Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 12

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, saying: If a woman conceives and gives birth to a male, she shall be unclean for seven days; as [in] the days of her menstrual flow, she shall be unclean.   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אִשָּׁה֙ כִּ֣י תַזְרִ֔יעַ וְיָֽלְדָ֖ה זָכָ֑ר וְטָֽמְאָה֙ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים כִּימֵ֛י נִדַּ֥ת דְּו‍ֹתָ֖הּ תִּטְמָֽא:
If a woman conceives: Rabbi Simlai said: “Just as in the Creation, man was created after all domestic animals, wild beasts, and birds, so too, the law [concerning the cleanness] of man is stated after the law [concerning the cleanness] of domestic animals, wild beasts, and birds.”- [Vayikra Rabbah 14:1]   אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ: אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלַאי: כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְּצִירָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם אַחַר כָּל בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, כָּךְ תּוֹרָתוֹ נִתְפָּרְשָׁה אַחַר תּוֹרַת בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף (ויקרא רבה יד):
If [a woman] conceives: Heb. כִּי תַזְרִיעַ. [These words are stated] to include the case of [a woman] who gave birth to a dissolved [fetus, i.e., the fetus had matured, but had subsequently] dissolved [in the womb], resulting in a semen-like mass (זֶרַע akin to תַזְרִיע), its mother has the impurity of birth. — [Niddah 27b]   כִּי תַזְרִיעַ: לְרַבּוֹת שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ יְלָדַתּוּ מָחוּי — שֶׁנִּמְחָה וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּעֵין זֶרַע — אִמּוֹ טְמֵאָה לֵידָה (נדה כ"ז):
as [in] the days of her menstrual flow: According to the order of all the uncleanness mentioned in regard to the menstruating woman (נִדָּה), she becomes unclean on account of giving birth. [This is true] even if the womb opens without [any issue of] blood.   כִּימֵי נִדַּת דותה תִּטְמָֽא: כְּסֵדֶר כָּל טֻמְאָה הָאֲמוּרָה בְנִדָּה מִטַּמְּאָה בְטֻמְאַת לֵידָה, וַאֲפִלוּ נִפְתַּח הַקֶּבֶר בְּלֹא דָם (שם כ"א):
flow: Heb. דְּוֹתָהּ This expression denotes a substance that flows from her body. Another explanation: It denotes illness (מַדְוֶה) and sickness, for there is not a woman who sees [menstrual] blood without feeling ill, [since] her head and limbs become heavy upon her.   דותה: לְשׁוֹן דָּבָר הַזָּב מִגּוּפָהּ; לָשׁוֹן אַחֵר לְשׁוֹן מַדְוֶה וְחֹלִי, שֶׁאֵין אִשָּׁה רוֹאָה דָם שֶׁלֹּא תֶחֱלֶה וְרֹאשָׁהּ וְאֵבָרֶיהָ כְבֵדִין עָלֶיהָ (שם ט'):
3And on the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.   גוּבַיּ֖וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֑י יִמּ֖וֹל בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ:
4And for thirty three days, she shall remain in the blood of purity; she shall not touch anything holy, nor may she enter the Sanctuary, until the days of her purification have been completed.   דוּשְׁלשִׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וּשְׁל֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב בִּדְמֵ֣י טָֽהֳרָ֑ה בְּכָל־קֹ֣דֶשׁ לֹֽא־תִגָּ֗ע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תָבֹ֔א עַד־מְלֹ֖את יְמֵ֥י טָֽהֳרָֽהּ:
she shall remain: The word תֵּשֵׁב means only staying [or remaining], like, “And you dwelled (וַתֵּשְׁבוּ) in Kadesh” (Deut. 1:46), “and he dwelt (וַיֵּשֶׁב) in the plain of Mamre” (Gen. 13:18).   תֵּשֵׁב: אֵין תֵּשֵׁב אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן עַכָּבָה, כְּמוֹ וַתֵּשְׁבוּ בְקָדֵשׁ (דברים א'), וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא (בראשית י"ג):
in the blood of purity: [I. e., during this interim period,] although she may see blood [issued from her], she is ritually clean. — [Torath Kohanim 12:15]   בִּדְמֵי טָֽהֳרָה: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרוֹאָה טְהוֹרָה:
in the blood of purity: Heb. טָהֳרָה. [This could be mistakenly understood as “in the blood of her purity.” However,] this is not an aspirate “hey,” [as is evidenced by the absence of a dot in the final letter ה]. Therefore, it is an [unqualified] noun, like the word טֹהַר [meaning “purity”].   בִּדְמֵי טָֽהֳרָה: לֹא מַפִּיק הֵ"א, וְהוּא שֵׁם דָּבָר כְּמוֹ טֹהַר:
the days of her purification: Heb. טָהֳרָהּ. [Here,] this is an aspirate “hey,” meaning “the days of her purification.”   יְמֵי טָֽהֳרָה: מַפִּיק הֵ"א — יְמֵי טֹהַר שֶׁלָּהּ:
she shall not touch [anything holy]: [Although the verse says “shall not touch,” this is] a warning against one eating [anything holy] as is taught in Tractate Yev. (75a).   לֹֽא־תִגָּע: אַזְהָרָה לָאוֹכֵל וְכוֹ' כְּמוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנוּיָה בִיבָמוֹת (דף ע"ה):
[she shall not touch] anything holy: This comes to include terumah [being prohibited to this woman, before she is ritually clean (Torath Kohanim 12:16). This woman is considered a טְבוּל יוֹם, i.e., someone who has immersed in a mikvah, but must still wait for that day to elapse in order to become completely clean. Now, how is she considered a טְבוּל יוֹם? We are talking here about a thirty-three day period. However, she does fall under this category] because she is considered a טְבוּלַת יוֹם אָרֹךְ [i.e., she must wait a “prolonged day,” insofar as] she immerses after seven [days], but the sunset that she must wait for [in order to become pure is not the sunset of the day of her immersion, but rather, it] is the sunset of the fortieth day [from birth], since it is [only] on the following day that she may bring the atonement [sacrifice] of her purification. [Thus, the whole period is to be considered one prolonged day, in the context of the law regarding her eating anything holy.]   בְּכָל־קֹדֶשׁ: לְרַבּוֹת אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה, לְפִי שֶׁזּוֹ טְבוּלַת יוֹם אָרֹךְ, שֶׁטָּבְלָה לְסוֹף שִׁבְעָה וְאֵין שִׁמְשָׁהּ מַעֲרִיב לְטַהֲרָהּ עַד שְׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּה שֶׁל יוֹם אַרְבָּעִים שֶׁלְּמָחָר תָּבִיא אֶת כַּפָּרַת טָהֳרָתָהּ:
5And if she gives birth to a female, she shall be unclean for two weeks, like her menstruation [period]. And for sixty six days, she shall remain in the blood of purity.   הוְאִם־נְקֵבָ֣ה תֵלֵ֔ד וְטָֽמְאָ֥ה שְׁבֻעַ֖יִם כְּנִדָּתָ֑הּ וְשִׁשִּׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וְשֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב עַל־דְּמֵ֥י טָֽהֳרָֽה:
6And when the days of her purification have been completed, whether for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring a sheep in its first year as a burnt offering, and a young dove or a turtle dove as a sin offering, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to the kohen.   ווּבִמְלֹ֣את | יְמֵ֣י טָֽהֳרָ֗הּ לְבֵן֘ א֣וֹ לְבַת֒ תָּבִ֞יא כֶּ֤בֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ֙ לְעֹלָ֔ה וּבֶן־יוֹנָ֥ה אוֹ־תֹ֖ר לְחַטָּ֑את אֶל־פֶּ֥תַח אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֖ד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
7And he shall offer it up before the Lord and effect atonement for her, and thus, she will be purified from the source of her blood. This is the law of a woman who gives birth to a male or to a female.   זוְהִקְרִיב֞וֹ לִפְנֵ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ וְכִפֶּ֣ר עָלֶ֔יהָ וְטָֽהֲרָ֖ה מִמְּקֹ֣ר דָּמֶ֑יהָ זֹ֤את תּוֹרַת֙ הַיֹּלֶ֔דֶת לַזָּכָ֖ר א֥וֹ לַנְּקֵבָֽה:
And he shall offer it up: Heb. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ. This [singular object comes] to teach you that only one [of these sacrifices, if it has not yet been brought], holds her back from eating anything holy. And which one is it? It is the sin-offering, for it says, “a sin-offering. And [the kohen] shall effect atonement for her, and thus, she will be purified” (verse 8). The one through which her atonement is effected [namely, the sin-offering], is the same one upon which her purification is dependent. — [Torath Kohanim 12:27]   וְהִקְרִיבוֹ: לִמֶּדְךָ שֶׁאֵין מְעַכְּבָהּ לֶאֱכֹל בְּקָדָשִׁים אֶלָּא אֶחָד מֵהֶם, וְאֵי זֶה הוּא? זֶה חַטָּאת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵרָה, מִי שֶׁהוּא בָא לְכַפֵּר, בּוֹ הַטָּהֳרָה תְלוּיָה:
and she will thus become clean: From here, [we can conclude] that until here [namely, the offering up of her sacrifices, she is called unclean [and may not eat sacrificial flesh or enter the Sanctuary]. - [Yeb. 74b]   וְטָֽהֲרָה: מִכְּלָל שֶׁעַד כָּאן קְרוּיָה טְמֵאָה:
8And if she cannot afford a sheep, she shall take two turtle doves or two young doves: one as a burnt offering and one as a sin offering. And the kohen shall effect atonement for her, and she shall become clean.   חוְאִם־לֹ֨א תִמְצָ֣א יָדָהּ֘ דֵּ֣י שֶׂה֒ וְלָֽקְחָ֣ה שְׁתֵּֽי־תֹרִ֗ים א֤וֹ שְׁנֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יוֹנָ֔ה אֶחָ֥ד לְעֹלָ֖ה וְאֶחָ֣ד לְחַטָּ֑את וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלֶ֛יהָ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְטָהֵֽרָה:
One as a burnt-offering and one as a sin-offering: Scripture places [the burnt-offering] before [the sin-offering] only insofar as how they must be read [in the Torah. This is due to the higher esteem of the burnt-offering, because it is burned in its entirety (Maskil LeDavid).] But the sacrificing of the sin-offering precedes [that of]the burnt-offering. Thus we learned in Zevachim, in the chapter entitled כָּל-הַתָּדִיר (90a).   אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְאֶחָד לְחַטָּאת: לֹא הִקְדִּימָהּ הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא לְמִקְרָאָהּ, אֲבָל לְהַקְרָבָה חַטָּאת קוֹדֵם לָעוֹלָה, כָּךְ שָׁנִינוּ בִּזְבָחִים בְּפֶרֶק כָּל הַתָּדִיר (זבחים צ ע"א):

Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 13

1And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹֽר:
2If a man has a se'eith, a sappachath, or a bahereth on the skin of his flesh, and it forms a lesion of tzara'ath on the skin of his flesh, he shall be brought to Aaron the kohen, or to one of his sons, the kohanim.   באָדָ֗ם כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה בְעֽוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ֙ שְׂאֵ֤ת אֽוֹ־סַפַּ֨חַת֙ א֣וֹ בַהֶ֔רֶת וְהָיָ֥ה בְעֽוֹר־בְּשָׂר֖וֹ לְנֶ֣גַע צָרָ֑עַת וְהוּבָא֙ אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֣ן הַכֹּהֵ֔ן א֛וֹ אֶל־אַחַ֥ד מִבָּנָ֖יו הַכֹּֽהֲנִֽים:
se’eith, a sappachath, [or a bahereth]: Heb. The [terms se’eith and bahereth] are the names of two [major] lesions [and the term sappachath refers to categories related to these two major lesions], and one [major lesion, namely, bahereth] is whiter than the other [se’eith].-[Shev. 6b].   שְׂאֵת אֽוֹ־סַפַּחַת וגו': שְׁמוֹת נְגָעִים הֵם וּלְבָנוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ:
bahereth: Heb. בַּהֶרֶת, spot, taye in Old French. This is similar to the verse, “it is [like] bright [clouds] (בָּהִיר) in the skies” (Job 37:21) [i.e., like the spots created by bright clouds in the blue sky].   בַהֶרֶת: חֲבַרְבּוּרוֹת, טיי"א בְּלַעַז, וְכֵן בָּהִיר הוּא בַּשְּׁחָקִים (איוב ל"ז):
[he shall be brought] to Aaron [the kohen, or to one of his sons]: It is a Scriptural decree that the uncleanness of lesions and their cleanness do not come about except by the pronouncement of a kohen. — [Torath Kohanim 13:43]   אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹן וגו': גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב הִיא שֶׁאֵין טֻמְאַת נְגָעִים וְטָהֳרָתָן אֶלָּא עַל פִּי כֹהֵן (ספרא):
3The kohen shall look at the lesion on the skin of his flesh, and [if] hair in the lesion has turned white and the appearance of the lesion is deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a lesion of tzara'ath. When the kohen sees this, he shall pronounce him unclean.   גוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֣ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֣גַע בְּעֽוֹר־הַ֠בָּשָׂ֠ר וְשֵׂעָ֨ר בַּנֶּ֜גַע הָפַ֣ךְ | לָבָ֗ן וּמַרְאֵ֤ה הַנֶּ֨גַע֙ עָמֹק֙ מֵע֣וֹר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ נֶ֥גַע צָרַ֖עַת ה֑וּא וְרָאָ֥הוּ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְטִמֵּ֥א אֹתֽוֹ:
[if] hair in the lesion has turned white: Heb. וְשֵׂעָר. At first [the hair] was black, and then it turned white in the lesion. The minimum [quantity referred to by the term] שֵׂעָר, hair, is two, [as opposed to שַׂעֲרָה, a hair, as in Jud. 20:16. Thus, there shall be a minimum of two hairs that turn white in the lesion for this law to apply]. — [Torath Kohanim 13:45-47]   הָפַךְ לָבָן: מִתְּחִלָּה שָׁחֹר וְהָפַךְ לְלָבָן בְּתוֹךְ הַנֶּגַע; וּמִעוּט שֵׂעָר שְׁנַיִם:
[and the appearance of the lesion] is deeper than the skin of his flesh: Anything with a white appearance seems deeper [in contrast to a darker object next to it], just as sunlight appears deeper than a shadow. — [Shev. 6b]   עָמֹק מֵעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ: כָּל מַרְאֵה לָבָן עָמֹק הוּא, כְּמַרְאֵה חַמָּה עֲמֻקָּה מִן הַצֵּל:
he shall pronounce him unclean: He shall say to him: “You are unclean,” for white hair is a sign of uncleanness by Scriptural decree.   וְטִמֵּא אֹתֽוֹ: יֹאמַר לוֹ טָמֵא אַתָּה, שֶׁשֵּׂעָר לָבָן סִימָן טֻמְאָה הוּא גְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב:
4But if it is a white bahereth on the skin of his flesh, and its appearance is not deeper than the skin, and its hair has not turned white, the kohen shall quarantine the [person with the] lesion for seven days.   דוְאִם־בַּהֶ֩רֶת֩ לְבָנָ֨ה הִ֜וא בְּע֣וֹר בְּשָׂר֗וֹ וְעָמֹק֙ אֵֽין־מַרְאֶ֣הָ מִן־הָע֔וֹר וּשְׂעָרָ֖ה לֹֽא־הָפַ֣ךְ לָבָ֑ן וְהִסְגִּ֧יר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֖גַע שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
[But if it is a white bahereth…] and its appearance is not deeper: I do not know its meaning [since a white bahereth should always appear deeper than the skin, as above, yet here the verse describes a case where it does not].   וְעָמֹק אֵֽין־מַרְאֶהָ: לֹא יָדַעְתִּי פֵרוּשׁוֹ:
quarantine: He shall have him confined to one house, and the person shall not be seen [by the kohen] until the end of the week. [Only] then will his signs indicate about him [whether he is clean or unclean].   וְהִסְגִּיר: יַסְגִּירֶנּוּ בְּבַיִת אֶחָד וְלֹא יִרְאֶה עַד סוֹף הַשָּׁבוּעַ וְיוֹכִיחוּ סִימָנִים עָלָיו:
5And on the seventh day, the kohen shall see him. And, behold! the lesion has remained the same in its appearance; the lesion has not spread on the skin. So the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days a second time.   הוְרָאָ֣הוּ הַכֹּהֵן֘ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֒ וְהִנֵּ֤ה הַנֶּ֨גַע֙ עָמַ֣ד בְּעֵינָ֔יו לֹֽא־פָשָׂ֥ה הַנֶּ֖גַע בָּע֑וֹר וְהִסְגִּיר֧וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֛ן שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים שֵׁנִֽית:
in its appearance: In its original appearance and size.   בעניו: בְּמַרְאֵהוּ וּבְשִׁעוּרוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן:
[The kohen] shall quarantine him… a second time: But if it [the lesion] spread in the first week, he is definitely unclean. - [See Nega’im 3:3]   וְהִסְגִּירוֹ … שֵׁנִֽית: הָא אִם פָּשָׂה בְּשָׁבוּעַ רִאשׁוֹן, טָמֵא מֻחְלָט:
6And the kohen shall see him on the seventh day a second time. And, behold! the lesion has become dimmer, and the lesion has not spread on the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him clean. It is a mispachath. He shall immerse his garments and become clean.   ווְרָאָה֩ הַכֹּהֵ֨ן אֹת֜וֹ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי֘ שֵׁנִית֒ וְהִנֵּה֙ כֵּהָ֣ה הַנֶּ֔גַע וְלֹֽא־פָשָׂ֥ה הַנֶּ֖גַע בָּע֑וֹר וְטִֽהֲר֤וֹ הַכֹּהֵן֙ מִסְפַּ֣חַת הִ֔וא וְכִבֶּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָהֵֽר:
has become dimmer: [I.e.,] it became dimmer in its appearance. Hence, if it remained the same in its appearance or spread, he is unclean.   כֵּהָה: הָכְהָה מִמַּרְאִיתוֹ, הָא אִם עָמַד בְּמַרְאִיתוֹ אוֹ פָשָׂה טָמֵא:
mispachath: The name of a clean lesion.   מִסְפַּחַת: שֵׁם נֶגַע טָהוֹר:
He shall immerse his garments and become clean: Since he was required to be quarantined, he is considered unclean and requires immersion.   וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָהֵֽר: הוֹאִיל וְנִזְקַק לְהִסָּגֵר נִקְרָא טָמֵא וְצָרִיךְ טְבִילָה:
7However, if the mispachath spreads on the skin after it has been shown to the kohen for its purification, it shall be shown to the kohen a second time.   זוְאִם־פָּשׂ֨ה תִפְשֶׂ֤ה הַמִּסְפַּ֨חַת֙ בָּע֔וֹר אַֽחֲרֵ֧י הֵרָֽאֹת֛וֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֖ן לְטָֽהֳרָת֑וֹ וְנִרְאָ֥ה שֵׁנִ֖ית אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
8The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! the mispachath has spread on the skin. The kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is tzara'ath.   חוְרָאָה֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִנֵּ֛ה פָּֽשְׂתָ֥ה הַמִּסְפַּ֖חַת בָּע֑וֹר וְטִמְּא֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן צָרַ֥עַת הִֽוא:
The kohen shall pronounce him unclean: And as soon as [the kohen] has pronounced him unclean, he is then “definitely” [unclean, and when he is healed, he] requires the bird offerings, shaving, and the sacrifice, specified in the section commencing: “This shall be the law of the metzora ” (תּוֹרַת הַמְצֹרָע זֹאת תִּהֶיה. — [see Lev., Chapter 14; Meg. 8b]   וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן: וּמִשֶּׁטִּמְּאוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא מֻחְלָט, וְזָקוּק לְצִפֳּרִים וּלְתִגְלַחַת וּלְקָרְבָּן הָאָמוּר בְּפָרָשַׁת זֹאת תִּהְיֶה:
It is tzara’ath: I.e., this mispachath [is tzara’ath].   צָרַעַת הִֽוא: הַמִּסְפַּחַת הַזֹּאת:
tzara’ath: Heb. צָרַעַת. [The term] צָרַעַת is feminine [which is why the verse says צָרַעַת הִוא, using the feminine word for “it”]. [The term] נֶגַע, lesion, however, is masculine [thus in verse 3, for instance, it says צָרַעַת הוּא, using the masculine word for “it,” referring to the נֶגַע rather than to the tzara’ath].   צָרַעַת: לְשׁוֹן נְקֵבָה. נגע. לְשׁוֹן זָכָר:
9If a man has a lesion of tzara'ath, he shall be brought to the kohen.   טנֶ֣גַע צָרַ֔עַת כִּ֥י תִֽהְיֶ֖ה בְּאָדָ֑ם וְהוּבָ֖א אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
10The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! there is a white se'eith on the skin, and either it has turned the hair white, or there is healthy, live flesh in the se'eith,   יוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה שְׂאֵֽת־לְבָנָה֙ בָּע֔וֹר וְהִ֕יא הָֽפְכָ֖ה שֵׂעָ֣ר לָבָ֑ן וּמִחְיַ֛ת בָּשָׂ֥ר חַ֖י בַּשְׂאֵֽת:
healthy flesh: Heb. מִחְיַת, sa(y)nement in Old French, a healing. [It means that] part of the white in the se’eith lesion reverts to appear like [healthy] flesh. This is also a sign of uncleanness. [Hence, a sign of uncleanness is] either white hair without a מִחְיַָה, or a מִחְיַָה, an area of normal flesh, even without white hair. And even though מִחְיַָה is mentioned only in connection with the se’eith, nevertheless, in all [major] manifestations [of the lesion of tzara’ath] and their related categories, it is a sign of uncleanness. — [Torath Kohanim 13:69]   וּמִחְיַת: שינמי"נט בְּלַעַז, שֶׁנֶּהְפַּךְ מִקְצַת הַלֹּבֶן שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׂאֵת לְמַרְאֵה בָשָׂר, אַף הִיא סִימָן טֻמְאָה — שֵׂעָר לָבָן בְּלֹא מִחְיָה וּמִחְיָה בְּלֹא שֵׂעָר לָבָן — וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֶמְרָה מִחְיָה אֶלָּא בַּשְּׂאֵת, אַף בְּכָל הַמַּרְאוֹת וְתוֹלְדוֹתֵיהֶן הוּא סִימָן טֻמְאָה:
11it is old tzara'ath on the skin of his flesh, and the kohen shall pronounce him unclean; he need not quarantine him because he is unclean.   יאצָרַ֨עַת נוֹשֶׁ֤נֶת הִוא֙ בְּע֣וֹר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ וְטִמְּא֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן לֹ֣א יַסְגִּרֶ֔נּוּ כִּ֥י טָמֵ֖א הֽוּא:
it is an old tzara’ath: It is an old lesion which is under the area of normal skin. This wound appears healthy on the surface, but it is full of fluid underneath, so that one should not say, “Since healthy skin has appeared over [the lesion], I shall pronounce it clean!”   צָרַעַת נוֹשֶׁנֶת הִוא: מַכָּה יְשָׁנָה הִיא תַּחַת הַמִּחְיָה, וְחַבּוּרָה זוֹ נִרְאֵית בְּרִיאָה לְמַעְלָה וְתַחְתֶּיהָ מְלֵאָה לֵחָה — שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְעָלְתָה מִחְיָה אֲטַהֲרֶנָּה:
12And if the tzara'ath has spread over the skin, whereby the tzara'ath covers all the skin of the [person with the] lesion, from his head to his feet, wherever the eyes of the kohen can see it,   יבוְאִם־פָּר֨וֹחַ תִּפְרַ֤ח הַצָּרַ֨עַת֙ בָּע֔וֹר וְכִסְּתָ֣ה הַצָּרַ֗עַת אֵ֚ת כָּל־ע֣וֹר הַנֶּ֔גַע מֵֽרֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְעַד־רַגְלָ֑יו לְכָל־מַרְאֵ֖ה עֵינֵ֥י הַכֹּהֵֽן:
from his head: [I.e., from the head] of the person [down] to his feet.   מֵֽרֹאשׁוֹ: שֶׁל אָדָם ועד רגליו:
wherever the eyes of the kohen can see it: [This phrase] comes to exclude a kohen whose eyesight has dimmed. [I.e., a kohen with one blind eye or with impaired vision in both eyes may not pronounce the status of lesions.]- [Torath Kohanim 13:83]   לְכָל־מַרְאֵה עֵינֵי הַכֹּהֵֽן: פְּרָט לְכֹהֵן שֶׁחָשַׁךְ מְאוֹרוֹ (ספרא):
13then the kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! the tzara'ath has covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce [the person with] the lesion clean. He has turned completely white; he is clean.   יגוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֨ה כִסְּתָ֤ה הַצָּרַ֨עַת֙ אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂר֔וֹ וְטִהַ֖ר אֶת־הַנָּ֑גַע כֻּלּ֛וֹ הָפַ֥ךְ לָבָ֖ן טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:
14But on the day that live flesh appears in it, he shall become unclean.   ידוּבְי֨וֹם הֵֽרָא֥וֹת בּ֛וֹ בָּשָׂ֥ר חַ֖י יִטְמָֽא:
But on the day that live flesh appears in it: If healthy flesh grows on it, [Scripture] has already explained that healthy flesh is a sign of uncleanness. [Therefore, what is this verse telling us here?] However, a case where the lesion was located on one of twenty-four tips of the limbs is not deemed unclean on account of healthy flesh because the lesion cannot be seen all at one glance [once an area of healthy flesh appears within the lesion], since these [limb tips] slope down on either side. [Therefore it is not deemed unclean.] If, however, such a tip of a limb altered [in its form], allowing its slanted facet to appear through fat-for example, when the tip of a limb became fat and broadened, and the healthy flesh (מִחְיַָה) became visible within [the lesion, thereby allowing the lesion to become visible all at one glance], Scripture teaches us [here] that it becomes unclean. — [Torath Kohanim 13:86]   וּבְיוֹם הֵֽרָאוֹת בּוֹ בָּשָׂר חַי: אִם צָמְחָה בוֹ מִחְיָה הֲרֵי כְבָר פֵּרֵשׁ שֶׁהַמִּחְיָה סִימָן טֻמְאָה? אֶלָּא הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיָה הַנֶּגַע בְּאֶחָד מֵעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשֵׁי אֵבָרִים שֶׁאֵין מִטַּמְּאִין מִשּׁוּם מִחְיָה — לְפִי שֶׁאֵין נִרְאֶה הַנֶּגַע כֻּלּוֹ כְאֶחָד, שֶׁשּׁוֹפְעִין אֵילָךְ וָאֵילָךְ (נגעים פ"ו; קידושין כ"ה) — וְחָזַר רֹאשׁ הָאֵבֶר וְנִתְגַּלָּה שִׁפּוּעוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֻׁמָּן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִבְרִיא וְנַעֲשָֹה רָחָב וְנִרְאֵית בּוֹ הַמִּחְיָה, לִמְּדָנוּ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁתְּטַמֵּא (ספרא):
But on the day [that live flesh] appears: [The verse could have simply said, “But when live flesh appears.”] What does Scripture teach us [by saying,] “on the day”]? It [comes] to teach that there is a day on which you [the kohen] look [i.e., examine the suspected lesion], and there is a day on which you do not look [i.e., when he may not examine it]. From here [our Rabbis] say that a bridegroom is exempt [from having a lesion examined] throughout all the seven days of the wedding feast, for himself, his garments, and his house. Similarly, during a Festival [people] are exempt [from having a lesion examined] throughout all the days of the Festival. - [Torath Kohanim 13:87]   וּבְיוֹם: מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר? לְלַמֵּד יֵשׁ יוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה רוֹאֶה בוֹ וְיֵשׁ יוֹם שֶׁאֵין אַתָּה רוֹאֶה בוֹ, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ: חָתָן נוֹתְנִין לוֹ כָּל שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה, לוֹ וְלִכְסוּתוֹ וּלְבֵיתוֹ, וְכֵן בָּרֶגֶל נוֹתְנִין לוֹ כָּל יְמֵי הָרֶגֶל (נגעים פ"ג, מועד קטן ז'):
15When the kohen sees the healthy, live flesh, he shall pronounce him unclean. The live flesh is unclean; it is tzara'ath.   טווְרָאָ֧ה הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַבָּשָׂ֥ר הַחַ֖י וְטִמְּא֑וֹ הַבָּשָׂ֥ר הַחַ֛י טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא צָרַ֥עַת הֽוּא:
it is tzara’ath: meaning, that flesh. Flesh (בָּשָׂר) is grammatically masculine. [Hence, the wording: צָרַעַת הוּא, rather than צָרַעַת הִיא, as in verse 8.]   צָרַעַת הוּא: הַבָּשָׂר הַהוּא: בָּשָׂר לְשׁוֹן זָכָר:
16But, if the healthy, live flesh once again turns white, he shall come to the kohen.   טזא֣וֹ כִ֥י יָשׁ֛וּב הַבָּשָׂ֥ר הַחַ֖י וְנֶהְפַּ֣ךְ לְלָבָ֑ן וּבָ֖א אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
17And the kohen shall look at it. And, behold! the lesion has turned white; the kohen shall pronounce the lesion clean. He is clean.   יזוְרָאָ֨הוּ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִנֵּ֛ה נֶהְפַּ֥ךְ הַנֶּ֖גַע לְלָבָ֑ן וְטִהַ֧ר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַנֶּ֖גַע טָה֥וֹר הֽוּא:
18If [a person's] flesh has an inflammation on its skin, and it heals,   יחוּבָשָׂ֕ר כִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בֽוֹ־בְעֹר֖וֹ שְׁחִ֑ין וְנִרְפָּֽא:
an inflammation: Heb. שְׁחִין. [This term] denotes heat, that the flesh became heated by the injury caused it by a blow, not by fire. — [Chul. 8a]   שְׁחִין: לְשׁוֹן חִמּוּם, שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּם הַבָּשָֹר בְּלִקּוּי הַבָּא לוֹ מֵחֲמַת מַכָּה שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת הָאוּר (חולין ח'):
and it heals: The inflammation healed, and in its place, another lesion appeared. [Not that the flesh healed, because, were that the case, there would be no lesion.]   וְנִרְפָּֽא: הַשְּׁחִין הֶעֱלָה אֲרוּכָה וּבִמְקוֹמוֹ הֶעֱלָה נֶגַע אַחֵר:
19and on the place of the inflammation there is a white se'eith, or a reddish white bahereth, it shall be shown to the kohen.   יטוְהָיָ֞ה בִּמְק֤וֹם הַשְּׁחִין֙ שְׂאֵ֣ת לְבָנָ֔ה א֥וֹ בַהֶ֖רֶת לְבָנָ֣ה אֲדַמְדָּ֑מֶת וְנִרְאָ֖ה אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן:
A reddish-white bahereth: [meaning] that the lesion is not solid white, but streaked and blended of two colors, white and red.   אוֹ בַהֶרֶת לְבָנָה אֲדַמְדָּמֶת: שֶׁאֵין הַנֶּגַע לָבָן חָלָק, אֶלָּא פָּתוּךְ וּמְעֹרָב בִּשְׁתֵּי מַרְאוֹת — לֹבֶן וְאֹדֶם:
20The kohen shall look [at it]. And, behold! its appearance is lower than the skin, and its hair has turned white; so the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion of tzara'ath that has erupted on the inflammation.   כוְרָאָ֣ה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה מַרְאֶ֨הָ֙ שָׁפָ֣ל מִן־הָע֔וֹר וּשְׂעָרָ֖הּ הָפַ֣ךְ לָבָ֑ן וְטִמְּא֧וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֛ן נֶֽגַע־צָרַ֥עַת הִ֖וא בַּשְּׁחִ֥ין פָּרָֽחָה:
it appearance is lower than the skin: But its substance is not lower. Rather, because of its whiteness, the lesion [only] appears lower and deeper [than the skin], just as sunlight appears deeper than a shadow. - [Torath Kohanim 13:50]   מַרְאֶהָ שָׁפָל: וְאֵין מַמָּשָׁהּ שָׁפָל, אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ לַבְנוּנִיתוֹ הוּא נִרְאֶה שָׁפָל וְעָמֹק, כְּמַרְאֵה חַמָּה עֲמֻקָּה מִן הַצֵּל:
21But if the kohen looks at it, and behold! it does not contain white hair, nor does it appear to be lower than the skin, and it is dim, the kohen shall quarantine him for seven days.   כאוְאִ֣ם | יִרְאֶ֣נָּה הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְהִנֵּ֤ה אֵֽין־בָּהּ֙ שֵׂעָ֣ר לָבָ֔ן וּשְׁפָלָ֥ה אֵינֶ֛נָּה מִן־הָע֖וֹר וְהִ֣יא כֵהָ֑ה וְהִסְגִּיר֥וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
22And if it spreads on the skin, the kohen shall pronounce him unclean. It is a lesion.   כבוְאִם־פָּשׂ֥ה תִפְשֶׂ֖ה בָּע֑וֹר וְטִמֵּ֧א הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֹת֖וֹ נֶ֥גַע הִֽוא:
It is a lesion: Heb. נֶגַע הִוא. [Here, the pronoun is feminine. Since נֶגַע is masculine, however, it requires the masculine pronoun הוּא. But our verse here uses the feminine הִיא because the word “it” is referring to] this se’eith or this bahereth [both of which are feminine].   נֶגַע הִֽוא: הַשְּׂאֵת הַזֹּאת אוֹ הַבַּהֶרֶת:
23But if the bahereth remains in its place, not spreading, it is the scar tissue of the inflammation, and the kohen shall pronounce him clean.   כגוְאִם־תַּחְתֶּ֜יהָ תַּֽעֲמֹ֤ד הַבַּהֶ֨רֶת֙ לֹ֣א פָשָׂ֔תָה צָרֶ֥בֶת הַשְּׁחִ֖ין הִ֑וא וְטִֽהֲר֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
in its place: Heb. תַּחְתֶּיה, [lit., “under it,” here meaning:] In its place.   תַּחְתֶּיהָ: בִּמְקוֹמָהּ:
it is the scar tissue of the inflamation: Heb. צָרֶבֶת הַשְּׁחִין, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: רוֹשַׁם שִׁיחִנָא, a residual impression of the inflammation, identifiable on the flesh [i.e., a scar]. Every expression of צָרֶבֶת [in Scripture] denotes the contraction of skin that has become shriveled because of heat. Similarly, the verse, “And all faces [from the south to the north] will be shriveled by it” (Ezek. 21:3), retrire in Old French, to contract.   צָרֶבֶת הַשְּׁחִין: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ רֹשֶׁם שִׁחֲנָא; — אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא רֹשֶׁם הַחִמּוּם הַנִּכָּר בַּבָּשָֹר; כָּל צָרֶבֶת לְשׁוֹן רְגִיעַת עוֹר הַנִּרְגָּע מֵחֲמַת חִמּוּם, כְּמוֹ וְנִצְרְבוּ בָהּ כָּל פָּנִים (יחזקאל כ"א), רייטרו"ר בְּלַעַז:
it is scar tissue: Heb. צָרֶבֶת, retriyemant in Old French, shriveling.   צָרֶבֶת: רייטרי"שמנט בְּלַעַז: