Deuteronomy Chapter 23

8You shall not despise an Edomite, for he is your brother. You shall not despise an Egyptian, for you were a sojourner in his land.   חלֹֽא־תְתַעֵ֣ב אֲדֹמִ֔י כִּ֥י אָחִ֖יךָ ה֑וּא לֹֽא־תְתַעֵ֣ב מִצְרִ֔י כִּי־גֵ֖ר הָיִ֥יתָ בְאַרְצֽוֹ:
You shall not despise an Edomite: Completely, [but only the first two generations,] even though it is appropriate for you to despise him, because he went forth against you with the sword (see Num. 20:18-21).   לא תתעב אדומי: לגמרי ואף על פי שראוי לך לתעבו שיצא בחרב לקראתך:
You shall not despise an Egyptian: Absolutely, [but only the first two generations,] even though they cast your male [infants] into the Nile. What is the reason [that you may not despise them]? Because they hosted you in a time of dire need; therefore:   לא תתעב מצרי: מכל וכל אף על פי שזרקו זכוריכם ליאור. מה טעם, שהיו לכם אכסניא בשעת הדחק. לפיכך:
9Children who are born to them [in] the third generation may enter the assembly of the Lord.   טבָּנִ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּֽלְד֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם דּ֣וֹר שְׁלִישִׁ֑י יָבֹ֥א לָהֶ֖ם בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָֽה:
Children who are born to them in the third generation: But other nations, are allowed [to marry Jews] immediately [after their conversion]. Thus, you learn from here that someone who causes a person to sin does worse to him than one who kills him, for one who kills him, kills him [only] in this world, whereas one who leads him to sin removes him from [both] this world and from the world-to-come. Therefore, Edom, who came forth against them with the sword was not [completely] despised. Similarly, Egypt, who drowned them. These, however, who caused them to sin, were [completely] despised. — [Sifrei 23:117]   בנים אשר יולדו להם דור שלישי: ושאר האומות מותרין מיד. הא למדת שהמחטיא לאדם קשה לו מן ההורגו, שההורגו הורגו בעולם הזה, והמחטיאו מוציאו מן העולם הזה ומן העולם הבא, לפיכך אדום שקדמם בחרב לא נתעב וכן מצרים שטבעום, ואלו שהחטיאום נתעבו:
10When a camp goes out against your enemies, you shall beware of everything evil.   יכִּֽי־תֵצֵ֥א מַֽחֲנֶ֖ה עַל־אֹֽיְבֶ֑יךָ וְנִ֨שְׁמַרְתָּ֔ מִכֹּ֖ל דָּבָ֥ר רָֽע:
When a camp goes forth [against your enemies], you shall beware: for Satan accuses in time of danger [thus extra care must be taken in time of war, when danger prevails]. — [Yerushalmi Shab. 2:6; Tanchuma, Vayiggash 1]   כי תצא וגו' ונשמרת: שהשטן מקטרג בשעת הסכנה:
11If there is among you a man who is unclean because of a nocturnal emission, he shall go outside the camp. He shall not come within the camp.   יאכִּי־יִֽהְיֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה טָה֖וֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָ֑יְלָה וְיָצָא֙ אֶל־מִח֣וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֔ה לֹ֥א יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
[If there is among you a man who is unclean] because of a nocturnal emission: Scripture is speaking here in terms of that which usually occurs. [Emissions usually occur at night. However, the law applies equally if it occurs during the day.]- [Sifrei 23: 120]   מקרה לילה: דבר הכתוב בהווה:
he shall go outside the camp: This is a positive commandment;   ויצא אל מחוץ למחנה: זו מצות עשה:
He shall not come within the camp: This is a negative commandment. He is forbidden to come within the camp of the Levites, and all the more so, to the camp of the Shechinah, [comprised by the Mishkan and its courtyard]. — [Sifrei 23:120, Pes. 68a]   לא יבא אל תוך המחנה: זו מצות לא תעשה. ואסור ליכנס למחנה לויה, וכל שכן למחנה שכינה:
12And it shall be, towards evening, he shall bathe in water, and when the sun sets, he may come within the camp.   יבוְהָיָ֥ה לִפְנֽוֹת־עֶ֖רֶב יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וּכְבֹ֣א הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
And it will be, towards evening: He should immerse [in the mikvah] close to sunset, since he does not become clean without the sunset. — [Sifrei 23:121]   והיה לפנות ערב: סמוך להערב שמשו יטבול, שאינו טהור בלא הערב שמש:
13And you shall have a designated place outside the camp, so that you can go out there [to use it as a privy].   יגוְיָד֙ תִּֽהְיֶ֣ה לְךָ֔ מִח֖וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה וְיָצָ֥אתָ שָׁ֖מָּה חֽוּץ:
And you shall have a designated place: Heb. יָד, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders: [וַאֲתַר, a place], like “each man in his place (יָדוֹ)” (Num. 2:17).   ויד תהיה לך: כתרגומו [ואתר], כמו (במדבר ב, יז) איש על ידו:
outside the camp: [I.e.,] outside the cloud [which surrounded the camp].   מחוץ למחנה: חוץ לענן:
14And you shall keep a stake in addition to your weapons; and it shall be, when you sit down outside [to relieve yourself], you shall dig with it, and you shall return and cover your excrement.   ידוְיָתֵ֛ד תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ עַל־אֲזֵנֶ֑ךָ וְהָיָה֙ בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ֣ ח֔וּץ וְחָֽפַרְתָּ֣ה בָ֔הּ וְשַׁבְתָּ֖ וְכִסִּ֥יתָ אֶת־צֵֽאָתֶֽךָ:
in addition to your weapons: Heb. עַל-אֲזֵנֶךָ. [I.e.,] besides your other items of equipment.   על אזנך: לבד משאר כלי תשמישך:
your weapons: Heb. אֲזֵנֶךָ, like כְּלֵי זַיְנְךָ, your weapons.   אזנך: כמו כלי זיינך:
15For the Lord, your God, goes along in the midst of your camp, to rescue you and to deliver your enemies before you. [Therefore,] your camp shall be holy, so that He should not see anything unseemly among you and would turn away from you.   טוכִּי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ | בְּקֶ֣רֶב מַֽחֲנֶ֗ךָ לְהַצִּֽילְךָ֙ וְלָתֵ֤ת אֹֽיְבֶ֨יךָ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְהָיָ֥ה מַחֲנֶ֖יךָ קָד֑וֹשׁ וְלֹֽא־יִרְאֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְשָׁ֖ב מֵאַֽחֲרֶֽיךָ:
so that He will not see: [That is,] the Holy One, Blessed is He, [will not see] anything unseemly.   ולא יראה בך: הקב"ה ערות דבר:
16You shall not deliver a slave to his master if he seeks refuge with you from his master.   טזלֹֽא־תַסְגִּ֥יר עֶ֖בֶד אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֑יו אֲשֶׁר־יִנָּצֵ֥ל אֵלֶ֖יךָ מֵעִ֥ם אֲדֹנָֽיו:
You shall not deliver a slave: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders it [עֲבַד עַמְמִין, a Jewish servant who had been sold to a gentile] (Gittin 45a). Another explanation: even a Canaanite servant of an Israelite who fled from outside the land to the Land of Israel. — [Gittin 45a]   לא תסגיר עבד: כתרגומו. דבר אחר אפילו עבד כנעני של ישראל שברח מחוצה לארץ לארץ ישראל:
17[Rather,] he shall [be allowed to] reside among you, wherever he chooses within any of your cities, where it is good for him. You shall not oppress him.   יזעִמְּךָ֞ יֵשֵׁ֣ב בְּקִרְבְּךָ֗ בַּמָּק֧וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֛ר בְּאַחַ֥ד שְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ בַּטּ֣וֹב ל֑וֹ לֹ֖א תּוֹנֶֽנּוּ:
18There shall not be a prostitute of the daughters of Israel, and there shall not be a male prostitute of the sons of Israel.   יחלֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֥ה קְדֵשָׁ֖ה מִבְּנ֣וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה קָדֵ֖שׁ מִבְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
There shall not be a prostitute: Heb. קְדֵשָׁה, one who is unbridled, prepared (מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת), and ready for prostitution.   לא תהיה קדשה: מופקרת, מקודשת ומזומנת לזנות:
and there shall not be a male prostitute: Heb. קָדֵשׁ, one [i.e., a male] ready for homosexual relations. - [Kid. 68b] Onkelos, however, renders: “A woman of the daughters of Israel shall not become a wife to a slave.” [Nevertheless, Onkelos 's explanation does not contradict that given above, for] such [a woman] is also susceptible to illicit relations, since this sort of marriage [between a Jewess and a slave] is not legally binding. For [slaves] are compared to donkeys, as it says, “Stay here with the donkey (עִם-הַחֲמוֹר)” (Gen. 22:5). [The choice of the word] עִם [rather אֶת [denotes] those compared to a donkey. - [Kid. 68a] [Abraham said this to his lads when he left them to take Isaac to offer him as a sacrifice. The lads were both slaves, both Eliezer and Ishmael, the son of his handmaid, Hagar. Similarly, the second half of the verse is rendered by Onkelos as follows:] “And no Israelite man shall take a maidservant as a wife,” since he too, becomes a קָדֵשׁ [“one reserved for illicit relations”] through her, because every time he cohabits with her, it is considered prostitution, since his marriage to her is not binding. — [See Pes. 88b]   ולא יהיה קדש: מזומן למשכב זכר. ואונקלוס תרגם לא תהא אתתא מבנת ישראל לגבר עבדא, שאף זו מופקרת לבעילת זנות היא, מאחר שאין קדושין תופסין לו בה, שהרי הוקשו לחמור, שנאמר (בראשית כב, ה) שבו לכם פה עם החמור, עם הדומה לחמור. ולא יסב גברא מבני ישראל אתתא אמא, שאף הוא נעשה קדש על ידה, שכל בעילותיו בעילות זנות שאין קדושין תופסין לו בה:
19You shall not bring a prostitute's fee or the price of a dog, to the House of the Lord, your God, for any vow, because both of them are an abomination to the Lord, your God.   יטלֹֽא־תָבִיא֩ אֶתְנַ֨ן זוֹנָ֜ה וּמְחִ֣יר כֶּ֗לֶב בֵּ֛ית יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְכָל־נֶ֑דֶר כִּ֧י תֽוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶֽם:
a prostitute’s fee: [For example,] if one gave her a lamb as her fee, it is unfit to be offered up as a sacrifice. — [Sifrei 23:127]   אתנן זונה: נתן לה טלה באתננה פסול להקרבה:
the price of a dog: If one exchanged a dog for a lamb [this lamb is unfit for a sacrifice]. — [Sifrei 23:127; Temurah 29a]   ומחיר כלב: החליף שה בכלב:
because both of them [are an abomination to the Lord, your God]: Heb. גַּם הֵם. [The extra word גַּם, lit. “also,” comes] to include [a prostitute’s fee or the price of a dog, which has been] converted [to another form]. For example, wheat, which he (sic) made into flour. — [Temurah 30b] [Sefer Yereim ch. 207 reads: which she made into flour.]   גם שניהם: לרבות שינוייהם, כגון חטים ועשאן סלת:
20You shall not give interest to your brother, [whether it be] interest on money, interest on food or interest on any [other] item for which interest is [normally] taken.   כלֹֽא־תַשִּׁ֣יךְ לְאָחִ֔יךָ נֶ֥שֶׁךְ כֶּ֖סֶף נֶ֣שֶׁךְ אֹ֑כֶל נֶ֕שֶׁךְ כָּל־דָּבָ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשָּֽׁךְ:
You shall not give interest: Heb. לֹא-תַשִּׁיךְ‏. This is an admonition to the borrower that he should not pay interest to the lender. Afterwards is the admonition to the lender, [in the verse:] “You shall not give him your money with interest” (Lev. 25:37). - [See Sifrei 23:128] [In some editions, the word “afterwards,” is omitted, because that verse does not appear after this one, but in Leviticus (Leket Bahir).   לא תשיך: אזהרה ללוה שלא יתן רבית למלוה, ואחר כך אזהרה למלוה (ויקרא כה לז) את כספך לא תתן לו בנשך:
21You may [however,] give interest to a gentile, but to your brother you shall not give interest, in order that the Lord, your God, shall bless you in every one of your endeavors on the land to which you are coming to possess.   כאלַנָּכְרִ֣י תַשִּׁ֔יךְ וּלְאָחִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תַשִּׁ֑יךְ לְמַ֨עַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֜ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בְּכֹל֙ מִשְׁלַ֣ח יָדֶ֔ךָ עַל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
You may [however,] give interest to a gentile: But not to your brother. A negative commandment that is derived by inference from a positive commandment [such as this,] is considered a positive commandment. [Thus, in this passage we have the positive commandment (born out of the inference: “to a gentile,” i.e., but not to your brother, plus two negative commandments: 1) “You shall not give interest to your brother” (verse 20), and 2) “but to your brother you shall not give interest” (verse 21). Hence, one who borrows from a Jew with interest] transgresses two negative commandments and one positive commandment. — [B.M. 70b]   לנכרי תשיך: ולא לאחיך. לאו הבא מכלל עשה, עשה, לעבור עליו בשני לאוין ועשה:
22When you make a vow to the Lord, your God, you shall not delay in paying it, for the Lord, your God, will demand it of you, and it will be [counted as] a sin for you.   כבכִּֽי־תִדֹּ֥ר נֶ֨דֶר֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תְאַחֵ֖ר לְשַׁלְּמ֑וֹ כִּֽי־דָר֨שׁ יִדְרְשֶׁ֜נּוּ יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ מֵֽעִמָּ֔ךְ וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא:
[When you make a vow…] you shall not delay in paying it: for three Festivals. Our Rabbis learned this from a Scriptural verse [see Deut. 16:16]. — [R.H. 4b]   לא תאחר לשלמו: שלשה רגלים. ולמדוהו רבותינו מן המקרא:
23But if you shall refrain from making vows, you will have no sin.   כגוְכִ֥י תֶחְדַּ֖ל לִנְדֹּ֑ר לֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא:
24Observe and do what is emitted from your lips just as you have pledged to the Lord, your God, as a donation, which you have spoken with your mouth.   כדמוֹצָ֥א שְׂפָתֶ֖יךָ תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר וְעָשִׂ֑יתָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר נָדַ֜רְתָּ לַֽיהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ נְדָבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ בְּפִֽיךָ:
Observe [and do] what is emitted from your lips: This adds a positive commandment [i.e., to pay one’s vows in time,] to the [aforementioned] negative commandment [expressed in verse 22, namely, “you shall not delay in paying it”].   מוצא שפתיך תשמר ועשית: ליתן עשה על לא תעשה: