Torah Reading for Nitzavim-Vayelech

Parshat Nitzavim-Vayelech
Shabbat, 25 Elul, 5784
28 September, 2024
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Complete: (Deuteronomy 29:9 - 31:30; Isaiah 61:10 - 63:9)
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First Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 29

9You are all standing this day before the Lord, your God the leaders of your tribes, your elders and your officers, every man of Israel,   טאַתֶּ֨ם נִצָּבִ֤ים הַיּוֹם֙ כֻּלְּכֶ֔ם לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם רָֽאשֵׁיכֶ֣ם שִׁבְטֵיכֶ֗ם זִקְנֵיכֶם֙ וְשֹׁ֣טְרֵיכֶ֔ם כֹּ֖ל אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
You are all standing: [The verse says “this day,” which] teaches us that on the day of his death, Moses assembled Israel in the presence of the Holy One, Blessed is He, to bring them into [His] covenant.   אתם נצבים: מלמד שכנסם משה לפני הקב"ה ביום מותו להכניסם בברית:
the leaders of your tribes: Heb. רָאשֵׁיכֶם שִׁבְטֵיכֶם, [lit., “your leaders, your tribes,” referring to two separate entities, which does not make sense here because “your tribes” includes the leaders. Rather, this means here:] “The leaders of your tribes.”   ראשיכם שבטיכם: ראשיכם לשבטיכם:
your elders and your officers: [We learn from the order in this verse that] the more distinguished ones were mentioned first, and after this: “every man of Israel.”   זקניכם ושטריכם: החשוב חשוב קודם ואחר כך כל איש ישראל:
10your young children, your women, and your convert who is within your camp both your woodcutters and your water drawers,   יטַפְּכֶ֣ם נְשֵׁיכֶ֔ם וְגֵ֣רְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּקֶ֣רֶב מַֽחֲנֶ֑יךָ מֵֽחֹטֵ֣ב עֵצֶ֔יךָ עַ֖ד שֹׁאֵ֥ב מֵימֶֽיךָ:
both your woodcutters [and your water drawers]: [The mention of these people separate to the main community of Israel] teaches us that in the days of Moses, Canaanites came to convert [to Judaism], just as the Gibeonites came [to convert] in the days of Joshua. This is the meaning of the verse regarding the Gibeonites,“And they also acted cunningly…” (Josh. 9:4), [i. e., pretending that they had come from a far away country. When they were discovered, Joshua made them woodcutters and water drawers for Israel (see Josh. 9:3-27). Likewise here, the Canaanites attempted to deceive Moses,. but they did not succeed, and Moses did not accept them to be Jews. Rather,] Moses made them woodcutters and water drawers [i.e., slaves for Israel]. — [Tanchuma 2; Yev. 79a; see Rashi Gittin 23b]   מחטב עציך: מלמד שבאו כנענים להתגייר בימי משה, כדרך שבאו גבעונים בימי יהושע. וזהו האמור בגבעונים (יהושע ט, ד) ויעשו גם המה בערמה, ונתנם משה חוטבי עצים ושואבי מים:
11that you may enter the covenant of the Lord, your God, and His oath, which the Lord, your God, is making with you this day,   יאלְעָבְרְךָ֗ בִּבְרִ֛ית יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ וּבְאָֽלָת֑וֹ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ כֹּרֵ֥ת עִמְּךָ֖ הַיּֽוֹם:
that you may enter: Heb. לְעָבְרְךָ‏. [Meaning,] “That you may pass through [i.e., enter] the covenant.” One should not understand this verb [to be in the causative conjugation,] to mean “to cause you to pass through,” [but rather, the verb is in the simple conjugation, and means that you yourselves will pass through]. This is similar to the expression, לַעֲשׂתְכֶם, “that you [yourselves] should do them” (Deut. 4:14).   לעברך: להיותך עובר בברית. ולא יתכן לפרשו כמו להעבירך, אלא כמו (לעיל ד, יד) לעשותכם אותם:
that you may enter into the covenant: [lit.] “that you may pass through the covenant.” This was the method of those who made covenants: They would set up a demarcation on one side and a demarcation on the other, and [the respective parties of the covenant] “passed through” between [these partitions], as the verse says, “[when] they cut the calf in two and passed between its parts” (Jer. 34:18).   לעברך בברית: דרך העברה, כך היו כורתים ברית, עושין מחיצה מכאן ומחיצה מכאן ועוברים בינתים, כמו שנאמר (ירמיה לד, יח) העגל אשר כרתו לשנים ויעברו בין בתריו:
12in order to establish you this day as His people, and that He will be your God, as He spoke to you, and as He swore to your forefathers to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.   יבלְמַ֣עַן הָקִֽים־אֹֽתְךָ֩ הַיּ֨וֹם | ל֜וֹ לְעָ֗ם וְה֤וּא יִֽהְיֶה־לְּךָ֙ לֵֽאלֹהִ֔ים כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּר־לָ֑ךְ וְכַֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר נִשְׁבַּע לַֽאֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹֽב:
in order to establish you this day as His people: [Why does God here warn Israel against idolatry by making such grave oaths and severe curses, unlike other commandments where He would simply make a warning and attach a punishment if the commandment was transgressed?] He goes to so much trouble here, for the purpose of keeping you as His people. [Since He promised not to exchange you for another people (see the following Rashi), He must ensure your faithfulness to Him.   למען הקים אותך היום לו לעם: כל כך הוא נכנס לטרוח למען קיים אותך לפניו לעם:
and that He will be your God: Since God has given you His word and [also] sworn to your forefathers not to exchange their offspring for another nation, therefore, He [ensures your faithfulness to Him by] binding you through these oaths, so as not to provoke Him to anger, because He cannot separate Himself from you. Until here, I have explained this passage according to its simple sense. The homiletic explanation is as follows: Why is parashath Nitzavim juxtaposed to the curses [in parashath Ki Tavo]? Because when Israel heard these ninety-eight curses [delineated in Ki Tavo], besides the forty-nine [curses] stated in Leviticus (26:14-38), they turned pale, and said, “Who can possibly endure these?” [Thereupon,] Moses began to appease them [as follows]:   והוא יהיה לך לאלהים: לפי שדבר לך ונשבע לאבותיך שלא להחליף את זרעם באומה אחרת, לכך הוא אוסר אתכם בשבועות הללו, שלא תקניטוהו אחר שהוא אינו יכול להבדל מכם. עד כאן פירשתי לפי פשוטו של פרשה. ומדרש אגדה למה נסמכה פרשת אתם נצבים לקללות, לפי ששמעו ישראל מאה קללות חסר שתים, חוץ ממ"ט שבתורת כהנים, הוריקו פניהם ואמרו מי יוכל לעמוד באלו, התחיל משה לפייסם:
You are… standing this day: You have provoked the Omnipresent to anger many times, yet He has not made an end to you. Indeed, you still exist before Him [“standing… before the Lord”]. — [Tanchuma 1]   אתם נצבים היום: הרבה הכעסתם למקום ולא עשה אתכם כלייה והרי אתם קיימים לפניו
this day: [You exist now] Just as this day exists. For [although] it becomes dark [for a period, nevertheless] it shines [again]. So too, here, God has made light for you, and He will again make light for you in the future. And the curses and sufferings preserve you and enable you to stand before Him [the curses, by preventing you to stray from serving Him, and the sufferings, by cleansing you of your sins]. Similarly, in the previous parashah [of Ki Tavo, Moses spoke] words of conciliation, [e.g.,] “You have seen all that the Lord did…” (Deut. 29:1). Another explanation of…   היום: כיום הזה שהוא קיים והוא מאפיל ומאיר, כך האיר לכם וכך עתיד להאיר לכם, והקללות והיסורין מקיימין אתכם ומציבין אתכם לפניו. ואף הפרשה שלמעלה מזו פיוסין הם, אתם ראיתם את כל אשר עשה. דבר אחר,:
You are… standing: Because the Israelites were now passing from one leader to the next-i.e., from [the leadership of] Moses to [that of] Joshua. Therefore, Moses made them stand [in assembled ranks], in order to encourage them. Joshua did the same [when he was about to die (Josh. 24:1)]. Also, Samuel [did likewise], when Israel passed from his leadership to that of Saul, [as the verse says,] “Stand now, and I will reason with you before the Lord…” (I Sam. 12:7). - [Tanchuma 1]   אתם נצבים: לפי שהיו ישראל יוצאין מפרנס לפרנס ממשה ליהושע, לפיכך עשה אותם מצבה כדי לזרזם וכן עשה יהושע וכן שמואל (שמואל א' יב, ז) התיצבו ואשפטה אתכם, כשיצאו מידו ונכנסו לידו של שאול:
13But not only with you am I making this covenant and this oath,   יגוְלֹ֥א אִתְּכֶ֖ם לְבַדְּכֶ֑ם אָֽנֹכִ֗י כֹּרֵת֙ אֶת־הַבְּרִ֣ית הַזֹּ֔את וְאֶת־הָֽאָלָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת:
14but with those standing here with us today before the Lord, our God, and [also] with those who are not here with us, this day.   ידכִּי֩ אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֨ר יֶשְׁנ֜וֹ פֹּ֗ה עִמָּ֨נוּ֙ עֹמֵ֣ד הַיּ֔וֹם לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וְאֵ֨ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵינֶ֛נּוּ פֹּ֖ה עִמָּ֥נוּ הַיּֽוֹם:
and [also] with those who are not here: also with future generations. — [Tanchuma 3]   ואת אשר איננו פה: ואף עם דורות העתידים להיות:
15For you know how we dwelled in the land of Egypt, and how we passed among the nations through which you passed.   טוכִּֽי־אַתֶּ֣ם יְדַעְתֶּ֔ם אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יָשַׁ֖בְנוּ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְאֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־עָבַ֛רְנוּ בְּקֶ֥רֶב הַגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֲבַרְתֶּֽם:
For you know: [Verses 15-17 are understood as follows:] Since you saw the idolatrous nations, perhaps one of you was enticed to follow their ways, and“perhaps there is among you…” (verse 17), therefore, I must place you under an oath [because you are in this position of extra susceptibility].   כי אתם ידעתם וגו' ותראו את שקוציהם: לפי שראיתם האומות עובדי עבודה זרה ושמא השיא לב אחד מכם אותו ללכת אחריהם פן יש בכם וגו' (פסוק יז) לפיכך אני צריך להשביעכם:
16And you saw their abominations and their repugnant idols [of] wood and stone, silver and gold which were with them.   טזוַתִּרְאוּ֙ אֶת־שִׁקּ֣וּצֵיהֶ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת גִּלֻּֽלֵיהֶ֑ם עֵ֣ץ וָאֶ֔בֶן כֶּ֥סֶף וְזָהָ֖ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר עִמָּהֶֽם:
you saw their abominations: Heb. שִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם. [Their idols are so termed] because they are disgusting, like creeping, crawling insects (שְׁקָצִים).   ותראו את שקוציהם: על שם שהם מאוסים כשקצים:
their repugnant idols: Heb. גִּלֻּלֵיהֶם. - [Their idols, thus termed] because they are putrid and disgusting like dung (גָּלָל) .   גלליהם: שמוסרחים ומאוסין כגלל:
wood and stone: You saw those [idols] made of wood and stone out in the open, because the heathen [who owned them, did not mind leaving them outside, since he] did not fear that they would be stolen. [Thus, regarding these idols, the verse says, “And you saw their… idols… (of) wood and stone.”] However, [regarding the idols made] of “silver and gold,” they“were with them,” in the [confines of their private] treasure chambers, because [their heathen owners] were afraid that these [expensive idols] might be stolen. — [Tanchuma 3]   עץ ואבן: אותן של עצים ושל אבנים ראיתם בגלוי, לפי שאין הגוים יראים שמא יגנבו, אבל של כסף וזהב עמהם בחדרי משכיתם הם, לפי שהם יראים שמא יגנבו:
17Perhaps there is among you a man, woman, family, or tribe, whose heart strays this day from the Lord, our God, to go and worship the deities of those nations. Perhaps there is among you a root that produces hemlock and wormwood.   יזפֶּן־יֵ֣שׁ בָּ֠כֶ֠ם אִ֣ישׁ אֽוֹ־אִשָּׁ֞ה א֧וֹ מִשְׁפָּחָ֣ה אוֹ־שֵׁ֗בֶט אֲשֶׁר֩ לְבָב֨וֹ פֹנֶ֤ה הַיּוֹם֙ מֵעִם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ לָלֶ֣כֶת לַֽעֲבֹ֔ד אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֖י הַגּוֹיִ֣ם הָהֵ֑ם פֶּן־יֵ֣שׁ בָּכֶ֗ם שֹׁ֛רֶשׁ פֹּרֶ֥ה רֹ֖אשׁ וְלַֽעֲנָֽה:
Perhaps there is among you: פֶּן-יֵשׁ בָּכֶם [This phrase, meaning,] “Perhaps there is among you,” [is repeated twice in this verse. Rashi explains here that there might be two levels of disobeying God. A person might serve other deities, or he is one…]   פן יש בכם: שמא יש בכם:
whose heart strays this day: from accepting upon himself the covenant.   אשר לבבו פנה היום: מלקבל עליו הברית:
a root that produces hemlock and wormwood: [This refers to] a root that produces a bitter herb, like giddin , which are bitter [see Targum Jonathan on Lam. 3:19]. Here, then, the verse means:“[Someone who] produces and increases evil among you.”   שרש פרה ראש ולענה: שרש מגדל עשב מר כגידין, שהם מרים, כלומר מפרה ומרבה רשע בקרבכם:
18And it will be, when he [such a person] hears the words of this oath, that he will bless himself in his heart, saying, "I will have peace, even if I follow my heart's desires," in order to add the [punishment for the] unintentional sins [of this man] to that of [his] intentional sins.   יחוְהָיָ֡ה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ֩ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֨י הָֽאָלָ֜ה הַזֹּ֗את וְהִתְבָּרֵ֨ךְ בִּלְבָב֤וֹ לֵאמֹר֙ שָׁל֣וֹם יִֽהְיֶה־לִּ֔י כִּ֛י בִּשְׁרִר֥וּת לִבִּ֖י אֵלֵ֑ךְ לְמַ֛עַן סְפ֥וֹת הָֽרָוָ֖ה אֶת־הַצְּמֵאָֽה:
that he will bless himself in his heart: Heb. וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ בִּלְבָבוֹ [the word וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ stems from] the word for “blessing” (בָּרֵךְ). [The verse means:] “In his heart, [this man] will imagine a blessing of peace for himself, saying: These curses will not come upon me. I will have only peace!”   והתברך בלבבו: לשון ברכה, יחשוב בלבו ברכת שלום לעצמו לאמר, לא יבואוני קללות הללו, אך שלום יהיה לי:
he will bless himself: Heb. וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ, bendira soy in Old French [i.e., the verb is in the reflexive conjugation], like “וְהִתְגַּלָּח, And he shall shave himself” (Lev. 13:33), “וְהִתְפַּלֵּל, and he will pray” (I Kings 8:42), [which employs the reflexive form of the root פלל].   והתברך: בינדיר"א שי"י בלע"ז [יברך את עצמו], כמו והתגלח והתפלל:
I follow my heart’s desires: Heb. בִּשְׁרִירוּת לִבִּי אֵלֵךְ [Meaning, “If I follow] what my heart beholds,” as in [the verse], “I behold it (אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ) , but it is not near” (Num. 24:17). That is to say [the verse means]: “[Even if I go in the way] that my heart sees [fit] to do.”   בשררות לבי אלך: במראית לבי, כמו (במדבר כד, יז) אשורנו ולא קרוב, כלומר מה שלבי רואה לעשות:
in order to add the [punishment for the] unintentional sins [of this man]: לְמַעַן סְפוֹת הָרָוָה - Because I will add to him the punishment for what he heretofore committed unintentionally, which I would have overlooked, but now, he has caused that I combine them with the intentional sins and punish him for everything. Similarly, Onkelos renders [the verse here as]: בְּדִיל לְאוֹסָפָא לֵיהּ חֶטְאֵי שָׁלוּתָא עַל זְדָנוּתָא, [meaning,] That I shall add for him the [punishment incurred for the] unintentional sins to [that of] the intentional sins.   למען ספות הרוה: לפי שאוסיף לו פורענות על מה שעשה עד הנה בשוגג והייתי מעביר עליהם, וגורם עתה שאצרפם עם המזיד ואפרע ממנו הכל. וכן תרגם אונקלוס בדיל לאוספא ליה חטאי שלותא על זדנותא, שאוסיף לו אני השגגות על הזדונות:
the [punishment for the] unintentional sins: Heb. הָרָוָה [lit., “drunk.” Here, as explained, the word] refers to unintentional [sins], which [a man] commits as if in a drunken state, that is, unknowingly.   הרוה: שוגג שהוא עושה כאדם שכור שלא מדעת:
to [his] intentional sins: Heb. הַצְּמֵאָה [lit., “thirsty.” Here, as explained, the word refers to intentional sins, that is] when [a man] commits [a sin] knowingly and out of lust.   הצמאה: שהוא עושה מדעת ובתאוה:
19The Lord will not be willing to forgive him; rather, then, the Lord's fury and His zeal will fume against that man, and the entire curse written in this book will rest upon him, and the Lord will obliterate his name from beneath the heavens.   יטלֹֽא־יֹאבֶ֣ה יְהֹוָה֘ סְלֹ֣חַ לוֹ֒ כִּ֣י אָ֠ז יֶעְשַׁ֨ן אַף־יְהֹוָ֤ה וְקִנְאָתוֹ֙ בָּאִ֣ישׁ הַה֔וּא וְרָ֤בְצָה בּוֹ֙ כָּל־הָ֣אָלָ֔ה הַכְּתוּבָ֖ה בַּסֵּ֣פֶר הַזֶּ֑ה וּמָחָ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־שְׁמ֔וֹ מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם:
The Lord’s fury… will fume: [The image is as follows:] Through anger, the body [of a person] becomes heated up, and fumes are emitted from the nose. Similarly, [referring to God,] the verse says,“Smoke rose up in His nose” (II Sam. 22:9). Now, although this is inappropriate for the Omnipresent [since He has no physical form; nevertheless], Scripture describes [this concept] to the human ear in the manner to which it is accustomed and able to understand, according to the [natural] ways of the world. [Thus, the verse here is figuratively denoting God’s fuming anger.]   יעשן אף ה': על ידי כעס הגוף מתחמם והעשן יוצא מן האף, וכן (ש"ב כב, ט) עלה עשן באפו ואף על פי שאין זו לפני המקום, הכתוב משמיע את האוזן כדרך שהיא רגילה ויכולה לשמוע, כפי דרך הארץ:
and His zeal: Heb. וְקִנְאָתוֹ [This is] a term denoting [burning] fury, enprenemant [in Old French, zealous anger], firmly keeping hold of the trait of vengeance, without giving in whatsoever.   וקנאתו: לשון חמה אנפרטמינ"ט [חמה] אחיזת לבישת נקמה, ואינו מעביר על המדה:
20And the Lord will separate him for evil, out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the covenant, written in this Torah scroll.   כוְהִבְדִּיל֤וֹ יְהֹוָה֙ לְרָעָ֔ה מִכֹּ֖ל שִׁבְטֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כְּכֹל֙ אָל֣וֹת הַבְּרִ֔ית הַכְּתוּבָ֕ה בְּסֵ֥פֶר הַתּוֹרָ֖ה הַזֶּֽה:
that is written in this book: Heb. בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה, “written in this Torah scroll.” [Here, the word for“this” (הַזֶּה) is in the masculine form. However,] earlier, the verse says, “And also every sickness and plague… in this Torah scroll בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזּאֹת” (Deut. 28:61), [where the word for“this” (הַזּאֹת), appearing in the identical phrase, is in the feminine form. How do we explain the difference of gender for the same word, appearing in an identical phrase in Scripture? The answer is that there in Deut. 28:61,] the הַזּאֹת, which is in the feminine form, qualifies the word הַתּוֹרָה, “Torah” [which is in the feminine form]. And [here in our verse,] the word הַזֶּה, which is in the masculine form, qualifies the word סֵפֶר, “scroll” [which is in the masculine form. How do we know that each respective mention of the word “this” is qualifying the particular word described, and not otherwise? Because in these two verses,] the cantillation symbols punctuate the words [of the phrase“this Torah scroll”] in two different ways, [as follows]: In the passage [describing] the curses [i.e., in Deut. 28:61], the [cantillation symbol called] tipcha is placed under the word בְּסֵפֶר, [thus separating it from the next words הַתּוֹרָה הַזּאֹת,] while [the words], הַתּוֹרָה הַזּאֹת are attached to each other [also by virtue of the cantillation symbols]. Hence, [the verse] employs the הַזּאֹת [for the word “this,” because it clearly is qualifying the word “Torah,” which is in the feminine form]. However, here [in our verse], the tipcha is placed under the word הַתּוֹרָה. [Thus, together with its previous conjunctive symbol, the meircha placed under the word בְּסֵפֶר, it] joins these two words, בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה, into one attached [expression]. Accordingly, the word [“this”] qualifies the [first word in the expression, namely,] “scroll,” [the direct object in the expression “Torah scroll,” and since the word“scroll”] is in the masculine form [thus, the qualifying word הַזֶּה takes on the masculine form here].   הכתובה בספר התורה הזה: ולמעלה הוא אומר (לעיל כח, סא) בספר התורה הזאת גם כל חלי וכל מכה וגו', הזאת לשון נקבה מוסב על התורה. הזה לשון זכר מוסב על הספר, ועל ידי פסוק הטעמים הן נחלקין לשתי לשונות, בפרשת הקללות הטפחא נתונה תחת בספר, והתורה הזאת דבוקים זה לזה, לכך אמר הזאת וכאן הטפחה נתונה תחת התורה, נמצא ספר התורה דבוקים זה לזה לפיכך לשון זכר נופל אחריו, שהלשון נופל על הספר:
21And a later generation, your descendants, who will rise after you, along with the foreigner who comes from a distant land, will say, upon seeing the plagues of that land and the diseases with which the Lord struck it:   כאוְאָמַ֞ר הַדּ֣וֹר הָאַֽחֲר֗וֹן בְּנֵיכֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יָק֨וּמוּ֙ מֵאַ֣חֲרֵיכֶ֔ם וְהַ֨נָּכְרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָבֹ֖א מֵאֶ֣רֶץ רְחוֹקָ֑ה וְ֠רָא֠וּ אֶת־מַכּ֞וֹת הָאָ֤רֶץ הַהִוא֙ וְאֶת־תַּ֣חֲלֻאֶ֔יהָ אֲשֶׁר־חִלָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה בָּֽהּ:
22Sulfur and salt have burned up its entire land! It cannot be sown, nor can it grow [anything], not [even] any grass will sprout upon it. It is like the overturning of Sodom, Gemorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, which the Lord overturned in His fury and in His rage.   כבגָּפְרִ֣ית וָמֶ֘לַח֘ שְׂרֵפָ֣ה כָל־אַרְצָהּ֒ לֹ֤א תִזָּרַע֙ וְלֹ֣א תַצְמִ֔חַ וְלֹא־יַֽעֲלֶ֥ה בָ֖הּ כָּל־עֵ֑שֶׂב כְּמַהְפֵּכַ֞ת סְדֹ֤ם וַֽעֲמֹרָה֙ אַדְמָ֣ה וּצְבוֹיִ֔ם (כתיב וצביים) אֲשֶׁר֙ הָפַ֣ךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּאַפּ֖וֹ וּבַֽחֲמָתֽוֹ:
23And all the nations will say, Why did the Lord do so to this land? What [is the reason] for this great rage of fury?   כגוְאָֽמְרוּ֙ כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם עַל־מֶ֨ה עָשָׂ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה כָּ֖כָה לָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֑את מֶ֥ה חֳרִ֛י הָאַ֥ף הַגָּד֖וֹל הַזֶּֽה:
24Then they will say, It is because they abandoned the covenant of the Lord, God of their fathers, [the covenant] which He made with them when He took them out of the land of Egypt,   כדוְאָ֣מְר֔וּ עַ֚ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָֽזְב֔וּ אֶת־בְּרִ֥ית יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתָ֑ם אֲשֶׁר֙ כָּרַ֣ת עִמָּ֔ם בְּהֽוֹצִיא֥וֹ אֹתָ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
25For they went and served other deities, prostrating themselves to them deities which they had not known, and which He had not apportioned to them.   כהוַיֵּֽלְכ֗וּ וַיַּֽעַבְדוּ֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲו֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם אֱלֹהִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־יְדָע֔וּם וְלֹ֥א חָלַ֖ק לָהֶֽם:
which they had not known: In which they had never recognized any divine power.   לא ידעום: לא ידעו בהם גבורת אלהות:
and which He had not apportioned to them: Heb. וְלֹא חָלַק לָהֶם [Meaning, “God] had not allotted them” [these deities] to be their [Israel’s] portion. Onkelos , however, renders:“and which did not grant them any good.” [Here,] the expression וְלֹא חָלַק is [understood to mean]:“that deity which they would choose for themselves did not apportion to them any inheritance or any portion.”   ולא חלק להם: לא נתנם לחלקם. ואונקלוס תרגם ולא אוטיבא להון, לא הטיבו להם שום טובה, ולשון לא חלק אותו אלוה שבחרו להם לא חלק להם שום נחלה ושום חלק:
26And the Lord's fury raged against that land, bringing upon it the entire curse written in this book.   כווַיִּֽחַר־אַ֥ף יְהֹוָ֖ה בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַהִ֑וא לְהָבִ֤יא עָלֶ֨יהָ֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַקְּלָלָ֔ה הַכְּתוּבָ֖ה בַּסֵּ֥פֶר הַזֶּֽה:
27And the Lord uprooted them from upon their land, with fury, anger and great wrath, and He cast them to another land, as it is this day.   כזוַיִּתְּשֵׁ֤ם יְהֹוָה֙ מֵעַ֣ל אַדְמָתָ֔ם בְּאַ֥ף וּבְחֵמָ֖ה וּבְקֶ֣צֶף גָּד֑וֹל וַיַּשְׁלִכֵ֛ם אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ אֲחֶ֖רֶת כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
And the Lord uprooted them: Heb. וַיִּתְּשֵׁם ה׳, as rendered by the Targum: וְטַלְטְלִינוּן, “and He drove them out.” Similarly, “Behold, I uproot them (נוֹתְשָׁם) from upon their land” (Jer. 12:14).   ויתשם ה': כתרגומו וטלטלינון, וכן (ירמיה יב יד) הנני נותשם מעל אדמתם:
28The hidden things belong to the Lord, our God, but the revealed things apply to us and to our children forever: that we must fulfill all the words of this Torah.   כחהַנִּ֨סְתָּרֹ֔ת לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וְהַנִּגְלֹ֞ת ֹלָֹ֤נוֹּ ֹוֹּלְֹבָֹנֵֹ֨יֹנֹוּ֨ עַד־עוֹלָ֔ם לַֽעֲשׂ֕וֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת:
The hidden things belong to the Lord, our God: Now, you might object [to God, saying]: “But what can we do? You punish the entire community because of the sinful thoughts of an individual, as Scripture says, ‘Perhaps there is among you a man…’ (verse 17 above), and after this, Scripture continues, ‘Seeing the plagues of that land [and the diseases with which the Lord struck it]’ (verse 21) [which seems to indicate that for the sinful thought of even one individual, the whole land would be struck down with plagues and diseases]. But surely no man can know the secret thoughts of his fellow [that we could somehow prevent this collective punishment!” In answer to this, God says:] “I will not punish you for the hidden things!” [I.e.,] because “[The hidden things] belong to the Lord, our God,” and He will exact punishment upon that particular individual [who sins in secret]. However, “the revealed things apply to us and to our children” [that is, we are responsible for detecting the sins committed openly in our community, and] to eradicate any evil among us. And if we do not execute judgment upon these [open transgressions, over which we do have control,], then the whole community will be punished [because they would be remiss in their responsibility]. There is a dot placed over [each letter of] the words לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ here, to teach us homiletically that even for open sins [which were not brought to judgment, God] did not punish the whole community-until Israel crossed the Jordan. For then, they accepted upon themselves the oath at Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, and thereby [formally] became responsible for one another (Sanh. 43b). [When dots are placed over letters of the Torah, this denotes an exclusion of some sort. In our context, our Rabbis teach us that the exclusion refers to the period prior to the crossing of the Jordan.]   הנסתרת לה' אלהינו: ואם תאמרו מה בידינו לעשות, אתה מעניש את הרבים על הרהורי היחיד, שנאמר (פסוק יז) פן יש בכם איש וגו', ואחר כך (פסוק כא) וראו את מכות הארץ ההיא, והלא אין אדם יודע טמונותיו של חבירו, אין אני מעניש אתכם על הנסתרות, שהן לה' אלהינו והוא יפרע מאותו יחיד, אבל הנגלות, לנו ולבנינו לבער הרע מקרבנו, ואם לא נעשה דין בהם יענשו את הרבים. נקוד על לנו ולבנינו, לדרוש, שאף על הנגלות לא ענש את הרבים עד שעברו את הירדן משקבלו עליהם את השבועה בהר גרזים ובהר עיבל ונעשו ערבים זה לזה:

Second Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 30

1And it will be, when all these things come upon you the blessing and the curse which I have set before you that you will consider in your heart, among all the nations where the Lord your God has banished you,   אוְהָיָה֩ כִֽי־יָבֹ֨אוּ עָלֶ֜יךָ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה הַבְּרָכָה֙ וְהַקְּלָלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לְפָנֶ֑יךָ וַֽהֲשֵֽׁבֹתָ֙ אֶל־לְבָבֶ֔ךָ בְּכָ֨ל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֧ר הִדִּיחֲךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ שָֽׁמָּה:
2and you will return to the Lord, your God, with all your heart and with all your soul, and you will listen to His voice according to all that I am commanding you this day you and your children,   בוְשַׁבְתָּ֞ עַד־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ וְשָֽׁמַעְתָּ֣ בְקֹל֔וֹ כְּכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּ֑וֹם אַתָּ֣ה וּבָנֶ֔יךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ֖ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ:
3then, the Lord, your God, will bring back your exiles, and He will have mercy upon you. He will once again gather you from all the nations, where the Lord, your God, had dispersed you.   גוְשָׁ֨ב יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ אֶת־שְׁבֽוּתְךָ֖ וְרִֽחֲמֶ֑ךָ וְשָׁ֗ב וְקִבֶּצְךָ֙ מִכָּל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר הֱפִֽיצְךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ שָֽׁמָּה:
The Lord, your God, will bring back your exiles: Heb. וְשָׁב, lit., The Lord, your God, will (Himself) return (with) your exiles. [That is, the verb שָׁב is in the simple conjugation. Now, since we understand the verse to mean: “The Lord your God will bring back your exiles,”] Scripture should have written, וְהֵשִׁיב ה׳ אֶת שְׁבוּתְךָ [with the verb וְהֵשִׁיב being in the causative conjugation, meaning “to bring back”]. But [although the meaning of the verse is indeed, “The Lord, your God, will bring back your exiles,”] our Rabbis learned from [the simple conjugation of the verb] here [which alludes to God Himself returning], that the Shechinah resides among Israel, as it were, in all the misery of their exile, and when the Jews are redeemed [from their exile], God writes [in Scripture an expression of] redemption for Himself [to allude to the fact that He has also been redeemed, as it were,] so that He Himself returns along with Israel’s exiles (Meg. 29a). A further [lesson] may be learned [from the unusual form of the verb which expresses “to bring back the exiles”]: The day on which Israel’s exiles will be gathered is so monumental and [this ingathering] will be such a difficult [procedure, as it were], that it is as though God Himself must literally take each individual Jew with His very hands, [taking him] out of his place [in exile. We see] the same concept [brought up in Scripture,] when the verse says, “And you will be gathered up, one by one, O children of Israel” (Isa. 27:12). [That verse refers to the ingathering of Israel’s exiles from Babylon. However,] we find this [idea] also regarding the [ingathering of] exiles from the other nations, as the verse says, “And I shall bring back the exiles of Moab (וְשַׁבְתִּי שְׁבוּת מוֹאָב)” (Jer. 48:47).   ושב ה' אלהיך את שבותך: היה לו לכתוב והשיב את שבותך, רבותינו למדו מכאן שהשכינה כביכול שרויה עם ישראל בצרת גלותם, וכשנגאלין הכתיב גאולה לעצמו, שהוא ישוב עמהם. ועוד יש לומר, שגדול יום קבוץ גליות ובקושי, כאלו הוא עצמו צריך להיות אוחז בידיו ממש איש איש ממקומו, כענין שנאמר (ישעיה כז, יב) ואתם תלקטו לאחד אחד בני ישראל, ואף בגליות שאר האומות מצינו כן (ירמיהו מח מז) ושבתי שבות מואב:
4Even if your exiles are at the end of the heavens, the Lord, your God, will gather you from there, and He will take you from there.   דאִם־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה נִדַּֽחֲךָ֖ בִּקְצֵ֣ה הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם מִשָּׁ֗ם יְקַבֶּצְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וּמִשָּׁ֖ם יִקָּחֶֽךָ:
5And the Lord, your God, will bring you to the land which your forefathers possessed, and you [too] will take possession of it, and He will do good to you, and He will make you more numerous than your forefathers.   הוֶֽהֱבִֽיאֲךָ֞ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֛רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יָֽרְשׁ֥וּ אֲבֹתֶ֖יךָ וִֽירִשְׁתָּ֑הּ וְהֵיטִֽבְךָ֥ וְהִרְבְּךָ֖ מֵֽאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ:
6And the Lord, your God, will circumcise your heart and the heart of your offspring, [so that you may] love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, for the sake of your life.   ווּמָ֨ל יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ אֶת־לְבָֽבְךָ֖ וְאֶת־לְבַ֣ב זַרְעֶ֑ךָ לְאַֽהֲבָ֞ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ בְּכָל־לְבָֽבְךָ֥ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ֖ לְמַ֥עַן חַיֶּֽיךָ:

Third Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 30

7And the Lord, your God, will place all these curses upon your enemies and upon your adversaries, who pursued you.   ז וְנָתַן֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הָֽאָל֖וֹת הָאֵלֶּ֑ה עַל־אֹֽיְבֶ֥יךָ וְעַל־שֽׂנְאֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר רְדָפֽוּךָ:
8And you will return and listen to the voice of the Lord, and fulfill all His commandments, which I command you this day.   חוְאַתָּ֣ה תָשׁ֔וּב וְשָֽׁמַעְתָּ֖ בְּק֣וֹל יְהֹוָ֑ה וְעָשִׂ֨יתָ֙ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּֽוֹם:
9And the Lord, your God, will make you abundant for good in all the work of your hands, in the fruit of your womb, in the fruit of your livestock, and in the fruit of your soil. For the Lord will once again rejoice over you for good, as He rejoiced over your forefathers,   טוְהוֹתִֽירְךָ֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ בְּכֹ֣ל | מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדֶ֗ךָ בִּפְרִ֨י בִטְנְךָ֜ וּבִפְרִ֧י בְהֶמְתְּךָ֛ וּבִפְרִ֥י אַדְמָֽתְךָ֖ לְטֹבָ֑ה כִּ֣י | יָשׁ֣וּב יְהֹוָ֗ה לָשׂ֤וּשׂ עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ לְט֔וֹב כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֖שׂ עַל־אֲבֹתֶֽיךָ:
10when you obey the Lord, your God, to observe His commandments and His statutes written in this Torah scroll, [and] when you return to the Lord, your God, with all your heart and with all your soul.   יכִּ֣י תִשְׁמַ֗ע בְּקוֹל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמֹ֤ר מִצְו‍ֹתָיו֙ וְחֻקֹּתָ֔יו הַכְּתוּבָ֕ה בְּסֵ֥פֶר הַתּוֹרָ֖ה הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֤י תָשׁוּב֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכָל־לְבָֽבְךָ֖ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ:
11For this commandment which I command you this day, is not concealed from you, nor is it far away.   יאכִּ֚י הַמִּצְוָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּ֑וֹם לֹֽא־נִפְלֵ֥את הִוא֙ מִמְּךָ֔ וְלֹֽא־רְחֹקָ֖ה הִֽוא:
is not concealed from you: לֹא-נִפְלֵאת. It is not concealed from you, just as it is said: כִּי יִפָּלֵא (Deut. 17:8), [which the Targum renders as:] אֲרִי יִתְכְּסֵי [lit.,“(If the matter) is concealed”]; similarly, the verse, וַתֵּרֶד פְּלָאִים (Lam. 1:9), [which means,] “she went down into concealment,” [i.e.,] she was covered and considered [as if] hidden.   לא נפלאת היא ממך: לא מכוסה היא ממך, כמו שנאמר (דברים יז, ח) כי יפלא ארי יתכסי, (איכה א, ט) ותרד פלאים, (איוב מ, יג) ותרד במטמוניות, מכוסה חבוש בטמון:
12It is not in heaven, that you should say, "Who will go up to heaven for us and fetch it for us, to tell [it] to us, so that we can fulfill it?"   יבלֹ֥א בַשָּׁמַ֖יִם הִ֑וא לֵאמֹ֗ר מִ֣י יַֽעֲלֶה־לָּ֤נוּ הַשָּׁמַ֨יְמָה֙ וְיִקָּחֶ֣הָ לָּ֔נוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵ֥נוּ אֹתָ֖הּ וְנַֽעֲשֶֽׂנָּה:
It is not in heaven: for if it were in heaven, you would have to climb up after it [in order] to learn it. - [Eruvin 55a]   לא בשמים היא: שאלו היתה בשמים היית צריך לעלות אחריה וללומדה:
13Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, "Who will cross to the other side of the sea for us and fetch it for us, to tell [it] to us, so that we can fulfill it?"   יגוְלֹֽא־מֵעֵ֥בֶר לַיָּ֖ם הִ֑וא לֵאמֹ֗ר מִ֣י יַֽעֲבָר־לָ֜נוּ אֶל־עֵ֤בֶר הַיָּם֙ וְיִקָּחֶ֣הָ לָּ֔נוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵ֥נוּ אֹתָ֖הּ וְנַֽעֲשֶֽׂנָּה:
14Rather,[this] thing is very close to you; it is in your mouth and in your heart, so that you can fulfill it.   ידכִּֽי־קָר֥וֹב אֵלֶ֛יךָ הַדָּבָ֖ר מְאֹ֑ד בְּפִ֥יךָ וּבִלְבָֽבְךָ֖ לַֽעֲשׂתֽוֹ:
Rather, [this] thing is very close to you: The Torah was given to you in writing and [accompanied by an] oral [explanation].   כי קרוב אליך: התורה נתנה לכם בכתב ובעל פה:

Fourth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 30

15Behold, I have set before you today life and good, and death and evil,   טורְאֵ֨ה נָתַ֤תִּי לְפָנֶ֨יךָ֙ הַיּ֔וֹם אֶת־הַֽחַיִּ֖ים וְאֶת־הַטּ֑וֹב וְאֶת־הַמָּ֖וֶת וְאֶת־הָרָֽע:
life and good: Each one [life or death,] is dependent upon the other: If you do good, you will be granted life, while if you do evil, you will receive death. The verse now proceeds to explain how this is so [as follows]:   את החיים ואת הטוב: זה תלוי בזה אם תעשה טוב הרי לך חיים, ואם תעשה רע הרי לך המות. והכתוב מפרש והולך היאך:
16inasmuch as I command you this day to love the Lord, your God, to walk in His ways, and to observe His commandments, His statutes, and His ordinances, so that you will live and increase, and the Lord, your God, will bless you in the land to which you are coming to take possession of it.   טזאֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֣י מְצַוְּךָ֘ הַיּוֹם֒ לְאַֽהֲבָ֞ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ לָלֶ֣כֶת בִּדְרָכָ֔יו וְלִשְׁמֹ֛ר מִצְו‍ֹתָ֥יו וְחֻקֹּתָ֖יו וּמִשְׁפָּטָ֑יו וְחָיִ֣יתָ וְרָבִ֔יתָ וּבֵֽרַכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
Inasmuch as I am commanding you this day to love [the Lord your God]: This is “good” [referred to in the verse 15]; and upon this, is dependent:   אשר אנכי מצוך היום לאהבה: הרי הטוב, ובו תלוי:
so that you will live and increase: This is “life” [referred to in the verse 15. After this, the verse continues]:   וחיית ורבית: הרי החיים:
17But if your heart deviates and you do not listen, and you will be drawn astray, and you will prostrate yourself to other deities and serve them,   יזוְאִם־יִפְנֶ֥ה לְבָֽבְךָ֖ וְלֹ֣א תִשְׁמָ֑ע וְנִדַּחְתָּ֗ וְהִשְׁתַּֽחֲוִ֛יתָ לֵֽאלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים וַֽעֲבַדְתָּֽם:
But if your heart deviates: This is “evil” [referred to in verse 15. The verse continues]:   ואם יפנה לבבך: הרי הרע:
18I declare to you this day, that you will surely perish, and that you will not live long days on the land, to which you are crossing the Jordan, to come and take possession thereof.   יחהִגַּ֤דְתִּי לָכֶם֙ הַיּ֔וֹם כִּ֥י אָבֹ֖ד תֹּאבֵד֑וּן לֹא־תַֽאֲרִיכֻ֤ן יָמִים֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתָּ֤ה עֹבֵר֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן לָב֥וֹא שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
that you will perish: This is “death” [referred to in verse 15].   כי אבד תאבדון: הרי המות:
19This day, I call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses [that I have warned] you: I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. You shall choose life, so that you and your offspring will live;   יטהַֽעִדֹ֨תִי בָכֶ֣ם הַיּוֹם֘ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם וְאֶת־הָאָ֒רֶץ֒ הַֽחַיִּ֤ים וְהַמָּ֨וֶת֙ נָתַ֣תִּי לְפָנֶ֔יךָ הַבְּרָכָ֖ה וְהַקְּלָלָ֑ה וּבָֽחַרְתָּ֙ בַּֽחַיִּ֔ים לְמַ֥עַן תִּֽחְיֶ֖ה אַתָּ֥ה וְזַרְעֶֽךָ:
This day, I call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses: For the heaven and earth exist for ever, and when the evil befalls you, they will be witnesses that I had warned you regarding all of this. Another explanation of “I call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses, etc.” : The Holy One, Blessed is He, said to Israel, “Look at the heavens which I created to serve you. Have they ever changed their ways? Has the sphere of the sun ever failed to rise from the east to illuminate the entire world, as it is stated, ‘The sun rises, and the sun sets’ (Ecc. 1:5)? Look at the earth which I created to serve you. Has it ever changed its ways? Have you ever sown [in] it that it did not grow? Or have you ever sown wheat and it yielded barley? Now, they [heaven and earth] were created with neither reward nor loss in mind-for if they are meritorious [by fulfilling their purpose for which I created them], they nevertheless do not receive reward [for this]; and if they sin, they are not punished. And yet [even with this lack of incentive], they have never changed their ways! So you, who will receive reward if you are meritorious and who will be punished if you sin-how much more so [should you fulfill My will]!”- [Sifrei 32:1]   העדתי בכם היום את השמים ואת הארץ: שהם קיימים לעולם וכאשר תקרה אתכם הרעה יהיו עדים שאני התרתי בכם בכל זאת. דבר אחר העידתי בכם היום את השמים וגו' אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל, הסתכלו בשמים שבראתי לשמש אתכם, שמא שנו את מדתם שמא לא עלה גלגל חמה מן המזרח והאיר לכל העולם, כענין שנאמר (קהלת א, ה) וזרח השמש ובא השמש, הסתכלו בארץ שבראתי לשמש אתכם, שמא שנתה מדתה, שמא זרעתם אותה ולא צמחה, או שמא זרעתם חטים והעלתה שעורים, ומה אלו שנעשו לא לשכר ולא להפסד אם זוכין אין מקבלין שכר ואם חוטאין אין מקבלין פורענות, לא שנו את מדתם, אתם שאם זכיתם תקבלו שכר ואם חטאתם תקבלו פורענות על אחת כמה וכמה:
you shall choose life: [God says: “Even though you have free choice, nevertheless,] I instruct you to choose the portion of life.” It is like a man who says to his son, “Choose for yourself a fine portion of my estate,” and then directs him to the best portion, saying to him, “This [is the portion which] you should choose for yourself!” And regarding this, the verse says,“The Lord is my allotted portion and my cup; You guide my destiny” (Ps. 16:5). [The last clause, אַתָּה תּוֹמִי‏ךְ גּוֹרָלִי, literally means “You laid upon my lot.” That is to say:] “You laid my hand upon the good lot, saying, ‘Take this for yourself!’”   ובחרת בחיים: אני מורה לכם שתבחרו בחלק החיים, כאדם האומר לחבירו בחר לך חלק יפה בנחלתי ומעמידו על חלק היפה ואומר לו את זה ברור לך, ועל זה נאמר (תהלים טז, ה) ה' מנת חלקי וכוסי אתה תומיך גורלי, הנחת ידי על גורל הטוב לומר את זה קח לך:
20To love the Lord your God, to listen to His voice, and to cleave to Him. For that is your life and the length of your days, to dwell on the land which the Lord swore to your forefathers to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob to give to them.   כלְאַֽהֲבָה֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמֹ֥עַ בְּקֹל֖וֹ וּלְדָבְקָה־ב֑וֹ כִּ֣י ה֤וּא חַיֶּ֨יךָ֙ וְאֹ֣רֶךְ יָמֶ֔יךָ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת עַל־הָֽאֲדָמָ֗ה אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁבַּ֨ע יְהֹוָ֧ה לַֽאֲבֹתֶ֛יךָ לְאַבְרָהָ֛ם לְיִצְחָ֥ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹ֖ב לָתֵ֥ת לָהֶֽם:

Deuteronomy Chapter 31

1And Moses went, and he spoke the following words to all Israel.   אוַיֵּ֖לֶךְ משֶׁ֑ה וַיְדַבֵּ֛ר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
2He said to them, "Today I am one hundred and twenty years old. I can no longer go or come, and the Lord said to me, "You shall not cross this Jordan."   בוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם בֶּן־מֵאָה֩ וְעֶשְׂרִ֨ים שָׁנָ֤ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ הַיּ֔וֹם לֹֽא־אוּכַ֥ל ע֖וֹד לָצֵ֣את וְלָב֑וֹא וַֽיהֹוָה֙ אָמַ֣ר אֵלַ֔י לֹ֥א תַֽעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֥ן הַזֶּֽה:
Moses went…I can no longer go or come: One might think [this means] that Moses’ strength had ebbed [and that is why he could no longer go or come]. Scripture [however] states [regarding Moses], “His eye had not dimmed, nor had he lost his [natural] moisture” (Deut. 34:7) [which teaches us that his powers were intact even on the day of his passing]. So what then is [the meaning of] “I can no longer”? [Here it means:] “I am not permitted,” because authority was taken from him and granted to Joshua.   וילך משה וגו', לא אוכל עוד לצאת ולבא: יכול שתשש כחו, תלמוד לומר (דברים לד, ז) לא כהתה עינו ולא נס לחה. אלא מהו לא אוכל, איני רשאי שנטלה ממני הרשות ונתנה ליהושע:
and the Lord said to me: This is the meaning of “I can no longer go or come,” because “the Lord said to me….”   וה' אמר אלי: זהו פירוש לא אוכל עוד לצאת ולבא, לפי שה' אמר אלי:
Today I am [one-hundred and twenty years old]: [That is to say,] today [is the exact day that] my days and my years have become complete; on this very day [the seventh of Adar] I was born, and on this day I will die. — [Sotah 13b] Another interpretation of “[I can no longer] go or come” is: [I can no longer figuratively go and come, i.e., I can no longer negotiate] in matters of Torah. This teaches us that the channels of transmission and the well-springs of wisdom were closed up from him [i.e., from Moses on that day]. — [Sotah 13b] [That is the order of the early editions and should be preserved. Rashi means that according to the first interpretation, that God did not permit him to go and come before the people, we do not explain the beginning of the verse to mean that Moses’ days were completed, but that God had taken away the authority from Moses. According to the Talmud, which states that Moses’ days were completed, we explain that he could not go and come in matters of Torah, and according to that interpretation, we do not explain that “the Lord said to me” as the meaning for “I can no longer go or come,” but another reason for Moses’ inability to cross the Jordan.]   אנכי היום: היום מלאו ימי ושנותי, ביום זה נולדתי וביום זה אמות. דבר אחר, לצאת ולבא בדברי תורה, מלמד שנסתמו ממנו מסורות ומעינות החכמה:
3The Lord, your God He will cross before you; He will destroy these nations from before you so that you will possess them. Joshua he will cross before you, as the Lord has spoken.   גיְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ ה֣וּא | עֹבֵ֣ר לְפָנֶ֗יךָ הֽוּא־יַשְׁמִ֞יד אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֥ם הָאֵ֛לֶּה מִלְּפָנֶ֖יךָ וִֽירִשְׁתָּ֑ם יְהוֹשֻׁ֗עַ ה֚וּא עֹבֵ֣ר לְפָנֶ֔יךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
4And the Lord will do to them, as He did to the Amorite kings, Sihon and Og, and to their land, [all of] which He destroyed.   דוְעָשָׂ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ לָהֶ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֗ה לְסִיח֥וֹן וּלְע֛וֹג מַלְכֵ֥י הָֽאֱמֹרִ֖י וּלְאַרְצָ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִשְׁמִ֖יד אֹתָֽם:
5And [when] the Lord delivers them before you, you shall do to them according to all the commandment that I have commanded you.   הוּנְתָנָ֥ם יְהֹוָ֖ה לִפְנֵיכֶ֑ם וַֽעֲשִׂיתֶ֣ם לָהֶ֔ם כְּכָ֨ל־הַמִּצְוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּ֖יתִי אֶתְכֶֽם:
6Be strong and courageous! Neither fear, nor be dismayed of them, for the Lord, your God He is the One Who goes with you. He will neither fail you, nor forsake you."   וחִזְק֣וּ וְאִמְצ֔וּ אַל־תִּֽירְא֥וּ וְאַל־תַּֽעַרְצ֖וּ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם כִּ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ ה֚וּא הַֽהֹלֵ֣ךְ עִמָּ֔ךְ לֹ֥א יַרְפְּךָ֖ וְלֹ֥א יַֽעַזְבֶֽךָּ:
He will neither fail you: Heb. לֹא יַרְפְּךָ. [The word יַרְפְּךָ stems from the root רפה, meaning“weak.” Thus, the expression here means:] God will not give you [cause for] weakness [resulting] from your being forsaken by Him.   לא ירפך: לא יתן לך רפיון להיות נעזב ממנו:

Fifth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 31

7And Moses called Joshua and said to him in the presence of all Israel, "Be strong and courageous! For you shall come with this people to the land which the Lord swore to their forefathers to give them. And you shall apportion it to them as an inheritance.   זוַיִּקְרָ֨א משֶׁ֜ה לִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֗עַ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו לְעֵינֵ֣י כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ חֲזַ֣ק וֶֽאֱמָץ֒ כִּ֣י אַתָּ֗ה תָּבוֹא֙ אֶת־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֧ע יְהֹוָ֛ה לַֽאֲבֹתָ֖ם לָתֵ֣ת לָהֶ֑ם וְאַתָּ֖ה תַּנְחִילֶ֥נָּה אוֹתָֽם:
for you shall come with this people: Heb. כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת-הָעָם הַזֶּה [as the Targum renders:]“For you shall come with this people,” [hence, the אֶת here means “with.” Accordingly, Moses’ statement of leadership role to Joshua can be understood as follows]: Moses said to Joshua, “The elders of the generation will be with you, [for] everything should be done according to their opinion and counsel.” In contrast, however, the Holy One, Blessed is He, said to Joshua,“For you shall bring (תָּבִיא) the children of Israel to the land which I have sworn to them” (verse 23). [God’s statement of leadership role to Joshua here means:] “You shall bring them [even if it is] against their will! Everything depends [only] upon you; [if necessary,] you must take a rod and beat them over their heads! There can be [only] one leader for a generation, not two leaders for a generation.”- [Sanh. . 8a]   כי אתה תבוא את העם הזה: ארי את תיעול עם עמא הדין. משה אמר לו ליהושע, זקנים שבדור יהיו עמך הכל לפי דעתן ועצתן, אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא אמר ליהושע כי אתה תביא את בני ישראל אל הארץ אשר נשבעתי להם (דברים לא, כג), תביא על כרחם הכל תלוי בך, טול מקל והך על קדקדן. דבר אחד לדור, ולא שני דברים לדור:
8The Lord He is the One Who goes before you; He will be with you; He will neither fail you, nor forsake you. Do not fear, and do not be dismayed."   חוַֽיהֹוָ֞ה ה֣וּא | הַֽהֹלֵ֣ךְ לְפָנֶ֗יךָ ה֚וּא יִֽהְיֶ֣ה עִמָּ֔ךְ לֹ֥א יַרְפְּךָ֖ וְלֹ֥א יַֽעַזְבֶ֑ךָּ לֹ֥א תִירָ֖א וְלֹ֥א תֵחָֽת:
9Then Moses wrote this Torah, and gave it to the priests, the descendants of Levi, who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and to all the elders of Israel.   טוַיִּכְתֹּ֣ב משֶׁה֘ אֶת־הַתּוֹרָ֣ה הַזֹּאת֒ וַיִּתְּנָ֗הּ אֶל־הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ בְּנֵ֣י לֵוִ֔י הַנֹּ֣שְׂאִ֔ים אֶת־אֲר֖וֹן בְּרִ֣ית יְהֹוָ֑ה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And Moses then wrote [this Torah] and gave it [to the kohanim]: When it was entirely completed, he gave it to the members of his tribe [i.e., Levi. The verse here is referring to the entire Torah as we know it. Compare Rashi on verse 11].   ויכתוב משה וגו' ויתנה: כשנגמרה כלה, נתנה לבני שבטו:
10Then, Moses commanded them, saying, "At the end of [every] seven years, at an appointed time, in the Festival of Succoth, [after] the year of release,   יוַיְצַ֥ו משֶׁ֖ה אוֹתָ֣ם לֵאמֹ֑ר מִקֵּ֣ץ | שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֗ים בְּמֹעֵ֛ד שְׁנַ֥ת הַשְּׁמִטָּ֖ה בְּחַ֥ג הַסֻּכּֽוֹת:
At the end of [every] seven years: [When the verse says “end,” it refers to] the first year of the [recurring, seven-year] Shemittah [cycle, which is, effectively, the “end” of the previous cycle]. This is the eighth year [of the cycle] (Sotah 41a). [Now, only the seventh year of each cycle is actually called the Shemittah year, so] why is [this eighth year] referred to [here in the verse] as “ Shemittah ”? Because the [laws of the] seventh year still apply to it, in that the harvest [of the produce] at the end of the seventh year extends into the year following the seventh. Therefore, all the laws pertaining to the seventh year apply to this produce, even though the eighth year has already begun. — [R.H. 12b]   מקץ שבע שנים: בשנה ראשונה של שמטה, שהיא שנה בשמינית. ולמה קורא אותה שנת השמטה, שעדיין שביעית נוהגת בה בקציר של שביעית היוצא למוצאי שביעית:
11When all Israel comes to appear before the Lord, your God, in the place He will choose, you shall read this Torah before all Israel, in their ears.   יאבְּב֣וֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לֵֽרָאוֹת֙ אֶת־פְּנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְחָ֑ר תִּקְרָ֞א אֶת־הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּ֛את נֶ֥גֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶֽם:
you shall read this Torah: The king [of Israel] would read from the beginning of “These are the words…” (Deut. 1:1), as we find in tractate Sotah (41a). [Thus, in contrast to verse 9, the expression, “this Torah” refers to just the book of Deuteronomy. See Rashi on verse 9. When reading the book of Deuteronomy to the people at that appointed time, the king would sit] upon a wooden platform that was erected in the courtyard [of the Temple].   תקרא את התורה הזאת: המלך היה קורא מתחלת אלה הדברים, כדאיתא במסכת סוטה (מא א) על בימה של עץ שהיו עושין בעזרה:
12Assemble the people: the men, the women, and the children, and your stranger in your cities, in order that they hear, and in order that they learn and fear the Lord, your God, and they will observe to do all the words of this Torah.   יבהַקְהֵ֣ל אֶת־הָעָ֗ם הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֤ים וְהַנָּשִׁים֙ וְהַטַּ֔ף וְגֵֽרְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֑יךָ לְמַ֨עַן יִשְׁמְע֜וּ וּלְמַ֣עַן יִלְמְד֗וּ וְיָֽרְאוּ֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וְשָֽׁמְר֣וּ לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַתּוֹרָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת:
The men: [were to be there, in order] to learn [the words of the Torah being read];   האנשים: ללמוד:
the women: [were to be present, in order] to listen [to those words];   והנשים: לשמוע:
the children: Why did they come? So that a reward would be given to those who bring them along. — [Chag. 3a]   והטף: למה בא, לתת שכר למביאיהם:
13And their children, who did not know, will hear and learn to fear the Lord, your God, all the days that you live on the land, to which you are crossing the Jordan, to possess.   יגוּבְנֵיהֶ֞ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־יָֽדְע֗וּ יִשְׁמְעוּ֙ וְלָ֣מְד֔וּ לְיִרְאָ֖ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם כָּל־הַיָּמִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתֶּ֤ם חַיִּים֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתֶּ֜ם עֹֽבְרִ֧ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֛ן שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:

Sixth Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 31

14And the Lord said to Moses, "Behold, your days are approaching [for you] to die. Call Joshua and stand in the Tent of Meeting, and I will inspire him. So Moses and Joshua went, and stood in the Tent of Meeting.   ידוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶל־משֶׁ֗ה הֵ֣ן קָֽרְב֣וּ יָמֶ֘יךָ֘ לָמוּת֒ קְרָ֣א אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֗עַ וְהִתְיַצְּב֛וּ בְּאֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד וַֽאֲצַוֶּ֑נּוּ וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ משֶׁה֙ וִֽיהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ וַיִּתְיַצְּב֖וּ בְּאֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד:
and I will inspire him: [Usually, “and I will command him.” Here, however, the meaning is:]“And I will urge him on.”   ואצונו: ואזרזנו:
15And the Lord appeared in the Tent, in a pillar of cloud. The pillar of cloud stood at the entrance to the Tent.   טווַיֵּרָ֧א יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּאֹ֖הֶל בְּעַמּ֣וּד עָנָ֑ן וַיַּֽעֲמֹ֛ד עַמּ֥וּד הֶֽעָנָ֖ן עַל־פֶּ֥תַח הָאֹֽהֶל:
16And the Lord said to Moses: Behold, you are [about to] lie with your forefathers, and this nation will rise up and stray after the deities of the nations of the land, into which they are coming. And they will forsake Me and violate My covenant which I made with them.   טזוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ אֶל־משֶׁ֔ה הִנְּךָ֥ שֹׁכֵ֖ב עִם־אֲבֹתֶ֑יךָ וְקָם֩ הָעָ֨ם הַזֶּ֜ה וְזָנָ֣ה | אַֽחֲרֵ֣י | אֱלֹהֵ֣י נֵֽכַר־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר ה֤וּא בָא־שָׁ֨מָּה֙ בְּקִרְבּ֔וֹ וַֽעֲזָבַ֕נִי וְהֵפֵר֙ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּרַ֖תִּי אִתּֽוֹ:
the nations of the land: The peoples of the land.   נכר הארץ: גויי הארץ:
17And My fury will rage against them on that day, and I will abandon them and hide My face from them, and they will be consumed, and many evils and troubles will befall them, and they will say on that day, 'Is it not because our God is no longer among us, that these evils have befallen us?'   יזוְחָרָ֣ה אַפִּ֣י ב֣וֹ בַיּֽוֹם־הַ֠ה֠וּא וַֽעֲזַבְתִּ֞ים וְהִסְתַּרְתִּ֨י פָנַ֤י מֵהֶם֙ וְהָיָ֣ה לֶֽאֱכֹ֔ל וּמְצָאֻ֛הוּ רָע֥וֹת רַבּ֖וֹת וְצָר֑וֹת וְאָמַר֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא הֲלֹ֗א עַ֣ל כִּי־אֵ֤ין אֱלֹהַי֙ בְּקִרְבִּ֔י מְצָא֖וּנִי הָֽרָע֥וֹת הָאֵֽלֶּה:
and hide My face: As though I do not see their distress.   והסתרתי פני: כמו שאיני רואה בצרתם:
18And I will hide My face on that day, because of all the evil they have committed, when they turned to other deities.   יחוְאָֽנֹכִ֗י הַסְתֵּ֨ר אַסְתִּ֤יר פָּנַי֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא עַ֥ל כָּל־הָֽרָעָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה כִּ֣י פָנָ֔ה אֶל־אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֲחֵרִֽים:
19And now, write for yourselves this song, and teach it to the Children of Israel. Place it into their mouths, in order that this song will be for Me as a witness for the children of Israel.   יטוְעַתָּ֗ה כִּתְב֤וּ לָכֶם֙ אֶת־הַשִּׁירָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את וְלַמְּדָ֥הּ אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל שִׂימָ֣הּ בְּפִיהֶ֑ם לְמַ֨עַן תִּֽהְיֶה־לִּ֜י הַשִּׁירָ֥ה הַזֹּ֛את לְעֵ֖ד בִּבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
this song: [This refers to the passage beginning with] הַאֲזִינוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם [until] וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ (Deut. 32:1-43).   את השירה הזאת: (לקמן לב, א) האזינו השמים עד (לב, מג) וכפר אדמתו עמו:

Seventh Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 31

20When I bring them to the land which I have sworn to their forefathers [to give them], a land flowing with milk and honey, they will eat and be satisfied, and live on the fat [of the land]. Then, they will turn to other deities and serve them, provoking Me and violating My covenant.   כ כִּֽי־אֲבִיאֶ֜נּוּ אֶל־הָֽאֲדָמָ֣ה | אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּ֣עְתִּי לַֽאֲבֹתָ֗יו זָבַ֤ת חָלָב֙ וּדְבַ֔שׁ וְאָכַ֥ל וְשָׂבַ֖ע וְדָשֵׁ֑ן וּפָנָ֞ה אֶל־אֱלֹהִ֤ים אֲחֵרִים֙ וַֽעֲבָד֔וּם וְנִ֣אֲצ֔וּנִי וְהֵפֵ֖ר אֶת־בְּרִיתִֽי:
provoking me: Heb. וְנִאֲצוּנִי, and they will provoke me to anger. Similarly, any mention of the word נִאוּץ [in Scripture] denotes anger.   ונאצוני: והכעיסוני וכן כל נאוץ לשון כעס:
21And it will be, when they will encounter many evils and troubles, this song will bear witness against them, for it will not be forgotten from the mouth of their offspring. For I know their inclination what they [are planning] to do today, [even] before I bring them in to the land which I have sworn [to give them]."   כאוְהָיָ֠ה כִּֽי־תִמְצֶ֨אןָ אֹת֜וֹ רָע֣וֹת רַבּוֹת֘ וְצָרוֹת֒ וְ֠עָֽנְתָ֠ה הַשִּׁירָ֨ה הַזֹּ֤את לְפָנָיו֙ לְעֵ֔ד כִּ֛י לֹ֥א תִשָּׁכַ֖ח מִפִּ֣י זַרְע֑וֹ כִּ֧י יָדַ֣עְתִּי אֶת־יִצְר֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר ה֤וּא עֹשֶׂה֙ הַיּ֔וֹם בְּטֶ֣רֶם אֲבִיאֶ֔נּוּ אֶל־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבָּֽעְתִּי:
this song will bear witness against them: that in it, I had warned them concerning all the things that are now befalling them. [Consequently, when they read this song, they will not be able to claim, “Had we known all the evils that would befall us, we would never have transgressed God’s word!”]   וענתה השירה הזאת לפניו לעד: שהתריתי בו בתוכה על כל המוצאות אותן:
for it will not be forgotten from the mouth of their offspring: This is a promise to Israel that the Torah will never be entirely forgotten by their offspring. — [Shab. 138b]   כי לא תשכח מפי זרעו: הרי זו הבטחה לישראל, שאין תורה משתכחת מזרעם לגמרי:
22And Moses wrote this song on that day, and taught it to the children of Israel.   כבוַיִּכְתֹּ֥ב משֶׁ֛ה אֶת־הַשִּׁירָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וַיְלַמְּדָ֖הּ אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
23And He commanded Joshua the son of Nun, and said: "Be strong and courageous! For you shall bring the children of Israel to the land that I have sworn to them, and I will be with you."   כגוַיְצַ֞ו אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ בִּן־נ֗וּן וַיֹּ֘אמֶר֘ חֲזַ֣ק וֶֽאֱמָץ֒ כִּ֣י אַתָּ֗ה תָּבִיא֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶל־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּ֣עְתִּי לָהֶ֑ם וְאָֽנֹכִ֖י אֶֽהְיֶ֥ה עִמָּֽךְ:
And He commanded Joshua the son of Nun: This refers above (verse 16), where the subject is the Shechinah. [That God is the speaker is evident from the use of the first person]: “to the land that I have sworn to them.”   ויצו את יהושע בן נון: מוסב למעלה כלפי שכינה, כמו שמפורש (פסוק כא) אל הארץ אשר נשבעתי להם:
24And it was, when Moses finished writing the words of this Torah in a scroll, until their very completion,   כדוַיְהִ֣י | כְּכַלּ֣וֹת משֶׁ֗ה לִכְתֹּ֛ב אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י הַתּוֹרָֽה־הַזֹּ֖את עַל־סֵ֑פֶר עַ֖ד תֻּמָּֽם:
25that Moses commanded the Levites, who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, saying:   כהוַיְצַ֤ו משֶׁה֙ אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם נֹֽשְׂאֵ֛י אֲר֥וֹן בְּרִֽית־יְהֹוָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
26"Take this Torah scroll and place it along side the ark of covenant of the Lord, your God, and it will be there as a witness.   כולָקֹ֗חַ אֵ֣ת סֵ֤פֶר הַתּוֹרָה֙ הַזֶּ֔ה וְשַׂמְתֶּ֣ם אֹת֔וֹ מִצַּ֛ד אֲר֥וֹן בְּרִֽית־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם וְהָֽיָה־שָׁ֥ם בְּךָ֖ לְעֵֽד:
Take: [This verb is employing the form known as פָּעוֹל, denoting ongoing fulfillment, a form] similar to זָכוֹר, remember (Exod. 20:8) [see Rashi on that verse]; שָׁמוֹר, observe (Deut. 5:12), and הָלוֹךְ (Gen. 8:5) [lit., going, where it means “constantly diminished” in the expression הָיוּ הָלוֹךְ וְחָסוֹר, and הָלוֹךְ וְנָסוֹעַ (Gen. 12:9), continually traveling].   לקח: כמו (שמות כ, ח), (דברים ה יא) זכור, שמור, (שמואל ב' ג, כד) הלוך:
alongside the ark of covenant of the Lord, your God: The Sages of Israel differ (B.B. 14b). Some say that a board projected outward from the ark, and there it was laid, while others maintain that it was laid alongside the tablets, inside the ark.   מצד ארון ברית ה': נחלקו בו חכמי ישראל בבבא בתרא (יד ב) יש מהם אומרים דף היה בולט מן הארון מבחוץ ושם היה מונח ויש אומרים מצד הלוחות היה מונח בתוך הארון:
27For I know your rebellious spirit and your stubbornness. Even while I am alive with you today you are rebelling against the Lord, and surely after my death!   כזכִּ֣י אָֽנֹכִ֤י יָדַ֨עְתִּי֙ אֶת־מֶרְיְךָ֔ וְאֶת־עָרְפְּךָ֖ הַקָּשֶׁ֑ה הֵ֣ן בְּעוֹדֶ֩נִּי֩ חַ֨י עִמָּכֶ֜ם הַיּ֗וֹם מַמְרִ֤ים הֱיִתֶם֙ עִם־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְאַ֖ף כִּי־אַֽחֲרֵ֥י מוֹתִֽי:
28Assemble to me all the elders of your tribes and your officers, and I will speak these words into their ears, and I will call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses against them.   כחהַקְהִ֧ילוּ אֵלַ֛י אֶת־כָּל־זִקְנֵ֥י שִׁבְטֵיכֶ֖ם וְשֹֽׁטְרֵיכֶ֑ם וַֽאֲדַבְּרָ֣ה בְאָזְנֵיהֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וְאָעִ֣ידָה בָּ֔ם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Assemble to me: On this day they did not blow the trumpets to assemble the congregation [as they usually did (see Num. 10:2-3,7)], because the verse says, “Make for yourself [two trumpets of silver… and they will be for you to call the assembly]” (Num. 10:2). [Now, this was a commandment directed personally to Moses, because “for yourself” and “for you” are both written in the singular form. Hence, Moses made these trumpets and kept them in his possession,] and he did not give Joshua authority over them during Moses’ lifetime. Moreover, these trumpets were hidden away [by God] even during his [Moses’] lifetime, prior to the day of his passing, thus affirming the words of the verse, “and there is no ruling on the day of death” (Ecc. 8:8). - [Tanchuma Beha’alotecha 10]   הקהילו אלי: ולא תקעו אותו היום בחצוצרות להקהיל את הקהל, לפי שנאמר (במדבר י, ב) עשה לך, ולא השליט יהושע עליהם בחייו של משה. ואף בחייו נגנזו קודם יום מותו, לקיים מה שנאמר (קהלת ח, ח) ואין שלטון ביום המות:
and I will call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses against them: You might object, “But did God not already call them as witnesses earlier [saying,] ‘I call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses’ (Deut. 30:19)?” [The answer is that] there God was addressing Israel [regarding this matter], but He was not [directly] addressing the heaven and the earth. Now [however] God comes to say, “Listen, O Heavens…” (Deut. 32:1), [addresses the heaven and the earth directly.   ואעידה בם את השמים ואת הארץ: ואם תאמר הרי כבר העיד למעלה (לעיל ל, יט) העידותי בכם היום וגו', התם לישראל אמר, אבל לשמים ולארץ לא אמר ועכשיו בא לומר האזינו השמים וגו':
29For I know that after my death, you will surely become corrupted, and deviate from the way which I had commanded you. Consequently, the evil will befall you at the end of days, because you did evil in the eyes of the Lord, to provoke Him to anger through the work of your hands.   כטכִּ֣י יָדַ֗עְתִּי אַֽחֲרֵ֤י מוֹתִי֙ כִּֽי־הַשְׁחֵ֣ת תַּשְׁחִת֔וּן וְסַרְתֶּ֣ם מִן־הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּ֖יתִי אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְקָרָ֨את אֶתְכֶ֤ם הָֽרָעָה֙ בְּאַֽחֲרִ֣ית הַיָּמִ֔ים כִּי־תַֽעֲשׂ֤וּ אֶת־הָרַע֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְהַכְעִיס֖וֹ בְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יְדֵיכֶֽם:
[For I know that] after my death, you will surely become corrupted: But actually, throughout all the days of Joshua, they [the Jews] did not become corrupt, for the verse states, “And the people served the Lord all the days of Joshua” (Jud. 2:7). [What, then, did Moses mean when he said that they would become corrupted after his death? We learn] from here that a person’s disciple is as dear to him as his own self, for as long as Joshua was alive [even after Moses’ passing], for Moses it was as though he himself was alive. [Hence, when Moses said“after my death,” he was in fact alluding to the death of Joshua, thus referring to the period after Joshua’s passing.]   אחרי מותי כי השחת תשחתון: והרי כל ימי יהושע לא השחיתו, שנאמר (יהושע כד, לא) ויעבדו בני ישראל את ה' כל ימי יהושע, מכאן שתלמידו של אדם חביב עליו כגופו, שכל זמן שיהושע חי נראה למשה כאלו הוא חי:
30Then, Moses spoke into the ears of the entire assembly of Israel the words of the following song, until their completion.   לוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר משֶׁ֗ה בְּאָזְנֵי֙ כָּל־קְהַ֣ל יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַשִּׁירָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את עַ֖ד תֻּמָּֽם:

Maftir Portion

Deuteronomy Chapter 31

28Assemble to me all the elders of your tribes and your officers, and I will speak these words into their ears, and I will call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses against them.   כחהַקְהִ֧ילוּ אֵלַ֛י אֶת־כָּל־זִקְנֵ֥י שִׁבְטֵיכֶ֖ם וְשֹֽׁטְרֵיכֶ֑ם וַֽאֲדַבְּרָ֣ה בְאָזְנֵיהֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וְאָעִ֣ידָה בָּ֔ם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Assemble to me: On this day they did not blow the trumpets to assemble the congregation [as they usually did (see Num. 10:2-3,7)], because the verse says, “Make for yourself [two trumpets of silver… and they will be for you to call the assembly]” (Num. 10:2). [Now, this was a commandment directed personally to Moses, because “for yourself” and “for you” are both written in the singular form. Hence, Moses made these trumpets and kept them in his possession,] and he did not give Joshua authority over them during Moses’ lifetime. Moreover, these trumpets were hidden away [by God] even during his [Moses’] lifetime, prior to the day of his passing, thus affirming the words of the verse, “and there is no ruling on the day of death” (Ecc. 8:8). - [Tanchuma Beha’alotecha 10]   הקהילו אלי: ולא תקעו אותו היום בחצוצרות להקהיל את הקהל, לפי שנאמר (במדבר י, ב) עשה לך, ולא השליט יהושע עליהם בחייו של משה. ואף בחייו נגנזו קודם יום מותו, לקיים מה שנאמר (קהלת ח, ח) ואין שלטון ביום המות:
and I will call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses against them: You might object, “But did God not already call them as witnesses earlier [saying,] ‘I call upon the heaven and the earth as witnesses’ (Deut. 30:19)?” [The answer is that] there God was addressing Israel [regarding this matter], but He was not [directly] addressing the heaven and the earth. Now [however] God comes to say, “Listen, O Heavens…” (Deut. 32:1), [addresses the heaven and the earth directly.   ואעידה בם את השמים ואת הארץ: ואם תאמר הרי כבר העיד למעלה (לעיל ל, יט) העידותי בכם היום וגו', התם לישראל אמר, אבל לשמים ולארץ לא אמר ועכשיו בא לומר האזינו השמים וגו':
29For I know that after my death, you will surely become corrupted, and deviate from the way which I had commanded you. Consequently, the evil will befall you at the end of days, because you did evil in the eyes of the Lord, to provoke Him to anger through the work of your hands.   כטכִּ֣י יָדַ֗עְתִּי אַֽחֲרֵ֤י מוֹתִי֙ כִּֽי־הַשְׁחֵ֣ת תַּשְׁחִת֔וּן וְסַרְתֶּ֣ם מִן־הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּ֖יתִי אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְקָרָ֨את אֶתְכֶ֤ם הָֽרָעָה֙ בְּאַֽחֲרִ֣ית הַיָּמִ֔ים כִּי־תַֽעֲשׂ֤וּ אֶת־הָרַע֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה לְהַכְעִיס֖וֹ בְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יְדֵיכֶֽם:
[For I know that] after my death, you will surely become corrupted: But actually, throughout all the days of Joshua, they [the Jews] did not become corrupt, for the verse states, “And the people served the Lord all the days of Joshua” (Jud. 2:7). [What, then, did Moses mean when he said that they would become corrupted after his death? We learn] from here that a person’s disciple is as dear to him as his own self, for as long as Joshua was alive [even after Moses’ passing], for Moses it was as though he himself was alive. [Hence, when Moses said“after my death,” he was in fact alluding to the death of Joshua, thus referring to the period after Joshua’s passing.]   אחרי מותי כי השחת תשחתון: והרי כל ימי יהושע לא השחיתו, שנאמר (יהושע כד, לא) ויעבדו בני ישראל את ה' כל ימי יהושע, מכאן שתלמידו של אדם חביב עליו כגופו, שכל זמן שיהושע חי נראה למשה כאלו הוא חי:
30Then, Moses spoke into the ears of the entire assembly of Israel the words of the following song, until their completion.   לוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר משֶׁ֗ה בְּאָזְנֵי֙ כָּל־קְהַ֣ל יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֖י הַשִּׁירָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את עַ֖ד תֻּמָּֽם:

Haftarah

Isaiah Chapter 61

10I will rejoice with the Lord; my soul shall exult with my God, for He has attired me with garments of salvation, with a robe of righteousness He has enwrapped me; like a bridegroom, who, priestlike, dons garments of glory, and like a bride, who adorns herself with her jewelry.   ישׂ֧וֹשׂ אָשִׂ֣ישׂ בַּֽיהֹוָ֗ה תָּגֵ֚ל נַפְשִׁי֙ בֵּֽאלֹהַ֔י כִּ֚י הִלְבִּישַׁ֙נִי֙ בִּגְדֵי־יֶ֔שַׁע מְעִ֥יל צְדָקָ֖ה יְעָטָ֑נִי כֶּֽחָתָן֙ יְכַהֵ֣ן פְּאֵ֔ר וְכַכַּלָּ֖ה תַּעְדֶּ֥ה כֵלֶֽיהָ:
like a bridegroom: who dons garments of glory like a high priest.  
and like a bride, who adorns herself with her jewelry: Heb. כֵלֶיהָ, [lit. her utensils, in this case,] her jewelry.  
11For, like the earth, which gives forth its plants, and like a garden that causes its seeds to grow, so shall the Lord God cause righteousness and praise to grow opposite all the nations.   יאכִּ֚י כָאָ֙רֶץ֙ תּוֹצִ֣יא צִמְחָ֔הּ וּכְגַנָּ֖ה זֵרוּעֶ֣יהָ תַצְמִ֑יחַ כֵּ֣ן | אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֗ה יַצְמִ֚יחַ צְדָקָה֙ וּתְהִלָּ֔ה נֶ֖גֶד כָּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם:

Isaiah Chapter 62

1For the sake of Zion, I will not be silent, and for the sake of Jerusalem I will not rest, until her righteousness comes out like brilliance, and her salvation burns like a torch.   אלְמַ֚עַן צִיּוֹן֙ לֹ֣א אֶֽחֱשֶׁ֔ה וּלְמַ֥עַן יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם לֹ֣א אֶשְׁק֑וֹט עַד־יֵצֵ֚א כַנֹּ֙גַהּ֙ צִדְקָ֔הּ וִישֽׁוּעָתָ֖הּ כְּלַפִּ֥יד יִבְעָֽר:
For the sake of Zion: I will do, and I will not be silent concerning what they did to her.  
I will not rest: There will be no peace before Me until her righteousness comes out like brilliance.  
2And nations shall see your righteousness, and all kings your glory, and you shall be called a new name, which the mouth of the Lord shall pronounce.   בוְרָא֚וּ גוֹיִם֙ צִדְקֵ֔ךְ וְכָל־מְלָכִ֖ים כְּבוֹדֵ֑ךְ וְקֹ֚רָא לָךְ֙ שֵׁ֣ם חָדָ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר פִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה יִקֳּבֶֽנּוּ:
shall pronounce: Heb. יִקֳּבֶנּוּ, shall pronounce.  
3And you shall be a crown of glory in the hand of the Lord and a kingly diadem in the hand of your God.   גוְהָיִ֛ית עֲטֶ֥רֶת תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת בְּיַד־יְהֹוָ֑ה וּצְנִ֥יף (כתיב וּצְנִ֥וף) מְלוּכָ֖ה בְּכַף־אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
4No longer shall "forsaken" be said of you, and "desolate" shall no longer be said of your land, for you shall be called "My desire is in her," and your land, "inhabited," for the Lord desires you, and your land shall be inhabited.   דלֹא־יֵֽאָמֵר֩ לָ֨ךְ ע֜וֹד עֲזוּבָ֗ה וּלְאַרְצֵךְ֙ לֹא־יֵֽאָמֵ֥ר עוֹד֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה כִּ֣י לָ֗ךְ יִקָּרֵא֙ חֶפְצִי־בָ֔הּ וּלְאַרְצֵ֖ךְ בְּעוּלָ֑ה כִּֽי־חָפֵ֚ץ יְהֹוָה֙ בָּ֔ךְ וְאַרְצֵ֖ךְ תִּבָּעֵֽל:
“inhabited”: Heb. בְּעוּלָה, [lit. possessed,] inhabited.  
5As a young man lives with a virgin, so shall your children live in you, and the rejoicing of a bridegroom over a bride shall your God rejoice over you.   הכִּֽי־יִבְעַ֚ל בָּחוּר֙ בְּתוּלָ֔ה יִבְעָל֖וּךְ בָּנָ֑יִךְ וּמְשׂ֚וֹשׂ חָתָן֙ עַל־כַּלָּ֔ה יָשִׂ֥ישׂ עָלַ֖יִךְ אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ:
As a young man lives with a virgin, etc.: As a young man lives with a virgin, so shall your children live in you [after Jonathan].  
6On your walls, O Jerusalem, I have appointed watchmen; all day and all night, they shall never be silent; those who remind the Lord, be not silent.   ועַל־חֽוֹמֹתַ֣יִךְ יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֗ם הִפְקַ֙דְתִּי֙ שֹֽׁמְרִ֔ים כָּל־הַיּ֧וֹם וְכָל־הַלַּ֛יְלָה תָּמִ֖יד לֹ֣א יֶֽחֱשׁ֑וּ הַמַּזְכִּירִים֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֔ה אַל־דֳּמִ֖י לָכֶֽם:
On your walls, O Jerusalem: Our Rabbis expounded it according to its apparent meaning as referring to the angels who remind the Lord concerning its destruction, to build it. What do they say? (Ps. 102: 14) “You shall rise, You shall have mercy on Zion” ; (ibid. 132: 13) “For the Lord has chosen Zion.” As is found in the Tractate Menahoth (87a, Rashi ad loc.). Jonathan, [however,] renders “your walls,” the early forefathers, who protect us like a wall.  
I have appointed watchmen: to inscribe a book of remembrances, that their merit be not forgotten from before Me.  
they shall never be silent: not to mention their merit before Me.  
those who remind the Lord: of the merit of the forefathers.  
be not silent: Heb. לָכֶם אַל-דֳּמִי, [lit. let there be no silence to you,] be not silent.  
7And give Him no rest, until He establishes and until He makes Jerusalem a praise in the land.   זוְאַל־תִּתְּנ֥וּ דֳמִ֖י ל֑וֹ עַד־יְכוֹנֵ֞ן וְעַד־יָשִׂ֧ים אֶת־יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֛ם תְּהִלָּ֖ה בָּאָֽרֶץ:
8The Lord swore by His right hand and by the arm of His strength; I will no longer give your grain to your enemies, and foreigners shall no longer drink your wine for which you have toiled.   חנִשְׁבַּ֧ע יְהֹוָ֛ה בִּֽימִינ֖וֹ וּבִזְר֣וֹעַ עֻזּ֑וֹ אִם־אֶתֵּן֩ אֶת־דְּגָנֵ֨ךְ ע֚וֹד מַֽאֲכָל֙ לְאֹ֣יְבַ֔יִךְ וְאִם־יִשְׁתּ֚וּ בְנֵֽי־נֵכָר֙ תִּֽירוֹשֵׁ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָגַ֖עַתְּ בּֽוֹ:
9But its gatherers shall eat it and they shall praise the Lord, and its gatherers shall drink it in My holy courts.   טכִּ֚י מְאַסְפָיו֙ יֹֽאכְלֻ֔הוּ וְהִֽלְל֖וּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה וּמְקַבְּצָ֥יו יִשְׁתֻּ֖הוּ בְּחַצְר֥וֹת קָדְשִֽׁי:
shall eat it: This refers back to “your grain.”  
shall drink it: This refers back to “your wine.”  
10Pass, pass through the portals, clear the way of the people, pave, pave the highway, clear it of stones, lift up a banner over the peoples.   יעִבְר֚וּ עִבְרוּ֙ בַּשְּׁעָרִ֔ים פַּנּ֖וּ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הָעָ֑ם סֹ֣לּוּ סֹ֚לּוּ הַֽמְסִלָּה֙ סַקְּל֣וּ מֵאֶ֔בֶן הָרִ֥ימוּ נֵ֖ס עַל־הָעַמִּֽים:
Pass, pass through the portals: Said the prophet, “Pass and return in the portals; turn the heart of the people to the proper path” [after Jonathan].  
pave, pave the highway: Heb. סֹלּוּ. Pave the road, batec lokemin in O.F., beat down the road. סֹלּוּ is the same root as מְסִלָּה.  
clear it of stones: Clear the highway of stones and cast the stumbling blocks to the sides.  
of stones: of there being there a stone, and he is alluding to the evil inclination. It may also be interpreted as referring to the repairs of the road for the ingathering of the exiles.  
clear it of stones: Heb. סַקְּלוּ, espedrec in O.F., to rid of stones.  
lift up a banner: A staff, perche in French. That is a sign, that they gather to Me and bring Me those exiled beside them [i.e., those exiled in their land].  
11Behold, the Lord announced to the end of the earth, "Say to the daughter of Zion, 'Behold your salvation has come.' " Behold His reward is with Him, and His wage is before Him.   יאהִנֵּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֗ה הִשְׁמִ֙יעַ֙ אֶל־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ אִמְרוּ֙ לְבַת־צִיּ֔וֹן הִנֵּ֥ה יִשְׁעֵ֖ךְ בָּ֑א הִנֵּ֚ה שְׂכָרוֹ֙ אִתּ֔וֹ וּפְעֻלָּת֖וֹ לְפָנָֽיו:
Behold his reward: [that is prepared] to give to His servants is prepared with Him.  
and His wage: [Lit. His deed.] The reward for the deed they did with Him, is before Him, prepared to give.  
12And they shall call them the holy people, those redeemed by the Lord, and you shall be called, "sought, a city not forsaken."   יבוְקָרְא֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם עַם־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ גְּאוּלֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְלָךְ֙ יִקָּרֵ֣א דְרוּשָׁ֔ה עִ֖יר לֹ֥א נֶעֱזָֽבָה:

Isaiah Chapter 63

1Who is this coming from Edom, with soiled garments, from Bozrah, this one [Who was] stately in His apparel, girded with the greatness of His strength? "I speak with righteousness, great to save."   אמִי־זֶ֣ה | בָּ֣א מֵֽאֱד֗וֹם חֲמ֚וּץ בְּגָדִים֙ מִבָּצְרָ֔ה זֶה הָד֣וּר בִּלְבוּשׁ֔וֹ צֹעֶ֖ה בְּרֹ֣ב כֹּח֑וֹ אֲנִ֛י מְדַבֵּ֥ר בִּצְדָקָ֖ה רַ֥ב לְהוֹשִֽׁיעַ:
Who is this coming from Edom: The prophet prophesies concerning what the Holy One, blessed be He, said that He is destined to wreak vengeance upon Edom, and He, personally, will slay their heavenly prince, like the matter that is said (supra 34: 5), “For My sword has become sated in the heaven.” And afterward, (ibid.) “it shall descend upon Edom,” and it is recognizable by the wrath of His face that He has slain [them with] a great massacre, and the prophet is speaking in the expression of the wars of human beings, dressed in clothes, and when they slay a slaying, the blood spatters on their garments, for so is the custom of Scripture; it speaks of the Shechinah anthropomorphically, to convey to the ear what it can hear. Comp. (Ezek. 43:2) “His voice is like the voice of many waters.” The prophet compares His mighty voice to the voice of many waters to convey to the ear according to what it is possible to hear, for one cannot understand and hearken to the magnitude of the mighty of our God to let us hear it as it is.  
Who is this coming from Edom: Israel says, “Who is this, etc.?” And He is coming with soiled garments, colored with blood, and anything repugnant because of its smell and its appearance fits to the expression of חִמּוּץ, soiling.  
from Bozrah: Our Rabbis said (see Makkoth 12a): “The heavenly prince of Edom is destined to commit two errors. He thinks that Bozrah is identical with Bezer in the desert, which was a refuge city. He will also err insofar as it affords refuge only for inadvertent murder, but he killed Israel intentionally.” There is also an Aggadic midrash (see above 34:6) that because Bozrah supplied a king for Edom when its first king died, as in Gen. (36:33), “And Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his stead,” and Bozrah is of Moab, according to the matter that is stated (Jer. 48:24): “Upon Kerioth and upon Bozrah.”  
this one: who was stately in His attire, צֹעֶה, and girded with the greatness of His strength. And the Holy One, blessed be He, replies to him, ‘It is I, upon Whom the time has come to speak of the righteousness of the Patriarchs, and of the righteousness of the generation of religious persecution, and My righteousness, too, is with them, and I have revealed Myself as being great to save.’ And they say, ‘Why is your clothing red? Why are your garments red?’  
2Why is Your clothing red, and your attire like [that of] one who trod in a wine press?   במַדּ֥וּעַ אָדֹ֖ם לִלְבוּשֶׁ֑ךָ וּבְגָדֶ֖יךָ כְּדֹרֵ֥ךְ בְּגַֽת:
3"A wine press I trod alone, and from the peoples, none was with Me; and I trod them with My wrath, and I trampled them with My fury, and their life blood sprinkled on My garments, and all My clothing I soiled.   גפּוּרָ֣ה | דָּרַ֣כְתִּי לְבַדִּ֗י וּמֵֽעַמִּים֙ אֵֽין־אִ֣ישׁ אִתִּ֔י וְאֶדְרְכֵ֣ם בְּאַפִּ֔י וְאֶרְמְסֵ֖ם בַּֽחֲמָתִ֑י וְיֵ֚ז נִצְחָם֙ עַל־בְּגָדַ֔י וְכָל־מַלְבּוּשַׁ֖י אֶגְאָֽלְתִּי:
and from the peoples, none was with Me: standing before Me to wage war.  
and their lifeblood sprinkled: Heb. נִצְחָם, Their blood, which is the strength and victory (נִצָּחוֹן) of a man.  
I soiled: Heb. אֶגְאָלְתִּי. Comp. (Lam. 4:14) “They were defiled (נִגֹּאֲלוּ) with blood.”  
4For a day of vengeance was in My heart, and the year of My redemption has arrived.   דכִּ֛י י֥וֹם נָקָ֖ם בְּלִבִּ֑י וּשְׁנַ֥ת גְּאוּלַ֖י בָּֽאָה:
5And I looked and there was no one helping, and I was astounded and there was no one supporting, and My arm saved for Me, and My fury-that supported Me.   הוְאַבִּיט֙ וְאֵ֣ין עֹזֵ֔ר וְאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵ֖ם וְאֵ֣ין סוֹמֵ֑ךְ וַתּ֚וֹשַֽׁע לִי֙ זְרֹעִ֔י וַֽחֲמָתִ֖י הִ֥יא סְמָכָֽתְנִי:
And I looked, and there was no one helping: Israel.  
and I was astounded: An expression of keeping silent, and I have already explained it above (57:16): “And He was astounded for there was no intercessor.”  
and My fury that supported Me: My fury that I have against the heathens (the nations [mss. and K’li Paz]), for I was a little wrath with My people, and they helped to harm them. That strengthened My hand and aroused My heart to mete recompense upon them although Israel is not fit and worthy of redemption.  
6And I trod peoples with My wrath, and I intoxicated them with My fury, and I brought their power down to the earth."   ווְאָב֚וּס עַמִּים֙ בְּאַפִּ֔י וַֽאֲשַׁכְּרֵ֖ם בַּֽחֲמָתִ֑י וְאוֹרִ֥יד לָאָ֖רֶץ נִצְחָֽם:
And I trod: Heb. וְאָבוּס. An expression of wallowing in blood and treading with the feet. Comp. (Ezekiel 16:6) “wallowing (מִתְבּוֹסֶסֶת) in your blood.” Comp. also (Jer. 12: 10): “They trod (בֹּסְסוּ) My field.”  
their power: Heb. נִצְחָם, the might of their victory.  
7The kind acts of the Lord I will mention, the praises of the Lord, according to all that the Lord bestowed upon us, and much good to the house of Israel, which He bestowed upon them according to His mercies and according to His many kind acts.   זחַֽסְדֵּ֨י יְהֹוָ֚ה | אַזְכִּיר֙ תְּהִלּ֣וֹת יְהֹוָ֔ה כְּעַ֕ל כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־גְּמָלָ֖נוּ יְהֹוָ֑ה וְרַב־טוּב֙ לְבֵ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־גְּמָלָ֥ם כְּרַֽחֲמָ֖יו וּכְרֹ֥ב חֲסָדָֽיו:
The kind acts of the Lord I will mention: The prophet says, I will remind Israel of the kind acts of the Lord.  
and much good: I will remind Israel of what He bestowed upon the house of Israel with His mercies.  
8And He said, "They are but My people, children who will not deal falsely." And He became their Savior.   חוַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַךְ־עַמִּ֣י הֵ֔מָּה בָּנִ֖ים לֹ֣א יְשַׁקֵּ֑רוּ וַיְהִ֥י לָהֶ֖ם לְמוֹשִֽׁיעַ:
They are but My people: Although it is revealed before Me that they would betray Me, they are, nevertheless, My people, and they are to Me like children who will not deal falsely.  
9In all their trouble, He did not trouble [them], and the angel of His presence saved them; with His love and with His pity He redeemed them, and He bore them, and He carried them all the days of old.   טבְּכָל־צָֽרָתָ֣ם | ל֣וֹ (כתיב לֹ֣א) צָ֗ר וּמַלְאַ֚ךְ פָּנָיו֙ הֽוֹשִׁיעָ֔ם בְּאַֽהֲבָת֥וֹ וּבְחֶמְלָת֖וֹ ה֣וּא גְאָלָ֑ם וַֽיְנַטְּלֵ֥ם וַֽיְנַשְּׂאֵ֖ם כָּל־יְמֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם:
In all their trouble: that He would bring upon them.  
He did not trouble [them]: He did not trouble them according to their deeds, that they deserved to suffer, for the angel of His presencei.e., Michael the prince of the Presence, of those who minister before Him saved them always as an agent of the Omnipresent.  
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