Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 17

8And you should say to them: Any man of the House of Israel or of the strangers who will sojourn among them, who offers up a burnt offering or [any other] sacrifice,   ח וַֽאֲלֵהֶ֣ם תֹּאמַ֔ר אִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִן־הַגֵּ֖ר אֲשֶׁר־יָג֣וּר בְּתוֹכָ֑ם אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲלֶ֥ה עֹלָ֖ה אוֹ־זָֽבַח:
Who offers up a burnt-offering: [This passage] comes to make liable one who causes the limbs [of a sacrifice] to go up in smoke outside [the Temple Courtyard] like the one who slaughters [a sacrifice] outside [the Courtyard. Consequently,] if one person slaughtered [the sacrifice] and his fellow offered it up [outside the Courtyard], they are both liable [to the penalty of excision]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:103; Zev. 106a]   אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲלֶה עֹלָה: לְחַיֵּב עַל הַמַּקְטִיר אֵבָרִים בַּחוּץ כְּשׁוֹחֵט בַּחוּץ, שֶׁאִם שָׁחַט אֶחָד וְהֶעֱלָה חֲבֵרוֹ שְׁנֵיהֶם חַיָּבִין (זבחים ק"ו):
9but does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to make it [a sacrifice] to the Lord, that man shall be cut off from his people.   טוְאֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ לֹ֣א יְבִיאֶ֔נּוּ לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת אֹת֖וֹ לַֽיהוָֹ֑ה וְנִכְרַ֛ת הָאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא מֵֽעַמָּֽיו:
[that man] will be cut off [from his people]: Heb. מֵעַמָּיו, lit. from his peoples. [The plural form of “peoples” teaches us that] his offspring will be cut off as well as his own days being cut off.   וְנִכְרַת: זַרְעוֹ נִכְרָת וְיָמָיו נִכְרָתִין:
10And any man of the House of Israel or of the strangers that sojourn among them, who eats any blood, I will set My attention upon the soul who eats the blood, and I will cut him off from among his people.   יוְאִ֨ישׁ אִ֜ישׁ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּמִן־הַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאכַ֖ל כָּל־דָּ֑ם וְנָֽתַתִּ֣י פָנַ֗י בַּנֶּ֨פֶשׁ֙ הָֽאֹכֶ֣לֶת אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י אֹתָ֖הּ מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽהּ:
any blood: Since Scripture says, “[For it is the blood] that atones for the soul” (next verse), one might think that a person is liable only for [eating] the blood of sanctified things, [which effects atonement]. Scripture, therefore, says here, “any blood” [to include even the blood of ordinary animals]. — [Kereithoth 4b]   כָּל־דָּם: לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר", יָכוֹל לֹא יְהֵא חַיָּב אֶלָּא עַל דַּם הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "כָּל דָּם":
I will set my attention: Heb. פָנַי. [The word פָנַי here is to be understood to mean] My פְּנַאי, i.e., My leisure. [God is saying,] “I will make Myself free (פּוֹנֶה) from all My affairs, and I will deal with this person!” - [Torath Kohanim 17:108]   וְנָֽתַתִּי פָנַי: פְּנַאי שֶׁלִּי — פּוֹנֶה אֲנִי מִכָּל עֲסָקַי וְעוֹסֵק בּוֹ (ספרא):
11For the soul of the flesh is in the blood, and I have therefore given it to you [to be placed] upon the altar, to atone for your souls. For it is the blood that atones for the soul.   יאכִּי־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר֘ בַּדָּ֣ם הִוא֒ וַֽאֲנִ֞י נְתַתִּ֤יו לָכֶם֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־הַדָּ֥ם ה֖וּא בַּנֶּ֥פֶשׁ יְכַפֵּֽר:
For the soul of the flesh: of every creature is dependent upon the blood, and therefore, I have given it to atone for the soul of man. [In this way,] one “soul” [namely, the blood of a sacrifice] shall come and atone for another soul.   כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר: שֶׁל כָּל בְּרִיָּה בַּדָּם הִיא תְלוּיָה, וּלְפִיכָךְ נְתַתִּיו (עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ) לְכַפֵּר עַל נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם — תָּבֹא נֶפֶשׁ וּתְכַפֵּר עַל הַנֶּפֶשׁ:
12Therefore, I said to the children of Israel: None of you shall eat blood, and the stranger who sojourns among you shall not eat blood.   יבעַל־כֵּ֤ן אָמַ֨רְתִּי֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כָּל־נֶ֥פֶשׁ מִכֶּ֖ם לֹא־תֹ֣אכַל דָּ֑ם וְהַגֵּ֛ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֖ם לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל דָּֽם:
None of you: [This phrase] comes to warn adults regarding minors [not to feed them blood]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:110; Yev. 114a]   כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם: לְהַזְהִיר גְּדוֹלִים עַל הַקְּטַנִּים:
13And any man of the children of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn among them, who traps a quarry of a wild animal or bird that may be eaten, and sheds its blood, he shall cover it [the blood] with dust.   יגוְאִ֨ישׁ אִ֜ישׁ מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּמִן־הַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָצ֜וּד צֵ֥יד חַיָּ֛ה אוֹ־ע֖וֹף אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֑ל וְשָׁפַךְ֙ אֶת־דָּמ֔וֹ וְכִסָּ֖הוּ בֶּֽעָפָֽר:
who traps: [Had the verse stated only this phrase,] we would know only [that this law applies to] creatures that require trapping. But how would we know [that the law includes also] geese and roosters, [which do not require trapping]? Scripture, therefore, adds [the word] צֵיד -a quarry, meaning in any way [even if not trapped]. But if so, why is it stated, “who traps”? [To teach us] that one should not eat flesh except with this preparation, [meaning, that just as one does not go out to trap every day, neither should one eat meat regularly at all his meals, as if he had to go out and trap it]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:111; Chul. 84a]   אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד: אֵין לִי אֶלָּא צַיִד, אֲוָזִין וְתַרְנְגוֹלִין מִנַּיִן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "צֵיד" מִכָּל מָקוֹם; אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר "אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד"? שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל בָּשָׂר אֶלָּא בַּהַזְמָנָה הַזֹּאת (חולין פ"ד):
that may be eaten: [This comes] to exclude unclean creatures [which are prohibited to be eaten, that their blood does not require covering]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:112]   אֲשֶׁר יֵֽאָכֵל: פְּרָט לִטְמֵאִים (שם פ"ה):
14For [regarding] the soul of all flesh its blood is in its soul, and I said to the children of Israel: You shall not eat the blood of any flesh, for the soul of any flesh is its blood all who eat it shall be cut off.   ידכִּי־נֶ֣פֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂ֗ר דָּמ֣וֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ֘ הוּא֒ וָֽאֹמַר֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל דַּ֥ם כָּל־בָּשָׂ֖ר לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ כִּ֣י נֶ֤פֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר֙ דָּמ֣וֹ הִ֔וא כָּל־אֹֽכְלָ֖יו יִכָּרֵֽת:
its blood is in its soul: Its blood is in the place of its very soul, because the soul is dependent upon it.   דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא: דָּמוֹ הוּא לוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הַנֶּפֶשׁ, שֶׁהַנֶּפֶשׁ תְּלוּיָה בוֹ:
for the soul of any flesh is its blood: [The word הִוא, meaning here “it is,” is feminine in gender.] “for the soul […] is the blood.” [For] the words דָּם and בָּשָׂר are masculine in gender, while the word נֶפֶשׁ is feminine in gender. [Hence, the antecedent of הִוא is נֶפֶשׁ.]   כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הוּא: הַנֶּפֶשׁ הִיא הַדָּם. דָּם וּבָשָׂר לְשׁוֹן זָכָר, נֶפֶשׁ לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה:
15And any person, whether a native or a stranger, who eats carrion or what was torn, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in the waters, and shall remain unclean until evening, and then he shall become clean.   טווְכָל־נֶ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תֹּאכַ֤ל נְבֵלָה֙ וּטְרֵפָ֔ה בָּֽאֶזְרָ֖ח וּבַגֵּ֑ר וְכִבֶּ֨ס בְּגָדָ֜יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֛יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב וְטָהֵֽר:
who eats carrion or what was torn: Scripture is speaking about the carcass of a clean bird [i.e., a kosher species of bird], which transmits defilement only at the time it is swallowed into the esophagus. And it teaches you here, that it defiles [the person], when he eats it. [The trefah, the bird mortally wounded by a wild beast, or stricken with a terminal illness, however, does not transmit defilement. Consequently,] the torn one mentioned here was written only to expound upon it. Thus we learned: One might think that the carcass of an unclean bird [also] defiles when it is swallowed into the esophagus. Scripture, therefore, says, “or what was torn,” [referring to a type of bird] that may fall under the category of טְרֵפָה [i.e., a kosher bird, which is prohibited only if it is torn], thus, excluding the case of an unclean bird, which can never fall under the category of טְרֵפָה, [because it is prohibited in any case]. - [Torath Kohanim 17:126]   אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה: בְּנִבְלַת עוֹף טָהוֹר דִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב, שֶׁאֵין לָהּ טֻמְאָה אֶלָּא בְשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּבְלַעַת בְּבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה, וְלִמֶּדְךָ כָּאן שֶׁמְּטַמְּאָה בַאֲכִילָתָהּ (וְאֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה בְמַגָּע); וּטְרֵפָה הָאֲמוּרָה כָּאן לֹא נִכְתַּב אֶלָּא לִדְרֹשׁ, וְכֵן שָׁנִינוּ: יָכוֹל תְּהֵא נִבְלַת עוֹף טָמֵא מְטַמְּאָה בְּבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר טְרֵפָה — מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּמִינוֹ טְרֵפָה, יָצָא עוֹף טָמֵא שֶׁאֵין בְּמִינוֹ טְרֵפָה (ספרא; זבחים ע'):
16But if he does not immerse [his garments] or immerse his flesh, he shall bear his sin.   טזוְאִם֙ לֹ֣א יְכַבֵּ֔ס וּבְשָׂר֖וֹ לֹ֣א יִרְחָ֑ץ וְנָשָׂ֖א עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
he shall bear his sin: If he [subsequently] eats holy sacrifices or enters the Sanctuary [in his unclean state], he is punished by excision because of this uncleanness, like all other cases of uncleanness. — [Torath Kohanim 17: 129]   וְנָשָׂא עונו: אִם יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ אוֹ יִכָּנֵס לַמִּקְדָּשׁ חַיָּב עַל טֻמְאָה זוֹ כְּכָל שְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת (ספרא):
[But if he does not]…immerse his flesh, he shall bear his sin: For [not] immersing his body he is punished by excision. However, for [not] immersing his garments, [and entering the Mishkan wearing them,] he is punished by lashes. — [Torath Kohanim 17:129]   וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עונו: עַל רְחִיצַת גּוּפוֹ עָנוּשׁ כָּרֵת וְעַל כִּבּוּס בְּגָדִים בְּמַלְקוּת (שם):

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 18

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: I am the Lord, your God.   בדַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֹ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
I am the Lord, your God: I am the One Who said at Sinai, “I am the Lord, your God” (Exod. 20:2), and you accepted My sovereignty upon yourselves [at that time]; consequently, accept My decrees. Rabbi [Yehudah Hanassi] says: “It is openly known before Him, that they would eventually be scourged by [transgressing the laws of] immoral relations, in the days of Ezra. Therefore, [concerning these laws,] God came to them with the decree: I am the Lord, your God! You should know Who is placing these decrees upon you-the Judge Who exacts retribution (אֱלֹקִים), but Who is faithful also to pay a reward ()!”- [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם: אֲנִי הוּא שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי בְסִינַי אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְקִבַּלְתֶּם עֲלֵיכֶם מַלְכוּתִי, מֵעַתָּה קַבְּלוּ גְזֵרוֹתָי; רַבִּי אוֹמֵר גָּלוּי וְיָדוּעַ לְפָנָיו שֶׁסּוֹפָן לִנָּתֵק בַּעֲרָיוֹת בִּימֵי עֶזְרָא, לְפִיכָךְ בָּא עֲלֵיהֶם בִּגְזֵרָה אני ה' אלהיכם — דְּעוּ מִי גוֹזֵר עֲלֵיכֶם, דַּיָּן לִפָּרַע וְנֶאֱמָן לְשַׁלֵּם שָׂכָר (עי' ספרא):
3Like the practice of the land of Egypt, in which you dwelled, you shall not do, and like the practice of the land of Canaan, to which I am bringing you, you shall not do, and you shall not follow their statutes.   גכְּמַֽעֲשֵׂ֧ה אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַ֛יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּ֖הּ לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֑וּ וּכְמַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה אֶֽרֶץ־כְּנַ֡עַן אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲנִי֩ מֵבִ֨יא אֶתְכֶ֥ם שָׁ֨מָּ֨ה לֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֔וּ וּבְחֻקֹּֽתֵיהֶ֖ם לֹ֥א תֵלֵֽכוּ:
Like the practice of the land of Egypt […and like the practice of the land of Canaan]: [This verse] informs [us] that the deeds of the Egyptians and the Canaanites were more corrupt than those of all other nations, and moreover, that the [Egyptians residing in that] region [of Egypt] in which the Israelites had dwelt, were the most corrupt of all. — [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂה אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם: מַגִּיד שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל מִצְרִיִּים וְשֶׁל כְּנַעֲנִיִּים מְקֻלְקָלִים מִכָּל הָאֻמּוֹת, וְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁיָּשְׁבוּ בוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקֻלְקָל מִן הַכֹּל:
and like the practice of the land of Canaan, to which I am bringing you: [This verse] informs [us] that those [Canaanite] peoples whom the Israelites conquered, were more corrupt than any other [people, even the Egyptians]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:138]   אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה: מַגִּיד שֶׁאוֹתָן עֲמָמִין שֶׁכִּבְּשׁוּ יִשְֹרָאֵל מְקֻלְקָלִים מִכֻּלָּם (שם):
and you shall not follow their statutes: What did Scripture omit [until now] that it did not state [and includes in this clause]? However, these are their social practices, things that assumed the status of law (חָקוּק) for them, for example, [certain days set aside for attendance at] theaters and stadiums. Rabbi Meir says: These [practices referred to here,] are the “ways of the Amorites,” [the superstitious practices] enumerated by our Sages. — [see Shab. 67ab; Torath Kohanim 18: 139]   וּבְחֻקֹּֽתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵֽכוּ: מַה הִנִּיחַ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר? אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ נִימוֹסוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן — דְּבָרִים הַחֲקוּקִין לָהֶם — כְּגוֹן טַרְטִיָּאוֹת וְאִצְטַדִיָּאוֹת, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אֵלּוּ דַּרְכֵי הָאֱמוֹרִי שֶׁמָּנוּ חֲכָמִים (שם):
4You shall fulfill My ordinances and observe My statutes, to follow them. I am the Lord, your God.   דאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֧י תַּֽעֲשׂ֛וּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֥י תִּשְׁמְר֖וּ לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּהֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֹ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
You shall fulfill My ordinances: These are the laws stated in the Torah in justice, [i.e., which human intellect deems proper,] which, had they not been stated [in the Torah], would have been deemed worthy to be stated [e.g., not to steal, not to murder, etc.]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:140]   אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּֽעֲשׂוּ: אֵלּוּ דְּבָרִים הָאֲמוּרִים בַּתּוֹרָה בְּמִשְׁפָּט, שֶׁאִלּוּ לֹא נֶאֶמְרוּ הָיוּ כְדַאי לְאָמְרָן:
and observe My statutes: These are the “King’s decrees” [without apparent rationale to man], against which the evil inclination protests, “Why should we keep them?” Likewise, the nations of the world object to them. Examples are: [The prohibition of] eating pig and wearing shaatnez [a mixture of wool and linen] (see Lev. 19:19), and the purification procedure effected by purification water [the mixture including the ashes of the red cow] (see Num., Chapter 19). Therefore it says, “I am the Lord.” I have decreed [these] upon you; you are not permitted to exempt yourselves [from fulfilling them]. — Torath Kohanim 18:140]   וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ: דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵן גְּזֵרַת הַמֶּלֶךְ, שֶׁיֵּצֶר הָרַע מֵשִׁיב עֲלֵיהֶם לָמָּה לָנוּ לְשָׁמְרָן? וְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם מְשִׁיבִין עֲלֵיהֶם, כְּגוֹן אֲכִילַת חֲזִיר וּלְבִישַׁת שַׁעַטְנֵז וְטָהֳרַת מֵי חַטָּאת, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר אני ה', גָּזַרְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם, אֵי אַתָּה רַשַּׁאי לִפָּטֵר (יומא ס"ז):
to follow them: Do not take leave from [studying] them, i.e., you shall not say, “I have learned the wisdom of Israel-now I will go and learn the wisdom of the [other] nations.” - [Torath Kohanim 18:141]   לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם: אַל תִּפָּטֵר מִתּוֹכָם, שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר לָמַדְתִּי חָכְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵלֵךְ וְאֶלְמַד חָכְמַת הָאֻמּוֹת (ספרא):
5You shall observe My statutes and My ordinances, which a man shall do and live by them. I am the Lord.   הוּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָ֛ם הָֽאָדָ֖ם וָחַ֣י בָּהֶ֑ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֹֽה:
You shall observe My statutes and My ordinances: [This comes to include other details of [laws pertaining to] this passage, that Scripture did not mention explicitly. — [Torath Kohanim 18:142] Another explanation: [This clause, “You shall observe My statutes and My judgments, which a man shall do,” was added,] in order to apply “observance” (שְׁמִירָה) and fulfillment (עֲשִׂיָּה) to statutes, and to apply “observance” (שְׁמִירָה) and “fulfillment” (עֲשִׂיָּה) to ordinances. For [up till now,] Scripture had mentioned only “fulfillment” regarding ordinances and “observance” regarding statutes (see previous verse). - [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וגו': לְרַבּוֹת שְׁאָר דִּקְדּוּקֵי הַפָּרָשָׁה, שֶׁלֹּא פֵּרֵט הַכָּתוּב בָּהֶם; דָּבָר אַחֵר לִתֵּן שְׁמִירָה וַעֲשִׂיָּה לַחֻקִּים וּשְׁמִירָה וַעֲשִׂיָּה לַמִּשְׁפָּטִים, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן אֶלָּא עֲשִׂיָּה לַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וּשְׁמִירָה לַחֻקִּים (ספרא):
and live by them: in the World-To-Come. For if you say [that the verse refers to living] in this world, does he not eventually die? [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   וָחַי בָּהֶם: לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁאִם תֹּאמַר בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וַהֲלֹא סוֹפוֹ הוּא מֵת (שם):
I am the Lord: faithful to pay a reward [an attribute represented by the Name ]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:134]   אֲנִי ה': נֶאֱמָן לְשַׁלֵּם שָׂכָר (שם):
6No man shall come near to any of his close relatives, to uncover [their] nakedness. I am the Lord.   ואִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵ֣ר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ לֹ֥א תִקְרְב֖וּ לְגַלּ֣וֹת עֶרְוָ֑ה אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֹֽה:
No man shall come near: Heb. תִקְרְבוּ לֹא. [This comes] to admonish the female as [it does] the male. Therefore, it is stated in the plural form. — [Torath Kohanim 18:136]   לֹא תִקְרְבוּ: לְהַזְהִיר הַנְּקֵבָה כַּזָּכָר, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר לְשׁוֹן רַבִּים:
I am the Lord: faithful to pay a reward [not only for fulfilling positive commandments but also to the one who saves himself from sinning]. — [Torath Kohanim 18:145]   אֲנִי ה': נֶאֱמָן לְשַׁלֵּם שָׂכָר:
7You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father or the nakedness of your mother; she is your mother; you shall not uncover her nakedness.   זעֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֛יךָ וְעֶרְוַ֥ת אִמְּךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה אִמְּךָ֣ הִ֔וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ:
the nakedness of your father: This [refers to] your father’s wife. [But how do we know this?] Perhaps it is only to be interpreted literally [as an admonition against relations with one’s father, in addition to the general admonition against pederasty]. [The answer is:] It says here, “The nakedness of your father,” and it says further, “has uncovered his father’s nakedness” (Lev. 20:11). Just as in the latter verse, Scripture is speaking of his father’s wife [as that verse begins with, “And a man who cohabits with his father’s wife”], here, too, [Scripture is speaking of] his father’s wife. - [Sanh. 54a]   עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ: זוֹ אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ, אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְמַשְׁמָעוֹ? נֶאֱמַר כָּאן עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֶרְוַת אָבִיו גִּלָּה, מַה לְּהַלָּן אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו אַף כָּאן אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו (סנהדרין נ"ד):
or the nakedness of your mother: [It comes] to include [in the prohibition,] his mother who is not his father’s wife. — [Sanh. 54a]   וְעֶרְוַת אִמְּךָ: לְהָבִיא אִמּוֹ שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו (שם):
8You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's wife; it is your father's nakedness.   חעֶרְוַ֥ת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה עֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֖יךָ הִֽוא:
the nakedness of your father’s wife: [This admonition is repeated] to include [in the prohibition, one’s father’s wife, even] after the death [of one’s father]. — [Sanh. 54a]   עֶרְוַת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָבִיךָ: לְרַבּוֹת אַחַר מִיתָה (שם):
9The nakedness of your sister, whether your father's daughter or your mother's daughter, whether born to one who may remain in the home or born to one who must be sent outside you shall not uncover their nakedness.   טעֶרְוַ֨ת אֲחֽוֹתְךָ֤ בַת־אָבִ֨יךָ֙ א֣וֹ בַת־אִמֶּ֔ךָ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת בַּ֔יִת א֖וֹ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת ח֑וּץ לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽן:
your father’s daughter: Included in the meaning [of the verse] is also a daughter born from a woman [the father] raped [i.e., not the father’s wife]. — [Yev. 22b]   בַת־אָבִיךָ: אַף בַּת אֲנוּסָה בְמַשְׁמָע:
whether born to one who may remain in the home or to one who must remain outside: מוֹלֶדֶת בַּית אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ, lit. born in the house or born outside. Whether they say to your father, “[You may] keep her mother [as your wife],” or whether they say to your father, “[You must] send her mother away,” for example, a mamzereth, or a nethinah [an offspring of the Gibeonites (see Josh. 9:327)]. — [Yev. 23a]   מוֹלֶדֶת בַּיִת אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ: בֵּין שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לוֹ לְאָבִיךָ קַיֵּם אֶת אִמָּהּ, וּבֵין שֶׁאוֹמְרִים לוֹ הוֹצֵא אֶת אִמָּהּ, כְּגוֹן מַמְזֶרֶת אוֹ נְתִינָה (יבמות כ"ג):
10The nakedness of your son's daughter or your daughter's daughter you shall not uncover their nakedness, for they are your own nakedness.   יעֶרְוַ֤ת בַּת־בִּנְךָ֙ א֣וֹ בַת־בִּתְּךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָ֑ן כִּ֥י עֶרְוָֽתְךָ֖ הֵֽנָּה:
The nakedness of your son’s daughter [or your daughter’s daughter]: Scripture is speaking of his daughter born from a woman he had raped. [The case, however,] of [his son’s] daughter and his daughter’s daughter [who stem] from his wife, we learn from (verse 17 below), “You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; you shall not take [in marriage] her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter” about [whose nakedness] Scripture says, “You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter” whether this daughter stems from him or from another man. — [Yev. 22b]   עֶרְוַת בַּת־בִּנְךָ וגו': בְּבִתּוֹ מֵאֲנוּסָתוֹ הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, וּבִתּוֹ וּבַת בִּתּוֹ מֵאִשְׁתּוֹ אָנוּ לְמֵדִין מֵ"עֶרְוַת אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ", שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶן "לֹא תְגַלֵּה", בֵּין שֶׁהִיא מִמֶּנּוּ וּבֵין שֶׁהִיא מֵאִישׁ אַחֵר (שם כב):
The nakedness of your son’s daughter: How much more so, then, should one’s own daughter [be prohibited]! But since a Scriptural admonition must not be derived from an inference from minor to major, [but must be explicitly mentioned], they learned it from a gezeirah shavah [an exposition linking common words within verses of this passage, which is considered as if explicitly mentioned] in Tractate Yevamoth (3a).   עֶרְוַת בַּת־בִּנְךָ: קַל וָחֹמֶר לְבִתְּךָ, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַזְהִירִין מִן הַדִּין, לְמָדוּהָ מִגְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה בְּמַסֶּכֶת יְבָמוֹת (דף ג'):
11The nakedness of the daughter of your father's wife, born to your father she is your sister: you shall not uncover her nakedness.   יאעֶרְוַ֨ת בַּת־אֵשֶׁ֤ת אָבִ֨יךָ֙ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת אָבִ֔יךָ אֲחֽוֹתְךָ֖ הִ֑וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ:
The nakedness of the daughter of your father’s wife: [This verse] teaches us that one is not liable to the punishment [of excision, if he cohabited with] his sister who stems from a handmaid or a non-Jewess. Therefore, it says, “the daughter of your father’s wife” - [i.e.,] a woman fit to enter into marriage [thus excluding a handmaid and non-Jewess, marriage with whom is not binding]. — [Yev. 23a]   עֶרְוַת בַּת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ: לִמֵּד שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ מִשִּׁפְחָה וְנָכְרִית, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר "בַּת אֵשֶׁת אָבִיךָ" — בִּרְאוּיָה לְקִדּוּשִׁין (שם כ"ג):
12You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's sister; she is the close relative of your father.   יבעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחֽוֹת־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה שְׁאֵ֥ר אָבִ֖יךָ הִֽוא:
13You shall not uncover the nakedness of your mother's sister, for she is the close relative of your mother.   יגעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחֽוֹת־אִמְּךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה כִּֽי־שְׁאֵ֥ר אִמְּךָ֖ הִֽוא:
14You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father's brother you shall not come near his wife; she is your aunt.   ידעֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחִֽי־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה אֶל־אִשְׁתּוֹ֙ לֹ֣א תִקְרָ֔ב דֹּדָֽתְךָ֖ הִֽוא:
You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s brother: And what is “his nakedness?” “you shall not come near his wife.”   עֶרְוַת אֲחִֽי־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה: וּמַה הִיא עֶרְוָתוֹ? אל אשתו לא תקרב:
15You shall not uncover the nakedness of your daughter in law; she is your son's wife you shall not uncover her nakedness.   טועֶרְוַ֥ת כַּלָּֽתְךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה אֵ֤שֶׁת בִּנְךָ֙ הִ֔וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ:
[she is] your son’s wife: [Scripture says:] I have stated [the law] only [in the case of a woman] with whom your son has a marital tie. [This] excludes a woman he has raped, a handmaid, or a non-Jewess [with whom the son has cohabited]. — [Torath Kohanim 20:108]   אֵשֶׁת בִּנְךָ: לֹא אָמַרְתִּי אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לְבִנְךָ אִישׁוּת בָּהּ, פְּרָט לַאֲנוּסָה וְשִׁפְחָה וְנָכְרִית (עי' ספרא):
16You shall not uncover the nakedness of your brother's wife: it is your brother's nakedness.   טזעֶרְוַ֥ת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָחִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה עֶרְוַ֥ת אָחִ֖יךָ הִֽוא:
17You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; you shall not take [in marriage] her son's daughter or her daughter's daughter, to uncover her nakedness they are close relatives, it is evil counsel.   יזעֶרְוַ֥ת אִשָּׁ֛ה וּבִתָּ֖הּ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה אֶת־בַּת־בְּנָ֞הּ וְאֶת־בַּת־בִּתָּ֗הּ לֹ֤א תִקַּח֙ לְגַלּ֣וֹת עֶרְוָתָ֔הּ שַֽׁאֲרָ֥ה הֵ֖נָּה זִמָּ֥ה הִֽוא:
You shall not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter: Scripture prohibits [relations with the second woman] only through a marital tie with the first one [whether the woman or her daughter]. Hence, Scripture says, לֹא תִקַּח, denoting “taking (קִיחָה) in marriage.” Similarly, when it comes to stating the punishment [of those who transgress this matter, Scripture says], “[And a man] who takes (יִקַּח) a woman and her mother [in marriage…they shall burn him and them in fire]” (Lev. 20:14), [also using] the expression of קִיחָה, “taking [in marriage].” But if he raped a woman, he is permitted to marry her daughter. — [Yev. 97a]   עֶרְוַת אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ: לֹא אָסַר הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי נִשּׂוּאֵי הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר לֹא "תִקַּח" — לְשׁוֹן קִיחָה, וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן הָעֹנֶשׁ, אֲשֶׁר "יִקַּח" אֶת אִשָּׁה וְאֶת אִמָּה — לְשׁוֹן קִיחָה, אֲבָל אָנַס אִשָּׁה מֻתָּר לִשָּׂא בִּתָּהּ (יבמות צ"ז):
they are close relatives: Heb. שַׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה, they are related to one another.   שַֽׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה: קְרוֹבוֹת זוֹ לָזוֹ:
evil counsel: Heb. זִמָּה, counsel [like the word זָמַם, plotted]; as the Targum renders: עֲצַת חֶטְאִין, counsel of sins, which your [evil] inclination has counseled you to sin.   זִמָּה: עֵצָה, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ עֲצַת חֶטְאִין, שֶׁיִּצְרְךָ יוֹעֶצְךָ לַחֲטֹא:
18And you shall not take a woman with her sister [in marriage] as rivals, to uncover the nakedness of one upon the other, in her lifetime.   יחוְאִשָּׁ֥ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָ֖הּ לֹ֣א תִקָּ֑ח לִצְרֹ֗ר לְגַלּ֧וֹת עֶרְוָתָ֛הּ עָלֶ֖יהָ בְּחַיֶּֽיהָ:
a woman with her sister: both at the same time.   אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ: שְׁתֵּיהֶן כְּאַחַת (קידושין נ'):
as rivals: Heb. לִצְרֹר, an expression similar to צָרָה, rival, to make one a rival to the other.   לִצְרֹר: לְשׁוֹן צָרָה — לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת זוֹ צָרָה לָזוֹ:
in her lifetime: This teaches you that if he divorced her, he may not marry her sister while she is still alive. — [Yev.. 8b]   בְּחַיֶּֽיהָ: לִמֶּדְךָ שֶׁאִם גֵרְשָׁהּ לֹא יִשָּׂא אֶת אֲחוֹתָהּ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהִיא בַחַיִּים (יבמות ח'):
19And to a woman during the uncleanness of her separation, you shall not come near to uncover her nakedness.   יטוְאֶל־אִשָּׁ֖ה בְּנִדַּ֣ת טֻמְאָתָ֑הּ לֹ֣א תִקְרַ֔ב לְגַלּ֖וֹת עֶרְוָתָֽהּ:
20You shall not lie carnally with your neighbor's wife, to become defiled by her.   כוְאֶל־אֵ֨שֶׁת֙ עֲמִ֣יתְךָ֔ לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֥ן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ֖ לְזָ֑רַע לְטָמְאָה־בָֽהּ:
21And you shall not give any of your offspring to pass through for Molech. And you shall not profane the Name of your God. I am the Lord.   כאוּמִזַּרְעֲךָ֥ לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֖ן לְהַֽעֲבִ֣יר לַמֹּ֑לֶךְ וְלֹ֧א תְחַלֵּ֛ל אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֹֽה:
for Molech: A form of idolatry, named Molech, and this was the manner of its worship, that one would hand over one’s child to the pagan priests, who would make two huge fires. The child was then passed through on foot between these two fires. — [Sanh. 64b, see Rashi there.]   לַמֹּלֶךְ: עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה הִיא שֶׁשְּׁמָהּ מֹלֶךְ, וְזוֹ הִיא עֲבוֹדָתָהּ, שֶׁמּוֹסֵר בְּנוֹ לַכּוֹמְרִים וְעוֹשִׂין שְׁתֵּי מְדוּרוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת וּמַעֲבִירִין אֶת הַבֵּן בְּרַגְלָיו בֵּין שְׁתֵּי מְדוּרוֹת הָאֵשׁ (סנהדרין ס"ד):
And you shall not give: This refers to the handing him over to the pagan priests.   לֹֽא־תִתֵּן: זוֹ הִיא מְסִירָתוֹ לַכּוֹמְרִים:
to pass through for Molech: This refers to passing [the child] between the fire[s].   לְהַֽעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ: זוֹ הַעֲבָרַת הָאֵשׁ: