Deuteronomy Chapter 19

14You shall not pull back your neighbor's landmark, which the earlier ones have set as borders in your inheritance, which you will inherit in the land that the Lord, your God gives you, to possess.   ידלֹ֤א תַסִּיג֙ גְּב֣וּל רֵֽעֲךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר גָּֽבְל֖וּ רִֽאשֹׁנִ֑ים בְּנַֽחֲלָֽתְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּנְחַ֔ל בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
You shall not pull back [your neighbor’s] landmark: Heb. לֹא תַסּיג, an expression similar to, “they shall turn back (נָסֹגוּ אָחוֹר)” (Isa. 42:17). [Here therefore, it means] that he moves the boundary-mark of the land backwards into his neighbor’s field, thereby enlarging his own [property]. But has it not already been stated, “You shall not rob” (Lev. 19:13) ? Why then, is it stated here: “You shall not pull back [the landmark]?” [The answer is that this verse] teaches that the person who removes his neighbor’s boundary mark transgresses two negative commandments, “You shall not rob (לֹא תִגְזֹל)” and “You shall not pull back [the landmark]” (לֹא תַסִּיג). Now I might think that [this applies] outside Eretz Israel as well. Therefore it says, “in your inheritance, which you will inherit [in the land],” [indicating that] in [only] Eretz Israel one transgresses two negative commandments, whereas outside Eretz Israel, one transgresses only the commandment of “you shall not rob.” - [Sifrei]   לא תסיג גבול: לשון נסוגו אחור (ישעיה מב יז), שמחזיר סימן חלוקת הקרקע לאחור לתוך שדה חבירו למען הרחיב את שלו. והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא יט, יג) לא תגזול, מה תלמוד לומר לא תסיג, למד על העוקר תחום חבירו שעובר בשני לאוין. יכול אף בחוצה לארץ, תלמוד לומר בנחלתך אשר תנחל וגו', בארץ ישראל עובר בשני לאוין, בחוצה לארץ אינו עובר אלא משום לא תגזול:
15One witness shall not rise up against any person for any iniquity or for any sin, regarding any sin that he will sin. By the mouth of two witnesses, or by the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be confirmed.   טולֹֽא־יָקוּם֩ עֵ֨ד אֶחָ֜ד בְּאִ֗ישׁ לְכָל־עָו‍ֹן֙ וּלְכָל־חַטָּ֔את בְּכָל־חֵ֖טְא אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶֽחֱטָ֑א עַל־פִּ֣י | שְׁנֵ֣י עֵדִ֗ים א֛וֹ עַל־פִּ֥י שְׁלשָֽׁה־עֵדִ֖ים יָק֥וּם דָּבָֽר:
One witness [shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity]: This verse establishes a general principle [i.e., from here it is derived] that wherever the term“witness” (עֵד) appears in the Torah, it means two [witnesses], unless the Torah specifies [that] one witness is meant. — [San. 30a]   עד אחד: זה בנה אב כל עד שבתורה שנים, אלא אם כן פרט לך בו אחד:
for any iniquity, or for any sin: where his testimony would lead to the accused being punished, either with corporal punishment or with or monetary punishment. However, one [witness] may rise up to [compel his fellow to take] an oath, as follows: If one says to his fellow, “Give me the maneh [100 zuzim] that I lent you,” and his fellow replies, “I have nothing of yours,” and one witness testifies for him [the plaintiff] that he [the defendant] owes him [the money], [the defendant] is required to swear [that he did not borrow any money]. — [Shev. 40a]   לכל עון ולכל חטאת: להיות חבירו נענש על עדותו, לא עונש גוף ולא עונש ממון, אבל קם הוא לשבועה. אמר לחבירו תן לי מנה שהלויתיך אמר לו אין לך בידי כלום ועד אחד מעיד שיש לו, חייב להשבע לו:
By the mouth of two witnesses [… the matter will be established]: [The expression,“by the mouth” means here that only the direct, verbal testimony suffices,] but they should not write their testimony in a letter and send it to the court, or have an interpreter stand between the witnesses and the judges. - [Sifrei]   על פי שני עדים: ולא שיכתבו עדותם באגרת וישלחו לבית דין, ולא שיעמוד תורגמן בין העדים ובין הדיינים:
16If a false witness rises up against a man, to bear perverted testimony against him,   טזכִּֽי־יָק֥וּם עֵֽד־חָמָ֖ס בְּאִ֑ישׁ לַֽעֲנ֥וֹת בּ֖וֹ סָרָֽה:
to bear perverted testimony against him: Heb. סָרָה [That is, he testifies about] a thing which is not so, that this witness is removed (הוּסַר) from the whole testimony [meaning that he could not possibly have been a witness,] such as if [a second set of witnesses] said [to the first set of witnesses], “But weren’t you with us on that day in such and such a place [and not with the defendant, as you claim to have been]?” - [Mak. 5a]   לענות בו סרה: דבר שאינו, שהוסר העד הזה מכל העדות הזאת, כגון, שאמרו להם והלא עמנו הייתם אותו היום במקום פלוני:
17Then the two men between whom the controversy exists shall stand before the Lord, before the kohanim and the judges who will be in those days.   יזוְעָֽמְד֧וּ שְׁנֵי־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־לָהֶ֥ם הָרִ֖יב לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה לִפְנֵ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ וְהַשֹּׁ֣פְטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִֽהְי֖וּ בַּיָּמִ֥ים הָהֵֽם:
Then the two men… shall stand: The text is referring to the witnesses, and it teaches us that there is no testimony by women. It also teaches us that witnesses must submit their testimony while standing. — [Shev. 30a]   ועמדו שני האנשים: בעדים הכתוב מדבר, ולמד שאין עדות בנשים, ולמד שצריכין להעיד עדותן מעומד:
between whom the controversy exists: These are the litigants.   אשר להם הריב: אלו בעלי הדין:
before the Lord: It should seem to them as though they are standing before the Omnipresent, as it says:“in the midst of the judges He will judge” (Ps. 82: 1). - [San. 6b]   לפני ה': יהי דומה להם כאילו עומדין לפני המקום, שנאמר בקרב אלהים ישפוט (תהלים פב, א):
who will be in those days: [Now could one stand in front of those who are not in his day? Rather, it means that] Jephthah [one of the less important judges] in his generation, is [to be considered] as Samuel [the greatest judge] in his generation; you must treat him with respect.   אשר יהיו בימים ההם: יפתח בדורו כשמואל בדורו, צריך אתה לנהוג בו כבוד:
18And the judges shall inquire thoroughly, and behold, the witness is a false witness; he has testified falsely against his brother;   יחוְדָֽרְשׁ֥וּ הַשֹּֽׁפְטִ֖ים הֵיטֵ֑ב וְהִנֵּ֤ה עֵֽד־שֶׁ֨קֶר֙ הָעֵ֔ד שֶׁ֖קֶר עָנָ֥ה בְאָחִֽיו:
And the judges shall inquire thoroughly: By means of the testimony of [the new set of witnesses] who rebut them, that they investigate and examine those who come to prove that they [the first pair] are עֵדִים זוֹמְמִין,“plotting witnesses,” by diligent inquiry and examination.   ודרשו השופטים היטב: על פי המזימין אותם, שבודקים וחוקרים את הבאים להזימם בדרישה ובחקירה:
and behold, the witness is a false witness: Wherever עֵד, witness , is written, Scripture is speaking of two [witnesses]. — [San. 30a]   והנה עד שקר: כל מקום שנאמר עד, בשנים הכתוב מדבר:
19then you shall do to him as he plotted to do to his brother, and you shall [thus] abolish evil from among you.   יטוַֽעֲשִׂ֣יתֶם ל֔וֹ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר זָמַ֖ם לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת לְאָחִ֑יו וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
as he plotted: But not as he did. From here [our Rabbis] said that if the first set of witnesses [before being proven false,] already killed the defendant [by their testimony], they are not to be put to death. — [Mak. 5b]   כאשר זמם: ולא כאשר עשה. מכאן אמרו, הרגו אין נהרגין:
to do to his brother: Why does Scripture state, “to his brother?” To teach, that in the case of witnesses who conspired against a married daughter of a kohen [by accusing her of adultery], that they are not executed with burning [the form of execution to which she would have been subjected], but rather, by strangulation, the form of execution of the adulterer. For it says [regarding such a woman] “she shall be burnt with fire” (Lev. 21:9) -“she,” but not her paramour [who is dispatched by strangulation]; therefore it says here, “to his brother”-“as he plotted to do to his brother,” but not as he plotted to do to his sister. With other crimes, however, Scripture regards women equally with men, and conspiring witnesses against a woman are executed in the same way as those who conspired against a man. For instance, if they testified that a women killed a person, or that she desecrated the Sabbath [and they are revealed to be false witnesses before she is executed], then they are executed in the form that they intended for her, for Scripture does not exclude his sister [by stating “brother”] except in a case where one may carry out the punishment of the conspiring witnesses by the form of execution of the adulterer [as opposed to the adulteress]. — [Sifrei and San. 90a]   לעשות לאחיו: מה תלמוד לומר לאחיו, למד על זוממי בת כהן נשואה שאינן בשריפה, אלא כמיתת הבועל שהוא בחנק, שנאמר היא באש תשרף (ויקרא כא, ט) היא ולא בועלה. לכך נאמר כאן לאחיו, כאשר זמם לעשות לאחיו, ולא כאשר זמם לעשות לאחותו. אבל בכל שאר מיתות השוה הכתוב אשה לאיש, וזוממי אשה נהרגין כזוממי איש. כגון שהעידוה שהרגה את הנפש, שחללה את השבת, נהרגין במיתתה. שלא מיעט כאן אחותו אלא במקום שיש לקיים בהן הזמה במיתת הבועל:
20And those who remain shall listen and fear, and they shall no longer continue to commit any such evil thing among you.   כוְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֖ים יִשְׁמְע֣וּ וְיִרָ֑אוּ וְלֹֽא־יֹסִ֨פוּ לַֽעֲשׂ֜וֹת ע֗וֹד כַּדָּבָ֥ר הָרָ֛ע הַזֶּ֖ה בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
shall listen and fear: From here, [we derive the law] that a public announcement is required: “So-and-so and so-and-so are to be executed because they were proven by the court to be plotting witnesses.” - [San. 89a] [Note that Rashi on Mak. 5a and San. 89a writes that the proclamation is made after the perpetrators have been executed.]   ישמעו ויראו: מכאן שצריכין הכרזה, איש פלוני ופלוני נהרגין על שהוזמו בבית דין:
21You shall not have pity: life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.   כאוְלֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶ֑ךָ נֶ֣פֶשׁ בְּנֶ֗פֶשׁ עַ֤יִן בְּעַ֨יִן֙ שֵׁ֣ן בְּשֵׁ֔ן יָ֥ד בְּיָ֖ד רֶ֥גֶל בְּרָֽגֶל:
Eye for eye: i.e., financial compensation; and similarly, “tooth for tooth, etc.” - [Sifrei, B.K. 87a]   עין בעין: ממון, וכן שן בשן וגו':

Deuteronomy Chapter 20

1When you go out to war against your enemies, and you see horse and chariot, a people more numerous than you, you shall not be afraid of them, for the Lord, your God is with you Who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.   אכִּֽי־תֵצֵ֨א לַמִּלְחָמָ֜ה עַל־אֹֽיְבֶ֗ךָ וְרָאִ֜יתָ ס֤וּס וָרֶ֨כֶב֙ עַ֚ם רַ֣ב מִמְּךָ֔ לֹ֥א תִירָ֖א מֵהֶ֑ם כִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ הַמַּֽעַלְךָ֖ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם:
When you go out to war: Scripture juxtaposes the departure for war alongside this [“eye for eye etc.”] to teach us that a person with a missing limb does not go out to war. - [Sifrei] Another explanation: It teaches that if you execute righteous judgment, you can be sure that when you depart for war you will be victorious. Similarly, David says, “I performed justice and righteousness; do not leave me to my oppressors” (Ps. 119: 121). - [Tanchuma]   כי תצא למלחמה: סמך הכתוב יציאת מלחמה לכאן, לומר לך, שאין מחוסר אבר יוצא למלחמה. דבר אחר לומר לך, אם עשית משפט צדק אתה מובטח שאם תצא למלחמה אתה נוצח. וכן דוד הוא אומר (תהלים קיט, קכא) עשיתי משפט וצדק בל תניחני לעושקי:
against your enemies: Let them be in your eyes as enemies; have no pity on them, for they will have no pity upon you.   על איבך: יהיו בעיניך כאויבים, אל תרחם עליהם כי לא ירחמו עליך:
horse and chariot: In My eyes, they are all like one horse. Similarly, it says, “and you shall strike Midian as one man.” (Jud. 6:16) And similarly, it says,, “When Pharaoh’s horse… came [into the sea]” (Exod. 15:19). - [Sifrei]   סוס ורכב: בעיני כולם כסוס אחד, וכן הוא אומר (שופטים ו, טז) והכית את מדין כאיש אחד. וכן הוא אומר (שמות טו, יט) כי בא סוס פרעה:
a people more numerous than you: In your eyes, they are numerous, but in My eyes, they are not numerous. — [Sifrei]   עם רב ממך: בעיניך הוא רב, אבל בעיני אינו רב:
2And it will be, when you approach the battle, that the kohen shall come near, and speak to the people.   בוְהָיָ֕ה כְּקָֽרָבְכֶ֖ם אֶל־הַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה וְנִגַּ֥שׁ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְדִבֶּ֥ר אֶל־הָעָֽם:
when you approach the battle: When you are on the point of leaving the border.   כקרבכם אל המלחמה: סמוך לצאתכם מן הספר מגבול ארצכם:
that the kohen shall come near: This refers to the kohen anointed for this purpose, and he is called “the one anointed for war.”   ונגש הכהן: המשוח לכך. והוא הנקרא משוח מלחמה:
and speak to the people: in the Holy Tongue. — [Sotah 42a]   ודבר אל העם: בלשון הקדש:
3And he shall say to them, "Hear, O Israel, today you are approaching the battle against your enemies. Let your hearts not be faint; you shall not be afraid, and you shall not be alarmed, and you shall not be terrified because of them.   גוְאָמַ֤ר אֲלֵהֶם֙ שְׁמַ֣ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אַתֶּ֨ם קְרֵבִ֥ים הַיּ֛וֹם לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה עַל־אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֑ם אַל־יֵרַ֣ךְ לְבַבְכֶ֗ם אַל־תִּֽירְא֧וּ וְאַל־תַּחְפְּז֛וּ וְאַל־תַּֽעַרְצ֖וּ מִפְּנֵיהֶֽם:
“Hear, O Israel”: Even if you have no merit other than the reading of the Shema , you are worthy that He [God] save you. — [Sotah 42b]   שמע ישראל: אפילו אין בכם זכות אלא קריאת שמע בלבד, כדאי אתם שיושיע אתכם:
against your enemies: These are not your brothers, for if you fall into their hands, they will not have pity on you; this is not like the war of Judah with Israel, of which the verse states, “And the men, who were mentioned by name, rose up and took hold of the captives, and, and clothed all their nakedness from the spoils, and they dressed them and shod them, and fed them and gave them to drink, and anointed them, and led them on donkeys, every feeble one, and they brought them to Jericho, the city of the palms, beside their brothers, and they returned to Samaria” (II Chron. 28:15). You, however, are going against your enemies; therefore strengthen yourselves for battle. — [Sifrei ; Sotah 42a]   על איביכם: אין אלו אחיכם, שאם תפלו בידם אינם מרחמים עליכם, אין זו כמלחמת יהודה עם ישראל, שנאמר (דה"י ב' כח טו) ויקומו האנשים אשר נקבו בשמות ויחזיקו בשביה, וכל מערומיהם הלבישו מן השלל וילבישום וינעילום ויאכילום וישקום ויסוכום וינהלום בחמורים לכל כושל, ויביאום ירחו עיר התמרים אצל אחיהם, וישובו שומרון, אלא על אויביכם אתם הולכים, לפיכך התחזקו למלחמה:
Let your hearts not be faint; you shall not be afraid, you shall not be alarmed, and you shall not be terrified: Four warnings, corresponding to four practices in which the kings of the nations engage [during battle]: They hold their shields close together to strike them against one another, thereby producing a loud noise to alarm those confronting them, so that they should flee; they stamp [the ground heavily] with their horses and make them neigh, sounding the beating of their horses’ hoofs, and they shout loudly and blow horns and [other] kinds of noisy instruments.   אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו ואל תחפזו ואל תערצו: ארבע אזהרות כנגד ארבעה דברים שמלכי האומות עושים. מגיפים בתריסיהם כדי להקישן זה לזה כדי להשמיע קול שיחפזו אלו שכנגדם וינוסו, ורומסים בסוסיהם ומצהילין אותם להשמיע קול שעטת פרסות סוסיהם, וצווחין בקולם ותוקעין בשופרות ומיני משמיעי קול:
Let your hearts not be faint: Because of the neighing of the horses;   אל ירך לבבכם: מצהלות סוסים:
you shall not be afraid: of the noise made by the fastening of the shields;   אל תיראו: מהגפת התריסין:
and you shall not be alarmed: At the sounds of the horns;   ואל תחפזו: מקול הקרנות:
and you shall not be terrified: By the noise of the shouting. — [Sifrei ; Sotah 42a]   ואל תערצו: מקול הצווחה:
4For the Lord, your God, is the One Who goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you.   דכִּ֚י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם הַֽהֹלֵ֖ךְ עִמָּכֶ֑ם לְהִלָּחֵ֥ם לָכֶ֛ם עִם־אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֖ם לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אֶתְכֶֽם:
For the Lord, your God…: They are coming with the victory of flesh and blood, whereas you approach with the victory of the Omnipresent. The Philistines came with the victory of Goliath-What was his end? He fell, and they fell with him.   כי ה' אלהיכם וגו': הם באים בנצחונו של בשר ודם ואתם באים בנצחונו של מקום. פלשתים באו בנצחונו של גלית, מה היה סופו, נפל ונפלו עמו:
Who goes with you: This refers to the camp of the ark. — [Sotah 42a]   ההלך עמכם: זה מחנה הארון:
5And the officers shall speak to the people, saying, What man is there who has built a new house and has not [yet] inaugurated it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man inaugurate it.   הוְדִבְּר֣וּ הַשֹּֽׁטְרִים֘ אֶל־הָעָ֣ם לֵאמֹר֒ מִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּנָ֤ה בַֽיִת־חָדָשׁ֙ וְלֹ֣א חֲנָכ֔וֹ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יַחְנְכֶֽנּוּ:
[What man is there who has built a new house] and has not [yet] inaugurated it: i.e., has not yet lived in it. The term חִנּוּךְ denotes beginning.   ולא חנכו: לא דר בו. חנוך לשון התחלה:
[Lest he die in the war,] and another man inaugurate it: This would be a source of great grief.   ואיש אחר יחנכנו: ודבר של עגמת נפש הוא זה:
6And what man is there who has planted a vineyard, and has not [yet] redeemed it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man redeem it.   ווּמִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָטַ֥ע כֶּ֨רֶם֙ וְלֹ֣א חִלְּל֔וֹ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יְחַלְּלֶֽנּוּ:
[And what man is there that has planted a vineyard,] and has not [yet] redeemed it: Heb. וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ. He has not redeemed the vineyard in the fourth year [of its growth], for the fruits [of the fourth year] have to be eaten in Jerusalem or redeemed [by exchanging them] for money, and to eat [food purchased with] the money in Jerusalem.   ולא חללו: לא פדאו בשנה הרביעית, שהפירות טעונין לאכלן בירושלים או לחללן בדמים ולאכול הדמים בירושלים:
7And what man is there who has betrothed a woman and has not [yet] taken her? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man take her."   זוּמִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵרַ֤שׂ אִשָּׁה֙ וְלֹ֣א לְקָחָ֔הּ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יִקָּחֶֽנָּה:
lest he die in the war: He should return lest he die, for if he does not obey the kohen , he deserves to die. — [Sifrei]   פן ימות במלחמה: ישוב פן ימות, שאם לא ישמע לדברי הכהן כדאי הוא שימות:
8And the officers shall continue to speak to the people and say, "What man is there who is fearful and fainthearted? Let him go and return to his house, that he should not cause the heart of his brothers to melt, as his heart."   חוְיָֽסְפ֣וּ הַשֹּֽׁטְרִים֘ לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־הָעָם֒ וְאָֽמְר֗וּ מִֽי־הָאִ֤ישׁ הַיָּרֵא֙ וְרַ֣ךְ הַלֵּבָ֔ב יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ וְלֹ֥א יִמַּ֛ס אֶת־לְבַ֥ב אֶחָ֖יו כִּלְבָבֽוֹ:
And the officers shall continue: Why does it say here: “shall continue” [lit. shall add]? They add this [statement] to the words of the kohen , for the kohen speaks and announces aloud to the people from “Hear, O Israel” (verse 3) until “to save you,” (end of verse 4) while “What man is there” (verse 5), and the second and third one [with the same beginning (verses 6 and 7)], the kohen speaks, and an officer announces aloud [to the people]. This verse, however, an officer speaks, and an officer announces aloud. - [Sotah 43a] According to several incunabula editions of Rashi , “a kohen announces aloud.” [See Yosef Hallel.]   ויספו השוטרים: למה נאמר כאן ויספו, מוסיפין זה על דברי הכהן, שהכהן מדבר ומשמיע מן (פסוק ג - ד) שמע ישראל עד להושיע אתכם, ומי האיש ושני ושלישי כהן מדבר ושוטר משמיע, וזה שוטר מדבר ושוטר משמיע:
[What man is there] who is fearful and fainthearted: Rabbi Akiva says: [This verse is to be understood] according to its apparent meaning, that he cannot stand in the closed ranks of battle and look upon a drawn sword. Rabbi Jose the Galilean says that [it means] one who is afraid of his sins [that they will cause him to fall in war, as he is unworthy], and therefore, the Torah gives him the excuse of attributing his return home because of a house, a vineyard, or a wife, to cover up for those who return because of their sins, so that people should not understand that they are sinners. [Consequently,] one who sees this person returning would say,“Perhaps he has built a house, or planted a vineyard, or betrothed a woman.” - [Sotah 44a]   הירא ורך הלבב: רבי עקיבא אומר כמשמעו, שאינו יכול לעמוד בקשרי המלחמה ולראות חרב שלופה. רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר הירא מעבירות שבידו, ולכך תלתה לו תורה לחזור על בית וכרם ואשה לכסות על החוזרים בשביל עבירות שבידם, שלא יבינו שהם בעלי עבירה, והרואהו חוזר אומר שמא בנה בית או נטע כרם או ארש אשה:
9And it shall be, that when the officials finish speaking to the people, they shall appoint officers of the legions at the edges of the people.   טוְהָיָ֛ה כְּכַלֹּ֥ת הַשֹּֽׁטְרִ֖ים לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־הָעָ֑ם וּפָֽקְד֛וּ שָׂרֵ֥י צְבָא֖וֹת בְּרֹ֥אשׁ הָעָֽם:
[They shall appoint] officers of the legions: This means that they place (זַקָּפִין) guards in front of them and behind them, with iron arrows in their hands, and if anybody attempted to retreat, the guard had the authority to strike his legs. זַקָּפִין are people who stand at the edge of the battle array to pick up (לִזְקֹף) the fallen and to encourage them with words: “Return to the battle and do not flee, for flight is the beginning of defeat.” - [Sifrei , Sotah 44a]   שרי צבאות: שמעמידין זקפין, מלפניהם ומלאחריהם וכשילין של ברזל בידיהם וכל מי שרוצה לחזור הרשות בידו לקפח את שוקיו. זקפין, בני אדם עומדים בקצה המערכה לזקוף את הנופלים ולחזקם בדברים שובו אל המלחמה ולא תנוסו, שתחלת נפילה ניסה: