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Torah Reading for Passover

First Day of Passover
Sunday, 15 Nissan, 5781
28 March, 2021
Select a portion:
Complete: (Exodus 12:21-51; Numbers 28:16-25; Joshua 3:5-7; Joshua 5:2 - 6:1; Joshua 6:27)
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First Portion

Exodus Chapter 12

21Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, "Draw forth or buy for yourselves sheep for your families and slaughter the Passover sacrifice.   כאוַיִּקְרָ֥א משֶׁ֛ה לְכָל־זִקְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֑ם מִֽשְׁכ֗וּ וּקְח֨וּ לָכֶ֥ם צֹ֛אן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם וְשַֽׁחֲט֥וּ הַפָּֽסַח:
Draw forth: Whoever has sheep shall draw from his own.   משכו: מי שיש לו צאן ימשוך משלו:
or buy: Whoever has none shall buy from the market. — [from Mechilta]   וקחו: מי שאין לו יקח מן השוק:
for your families: A lamb for a parental house. — [from Mechilta 3]   למשפחתיכם: שה לבית אבות:
22And you shall take a bunch of hyssop and immerse [it] in the blood that is in the basin, and you shall extend to the lintel and to the two doorposts the blood that is in the basin, and you shall not go out, any man from the entrance of his house until morning.   כבוּלְקַחְתֶּ֞ם אֲגֻדַּ֣ת אֵז֗וֹב וּטְבַלְתֶּם֘ בַּדָּ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־בַּסַּף֒ וְהִגַּעְתֶּ֤ם אֶל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף֙ וְאֶל־שְׁתֵּ֣י הַמְּזוּזֹ֔ת מִן־הַדָּ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּסָּ֑ף וְאַתֶּ֗ם לֹ֥א תֵֽצְא֛וּ אִ֥ישׁ מִפֶּֽתַח־בֵּית֖וֹ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר:
hyssop: Heb. אֵזוֹב. A species of herb that has thin stalks.   אזוב: מין ירק שיש לו גבעולין:
a bunch of hyssop: Three stalks are called a bunch. — [Sukkah 13a]   אגדת אזוב: שלושה קלחין קרויין אגודה:
that is in the basin: Heb. בַּסַּף, in the vessel, like “silver pitchers (סִפּוֹת) ” (II Kings 12:14). [from Mechilta]   אשר בסף: בכלי, כמו (מלכים ב' יב יד) ספות כסף:
the blood that is in the basin: Why does the text repeat this? So that you should not say that [Scripture means] one immersion for [all] the three sprinklings. Therefore, it says again: “that is in the basin,” [to indicate] that every sprinkling shall be from the blood that is in the basin-for each touching an immersion [is necessary]. — [from Mechilta]   מן הדם אשר בסף: למה חזר ושנאו, שלא תאמר טבילה אחת לשלש המתנות, לכך נאמר עוד אשר בסף, ושתהא כל נתינה ונתינה מן הדם אשר בסף, על כל הגעה טבילה:
and you shall not go out, etc.: This tells [us] that once the destroyer is given permission to destroy, he does not discriminate between righteous and wicked. And night is the time that destroyers are given permission, as it is said: “in which every beast of the forest moves about” (Ps. 104:20). — [from Mechilta]   ואתם לא תצאו וגו': מגיד שמאחר שנתנה רשות למשחית לחבל אינו מבחין בין צדיק לרשע, ולילה רשות למחבלים הוא, שנאמר (תהלים קד כ) בו תרמוש כל חיתו יער:
23The Lord will pass to smite the Egyptians, and He will see the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, and the Lord will pass over the entrance, and He will not permit the destroyer to enter your houses to smite [you].   כגוְעָבַ֣ר יְהֹוָה֘ לִנְגֹּ֣ף אֶת־מִצְרַ֒יִם֒ וְרָאָ֤ה אֶת־הַדָּם֙ עַל־הַמַּשְׁק֔וֹף וְעַ֖ל שְׁתֵּ֣י הַמְּזוּזֹ֑ת וּפָסַ֤ח יְהֹוָה֙ עַל־הַפֶּ֔תַח וְלֹ֤א יִתֵּן֙ הַמַּשְׁחִ֔ית לָבֹ֥א אֶל־בָּֽתֵּיכֶ֖ם לִנְגֹּֽף:
will pass over: Heb. וּפָסַח, and He will have pity. This may also be rendered: and He will skip over. See Rashi on verses 11 and 13.   ופסח: וחמל, ויש לומר ודלג:
and He will not permit the destroyer: Heb. וְלֹא יִךְתֵּן, lit., and will not give. [I.e.,] He will not grant him the ability to enter, as in “but God did not permit him (נְתָנוֹ) to harm me” (Gen. 31:7).   ולא יתן המשחית: ולא יתן לו יכולת לבא, כמו (בראשית לא ז) ולא נתנו א-להים להרע עמדי:
24And you shall keep this matter as a statute for you and for your children forever.   כדוּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה לְחָק־לְךָ֥ וּלְבָנֶ֖יךָ עַד־עוֹלָֽם:

Second Portion

Exodus Chapter 12

25And it shall come to pass when you enter the land that the Lord will give you, as He spoke, that you shall observe this service.   כהוְהָיָ֞ה כִּֽי־תָבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֧ן יְהֹוָ֛ה לָכֶ֖ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֵּ֑ר וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־הָֽעֲבֹדָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת:
And it shall come to pass when you enter: Scripture makes this commandment contingent upon their entry into the land, but in the desert, they were obligated only to bring one Passover sacrifice, the one they performed in the second year, [which they did] by divine mandate. — [from Mechilta]   והיה כי תבאו אל הארץ: תלה הכתוב מצוה זו בביאתם לארץ, ולא נתחייבו במדבר אלא בפסח אחד שעשו בשנה השנית ועל פי הדבור:
as He spoke: Now where did He speak? “And I will bring you to the land, etc.” (Exod. 6:8). — [from Mechilta]   כאשר דבר: והיכן דבר, והבאתי אתכם אל הארץ וגו' (שמות ו ח):
26And it will come to pass if your children say to you, What is this service to you?   כווְהָיָ֕ה כִּי־יֹֽאמְר֥וּ אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם בְּנֵיכֶ֑ם מָ֛ה הָֽעֲבֹדָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לָכֶֽם:
27you shall say, It is a Passover sacrifice to the Lord, for He passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He smote the Egyptians, and He saved our houses. And the people kneeled and prostrated themselves.   כזוַֽאֲמַרְתֶּ֡ם זֶֽבַח־פֶּ֨סַח ה֜וּא לַֽיהֹוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר פָּ֠סַ֠ח עַל־בָּתֵּ֤י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם בְּנָגְפּ֥וֹ אֶת־מִצְרַ֖יִם וְאֶת־בָּתֵּ֣ינוּ הִצִּ֑יל וַיִּקֹּ֥ד הָעָ֖ם וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֽוּ:
And the people kneeled and prostrated themselves: [in thanksgiving] for the tidings of the redemption, the entry into the land [of Israel], and the tidings of the children that they would have. — [from Mechilta]   ויקד העם: על בשורת הגאולה וביאת הארץ ובשורת הבנים שיהיו להם:
28So the children of Israel went and did; as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.   כחוַיֵּֽלְכ֥וּ וַיַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֥ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן כֵּ֥ן עָשֽׂוּ:
So the children of Israel went and did: Now did they already do [it]? Wasn’t this said to them on Rosh Chodesh? But since they accepted upon themselves [to do it], Scripture credits them for it as if they had [already] done [it]. — [from Mechilta]   וילכו ויעשו בני ישראל: וכי כבר עשו, והלא מראש חודש נאמר להם, אלא מכיון שקבלו עליהם, מעלה עליהם כאלו עשו:
went and did: Scripture counts also the going, to give reward for the going and reward for the deed. — [from Mechilta]   וילכו ויעשו: אף ההליכה מנה הכתוב, ליתן שכר להליכה ושכר לעשיה:
as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron: [This comes] to tell Israel’s praise, that they did not omit anything of all the commandments of Moses and Aaron. And what is the meaning of “so they did” ? Moses and Aaron also did so. — [from Mechilta]   כאשר צוה ה' את משה ואהרן: להגיד שבחן של ישראל, שלא הפילו דבר מכל מצות משה ואהרן. ומהו כן עשו, אף משה ואהרן כן עשו:

Third Portion

Exodus Chapter 12

29It came to pass at midnight, and the Lord smote every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who is in the dungeon, and every firstborn animal.   כטוַיְהִ֣י | בַּֽחֲצִ֣י הַלַּ֗יְלָה וַֽיהֹוָה֘ הִכָּ֣ה כָל־בְּכוֹר֘ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֒יִם֒ מִבְּכֹ֤ר פַּרְעֹה֙ הַיּשֵׁ֣ב עַל־כִּסְא֔וֹ עַ֚ד בְּכ֣וֹר הַשְּׁבִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּבֵ֣ית הַבּ֑וֹר וְכֹ֖ל בְּכ֥וֹר בְּהֵמָֽה:
and the Lord: Heb. וַה. Wherever it says, “and the Lord,” it means “He and His tribunal” (Exod. Rabbah 12:4), for the “vav” is an expression of addition, like “so-and-so and (“vav” ) so-and-so.”   וה': כל מקום שנאמר וה' הוא ובית דינו, שהוי"ו לשון תוספת הוא כמו פלוני ופלוני:
smote every firstborn: Even [a firstborn] of another nation who was in Egypt. — [from Mechilta]   הכה כל בכור: אף של אומה אחרת והוא במצרים:
from the firstborn of Pharaoh: Pharaoh, too, was a firstborn, but he remained [alive] of the firstborn. Concerning him, He [God] says: “But, for this [reason] I have allowed you to stand, in order to show you My strength” (Exod. 9:16) at the Red Sea. — [from Mechilta]   מבכר פרעה: אף פרעה בכור היה ונשתייר מן הבכורות, ועליו הוא אומר (שמות ט טז) [בעבור הראותך את כחי בים סוף]:
to the firstborn of the captive: Because they rejoiced at Israel’s misfortune (Tanchuma 7), and furthermore, so that they would not say, “Our deity brought about this retribution” (Mechilta). The firstborn of the slave woman was included, because [Scripture] counts from the most esteemed to the lowest, and the firstborn of the slave woman is more esteemed than the firstborn of the captive. See commentary on Exodus 11:5.   עד בכור השבי: שהיו שמחין לאידם של ישראל. ועוד, שלא יאמרו יראתנו הביאה הפורענות זו, ובכור השפחה בכלל היה, שהרי מנה מן החשוב שבכלן עד הפחות, ובכור השפחה חשוב מבכור השבי:
30And Pharaoh arose at night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians, and there was a great outcry in Egypt, for there was no house in which no one was dead.   לוַיָּ֨קָם פַּרְעֹ֜ה לַ֗יְלָה ה֤וּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו֙ וְכָל־מִצְרַ֔יִם וַתְּהִ֛י צְעָקָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם כִּי־אֵ֣ין בַּ֔יִת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽין־שָׁ֖ם מֵֽת:
And Pharaoh arose: from his bed.   ויקם פרעה: ממטתו:
at night: Unlike the custom of kings, [who rise] three hours after daybreak. — [from Mechilta]   לילה: ולא כדרך המלכים בשלש שעות ביום:
he: [arose] first, and afterwards his servants. This teaches us that he went around to his servants’ houses and woke them up. — [from Mechilta]   הוא: תחילה ואחר כך עבדיו, מלמד שהיה הוא מחזר על בתי עבדיו ומעמידן:
for there was no house in which no one was dead: If there was a firstborn, he was dead. If there was no firstborn, the oldest household member was called the firstborn, as it is said: “I, too, shall make him [David] a firstborn” (Ps. 89:28) (Tanchuma Buber 19). [Rashi explains there: I shall make him great.] Another explanation: Some Egyptian women were unfaithful to their husbands and bore children from bachelors. Thus they would have many firstborn; sometimes one woman would have five, each one the firstborn of his father (Mechilta 13:33).   כי אין בית אשר אין שם מת: יש שם בכור מת. אין שם בכור, גדול שבבית קרוי בכור, שנאמר (תהילים פט כח) אף אני בכור אתנהו. דבר אחר מצריות מזנות תחת בעליהן ויולדות מרווקים פנויים, והיו להם בכורות הרבה, פעמים הם חמשה לאשה אחת, כל אחד בכור לאביו:
31So he called for Moses and Aaron at night, and he said, "Get up and get out from among my people, both you, as well as the children of Israel, and go, worship the Lord as you have spoken.   לאוַיִּקְרָא֩ לְמשֶׁ֨ה וּלְאַֽהֲרֹ֜ן לַ֗יְלָה וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ ק֤וּמוּ צּאוּ֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ עַמִּ֔י גַּם־אַתֶּ֖ם גַּם־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּלְכ֛וּ עִבְד֥וּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֖ה כְּדַבֶּרְכֶֽם:
So he called for Moses and Aaron at night: [This] tells [us] that Pharaoh went around to the entrances [i.e., to the doors of the houses] of the city, and cried out, “Where is Moses staying? Where is Aaron staying?” -[from Mechilta]   ויקרא למשה ולאהרן לילה: מגיד שהיה מחזר על פתחי העיר וצועק היכן משה שרוי היכן אהרן שרוי:
both you: the men.   גם אתם: הגברים:
as well as the children of Israel: The young children.   גם בני ישראל: הטף:
and go, worship the Lord as you have spoken: Everything is as you said, not as I said. “Neither will I let Israel out” (Exod. 5:2) is nullified. “Who and who are going?” (Exod. 10:8) is nullified. “But your flocks and your cattle shall be left” (Exod. 10:24) is nullified. [Instead,] take also your flocks and also your cattle. What is [the meaning of] “as you have spoken” ? You too shall give into our hands sacrifices and burnt offerings (Exod. 10:25). — [from Mechilta]   ולכו עבדו את ה' כדברכם: הכל כמו שאמרתם, ולא כמו שאמרתי אני, בטל לא אשלח (שמות ה ב) בטל מי ומי ההולכים (שם י ח) בטל רק צאנכם ובקרכם יצג (שם כד):
32Take also your flocks and also your cattle, as you have spoken, and go, but you shall also bless me."   לבגַּם־צֹֽאנְכֶ֨ם גַּם־בְּקַרְכֶ֥ם קְח֛וּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּרְתֶּ֖ם וָלֵ֑כוּ וּבֵֽרַכְתֶּ֖ם גַּם־אֹתִֽי:
Take also your flocks and also your cattle : What does "as you have spoken" mean? You too should give us sacrifices and free will offerings.   גם צאנכם גם בקרכם קחו: ומהו כאשר דברתם, גם אתה תתן בידינו זבחים ועולות (שמות י כה):
Take… as you have spoken… but you shall also bless me: [I.e.,] pray for me that I shall not die, for I am a firstborn. — [from Onkelos]   קחו כאשר דברתם וברכתם גם אתי: התפללו עלי שלא אמות, שאני בכור:
33So the Egyptians took hold of the people to hasten to send them out of the land, for they said, "We are all dead."   לגוַתֶּֽחֱזַ֤ק מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ עַל־הָעָ֔ם לְמַהֵ֖ר לְשַׁלְּחָ֣ם מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּ֥י אָֽמְר֖וּ כֻּלָּ֥נוּ מֵתִֽים:
We are all dead: They said, “This is not in accordance with Moses’ decree, for he said, ‘And every firstborn in the land of Egypt will die’ (Exod. 11:5), but here, the ordinary people too are dead, five or ten in one house.” -[from Mechilta] See Rashi on verse 30.   כלנו מתים: אמרו לא כגזרת משה הוא, שהרי אמר (לעיל יא ה) ומת כל בכור, וכאן אף הפשוטים מתים חמישה או עשרה בבית אחד:
34The people picked up their dough when it was not yet leavened, their leftovers bound in their garments on their shoulders.   לדוַיִּשָּׂ֥א הָעָ֛ם אֶת־בְּצֵק֖וֹ טֶ֣רֶם יֶחְמָ֑ץ מִשְׁאֲרֹתָ֛ם צְרֻרֹ֥ת בְּשִׂמְלֹתָ֖ם עַל־שִׁכְמָֽם:
when it was not yet leavened: The Egyptians did not permit them to tarry long enough for it to leaven.   טרם יחמץ: המצריים לא הניחום לשהות כדי חימוץ:
their leftovers: Heb. מִשְׁאִרֹתָם. The remaining matzah and bitter herbs. — [from Mechilta and Jonathan]   משארתם: שירי מצה ומרור:
on their shoulders: Although they took many animals with them, they [carried the remaining matzoth and bitter herbs on their shoulders because] they loved the mitzvoth. — [from Mechilta]   על שכמם: אף על פי שבהמות הרבה הוליכו עמהם מחבבים היו את המצווה:
35And the children of Israel did according to Moses' order, and they borrowed from the Egyptians silver objects, golden objects, and garments.   להוּבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל עָשׂ֖וּ כִּדְבַ֣ר משֶׁ֑ה וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם כְּלֵי־כֶ֛סֶף וּכְלֵ֥י זָהָ֖ב וּשְׂמָלֹֽת:
according to Moses’ order: that he said to them in Egypt: “and let them borrow, each man from his friend” (Exod. 11:2). — [from Mechilta]   כדבר משה: שאמר להם במצרים (לעיל יא ב) וישאלו איש מאת רעהו:
and garments: These meant more to them than the silver and the gold, and [thus] whatever is mentioned later in the verse is more esteemed. — [from Mechilta]   ושמלת: אף הן היו חשובות להם מן הכסף ומן הזהב, והמאוחר בפסוק חשוב:
36The Lord gave the people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians, and they lent them, and they emptied out Egypt.   לווַֽיהֹוָ֞ה נָתַ֨ן אֶת־חֵ֥ן הָעָ֛ם בְּעֵינֵ֥י מִצְרַ֖יִם וַיַּשְׁאִל֑וּם וַיְנַצְּל֖וּ אֶת־מִצְרָֽיִם:
and they lent them: Even what they [the Israelites] did not request, they [the Egyptians] gave them. You say, “[Lend me] one.” [They responded,] “Take two and go!” -[from Mechilta]   וישאלום: אף מה שלא היו שואלים מהם היו נותנים להם. אתה אומר אחד, טול שנים ולך:
and they emptied out: Heb. וַיְנַצְלוּ. Onkelos renders: וְרוֹקִינוּ, and they emptied out.   וינצלו: ורוקינו:

Fourth Portion

Exodus Chapter 12

37The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot, the men, besides the young children.   לזוַיִּסְע֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵֽרַעְמְסֵ֖ס סֻכֹּ֑תָה כְּשֵֽׁשׁ־מֵא֨וֹת אֶ֧לֶף רַגְלִ֛י הַגְּבָרִ֖ים לְבַד מִטָּֽף:
from Rameses to Succoth: They were 120 “mil” [apart]. Yet they arrived there instantly, as it is said: “and I carried you on eagles’ wings.” -[from Mechilta]   מרעמסס סכתה: מאה ועשרים מיל היו ובאו שם לפי שעה, שנאמר (שמות יט ד) ואשא אתכם על כנפי נשרים:
the men: from 20 years old and older. — [from Song Rabbah 3:6]   הגברים: מבן עשרים שנה ומעלה:
38And also, a great mixed multitude went up with them, and flocks and cattle, very much livestock.   לחוְגַם־עֵ֥רֶב רַ֖ב עָלָ֣ה אִתָּ֑ם וְצֹ֣אן וּבָקָ֔ר מִקְנֶ֖ה כָּבֵ֥ד מְאֹֽד:
a great mixed multitude: A mixture of nations of proselytes. — [from Zohar, vol. 2, p. 45b]   ערב רב: תערובות אומות של גרים:
39They baked the dough that they had taken out of Egypt as unleavened cakes, for it had not leavened, for they were driven out of Egypt, and they could not tarry, and also, they had not made provisions for themselves.   לטוַיֹּאפ֨וּ אֶת־הַבָּצֵ֜ק אֲשֶׁ֨ר הוֹצִ֧יאוּ מִמִּצְרַ֛יִם עֻגֹ֥ת מַצּ֖וֹת כִּ֣י לֹ֣א חָמֵ֑ץ כִּי־גֹֽרְשׁ֣וּ מִמִּצְרַ֗יִם וְלֹ֤א יָֽכְלוּ֙ לְהִתְמַהְמֵ֔הַּ וְגַם־צֵדָ֖ה לֹֽא־עָשׂ֥וּ לָהֶֽם:
matzah cakes: cakes of matzah. Dough which did not leaven is called matzah   עגת מצות: חררה של מצה בצק שלא החמיץ קרוי מצה:
and also, they had not made provisions for themselves: for the trip. [This verse] tells [of] Israel’s praise, [namely] that they did not say, “How will we go out into the desert without provisions?” Instead they believed and left. This is what is stated explicitly in the Prophets: “I remember to you the loving kindness of your youth, the love of your nuptials, your following Me in the desert, in a land not sown” (Jer. 2:2). Now what was the [Israelites’] reward? It is explained afterward: “Israel is holy to the Lord, etc.” (Jer. 2:3). — [from Mechilta]   וגם צדה לא עשו להם: לדרך. מגיד שבחן של ישראל, שלא אמרו היאך נצא למדבר בלא צדה, אלא האמינו והלכו, הוא שמפורש בקבלה (ירמיהו ב ב) זכרתי לך חסד נעוריך אהבת כלולותיך לכתך אחרי במדבר בארץ לא זרועה, ומה שכר מפורש אחריו (שם ג) קודש ישראל לה' וגו':
40And the habitation of the children of Israel, that they dwelled in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.   מוּמוֹשַׁב֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָֽשְׁב֖וּ בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָֽה:
that they dwelled in Egypt: after the other dwellings in which they dwelled as foreigners in a land that was not theirs. — [from Mechilta]   אשר ישבו במצרים: אחר שאר הישיבות שישבו גרים בארץ לא להם:
was four hundred and thirty years: Altogether, from the time that Isaac was born, until now, were 400 years. From the time that Abraham had seed [i.e., had a child, the prophecy] “that your seed will be strangers” (Gen. 15:13) was fulfilled; and there were another 30 years from the decree “between the parts” (Gen 15:10) until Isaac was born. It is impossible, however, to say that [they spent 400 years] in Egypt alone, because Kehath [the grandfather of Moses] was [one] of those who came with Jacob. Go and figure all his years, all the years of his son Amram, and Moses’ 80 years; you will not find them [to be] that many, and perforce, Kehath lived many of his years before he descended to Egypt, and many of Amram’s years are included in the years of Kehath, and many of Moses’ years are included in Amram’s years. Hence, you will not find 400 years counting from their arrival in Egypt. You are compelled, perforce, to say that the other dwellings [which the Patriarchs settled] were also called being “sojournings” and even in Hebron, as it is said: “where Abraham and Isaac sojourned (גָּרוּ) ” (Gen. 35:27), and [Scripture] states also “the land of their sojournings in which they sojourned” (Exod. 6:4). Therefore, you must say that [the prophecy] “your seed will be strangers” [commences] when he [Abraham] had offspring. And only when you count 400 years from the time that Isaac was born, you will find 210 years from their entry into Egypt. This is one of the things that [the Sages] changed for King Ptolemy. — [from Mechilta, Meg. 9a]   שלשים שנה וארבע מאות שנה: בין הכל משנולד יצחק עד עכשיו היו ארבע מאות שנה. משהיה לו זרע לאברהם נתקיים (בראשית טו יג) כי גר יהיה זרעך, ושלשים שנה היו משנגזרה גזירת בין הבתרים עד שנולד יצחק. ואי אפשר לומר בארץ מצרים לבדה, שהרי קהת מן הבאים עם יעקב היה צא וחשוב כל שנותיו וכל שנות עמרם בנו ושמונים של משה, לא תמצאם כל כך, ועל כרחך הרבה שנים היו לקהת עד שלא ירד למצרים, והרבה משנות עמרם נבלעים בשנות קהת והרבה משמונים של משה נבלעים בשנות עמרם, הרי שלא תמצא ארבע מאות לביאת מצרים, והוזקקת לומר על כרחך, שאף שאר הישיבות נקראו גרות, אפילו בחברון, שנאמר (בראשית לה כז) אשר גר שם אברהם ויצחק, ואומר (שמות ו ד) את ארץ מגוריהם אשר גרו בה, לפיכך אתה צריך לומר כי גר יהיה זרעך משהיה לו זרע. וכשתמנה ארבע מאות שנה משנולד יצחק, תמצא מביאתן למצרים עד יציאתן מאתים ועשר שנה, וזה אחד מן הדברים ששינו לתלמי המלך:
41It came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, and it came to pass in that very day, that all the legions of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt.   מאוַיְהִ֗י מִקֵּץ֙ שְׁלשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה וַיְהִ֗י בְּעֶ֨צֶם֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה יָֽצְא֛וּ כָּל־צִבְא֥וֹת יְהֹוָ֖ה מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
It came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, and it came to pass in that very day: [This] tells [us] that as soon as the end [of this period] arrived, the Omnipresent did not keep them [even] as long as the blink of an eye. On the fifteenth of Nissan, the angels came to Abraham to bring him tidings. On the fifteenth of Nissan Isaac was born; on the fifteenth of Nissan the decree of “between the parts” was decreed. — [from Mechilta]   ויהי מקץ שלשים שנה וגו' ויהי בעצם היום הזה: מגיד שכיון שהגיע הקץ לא עכבן המקום כהרף עין, בחמישה עשר בניסן באו מלאכי השרת אצל אברהם לבשרו, בחמישה עשר בניסן נולד יצחק, ובחמישה עשר בניסן נגזרה גזירת בין הבתרים:
42It is a night of anticipation for the Lord, to take them out of the land of Egypt; this night is the Lord's, guarding all the children of Israel throughout their generations.   מבלֵ֣יל שִׁמֻּרִ֥ים הוּא֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לְהֽוֹצִיאָ֖ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם הֽוּא־הַלַּ֤יְלָה הַזֶּה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה שִׁמֻּרִ֛ים לְכָל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְדֹֽרֹתָֽם:
It is a night of anticipation: for which the Holy One, blessed be He, was waiting and anticipating, [in order] to fulfill His promise to take them out of the land of Egypt.   ליל שמרים: שהיה הקב"ה שומר ומצפה לו לקיים הבטחתו להוציאם מארץ מצרים:
this night is the Lord’s: This is the night concerning which He said to Abraham, “On this night I will redeem your children.” -[from Mechilta]   הוא הלילה הזה לה': הוא הלילה שאמר לאברהם בלילה הזה אני גואל את בניך:
guarding all the children of Israel throughout their generations: from that time onward, it [the Israelites] is guarded from harmful spirits, like the matter that is stated: “and He will not permit the destroyer, etc.” (above verse 23). — [from Mechilta]   שמרים לכל בני ישראל לדרתם: משומר ובא מן המזיקין, כענין שנאמר (פסוק כג) ולא יתן המשחית וגו':

Fifth Portion

Exodus Chapter 12

43The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, "This is the statute of the Passover sacrifice: No estranged one may partake of it.   מגוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֣ה וְאַֽהֲרֹ֔ן זֹ֖את חֻקַּ֣ת הַפָּ֑סַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
This is the statute of the Passover sacrifice: On the fourteenth of Nissan, this section was told to them. — [from Exod. Rabbah 19:5]   זאת חקת הפסח: בי"ד בניסן נאמרה להם פרשה זו:
No estranged one: Whose deeds have become estranged from his Father in heaven. Both a gentile and an Israelite apostate are meant. — [from Mechilta]   כל בן נכר: שנתנכרו מעשיו לאביו שבשמים. ואחד נכרי ואחד ישראל משומד במשמע:
44And every man's slave, purchased for his money you shall circumcise him; then he will be permitted to partake of it.   מדוְכָל־עֶ֥בֶד אִ֖ישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּ֑סֶף וּמַלְתָּ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ אָ֖ז יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
you shall circumcise him; then he will be permitted to partake of it: [I.e., he means] his master. [This] tells [us] that the [failure to perform the] circumcision of one’s slaves prevents one from partaking of the Passover sacrifice. [These are] the words of Rabbi Joshua. Rabbi Eliezer says: The [failure to perform the] circumcision of one’s slaves does not prevent one from partaking of the Passover sacrifice. If so, what is the meaning of “then he will be permitted to partake of it” ? [“He” in this phrase is referring to] the slave. — [from Mechilta]   ומלתה אתו אז יאכל בו: רבו, מגיד שמילת עבדיו מעכבתו מלאכול בפסח, דברי רבי יהושע. רבי אליעזר אומר אין מילת עבדיו מעכבתו מלאכול בפסח, אם כן מה תלמוד לומר אז יאכל בו, העבד:
45A sojourner or a hired hand may not partake of it.   מהתּוֹשָׁ֥ב וְשָׂכִ֖יר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
A sojourner: This is a resident alien. — [from Mechilta] [I.e., a gentile who has accepted upon himself not to practice idolatry but eats carcasses.]   תושב: זה גר תושב:
or a hired hand: This is a gentile. Now why is this [verse] stated? Aren’t they uncircumcised? And it is stated: “but no uncircumcised man may partake of it” (verse 48). But this refers to a circumcised Arab or a circumcised Gibeonite, who is a sojourner or a hired hand. — [from Mechilta]   ושכיר: זה הנכרי. ומה תלמוד לומר, והלא ערלים הם, ונאמר (פסוק מח) וכל ערל לא יאכל בו, אלא כגון ערבי מהול וגבעוני מהול והוא תושב או שכיר:
46It must be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the meat out of the house to the outside, neither shall you break any of its bones.   מובְּבַ֤יִת אֶחָד֙ יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל לֹֽא־תוֹצִ֧יא מִן־הַבַּ֛יִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂ֖ר ח֑וּצָה וְעֶ֖צֶם לֹ֥א תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בֽוֹ:
It must be eaten in one house: In one group, that those counted upon it may not become two groups and divide it. You say [that it means] in one group, or [perhaps] it means nothing other than in one house as is its apparent meaning, and to teach that if they started eating in the yard and it rained, that they may not enter the house. Therefore, Scripture states: “on the houses in which they will eat it” (above verse 7). From here [we deduce] that the one who eats [the Passover sacrifice] may eat [it] in two places. — [from Mechilta]   בבית אחד יאכל: בחבורה אחת, שלא יעשו הנמנין עליו שתי חבורות ויחלקוהו. אתה אומר בחבורה אחת, או אינו אלא בבית אחד כמשמעו, וללמד שאם התחילו והיו אוכלים בחצר וירדו גשמים שלא יכנסו לבית, תלמוד לומר (פסוק ז) על הבתים אשר יאכלו אותו בהם, מכאן שהאוכל אוכל בשני מקומות:
you shall not take any of the meat out of the house: [I.e.,] out of the group. — [from Mechilta]   לא תוציא מן הבית: מן החבורה:
neither shall you break any of its bones: If it [the bone] is edible, e.g., if there is an olive-sized amount of meat on it, it bears the prohibition of breaking a bone; if there is neither an olive-sized amount of meat on it nor marrow [in it], it does not bear the prohibition against breaking a bone. — [from Pes. 84b]   ועצם לא תשברו בו: הראוי לאכילה, כגון שיש עליו כזית בשר יש בו משום שבירת עצם, אין עליו כזית בשר אין בו משום שבירת עצם:
47The entire community of Israel shall make it.   מזכָּל־עֲדַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יַֽעֲשׂ֥וּ אֹתֽוֹ:
The entire community of Israel shall make it: Why was this stated? Because it says concerning the Passover sacrifice of Egypt: “a lamb for each parental home” (above verse 3), we might think that the same applies to the Passover sacrifice of later generations. Therefore, Scripture states: “The entire community of Israel shall make it.” -[from Mechilta]   כל עדת ישראל יעשו אתו: למה נאמר, לפי שהוא אומר בפסח מצרים (פסוק ג) שה לבית אבות, שנמנו עליו למשפחות, יכול אף פסח דורות כן, תלמוד לומר כל עדת ישראל יעשו אותו:
48And should a proselyte reside with you, he shall make a Passover sacrifice to the Lord. All his males shall be circumcised, and then he may approach to make it, and he will be like the native of the land, but no uncircumcised male may partake of it.   מחוְכִֽי־יָג֨וּר אִתְּךָ֜ גֵּ֗ר וְעָ֣שָׂה פֶ֘סַח֘ לַֽיהֹוָה֒ הִמּ֧וֹל ל֣וֹ כָל־זָכָ֗ר וְאָז֙ יִקְרַ֣ב לַֽעֲשׂת֔וֹ וְהָיָ֖ה כְּאֶזְרַ֣ח הָאָ֑רֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵ֖ל לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ:
he shall make a Passover sacrifice: We might think that everyone who converts must make a Passover sacrifice immediately. Therefore, Scripture states: “and he will be like the native of the land,” [indicating that] just as the native [makes the sacrifice] on the fourteenth [of Nissan], so must a proselyte [make it] on the fourteenth [of Nissan]. — [from Mechilta]   ועשה פסח: יכול כל המתגייר יעשה פסח מיד, תלמוד לומר והיה כאזרח הארץ, מה אזרח בארבעה עשר אף גר בארבעה עשר:
but no uncircumcised male may partake of it: This includes one whose brothers died because of circumcision, [one] who is not considered an apostate in regards to circumcision, and [his disqualification] is not derived from “No estranged one may partake of it” (verse 43). — [from Mechilta]   וכל ערל לא יאכל בו: להביא את שמתו אחיו מחמת מילה שאינו משומד לערלות ואינו נלמד מבן נכר לא יאכל בו (פסוק מג):
49There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger who resides in your midst."   מטתּוֹרָ֣ה אַחַ֔ת יִֽהְיֶ֖ה לָֽאֶזְרָ֑ח וְלַגֵּ֖ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתֽוֹכְכֶֽם:
There shall be one law: [This verse comes] to liken a proselyte to a native also regarding other commandments in the Torah. — [from Mechilta]   תורה אחת וגו': להשוות גר לאזרח אף לשאר מצות שבתורה:
50All the children of Israel did; as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.   נוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶת־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן כֵּ֥ן עָשֽׂוּ:
51It came to pass on that very day, that the Lord took the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt with their legions.   נאוַיְהִ֕י בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה הוֹצִ֨יא יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם עַל־צִבְאֹתָֽם:

Maftir Portion

Numbers Chapter 28

16In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, [you shall offer up] a Passover offering to the Lord.   טזוּבַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽרִאשׁ֗וֹן בְּאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר י֖וֹם לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ פֶּ֖סַח לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
17On the fifteenth day of this month, a festival [begins]; you shall eat unleavened bread for seven days.   יזוּבַֽחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר י֛וֹם לַחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַזֶּ֖ה חָ֑ג שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים מַצּ֖וֹת יֵֽאָכֵֽל:
18On the first day is a holy convocation; you shall not perform any mundane work.   יחבַּיּ֥וֹם הָֽרִאשׁ֖וֹן מִקְרָא־קֹ֑דֶשׁ כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
You shall refrain from all manner of mundane work: Even essential work, such as the prevention of loss, which is permitted on the intermediate days of the festival, is forbidden on the festival itself. — [Torath Kohanim Emor 187, see Rashi on Lev. 23:8]   כל מלאכת עבודה: אפילו מלאכה הצריכה לכם, כגון דבר האבד המותרת בחולו של מועד אסורה ביום טוב:
19You shall offer up a fire offering, a burnt offering to the Lord: two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in the first year they shall be unblemished for you.   יטוְהִקְרַבְתֶּ֨ם אִשֶּׁ֤ה עֹלָה֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה פָּרִ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־בָקָ֛ר שְׁנַ֖יִם וְאַ֣יִל אֶחָ֑ד וְשִׁבְעָ֤ה כְבָשִׂים֙ בְּנֵ֣י שָׁנָ֔ה תְּמִימִ֖ם יִֽהְי֥וּ לָכֶֽם:
bulls: Corresponding to Abraham, about whom it says, “And to the cattle did Abraham run,” [to feed the three angels who visited him] (Gen. 18:7).   פרים: כנגד אברהם, שנאמר (בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם:
ram: Symbolizing the ram [sacrificed instead] of Isaac (see Gen. 22:13).   אילים: כנגד אילו של יצחק:
lambs: Corresponding to Jacob, of whom it says, “Jacob separated the lambs” (Gen. 30:40). I saw this in the commentary of R. Moshe Hadarshan [the preacher]. - [Mid. Aggadah, Midrash Tadshey ch. 10]   כבשים: כנגד יעקב שנאמר (בראשית ל, מ) והכשבים הפריד יעקב. ביסודו של רבי משה הדרשן ראיתי זאת:
20Their meal offerings [shall be] fine flour mixed with oil; three tenths for each bull and two tenths for the ram you shall offer up.   כוּמִ֨נְחָתָ֔ם סֹ֖לֶת בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשָּׁ֑מֶן שְׁלשָׁ֨ה עֶשְׂרֹנִ֜ים לַפָּ֗ר וּשְׁנֵ֧י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֛ים לָאַ֖יִל תַּֽעֲשֽׂוּ:
21And you shall offer up one tenth for each lamb, for all seven lambs.   כאעִשָּׂר֤וֹן עִשָּׂרוֹן֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָ֑ד לְשִׁבְעַ֖ת הַכְּבָשִֽׂים:
22And one young male goat for a sin offering to atone for you.   כבוּשְׂעִ֥יר חַטָּ֖את אֶחָ֑ד לְכַפֵּ֖ר עֲלֵיכֶֽם:
23You shall offer these up besides the morning burnt offering which is offered as a continual burnt offering.   כגמִלְּבַד֙ עֹלַ֣ת הַבֹּ֔קֶר אֲשֶׁ֖ר לְעֹלַ֣ת הַתָּמִ֑יד תַּֽעֲשׂ֖וּ אֶת־אֵֽלֶּה:
24Like these, you shall offer up daily for seven days, food of the fire offering, a spirit of satisfaction to the Lord; you shall offer up this in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation.   כדכָּאֵ֜לֶּה תַּֽעֲשׂ֤וּ לַיּוֹם֙ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים לֶ֛חֶם אִשֵּׁ֥ה רֵֽיחַ־נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה עַל־עוֹלַ֧ת הַתָּמִ֛יד יֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ה וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:
Like these, you shall offer up daily: They should not be decreased progressively, as is the case of the bulls of the [Sukkoth] festival. — [Sifrei Pinchas 48]   כאלה תעשו ליום: שלא יהיו פוחתין והולכין כפרי החג:
25The seventh day shall be a holy convocation for you; you shall not perform any mundane work.   כהוּבַיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מִקְרָא־קֹ֖דֶשׁ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת עֲבֹדָ֖ה לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֽׂוּ:


Joshua Chapter 3

5And Joshua said to the people; Prepare yourselves, for tomorrow the Lord will do wonders among you.   הוַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ אֶל־הָעָ֖ם הִתְקַדָּ֑שׁוּ כִּ֣י מָחָ֗ר יַעֲשֶֹ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֖ם נִפְלָאֽוֹת:
And Joshua said: On the third day. And the thirtieth day of Moses’ mourning period was the first of the three days.  
Prepare yourselves: Prepare yourselves.  
for tomorrow: when you cross the Jordan.  
wonders: Jonathan renders: wonders.  
6And Joshua said to the priests, saying: Carry the Ark of the covenant, and pass before the people. And they carried the Ark of the covenant, and went before the people.   ווַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ אֶל־הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֣ים לֵאמֹ֔ר שְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הַבְּרִ֔ית וְעִבְר֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם וַיִּשְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הַבְּרִ֔ית וַיֵּֽלְכ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י הָעָֽם:
And Joshua said to the priests: on the morrow.  
Carry the Ark of the Covenant: Until now the Levites carried it, but today the Priests.  
7And the Lord said to Joshua: This day I will begin to make you great in the sight of all Israel, that they may know that as I was with Moses, so will I be with you.   זוַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה אָחֵל֙ גַּדֶּלְךָ֔ בְּעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲשֶׁר֙ יֵֽדְע֔וּן כִּ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיִ֛יתִי עִם־מֹשֶׁ֖ה אֶֽהְיֶ֥ה עִמָּֽךְ:

Joshua Chapter 5

2At that time the Lord said to Joshua, Make for yourself sharp knives, and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time.   בבָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֗יא אָמַ֚ר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ עֲשֵֹ֥ה לְךָ֖ חַֽרְב֣וֹת צֻרִ֑ים וְשׁ֛וּב מֹ֥ל אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל שֵׁנִֽית:
sharp knives: חרבות צרים, according to Targum, sharp knives, also “You have turned back the edge of his sword.” When the sharp edge is turned sideways and does not cut well. And so: “Every weapon which will be sharpened against you.”  
the second time: for they had already circumcised a large assembly on the night of their departure from Egypt, and this was the second time, for the entire forty years that they were in the desert, the north wind did not blow for them, and they did not have any day suitable for circumcision, as we learned in Job. Our Rabbis state, however, “ ‘the second time’ refers the uncovering the corona at circumcision,” [i.e. splitting the membrane and pulling it back] which Abraham was not commanded to do.  
3And Joshua made for himself sharp knives, and circumcised the children of Israel at the hill of the foreskins.   גוַיַּעַשׂ־ל֥וֹ יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ חַֽרְב֣וֹת צֻרִ֑ים וַיָּ֙מָל֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶל־גִּבְעַ֖ת הָֽעֲרָלֽוֹת:
the hill of the foreskins: It was given this appellation to commemorate the event, because the foreskins were made into a sort of mound, or hillock.  
4And this is the reason why Joshua did circumcise: All the people that came out of Egypt, that were males, all the men of war, had died in the desert by the way after they came out of Egypt.   דוְזֶ֥ה הַדָּבָ֖ר אֲשֶׁר־מָ֣ל יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כָּל־הָעָ֣ם הַיֹּצֵא֩ מִמִּצְרַ֨יִם הַזְּכָרִ֜ים כֹּ֣ל | אַנְשֵׁ֣י הַמִּלְחָמָ֗ה מֵ֚תוּ בַמִּדְבָּר֙ בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ בְּצֵאתָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
Now this is the reason: Through speech he circumcised them. He said to them, “Do you expect to inherit the land while being uncircumcised? Was it not thus stated to Abraham: 'And you shall keep my covenant etc. And I shall give to you and to your seed after you the land of your sojournings?’ ”  
all the people that came out: Not one of them was here, for they had all died, and they were circumcised, as it is stated: for… were circumcised.  
5For all the people that came out were circumcised, but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, they had not circumcised.   הכִּֽי־מֻלִ֣ים הָי֔וּ כָּל־הָעָ֖ם הַיֹּֽצְאִ֑ים וְכָל־הָ֠עָ֠ם הַיִּלֹּדִ֨ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֥ר בַּדֶּ֛רֶךְ בְּצֵאתָ֥ם מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם לֹא־מָֽלוּ:
they had not circumcised: as I explained, that the north wind had not blown, and they were the ones who were circumcised now.  
6For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, until all the people, the men of war, that came out of Egypt, were consumed, those who did not listen to the voice of the Lord, to whom the Lord had sworn that He would not show them the land, which the Lord had sworn to their forefathers that He would give us, a land that flows with milk and honey.   וכִּ֣י | אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֗ה הָֽלְכ֣וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ בַּמִּדְבָּר֒ עַד־תֹּ֨ם כָּל־הַגּ֜וֹי אַנְשֵׁ֚י הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ הַיֹּֽצְאִ֣ים מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־שָֽׁמְע֖וּ בְּק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֚ע יְהֹוָה֙ לָהֶ֔ם לְבִלְתִּ֞י הַרְאוֹתָ֣ם אֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁבַּ֨ע יְהֹוָ֚ה לַֽאֲבוֹתָם֙ לָ֣תֶת לָ֔נוּ אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ:
7And their children, whom he raised up in their stead, them Joshua circumcised, for they had not circumcised them by the way.   זוְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם֙ הֵקִ֣ים תַּחְתָּ֔ם אֹתָ֖ם מָ֣ל יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כִּֽי־עֲרֵלִ֣ים הָי֔וּ כִּ֛י לֹא־מָ֥לוּ אוֹתָ֖ם בַּדָּֽרֶךְ:
And their children whom he raised up in their stead: i.e. And their children whom he raised up in their stead, (they are the ones who were born in the desert) them Joshua circumcised.  
8And it was, when all the people were finished being circumcised, that they remained in their places in the camp, until they recovered.   חוַיְהִ֛י כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־תַּ֥מּוּ כָל־הַגּ֖וֹי לְהִמּ֑וֹל וַיֵּֽשְׁב֥וּ תַחְתָּ֛ם בַּֽמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה עַ֥ד חֲיוֹתָֽם:
and they remained in their places: in their places (Jonathan) and they did not besiege the city.  
until they recovered: from the wound.  
9And the Lord said to Joshua, This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from you. And he called the name of the place Gilgal to this day.   טוַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ הַיּ֗וֹם גַּלּ֛וֹתִי אֶת־חֶרְפַּ֥ת מִצְרַ֖יִם מֵֽעֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֞א שֵׁ֣ם הַמָּק֚וֹם הַהוּא֙ גִּלְגָּ֔ל עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
have I rolled away: I removed the reproach of the Egyptians who had said, “See that ‘Ra-ah’ is before your faces. There is a star named ‘Ra-ah’ which is a symbol of blood. We see it over you in the desert.” And that is what Moses said in the desert, “Why should the Egyptians say, With ‘Ra-ah’ He took them out.” But they did not know that that was the blood of circumcision. And when they circumcised in Joshua’s time, and that blood came, that reproach was removed, for the vast multitude which had gone up with them were still vexing them. In this manner, Rabbi Moses the preacher expounded.  
have I rolled away: גלותי - I have removed, like “(גל) Remove [or roll away] from me reproach and shame.” “ (ויגל) and he rolled off [or removed] the stone.”  
10And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal, and they made the Passover sacrifice on the fourteenth day of the month at evening in the plains of Jericho.   יוַיַּֽחֲנ֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בַּגִּלְגָּ֑ל וַיַּֽעֲשֹ֣וּ אֶת־הַפֶּ֡סַח בְּאַרְבָּעָה֩ עָשָֹ֨ר י֥וֹם לַחֹ֛דֶשׁ בָּעֶ֖רֶב בְּעַֽרְב֥וֹת יְרִיחֽוֹ:
11And they ate of the grain of the land on the morrow of the Passover, unleavened cakes and parched grain on this very day.   יאוַיֹּ֨אכְל֜וּ מֵֽעֲב֥וּר הָאָ֛רֶץ מִמָּֽחֳרַ֥ת הַפֶּ֖סַח מַצּ֣וֹת וְקָל֑וּי בְּעֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
on the morrow of the Passover: the day of the waving of the 'Omer, for first they sacrificed the 'Omer. And from the seventh of Adar, when Moses died, whereupon the manna ceased to fall, they subsisted on the manna which was in their vessels, which they had gathered on the seventh of Adar, as it is stated: “the manna they ate forty years.” Now, was it not forty years less thirty days, for the beginning of the falling of the manna was on the fifteenth of Iyar? Hence we deduce that in the cakes which the Israelites took with them from Egypt they perceived the taste of manna.  
12And the manna ceased on the morrow when they ate of the grain of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna anymore; and they ate of the produce of the land of Canaan that year.   יבוַיִּשְׁבֹּ֨ת הַמָּ֜ן מִֽמָּֽחֳרָ֗ת בְּאָכְלָם֙ מֵֽעֲב֣וּר הָאָ֔רֶץ וְלֹא־הָ֥יָה ע֛וֹד לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מָ֑ן וַֽיֹּאכְל֗וּ מִתְּבוּאַת֙ אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן בַּשָּׁנָ֖ה הַהִֽיא:
neither had the children of Israel manna anymore: Therefore, they ate of the grain of the Land. Had they still had manna, they would not have eaten of the grain, for the manna was pleasing to them. An appropriate parable is: One says to a child, why do you eat barley bread? Because he has no wheat bread. Therefore, it is stated: “Neither had the children of Israel manna anymore, etc.”  
13And it was when Joshua was in Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and saw, and, behold, a man was standing opposite him with his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went to him, and said to him, Are you for us, or for our adversaries?   יגוַיְהִ֗י בִּֽהְי֣וֹת יְהוֹשֻׁ֘עַ֘ בִּֽירִיחוֹ֒ וַיִּשָּׂ֚א עֵינָיו֙ וַיַּ֔רְא וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ֙ עֹמֵ֣ד לְנֶגְדּ֔וֹ וְחַרְבּ֥וֹ שְׁלוּפָ֖ה בְּיָד֑וֹ וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁ֚עַ אֵלָיו֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ הֲלָ֥נוּ אַתָּ֖ה אִם־לְצָרֵֽינוּ:
when Joshua was in Jericho: Hence we deduce that the outskirts of a city are considered as part of the city, for it is impossible to say [that he was actually] inside Jericho.  
Are you for us: Have you come to support us?  
14And he said, No, but I am the captain of the host of the Lord; I have now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and prostrated himself, and said to him, What does my lord say to his servant?   ידוַיֹּ֣אמֶר | לֹ֗א כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י שַׂר־צְבָֽא־יְהֹוָ֖ה עַתָּ֣ה בָ֑אתִי וַיִּפֹּל֩ יְהוֹשֻׁ֨עַ אֶל־פָּנָ֥יו אַ֙רְצָה֙ וַיִּשְׁתָּ֔חוּ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ מָ֥ה אֲדֹנִ֖י מְדַבֵּ֥ר אֶל־עַבְדּֽוֹ:
I have now come: to your aid, for no man can wage war against it [Jericho] and seize it, to throw down the wall. But in the time of Moses your master, I came and he did not want me, as it is stated: “if Your presence does not go, etc.”  
15And the captain of the Lord's host said to Joshua, Remove your shoe from your foot; for the place upon which you stand is holy. And Joshua did so.   טווַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ שַׂר־צְבָ֨א יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֗עַ שַׁל־נַֽעַלְךָ֙ מֵעַ֣ל רַגְלֶ֔ךָ כִּ֣י הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתָּ֛ה עֹמֵ֥ד עָלָ֖יו קֹ֣דֶשׁ ה֑וּא וַיַּ֥עַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ כֵּֽן:
the captain of the Lord’s host: Israel, who is the Lord’s host. Now, this was Michael, as it is said: “Michael your prince.”  

Joshua Chapter 6

1And Jericho had shut its gates and was barred because of the children of Israel; none went out and none came in.   אוִֽירִיחוֹ֙ סֹגֶ֣רֶת וּמְסֻגֶּ֔רֶת מִפְּנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֵ֥ין יוֹצֵ֖א וְאֵ֥ין בָּֽא:
had shut its gates and was barred: according to Targum , closed with iron gates and reinforced with copper bolts.  

Joshua Chapter 6

27So the Lord was with Joshua; and his fame was throughout the entire land.   כזוַיְהִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ וַיְהִ֥י שָׁמְע֖וֹ בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
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