it will come about on the sixth day that they shall prepare, etc.” (verse 5) until they asked him this [question]. [At that point] he said to them, “That is what the Lord spoke,” (verse 23) which I was commanded to tell you. Therefore, [because Moses had waited to convey this commandment,] Scripture punished him that He said to him “How long will you refuse [to observe My commandments…]” (verse 28) and [in saying this He] did not exclude him [Moses] from the general community [of sinners]. — [from Exod. Rabbah 25:17]   וַיַּגִּידוּ לְמשֶֽׁה: שְׁאָלוּהוּ מַה הַיּוֹם מִיּוֹמַיִם; וּמִכָּאן יֵשׁ לִלְמֹד שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִגִּיד לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה פָּרָשַׁת שַׁבָּת שֶׁנִּצְטַוָּה לוֹמַר לָהֶם וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וְהֵכִינוּ וְגוֹ', עַד שֶׁשָּׁאֲלוּ מַה זֹּאת, אָמַר לָהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר ה' שֶׁנִּצְטַוֵּיתִי לוֹמַר לָכֶם, וְלְכָךְ עֲנָשׁוֹ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ עַד אָנָה מֵאַנְתֶּם, וְלֹא הוֹצִיאוֹ מִן הַכְּלָל:
23So he said to them, That is what the Lord spoke, Tomorrow is a rest day, a holy Sabbath to the Lord. Bake whatever you wish to bake, and cook whatever you wish to cook, and all the rest leave over to keep until morning.   כגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם ה֚וּא אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה שַׁבָּת֧וֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה מָחָ֑ר אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפ֞וּ אֵפ֗וּ וְאֵ֤ת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ֙ בַּשֵּׁ֔לוּ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֹדֵ֔ף הַנִּ֧יחוּ לָכֶ֛ם לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת עַד־הַבֹּֽקֶר:
Bake whatever you wish to bake: Whatever you wish to bake in an oven, bake everything today for two days, and whatever [amount] of it you need to cook in water, cook today. [The word] אִפִיָה, baking applies to bread and the expression בִּשׁוּל to cooked dishes.   אֵת אֲשֶׁר תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ: מַה שֶּׁאַתֶּם רוֹצִים לֶאֱפוֹת בַּתַּנּוּר, אֵפוּ הַיּוֹם הַכֹּל לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים, וּמַה שֶּׁאַתֶּם צְרִיכִים לְבַשֵּׁל מִמֶּנּוּ בַּמַּיִם, בַּשְּׁלוּ הַיּוֹם. לְשׁוֹן אֲפִיָּה נוֹפֵל בְּלֶחֶם וּלְשׁוֹן בִּשּׁוּל בְּתַבְשִׁיל:
to keep: for storage.   לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת: לִגְנִיזָה:
24So they left it over until morning, as Moses had commanded, and it did not become putrid, and not a worm was in it.   כדוַיַּנִּ֤יחוּ אֹתוֹ֙ עַד־הַבֹּ֔קֶר כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֣ה משֶׁ֑ה וְלֹ֣א הִבְאִ֔ישׁ וְרִמָּ֖ה לֹא־הָ֥יְתָה בּֽוֹ:
25And Moses said, Eat it today, for today is a Sabbath to the Lord; today you will not find it in the field.   כהוַיֹּ֤אמֶר משֶׁה֙ אִכְלֻ֣הוּ הַיּ֔וֹם כִּֽי־שַׁבָּ֥ת הַיּ֖וֹם לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה הַיּ֕וֹם לֹ֥א תִמְצָאֻ֖הוּ בַּשָּׂדֶֽה:
And Moses said, “Eat it today, etc.”: In the morning, when they were accustomed to go out and gather, they came to ask, “Shall we go out or not?” He [Moses] said to them, “What you have in your possession eat.” In the evening, they came before him again and asked him whether they could go out. He said to them, “Today is the Sabbath.” He saw that they were concerned that perhaps the manna had ceased, and would no longer come down. [So] he said to them, “Today you will not find it.” What is the meaning of "today"? [This implies that] today you will not find it, but tomorrow you will find it. — [from Mechilta]   וַיֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אִכְלֻהוּ הַיּוֹם וגו': שַׁחֲרִית שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִין לָצֵאת וְלִלְקֹט בָּאוּ לִשְׁאֹל: "אִם נֵצֵא אִם לָאו", אָמַר לָהֶם אֶת שֶׁבְּיֶדְכֶם אִכְלוּ, לָעֶרֶב חָזְרוּ לְפָנָיו וּשְׁאָלוּהוּ מַהוּ לָצֵאת? אָמַר לָהֶם שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם, רָאָה אוֹתָם דּוֹאֲגִים שֶׁמָּא פָסַק הַמָּן וְלֹא יֵרֵד עוֹד, אָמַר לָהֶם הַיּוֹם לֹא תִמְצָאוּהוּ, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר הַיּוֹם? הַיּוֹם לֹא תִמְצָאוּהוּ אֲבָל מָחָר תִּמְצָאוּהוּ:
26Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day [which is the] Sabbath on it there will be none.   כושֵׁ֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים תִּלְקְטֻ֑הוּ וּבַיּ֧וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֛י שַׁבָּ֖ת לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־בּֽוֹ:
but on the seventh day [which is the] Sabbath: It is a Sabbath; on it [this day] there will be no manna. This verse comes only to include Yom Kippur and [the] festivals [that no manna will fall on those days as well]. — [from Mechilta]   וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת: שַׁבָּת הוּא, הַמָּן לא יהיה בו; וְלֹא בָא הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא לְרַבּוֹת יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וְיָמִים טוֹבִים:
27It came about that on the seventh day, [some] of the people went out to gather [manna], but they did not find [any].   כזוַֽיְהִי֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י יָֽצְא֥וּ מִן־הָעָ֖ם לִלְקֹ֑ט וְלֹ֖א מָצָֽאוּ:
28The Lord said to Moses, How long will you refuse to observe My commandments and My teachings?   כחוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה עַד־אָ֨נָה֙ מֵֽאַנְתֶּ֔ם לִשְׁמֹ֥ר מִצְו‍ֹתַ֖י וְתֽוֹרֹתָֽי:
How long will you refuse: It is a common proverb: Along with the thorn, the cabbage is torn. Through the wicked, the good suffer disgrace. [from B.K. 92a]   עַד־אָנָה מֵֽאַנְתֶּם: מְשַׁל הֶדְיוֹט הוּא "בַּהֲדֵי הוּצָא לָקֵי כְרַבָּא" – עַל יְדֵי הָרְשָׁעִים מִתְגַּנִּין הַכְּשֵׁרִין:
29See that the Lord has given you the Sabbath. Therefore, on the sixth day, He gives you bread for two days. Let each man remain in his place; let no man leave his place on the seventh day.   כטרְא֗וּ כִּֽי־יְהֹוָה֘ נָתַ֣ן לָכֶ֣ם הַשַּׁבָּת֒ עַל־כֵּ֠ן ה֣וּא נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁ֖י לֶ֣חֶם יוֹמָ֑יִם שְׁב֣וּ | אִ֣ישׁ תַּחְתָּ֗יו אַל־יֵ֥צֵא אִ֛ישׁ מִמְּקֹמ֖וֹ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִֽי:
See: with your own eyes that the Lord in His glory warns you about the Sabbath, for this miracle was performed every Sabbath eve, to give you bread for two days.   רְאוּ: בְּעֵינֵיכֶם כִּי ה' בִּכְבוֹדוֹ מַזְהִיר אֶתְכֶם עַל הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֵס נַעֲשֶׂה בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לָתֵת לָכֶם לֶחֶם יוֹמַיִם:
Let each man remain in his place: From here the Sages supported [the law of] four cubits for one who leaves the Sabbath limits [i.e., the 2,000 cubits from one’s city that one is permitted to walk and no more than four cubits from one’s place], three [cubits] for his body and one [cubit] to stretch his hands and feet. — [from Er. 51b]   שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו: מִכָּאן סָמְכוּ חֲכָמִים ד' אַמּוֹת לַיּוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם (ערובין נ"א):
let no man leave, etc.: These are the 2,000 cubits of the Sabbath limits (Mechilta), but this is not explicit, for [the laws of Sabbath] limits are only Rabbinic enactments [lit., from the words of the scribes] (Sotah 30b), and the essence of the verse was stated regarding those who gathered the manna.   אַל־יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ: אֵלּוּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה שֶׁל תְּחוּם שַׁבָּת (מכילתא), וְלֹא בִמְפֹרָשׁ – שֶׁאֵין תְּחוּמִין אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – וְעִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל מִקְרָא עַל לוֹקְטֵי הַמָּן נֶאֱמַר:
30So the people rested on the seventh day.   לוַיִשְׁבְּת֥וּ הָעָ֖ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִעִֽי:
31The house of Israel named it manna, and it was like coriander seed, [it was] white, and it tasted like a wafer with honey.   לאוַיִּקְרְא֧וּ בֵֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ מָ֑ן וְה֗וּא כְּזֶ֤רַע גַּד֙ לָבָ֔ן וְטַעְמ֖וֹ כְּצַפִּיחִ֥ת בִּדְבָֽשׁ:
and it was like coriander seed, [it was] white: Heb. גַּד, an herb named coliyandre [in Old French]. Its seed is round but it is not white. The manna, however, was white, and it is not compared to coriander seed except for its roundness. It was like coriander seed, and it was white (Yoma 75a).   וְהוּא כְּזֶרַע גַּד לָבָן: עֵשֶׂב שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ קול"יינדר, וְזֶרַע שֶׁלּוֹ עָגֹל וְאֵינוֹ לָבָן, וְהַמָּן הָיָה לָבָן, וְאֵינוֹ נִמְשָׁל לְזֶרַע גַּד אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן הָעִגּוּל, כְּזֶרַע גַּד הָיָה – וְהוּא לָבָן:
like a wafer: Dough that is fried in honey, and it is called “iskeritin” in the language of the Mishnah (Challah 1:4), and that is the translation of Onkelos.   כְּצַפִּיחִת: בָּצֵק שֶׁמְּטַגְּנִין אוֹתוֹ בִּדְבַשׁ, וְקוֹרִין לוֹ אִסְקְרִיטִין בִּלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה (פסחים ל"ז), וְהוּא תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל אֻנְקְלוֹס:
32Moses said, This is the thing that the Lord commanded: Let one omerful of it be preserved for your generations, in order that they see the bread that I fed you in the desert when I took you out of the land of Egypt.   לבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר משֶׁ֗ה זֶ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה מְלֹ֤א הָעֹ֨מֶר֙ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם לְמַ֣עַן | יִרְא֣וּ אֶת־הַלֶּ֗חֶם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶֽאֱכַ֤לְתִּי אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר בְּהֽוֹצִיאִ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
preserved: for safekeeping.   לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת: לִגְנִיזָה:
for your generations: In the days of Jeremiah, when Jeremiah rebuked them, [saying] “ Why do you not engage in the Torah?” They would say, “Shall we leave our work and engage in the Torah? From what will we support ourselves?” He brought out to them the jug of manna. He said to them, “You see the word of the Lord” (Jer. 2:31). It does not say ‘hear’ but ‘see.’ With this, your ancestors supported themselves. The Omnipresent has many agents to prepare food for those who fear Him."-[from Mechilta]   לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶם: בִּימֵי יִרְמְיָהוּ; כְּשֶׁהָיָה יִרְמְיָהוּ מוֹכִיחָם לָמָּה אֵין אַתֶּם עוֹסְקִים בַּתּוֹרָה? וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים נַנִּיחַ מְלַאכְתֵּנוּ וְנַעֲסֹק בַּתּוֹרָה, מֵהֵיכָן נִתְפַּרְנֵס? הוֹצִיא לָהֶם צִנְצֶנֶת הַמָּן אָמַר לָהֶם אַתֶּם רְאוּ דְּבַר ה', שִׁמְעוּ לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא רְאוּ, בָּזֶה נִתְפַּרְנְסוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם, הַרְבֵּה שְׁלוּחִין יֵשׁ לוֹ לַמָּקוֹם לְהָכִין מָזוֹן לִירֵאָיו:
33And Moses said to Aaron, Take one jug and put there an omerful of manna, and deposit it before the Lord to be preserved for your generations.   לגוַיֹּ֨אמֶר משֶׁ֜ה אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֗ן קַ֚ח צִנְצֶ֣נֶת אַחַ֔ת וְתֶן־שָׁ֥מָּה מְלֹֽא־הָעֹ֖מֶר מָ֑ן וְהַנַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְמִשְׁמֶ֖רֶת לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
jug: Heb. צִּנְצֶנֶת, an earthenware jug, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders. — [from Mechilta]   צִנְצֶנֶת: צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל חֶרֶס, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
and deposit it before the Lord: Before the Ark. This verse was not said until the Tent of Meeting was built, but it was written here in the section dealing with the manna. —   וְהַנַּח אותו לִפְנֵי ה': לִפְנֵי הָאָרוֹן; וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר מִקְרָא זֶה עַד שֶׁנִּבְנָה אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּכְתַּב כָּאן בְּפָרָשַׁת הַמָּן:
34As the Lord had commanded Moses, Aaron deposited it before the testimony to be preserved.   לדכַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֑ה וַיַּנִּיחֵ֧הוּ אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן לִפְנֵ֥י הָֽעֵדֻ֖ת לְמִשְׁמָֽרֶת:
35And the children of Israel ate the manna for forty years until they came to an inhabited land. They ate the manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan.   להוּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָֽכְל֤וּ אֶת־הַמָּן֙ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה עַד־בֹּאָ֖ם אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ נוֹשָׁ֑בֶת אֶת־הַמָּן֙ אָֽכְל֔וּ עַד־בֹּאָ֕ם אֶל־קְצֵ֖ה אֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן:
forty years: Now were not thirty days missing? The manna first fell on the fifteenth of Iyar, and on the fifteenth of Nissan it stopped, as it is said: “And the manna ceased on the morrow” (Josh. 5:12). Rather [this] tells [us] that in the cakes the Israelites took out of Egypt they tasted the flavor of manna. — [from Kid. 38a]   אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה: וַהֲלֹא חָסֵר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם הֵם? שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּט"ו בְּאִיָּר יָרַד לָהֶם הַמָּן תְּחִלָּה וּבְט"ו בְּנִיסָן פָּסַק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיִּשְׁבֹּת הַמָּן מִמָּחֳרָת" (יהושע ה')? אֶלָּא מַגִּיד, שֶׁהָעֻגּוֹת שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם טָעֲמוּ בָהֶם טַעַם מָן (קידושין ל"ח):
to an inhabited land: After they crossed the Jordan (Other editions: For that [land] on the other side of the Jordan was inhabited and good, as it is said: “Let me now cross and see the good land on the other side of the Jordan” (Deut. 3:25). The Targum of נוֹשָׁבֶת is יָתְבָתא, inhabited, Old Rashi). — [from Kid. 38a]   אֶל־אֶרֶץ נוֹשָׁבֶת: לְאַחַר שֶׁעָבְרוּ אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן (שֶׁאוֹתָהּ שֶׁבְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן מְיֻשֶּׁבֶת וְטוֹבָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "אֶעְבְּרָה נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת הָאָרֶץ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן", וְתַרְגּוּם שֶׁל נוֹשָׁבֶת "יָתְבָתָא", רָצָה לוֹמַר — מְיֻשֶּׁבֶת):
to the border of the land of Canaan: At the beginning of the border, before they crossed the Jordan, which is the plains of Moab. We find [the two clauses] contradicting each other. Rather, [it means that] in the plains of Moab, when Moses died on the seventh of Adar, the manna stopped coming down. They supplied themselves with the manna that they had gathered on that day until they sacrificed the omer on the sixteenth of Nissan, as it is said: “And they ate of the grain of the land on the morrow of the Passover” (Josh. 5:11). — [from Kid. 38a]   אֶל־קְצֵה אֶרֶץ כְּנָֽעַן: בִּתְחִלַּת הַגְּבוּל קֹדֶם שֶׁעָבְרוּ אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן, וְהוּא עַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב. נִמְצְאוּ מַכְחִישִׁין זֶה אֶת זֶה? אֶלָּא בְּעַרְבוֹת מוֹאָב כְּשֶׁמֵּת מֹשֶׁה בְּז' בַּאֲדָר פָּסַק הַמָּן מִלֵּירֵד, וְנִסְתַּפְּקוּ מִמָּן שֶׁלָּקְטוּ בוֹ בַיּוֹם עַד שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ הָעֹמֶר בְּשִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּנִיסָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַיֹּאכְלוּ מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח" (יהושע ה'):
36The omer is one tenth of an ephah.   לווְהָעֹ֕מֶר עֲשִׂרִ֥ית הָֽאֵיפָ֖ה הֽוּא:
one tenth of an ephah: The ephah equals three se’ahs, and the se’ah equals six kavs, and the kav equals four logs, and the log equals six eggs. [Hence, an ephah equals 3 x 6 x 4 x 6 = 432 eggs. I.e., the space displaced by 432 eggs.] We find that a tenth of an ephah equals forty-three and a fifth [43.2] eggs. This is the amount for challah [the minimum amount of flour that requires the separation of challah] and for meal offerings. — [from Eruvin 38b]   עֲשִׂרִית הָֽאֵיפָה: הָאֵיפָה שָׁלֹשׁ סְאִין וְהַסְּאָה ו' קַבִּין וְהַקַּב ד' לֻגִּין וְהַלֹּג ו' בֵּיצִים, נִמְצָא עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה מ"ג בֵּיצִים וְחֹמֶשׁ בֵּיצָה, וְהוּא שִׁעוּר לַחַלָּה וְלַמְּנָחוֹת: