Shemot (Exodus) Chapter 12

43The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, "This is the statute of the Passover sacrifice: No estranged one may partake of it.   מגוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֣ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן זֹ֖את חֻקַּ֣ת הַפָּ֑סַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
This is the statute of the Passover sacrifice: On the fourteenth of Nissan, this section was told to them. — [from Exod. Rabbah 19:5]   זֹאת חֻקַּת הַפָּסַח: בְּי"ד בְּנִיסָן נֶאֶמְרָה לָהֶם פָּרָשָׁה זוֹ:
No estranged one: Whose deeds have become estranged from his Father in heaven. Both a gentile and an Israelite apostate are meant. — [from Mechilta]   כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר: שֶׁנִּתְנַכְּרוּ מַעֲשָׂיו לְאָבִיו שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם, וְאֶחָד הַגּוֹי וְאֶחָד יִשְׂרָאֵל מְשֻׁמָּד בְּמַשְׁמָע (מכילתא):
44And every man's slave, purchased for his money you shall circumcise him; then he will be permitted to partake of it.   מדוְכָל־עֶ֥בֶד אִ֖ישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּ֑סֶף וּמַלְתָּ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ אָ֖ז יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
you shall circumcise him; then he will be permitted to partake of it: [I.e., he means] his master. [This] tells [us] that the [failure to perform the] circumcision of one’s slaves prevents one from partaking of the Passover sacrifice. [These are] the words of Rabbi Joshua. Rabbi Eliezer says: The [failure to perform the] circumcision of one’s slaves does not prevent one from partaking of the Passover sacrifice. If so, what is the meaning of “then he will be permitted to partake of it” ? [“He” in this phrase is referring to] the slave. — [from Mechilta]   וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּֽוֹ: רַבּוֹ, מַגִּיד שֶׁמִּילַת עֲבָדָיו מְעַכַּבְתּוֹ מִלֶּאֱכֹל בַּפֶּסַח, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אֵין מִילַת עֲבָדָיו מְעַכַּבְתּוֹ מִלֶּאֱכֹל בַּפֶּסַח, אִם כֵּן מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אז יאכל בו? הָעֶבֶד:
45A sojourner or a hired hand may not partake of it.   מהתּוֹשָׁ֥ב וְשָׂכִ֖יר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
A sojourner: This is a resident alien. — [from Mechilta] [I.e., a gentile who has accepted upon himself not to practice idolatry but eats carcasses.]   תּוֹשָׁב: זֶה גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב:
or a hired hand: This is a gentile. Now why is this [verse] stated? Aren’t they uncircumcised? And it is stated: “but no uncircumcised man may partake of it” (verse 48). But this refers to a circumcised Arab or a circumcised Gibeonite, who is a sojourner or a hired hand. — [from Mechilta]   וְשָׂכִיר: זֶה גּוֹי, וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר, וַהֲלֹא עֲרֵלִים הֵם, וְנֶאֱמַר וכל ערל לא יאכל בו? אֶלָּא כְּגוֹן עֲרָבִי מָהוּל וְגִבְעוֹנִי מָהוּל וְהוּא תּוֹשָׁב אוֹ שָׂכִיר (שם):
46It must be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the meat out of the house to the outside, neither shall you break any of its bones.   מובְּבַ֤יִת אֶחָד֙ יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל לֹֽא־תוֹצִ֧יא מִן־הַבַּ֛יִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂ֖ר ח֑וּצָה וְעֶ֖צֶם לֹ֥א תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בֽוֹ:
It must be eaten in one house: In one group, that those counted upon it may not become two groups and divide it. You say [that it means] in one group, or [perhaps] it means nothing other than in one house as is its apparent meaning, and to teach that if they started eating in the yard and it rained, that they may not enter the house. Therefore, Scripture states: “on the houses in which they will eat it” (above verse 7). From here [we deduce] that the one who eats [the Passover sacrifice] may eat [it] in two places. — [from Mechilta]   בְּבַיִת אֶחָד יֵֽאָכֵל: בַּחֲבוּרָה אַחַת, שֶׁלֹּא יֵעָשׂוּ הַנִּמְנִין עָלָיו שְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת וִיחַלְּקוּהוּ. אַתָּה אוֹמֵר בַּחֲבוּרָה אַחַת אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּבַיִת אֶחָד כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ, וּלְלַמֵּד שֶׁאִם הִתְחִילוּ וְהָיוּ אוֹכְלִים בֶּחָצֵר וְיָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנְסוּ לַבַּיִת? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר, "עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר יֹאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ בָּהֶם", מִכָּאן שֶׁהָאוֹכֵל אוֹכֵל בִּשְׁנֵי מְקוֹמוֹת:
you shall not take any of the meat out of the house: [I.e.,] out of the group. — [from Mechilta]   לֹֽא־תוֹצִיא מִן־הַבַּיִת: מִן הַחֲבוּרָה:
neither shall you break any of its bones: If it [the bone] is edible, e.g., if there is an olive-sized amount of meat on it, it bears the prohibition of breaking a bone; if there is neither an olive-sized amount of meat on it nor marrow [in it], it does not bear the prohibition against breaking a bone. — [from Pes. 84b]   וְעֶצֶם לֹֽא־תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בֽוֹ: הָרָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו כַּזַּיִת בָּשָׂר, יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם שְׁבִירַת עֶצֶם, אֵין עָלָיו כַּזַּיִת בָּשָׂר אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם שְׁבִירַת עֶצֶם:
47The entire community of Israel shall make it.   מזכָּל־עֲדַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יַֽעֲשׂ֥וּ אֹתֽוֹ:
The entire community of Israel shall make it: Why was this stated? Because it says concerning the Passover sacrifice of Egypt: “a lamb for each parental home” (above verse 3), we might think that the same applies to the Passover sacrifice of later generations. Therefore, Scripture states: “The entire community of Israel shall make it.” -[from Mechilta]   כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יַֽעֲשׂוּ אֹתֽוֹ: לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר בְּפֶסַח מִצְרַיִם "שֶׂה לְבֵית אָבוֹת", שֶׁנִּמְנוּ עָלָיו לַמִּשְׁפָּחוֹת, יָכוֹל אַף פֶּסַח דּוֹרוֹת כֵּן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר כל עדת ישראל יעשו אתו:
48And should a proselyte reside with you, he shall make a Passover sacrifice to the Lord. All his males shall be circumcised, and then he may approach to make it, and he will be like the native of the land, but no uncircumcised male may partake of it.   מחוְכִֽי־יָג֨וּר אִתְּךָ֜ גֵּ֗ר וְעָ֣שָׂה פֶ֘סַח֘ לַֽיהֹוָה֒ הִמּ֧וֹל ל֣וֹ כָל־זָכָ֗ר וְאָז֙ יִקְרַ֣ב לַֽעֲשׂת֔וֹ וְהָיָ֖ה כְּאֶזְרַ֣ח הָאָ֑רֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵ֖ל לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
he shall make a Passover sacrifice: We might think that everyone who converts must make a Passover sacrifice immediately. Therefore, Scripture states: “and he will be like the native of the land,” [indicating that] just as the native [makes the sacrifice] on the fourteenth [of Nissan], so must a proselyte [make it] on the fourteenth [of Nissan]. — [from Mechilta]   וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח: יָכוֹל כָּל הַמִּתְגַּיֵּר יַעֲשֶׂה פֶּסַח מִיָּד, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר והיה כאזרח הארץ, מָה אֶזְרָח בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר אַף גֵּר בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר (שם):
but no uncircumcised male may partake of it: This includes one whose brothers died because of circumcision, [one] who is not considered an apostate in regards to circumcision, and [his disqualification] is not derived from “No estranged one may partake of it” (verse 43). — [from Mechilta]   וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּֽוֹ: לְהָבִיא אֶת שֶׁמֵּתוּ אֶחָיו מֵחֲמַת מִילָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוּמָר לַעֲרֵלוּת וְאֵינוֹ לָמֵד מִ"בֶּן נֵכָר לֹא יֹאכַל בּוֹ" (שם):
49There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger who resides in your midst."   מטתּוֹרָ֣ה אַחַ֔ת יִֽהְיֶ֖ה לָֽאֶזְרָ֑ח וְלַגֵּ֖ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתֽוֹכְכֶֽם:
There shall be one law: [This verse comes] to liken a proselyte to a native also regarding other commandments in the Torah. — [from Mechilta]   תּוֹרָה אַחַת וגו': לְהַשְׁווֹת גֵּר לָאֶזְרָח אַף לִשְׁאָר מִצְווֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה (שם):
50All the children of Israel did; as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.   נוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן כֵּ֥ן עָשֽׂוּ:
51It came to pass on that very day, that the Lord took the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt with their legions.   נאוַיְהִ֕י בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה הוֹצִ֨יא יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם עַל־צִבְאֹתָֽם: