Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 8

15And God spoke to Noah saying:   טווַיְדַבֵּ֥ר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־נֹ֥חַ לֵאמֹֽר:
16"Go out of the ark, you and your wife, and your sons, and your sons' wives with you.   טזצֵ֖א מִן־הַתֵּבָ֑ה אַתָּ֕ה וְאִשְׁתְּךָ֛ וּבָנֶ֥יךָ וּנְשֵֽׁי־בָנֶ֖יךָ אִתָּֽךְ:
you and your wife, etc.: A man and his wife. Here He permitted them to engage in marital relations. See above 6:18, 7:7.   אַתָּה וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וגו': אִישׁ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ, כָּאן הִתִּיר לָהֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה:
17Every living thing that is with you of all flesh, of fowl, and of animals and of all the creeping things that creep on the earth, bring out with you, and they shall swarm upon the earth, and they shall be fruitful and multiply upon the earth."   יזכָּל־הַֽחַיָּ֨ה אֲשֶׁר־אִתְּךָ֜ מִכָּל־בָּשָׂ֗ר בָּע֧וֹף וּבַבְּהֵמָ֛ה וּבְכָל־הָרֶ֛מֶשׂ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ הַיְצֵ֣א (כתיב הוצא) אִתָּ֑ךְ וְשָֽׁרְצ֣וּ בָאָ֔רֶץ וּפָר֥וּ וְרָב֖וּ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
bring out: It is written הוֹצֵא, but it is read הַיְצֵא הַיְצֵא means: tell them that they should come out. הוֹצֵא means: if they do not wish to come out, you take them out. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:8]   הוצא: הוֹצֵא כְּתִיב, הַיְצֵא קְרִי, הַיְצֵא – אֱמֹר לָהֶם שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ; הוֹצֵא – אִם אֵינָם רוֹצִים לָצֵאת הוֹצִיאֵם אַתָּה:
and they shall swarm upon the earth: But not in the ark. This tells us that even the animals and the fowl were prohibited from mating. — [from Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   וְשָֽׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ: וְלֹא בַּתֵּבָה, מַגִּיד שֶׁאַף הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף נֶאֱסְרוּ בְתַשְׁמִישׁ:
18So Noah went out, and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him.   יחוַיֵּ֖צֵא־נֹ֑חַ וּבָנָי֛ו וְאִשְׁתּ֥וֹ וּנְשֵֽׁי־בָנָ֖יו אִתּֽוֹ:
19Every beast, every creeping thing, and all fowl, everything that moves upon the earth, according to their families they went forth from the ark.   יטכָּל־הַֽחַיָּ֗ה כָּל־הָרֶ֨מֶשׂ֙ וְכָל־הָע֔וֹף כֹּ֖ל רוֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם יָֽצְא֖וּ מִן־הַתֵּבָֽה:
according to their families: They accepted upon themselves the condition that they cleave to their own species.   למשפחותיהם: קִבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם עַל מְנָת לִדָּבֵק בְּמִינָן:
20And Noah built an altar to the Lord, and he took of all the clean animals and of all the clean fowl and brought up burnt offerings on the altar.   כוַיִּ֥בֶן נֹ֛חַ מִזְבֵּ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וַיִּקַּ֞ח מִכֹּ֣ל | הַבְּהֵמָ֣ה הַטְּהֹרָ֗ה וּמִכֹּל֙ הָע֣וֹף הַטָּה֔וֹר וַיַּ֥עַל עֹלֹ֖ת בַּמִּזְבֵּֽחַ:
of all the clean animals: He said, “The Holy One, blessed be He, commanded me to take in seven pairs of these only in order to offer up a sacrifice from them.” - [from Tan. Vayakhel 6, Gen. Rabbah 34:9]   מִכֹּל הַבְּהֵמָה הטהורה: אָמַר לֹא צִוָּה לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַכְנִיס מֵאֵלּוּ ז' ז' אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן מֵהֶם:
21And the Lord smelled the pleasant aroma, and the Lord said to Himself, "I will no longer curse the earth because of man, for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth, and I will no longer smite all living things as I have done.   כאוַיָּ֣רַח יְהֹוָה֘ אֶת־רֵ֣יחַ הַנִּיחֹ֒חַ֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־לִבּ֗וֹ לֹ֣א אֹ֠סִ֠ף לְקַלֵּ֨ל ע֤וֹד אֶת־הָֽאֲדָמָה֙ בַּֽעֲב֣וּר הָֽאָדָ֔ם כִּ֠י יֵ֣צֶר לֵ֧ב הָֽאָדָ֛ם רַ֖ע מִנְּעֻרָ֑יו וְלֹֽא־אֹסִ֥ף ע֛וֹד לְהַכּ֥וֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַ֖י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִֽׂיתִי:
from his youth: This is written מִנְּעֻרָיו [i.e., without a “vav,” implying that] from the time that he [the embryo] shakes himself [נִנְעָר] to emerge from his mother’s womb, the evil inclination is placed in him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:10]   מִנְּעֻרָיו: מנעריו כְּתִיב, מִשֶּׁנִּנְעַר לָצֵאת מִמְּעֵי אִמּוֹ נִתַּן בּוֹ יֵצֶר הָרָע:
I will no longer…and I will no longer: He repeated the words to denote an oath. That is what is written (Isa. 54:9): “That I swore that the waters of Noah shall never again pass over the earth,” and we do not find an oath concerning this matter except in this [statement, in] which He repeated His words, and this [repetition denotes that it] is an oath. So did our Sages expound in Tractate Shevuoth (36a).   לֹא אֹסִף וְלֹֽא־אֹסִף: כָּפַל הַדָּבָר לִשְׁבוּעָה; הוּא שֶׁכָּתוּב אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מֵעֲבֹר מֵי נֹחַ, וְלֹא מָצִינוּ בָהּ שְׁבוּעָה, אֶלָּא זוֹ שֶׁכָּפַל דְּבָרָיו וְהִיא שְׁבוּעָה וְכֵן דָּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים בְּמס' שְׁבוּעוֹת:
22So long as the earth exists, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."   כבעֹ֖ד כָּל־יְמֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ זֶ֡רַע וְ֠קָצִ֠יר וְקֹ֨ר וָחֹ֜ם וְקַ֧יִץ וָחֹ֛רֶף וְי֥וֹם וָלַ֖יְלָה לֹ֥א יִשְׁבֹּֽתוּ:
So long as the earth exists… shall not cease: Each of these six seasons has two months, as we learned: Half of Tishri, Marcheshvan, and half of Kislev are “seedtime.” Half of Kislev, Teveth, and half of Shevat are the “cold” season, etc. in B.M. (106b). (Other editions add: So long as the earth exists — Heb. עֹד means “always,” like (Num. 19:13): “his uncleanness is permanently (עוֹד) upon him.”)   עוד כָּל־יְמֵי הָאָרֶץ וגו' לֹא יִשְׁבֹּֽתוּ: ו' עִתִּים הַלָּלוּ שְׁנֵי חֳדָשִׁים לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ חֲצִי תִשְׁרֵי וּמַרְחֶשְׁוָן וַחֲצִי כִסְלֵו זֶרַע, חֲצִי כִסְלֵו וְטֵבֵת וַחֲצִי שְׁבָט קֹר (חֹרֶף) (ב"מ ק"ו):
cold: is more severe than winter.   קור: קָשֶׁה מֵחֹרֶף:
winter: Heb. חֹרֶף, the time for sowing barley and beans, which are early (חֲרִיפִין) to ripen quickly. The winter period is half of Shevat, Adar, and half of Nissan.   חרף: עֵת זֶרַע שְׂעוֹרִים וְקִטְנִית הַחֲרִיפִין לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל מַהֵר, וְהוּא חֲצִי שְׁבָט וַאֲדָר וַחֲצִי נִיסָן:
harvest: Half of Nissan, Iyar, and half of Sivan.   קציר: חֲצִי נִיסָן וְאִיָּר וַחֲצִי סִיוָן:
summer: קַיִץ. This is half of Sivan, Tamuz, and half of Av, which is the time of the gathering of the figs and the time when they dry them in the fields, and it (the dried fig) is קַיִץ, as (II Sam. 16:2): “the bread and the dried fruits (וְהַקַּיִץ) for the young men to eat.”   קיץ: חֲצִי סִיוָן תַּמּוּז וַחֲצִי אָב, הוּא זְמַן לְקִיטַת תְּאֵנִים וּזְמַן שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁים אוֹתָן בַּשָּׂדוֹת, וּשְׁמוֹ קַיִץ, כְּמוֹ הַלֶּחֶם וְהַקַּיִץ לֶאֱכוֹל הַנְּעָרִים (ש"ב ט"ז):
heat: That is the end of the sunny season, half of Av, Elul, and half of Tishri, when the world is hottest, as we find in Tractate Yoma (29a): The end of the summer is more severe than the summer.   חום: הוּא סוֹף יְמוֹת הַחַמָּה, חֲצִי אָב וֶאֱלוּל וַחֲצִי תִשְׁרֵי, שֶׁהָעוֹלָם חַם בְּיוֹתֵר; כְּמוֹ שֶׁשָּׁנִינוּ בְּמַסֶּכֶת יוֹמָא שִׁלְהֵי קַיְיטָא קָשֵׁי מִקַּיְיטָא:
and day and night shall not cease: From here we deduce that they ceased for the duration of the Flood: the planets did not function, and day was indistinguishable from night. — [from Gen. Rabbah 25:2, 34:11]   וְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה לֹא יִשְׁבֹּֽתוּ: מִכְּלָל שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ כָּל יְמוֹת הַמַּבּוּל, שֶׁלֹּא שִׁמְּשׁוּ הַמַּזָּלוֹת, וְלֹא נִכַּר בֵּין יוֹם וּבֵין לַיְלָה (ב"ר פכ"ה ופ' ל"ד):
shall not cease: All these shall not cease to perform according to their natural course.   לֹא יִשְׁבֹּֽתוּ: לֹא יִפְסְקוּ כָּל אֵלֶה מִלְּהִתְנַהֵג כְּסִדְרָן:

Bereshit (Genesis) Chapter 9

1And God blessed Noah and his sons, and He said to them: "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.   אוַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־נֹ֖חַ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֑יו וַיֹּ֧אמֶר לָהֶ֛ם פְּר֥וּ וּרְב֖וּ וּמִלְא֥וּ אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
2And your fear and your dread shall be upon all the beasts of the earth and upon all the fowl of the heaven; upon everything that creeps upon the ground and upon all the fish of the sea, [for] they have been given into your hand[s].   בוּמוֹרַֽאֲכֶ֤ם וְחִתְּכֶם֙ יִֽהְיֶ֔ה עַ֚ל כָּל־חַיַּ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ וְעַ֖ל כָּל־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם בְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּרְמֹ֧שׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֛ה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵ֥י הַיָּ֖ם בְּיֶדְכֶ֥ם נִתָּֽנוּ:
and your dread: Heb. וְחִתְּכֶם, means “your fear,” like (Job 6:21):“You see terror (חֲתַת).” According to the Aggadah (Shab. 151b), however, it is an expression of life (חַיּוּת) , for as long as an infant [even] one day old is alive, there is no need to guard him from mice, but if Og, the king of Bashan is dead, he must be guarded from mice, as it is said: “And your fear and your life shall be.” When will your fear be upon the creatures? As long as you are alive.   וְחִתְּכֶם: וְאֵימַתְכֶם, כְּמוֹ תִּרְאוּ חֲתַת (איוב ו') וְאַגָּדָה לְשׁוֹן חַיּוּת שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁתִּינוֹק בֶּן יוֹמוֹ חַי אֵין אַתָּה צָרִיךְ לְשָׁמְרוֹ מִן הָעַכְבָּרִים; עוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן מֵת, צָרִיךְ לְשָׁמְרוֹ מִן הָעַכְבָּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה, אֵימָתַי יִהְיֶה מוֹרַאֲכֶם עַל הַחַיּוֹת? כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאַתֶּם חַיִּים (שבת קנ"א):
3Every moving thing that lives shall be yours to eat; like the green vegetation, I have given you everything.   גכָּל־רֶ֨מֶשׂ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוּא־חַ֔י לָכֶ֥ם יִֽהְיֶ֖ה לְאָכְלָ֑ה כְּיֶ֣רֶק עֵ֔שֶׂב נָתַ֥תִּי לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־כֹּֽל:
shall be yours to eat: (Sanhedrin 59b) For I did not permit the first man [Adam] to eat meat, but only vegetation, but for you, just as the green vegetation which I permitted for the first man, I have given you everything.   לָכֶם יִֽהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה: שֶׁלֹּא הִרְשֵׁיתִי לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן בָּשָׂר אֶלָּא יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב; וְלָכֶם – כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב שֶׁהִפְקַרְתִּי לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת כֹּל (סנה' נ"ט):
4But, flesh with its soul, its blood, you shall not eat.   דאַךְ־בָּשָׂ֕ר בְּנַפְשׁ֥וֹ דָמ֖וֹ לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ:
flesh with its soul: He prohibited them [to eat] a limb [cut off from] a living creature; i.e., as long as its soul is in it, you shall not eat the flesh. — [from Sanh. ad loc.] [i.e., if the limb is cut from the animal while it is alive, it is forbidden to be eaten even after the animal expires.]   בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ: אָסַר לָהֶם אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי, כְּלוֹמַר כָּל זְמַן שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ, לֹא תֹאכְלוּ הַבָּשָׂר:
with its soul, its blood: As long as its soul is within it.   בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ: בְעוֹד נַפְשׁוֹ בּוֹ
flesh with its soul…you shall not eat: This refers to a limb of a living creature. And also, its blood, you shall not eat-This refers to blood of a living creature. — [from above source]   בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵֽלוּ: הֲרֵי אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי, וְאַף בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ, הֲרֵי דָם מִן הַחַי:
5But your blood, of your souls, I will demand [an account]; from the hand of every beast I will demand it, and from the hand of man, from the hand of each man, his brother, I will demand the soul of man.   הוְאַ֨ךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶ֤ם לְנַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶם֙ אֶדְר֔שׁ מִיַּ֥ד כָּל־חַיָּ֖ה אֶדְרְשֶׁ֑נּוּ וּמִיַּ֣ד הָֽאָדָ֗ם מִיַּד֙ אִ֣ישׁ אָחִ֔יו אֶדְר֖שׁ אֶת־נֶ֥פֶשׁ הָֽאָדָֽם:
But your blood: Even though I permitted you to take the life of animals, your blood I will demand of one who sheds his own blood [i.e., who commits suicide]. — [from Gen. Rabbah 34:13, B.K. 91b]   וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתַּרְתִּי לָכֶם נְטִילַת נְשָׁמָה בַּבְּהֵמָה, אֶת דִּמְכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מֵהַשּׁוֹפֵךְ דַּם עַצְמוֹ:
of your souls: Also one who strangles himself, even though no blood issued from him. — [Gen. Rabbah ad loc.]   לְנַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶם: אַף הַחוֹנֵק עַצְמוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ דָם:
from the hand of every beast: Since the Generation of the Flood had sinned, and they were abandoned as prey for the wild beasts, which would have power over them, as it is said (Ps. 49:13, 21): “he is compared to the silenced animals” ; therefore, it was necessary to warn the beasts about them [not to kill them]. — [from unknown midrashic sources]   מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה: לְפִי שֶׁחָטְאוּ דוֹר הַמַּבּוּל וְהֻפְקְרוּ לְמַאֲכַל חַיּוֹת רָעוֹת לִשְׁלֹט בָּהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר נִמְשַׁל כַּבְּהֵמוֹת נִדְמוּ (תהלים מ"ט), לְפִיכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לְהַזְהִיר עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת הַחַיּוֹת:
and from the hand of man: From the hand of one who kills intentionally, without witnesses, I will demand [his life]. Cf. Targum Jonathan , verse 6.   וּמִיַּד הָֽאָדָם: מִיַּד הַהוֹרֵג בְּמֵזִיד וְאֵין עֵדִים, אֲנִי אֶדְרֹשׁ:
from the hand of each man, his brother: From the hand of the one who loves him like a brother, and killed him unintentionally, I will demand [punishment], if he does not go into exile nor beg that his iniquity be forgiven. For even the inadvertent sinner requires atonement. If there are no witnesses to sentence him to exile, and he does not humble himself, the Holy One, blessed be He, will demand it of him, as our Rabbis expounded [on the verse] (Exod. 21:13): “And God placed him into his hand,” in Tractate Makkoth (10b): the Holy One, blessed be He, causes them to meet at the same inn, etc. [The passage reads: What is this verse speaking of? Of two men, each of whom had murdered a person; one had murdered intentionally and one had murdered unintentionally. This one had no witnesses, and that one had no witnesses. The Holy One, blessed be He, causes them to meet at the same inn; the one who murdered intentionally sits under a ladder, and the one who murdered unintentionally climbs down the ladder, and falls upon him, killing him. The one who murdered intentionally is killed, and the one who killed unintentionally is exiled.]   מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו: שֶׁהוּא אוֹהֵב לוֹ כְאָח וְהָרַג שׁוֹגֵג, אֲנִי אֶדְרֹשׁ אִם לֹא יִגְלֶה וִיבַקֵּשׁ עַל עֲוֹנוֹ לִמָּחֵל, שֶׁאַף הַשּׁוֹגֵג צָרִיךְ כַּפָּרָה, וְאִם אֵין עֵדִים לְחַיְּבוֹ גָלוּת וְהוּא אֵינוֹ נִכְנָע, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דוֹרֵש מִמֶּנוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁדָּרְשוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ "וְהָאֱלֹהִים אִנָּה לְיָדוֹ" – בְּמַסֶּכֶת מַכּוֹת – הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְזַמְּנָן לְפֻנְדָּק אֶחָד וְכוּ':
6Whoever sheds the blood of man through man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God He made man.   ושֹׁפֵךְ֙ דַּ֣ם הָֽאָדָ֔ם בָּֽאָדָ֖ם דָּמ֣וֹ יִשָּׁפֵ֑ךְ כִּ֚י בְּצֶ֣לֶם אֱלֹהִ֔ים עָשָׂ֖ה אֶת־הָֽאָדָֽם:
through man shall his blood be shed: If there are witnesses, you kill him. Why? “For in the image of God, etc.”   בָּֽאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ: אִם יֵשׁ עֵדִים הֲמִיתוּהוּ אַתֶּם, לָמָּה? כִּי בְצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים וגו':
He made man: This is an elliptical verse. It should read: “the Maker made man,” and there are many such instances in Scripture.   עָשָׂה אֶת־הָֽאָדָם: זֶה מִקְרָא חָסֵר, וְצָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת עָשָׂה הָעוֹשֶׂה אֶת הָאָדָם וְכֵן הַרְבֵּה בַּמִּקְרָא:
7And you, be fruitful and multiply; swarm upon the earth and multiply thereon."   זוְאַתֶּ֖ם פְּר֣וּ וּרְב֑וּ שִׁרְצ֥וּ בָאָ֖רֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָֽהּ:
And you, be fruitful and multiply: According to its simple meaning: the first [mention of this expression] (verse 1) was a blessing, and this [mention] is a commandment. According to its midrashic interpretation, [it is written here] to compare one who does not engage in propagation to one who sheds blood. — [from Yev. 63b]   וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ: לְפִי פְּשׁוּטוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לִבְרָכָה וְכָאן לְצִוּוּי. וּלְפִי מִדְרָשׁוֹ לְהַקִּישׁ מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹסֵק בִּפְרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה לְשׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים (יבמות ס"ג):