ב"ה

Torah Reading for Re'eh

Parshat Re'eh
Shabbat, 27 Av, 5784
31 August, 2024
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Complete: (Deuteronomy 11:26 - 16:17; Isaiah 54:11 - 55:5)
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First Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 11

26Behold, I set before you today a blessing and a curse.   כורְאֵ֗ה אָֽנֹכִ֛י נֹתֵ֥ן לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם בְּרָכָ֖ה וּקְלָלָֽה:
A blessing and a curse: [i.e.,] those that were stated, [respectively,] on Mount Gerizim and on Mount Ebal.   רְאֵה אָֽנֹכִי … בְּרָכָה וּקְלָלָֽה: הָאֲמוּרוֹת בְּהַר גְּרִזִּים וּבְהַר עֵיבָל:
27The blessing, that you will heed the commandments of the Lord your God, which I command you today;   כזאֶת־הַבְּרָכָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּשְׁמְע֗וּ אֶל־מִצְו‍ֹת֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם:
The blessing: on the condition that you listen [and obey].   אֶת־הַבְּרָכָה: עַל מְנָת אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְעוּ:
28and the curse, if you will not heed the commandments of the Lord your God, but turn away from the way I command you this day, to follow other gods, which you did not know.   כחוְהַקְּלָלָ֗ה אִם־לֹ֤א תִשְׁמְעוּ֙ אֶל־מִצְו‍ֹת֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וְסַרְתֶּ֣ם מִן־הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם לָלֶ֗כֶת אַֽחֲרֵ֛י אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְדַעְתֶּֽם:
[If you… depart] from the way that I command you this day, to follow [other gods]: This teaches that whoever worships idols departs from the entire path that Israel has been commanded. From here [our Rabbis] said: One who acknowledges [the divinity of] pagan deities is as though he denies the entire Torah. — [Sifrei]   מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אָֽנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לָלֶכֶת וגו': הָא לָמַדְתָּ כָּל הָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה הֲרֵי הוּא סָר מִכָּל הַדֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ הַמּוֹדֶה בְּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה כְּכוֹפֵר בְּכָל הַתּוֹרָה כֻלָּהּ (ספרי):
29And it will be, when the Lord, your God, will bring you to the land to which you come, to possess it, that you shall place those blessing upon Mount Gerizim, and those cursing upon Mount Ebal.   כטוְהָיָ֗ה כִּ֤י יְבִֽיאֲךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּ֑הּ וְנָֽתַתָּ֤ה אֶת־הַבְּרָכָה֙ עַל־הַ֣ר גְּרִזִּ֔ים וְאֶת־הַקְּלָלָ֖ה עַל־הַ֥ר עֵיבָֽל:
you shall place those blessing: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: יָת מְבָרְכַיָא, “those who bless.”   וְנָֽתַתָּה אֶת־הַבְּרָכָה: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ "יָת מְבָרְכַיָּא" – אֶת הַמְבָרְכִים:
upon Mount Gerizim: [עַל, usually “upon,” here means] “facing Mount Gerizim.” [The Levites] turned their faces [toward the mountain] and began with the blessing: “Blessed is the man who does not make any graven or molten image….” Each of the curses in that section [beginning Deut. 27:15] were first stated in the expression of a blessing. Afterwards, they turned their faces towards Mount Ebal and began [to recite the corresponding] curse. — [Sotah 32a]   עַל־הַר גְּרִזִּים: כְּלַפֵּי הַר גְּרִזִּים הוֹפְכִין פְּנֵיהֶם וּפָתְחוּ בִּבְרָכָה – בָּרוךְ הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה פֶסֶל וּמַסֵּכָה וְגוֹ'. כָּל הָאֲרוּרִים שֶׁבַּפָּרָשָׁה אָמְרוּ תְחִלָּה בִּלְשׁוֹן בָּרוּךְ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָפְכוּ פְנֵיהֶם כְּלַפֵּי הַר עֵיבָל וּפָתְחוּ בִּקְלָלָה (סוטה ל"ג):
30Are they not on the other side of the Jordan, way beyond, in the direction of the sunset, in the land of the Canaanites, who dwell in the plain, opposite Gilgal, near the plains of Moreh?   להֲלֹא־הֵ֜מָּה בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֗ן אַֽחֲרֵי֙ דֶּ֚רֶךְ מְב֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ בְּאֶ֨רֶץ֙ הַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֔י הַיּשֵׁ֖ב בָּֽעֲרָבָ֑ה מ֚וּל הַגִּלְגָּ֔ל אֵ֖צֶל אֵֽלוֹנֵ֥י מֹרֶֽה:
Are they not [on the other side of the Jordan]?- [: Moses] gave [geographical] landmarks [describing the mountains].   הֲלֹא־הֵמָּה: נָתַן בָּהֶם סִימָן:
beyond: Heb. אַחֲרֵי, [I.e.,] after crossing the Jordan, much further on in distance, for that is the meaning of the expression אַחֲרֵי, “beyond”; wherever [the term] אַחֲרֵי is used, [it signifies] “a great separation [in time or place].”   אַֽחֲרֵי: אַחַר הַעֲבָרַת הַיַּרְדֵּן הַרְבֵּה וָהָלְאָה לְמֵרָחוֹק; וְזֶהוּ לְשׁוֹן אַחֲרֵי, כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אַחֲרֵי מֻפְלָג הוּא:
[on the other side of the Jordan, way beyond,] in the direction of the sunset: [i.e.,] beyond the Jordan, toward the west. And the cantillation marks of the verse prove that [אַחֲרֵי and דֶּרֶךְ] refer to two separate things, for they are marked with two [conjunctive] accents [thus demonstrating that these words are not connected]: אַחֲרֵי is punctuated with a pashta [which separates the word from the succeeding one], and דֶּרֶךְ is punctuated with a mashpel [which we call a yetib]. In addition, [the ד of the word דֶּרֶךְ has a dagesh inside it [which indicates that the word דֶּרֶךְ begins a new phrase or topic]. If, however, אַחֲרֵי דֶרֶךְ were one phrase [meaning “beyond the direction”], then אַחֲרֵי would have been punctuated by a conjunctive accent, namely a shofar hafuch [which we call a mahpach] and דֶּרֶךְ by a pashta [the combination of which indicates the connection between those words. Additionally, the ד of the word דֶּרֶךְ] would not have a dagesh inside it. [But this is not so, and thus אַחֲרֵי and דֶּרֶךְ are separate words in this verse.]   דֶּרֶךְ מְבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ: לְהַלָּן מִן הַיַּרְדֵּן לְצַד מַעֲרָב, וְטַעַם הַמִּקְרָא מוֹכִיחַ שֶׁהֵם שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים, שֶׁנִּנְקְדוּ בִשְׁנֵי טְעָמִים, "אַחֲרֵי" נָקוּד בְּפַשְׁטָא, וְ"דֶרֶךְ" נָקוּד בְּמַשְׁפֵּל, וְהוּא דָּגֵשׁ, וְאִם הָיָה "אַחֲרֵי דֶרֶךְ" דִּבּוּר אֶחָד, הָיָה נָקוּד "אַחֲרֵי" בִּמְשָׁרֵת, בְּשׁוֹפָר הָפוּךְ, וְ"דֶרֶךְ" בְּפַשְׁטָא וְרָפֶה:
opposite: Far off from Gilgal.   מוּל הַגִּלְגָּל: רָחוֹק מִן הַגִּלְגָּל:
[near] the plains of Moreh: This is Shechem, as is stated: “to the place of Shechem, to the plain of Moreh” (Gen. 12:6).   אֵֽלוֹנֵי מֹרֶֽה: שְׁכֶם הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית י"ב) עַד מְקוֹם שְׁכֶם עַד אֵלוֹן מוֹרֶה (ספרי):
31For you are crossing the Jordan, to come to possess the land which the Lord, your God, is giving you, and you shall possess it and dwell in it.   לאכִּ֤י אַתֶּם֙ עֹֽבְרִ֣ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן לָבֹא֙ לָרֶ֣שֶׁת אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם נֹתֵ֣ן לָכֶ֑ם וִֽירִשְׁתֶּ֥ם אֹתָ֖הּ וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם־בָּֽהּ:
For you are crossing the Jordan: The miracles [that will occur for you during your crossing] of the Jordan will be a sign in your hands that you will come and inherit the land [as promised]. — [Sifrei]   כִּי אַתֶּם עֹֽבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וגו': נִסִּים שֶׁל יַרְדֵּן יִהְיוּ סִימָן בְּיֶדְכֶם שֶׁתָּבֹאוּ וְתִירְשׁוּ אֶת הָאָרֶץ (עי' ספרי):
32And you shall keep to perform all the statutes and ordinances that I am setting before you today.   לבוּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֣ם לַֽעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַֽחֻקִּ֖ים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י נֹתֵ֥ן לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם:

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 12

1These are the statutes and ordinances that you shall keep to perform in the land which the Lord God of your fathers gives you to possess all the days that you live on the earth.   אאֵ֠לֶּה הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּשְׁמְר֣וּן לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֒ בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֩ נָתַ֨ן יְהֹוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֧י אֲבֹתֶ֛יךָ לְךָ֖ לְרִשְׁתָּ֑הּ כָּ֨ל־הַיָּמִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּ֥ם חַיִּ֖ים עַל־הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
2You shall utterly destroy from all the places where the nations, that you shall possess, worshipped their gods, upon the lofty mountains and upon the hills, and under every lush tree.   באַבֵּ֣ד תְּאַבְּד֠וּן אֶת־כָּל־הַמְּקֹמ֞וֹת אֲשֶׁ֧ר עָֽבְדוּ־שָׁ֣ם הַגּוֹיִ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֛ם יֹֽרְשִׁ֥ים אֹתָ֖ם אֶת־אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם עַל־הֶֽהָרִ֤ים הָֽרָמִים֙ וְעַל־הַגְּבָע֔וֹת וְתַ֖חַת כָּל־עֵ֥ץ רַֽעֲנָֽן:
You shall utterly destroy: Destroy and then destroy them again. From here [we derive that] one who eradicates idolatry must thoroughly uproot it [i.e., remove every trace of it]. — [A.Z. 45b]   אַבֵּד תְּאַבְּדוּן: אַבֵּד וְאַחַר כָּךְ תְּאַבְּדוּן, מִכָּאן לָעוֹקֵר עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְשָׁרֵשׁ אַחֲרֶיהָ (עבודה זרה מ"ה):
from all the places where the nations,… worshipped: And what shall you destroy from them? Their gods that are on the mountains, etc.   אֶת־כָּל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָֽבְדוּ־שָׁם וגו': וּמַה תְּאַבְּדוּן מֵהֶם? אֶת אֱלֹהֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר עַל הֶהָרִים:
3And you shall tear down their altars, smash their monuments, burn their asherim with fire, cut down the graven images of their gods, and destroy their name from that place.   גוְנִתַּצְתֶּ֣ם אֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָ֗ם וְשִׁבַּרְתֶּם֙ אֶת־מַצֵּ֣בֹתָ֔ם וַֽאֲשֵֽׁרֵיהֶם֙ תִּשְׂרְפ֣וּן בָּאֵ֔שׁ וּפְסִילֵ֥י אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֖ם תְּגַדֵּע֑וּן וְאִבַּדְתֶּ֣ם אֶת־שְׁמָ֔ם מִן־הַמָּק֖וֹם הַהֽוּא:
altar: [constructed] of many stones.   מזבח: שֶׁל אֲבָנִים הַרְבֵּה:
monument: [constructed] of one stone. This is the בִּימוּס [the pedestal for an idol] concerning which we learn in the Mishnah (A.Z. 3:7): A stone that was originally carved for an idol’s pedestal.   מצבה: שֶׁל אֶבֶן אַחַת, וְהוּא בִּימוֹס שֶׁשְּׁנוּיָה בַּמִּשְׁנָה (עבודה זרה מ"ז): אֶבֶן שֶׁחֲצָבָהּ מִתְּחִלָּתָהּ לְבִימוֹס:
asherah: a tree that is worshipped.   אשרה: אִילָן הַנֶּעֱבָד:
and destroy their name: By giving them disgraceful nicknames. What they call בֵּית גליא, “exalted temple,” [you] should call בֵּית כְּלִיָא, “dug out house,” what they call עַיִן כָּל, “the all-seeing eye,” [you] should call עַיִן קוֹץ “the thorn eye.” - [A.Z. 46a]   וְאִבַּדְתֶּם אֶת־שְׁמָם: לְכַנּוֹת לָהֶם שֵׁם לִגְנַאי, בֵּית גַּלְיָא — קוֹרִין לָהּ בֵּית כַּרְיָא, עֵין כֹּל — עֵין קוֹץ (שם ל"ו):
4You shall not do so to the Lord, your God.   דלֹא־תַֽעֲשׂ֣וּן כֵּ֔ן לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם:
You shall not do so [to the Lord your God]: to burn sacrifices to God in any place you choose, but rather at the place that He will choose. Another explanation is: “And you shall tear down their altars… and destroy their name… [but] do not do so [to the Lord your God]”; this is an admonition [addressed] to one who would erase the Name [of God from any writing] or remove a stone from the altar or from the courtyard (Mak. 22a). Rabbi Ishmael said: Would it enter your mind that the Israelites would tear down the altars [of God]? Rather, [the meaning of “You shall not do so” is that] you should not do like the deeds of the nations so that your sins would cause the sanctuary of [i.e., built by] your fathers to be destroyed. — [Sifrei]   לֹא־תַֽעֲשׂוּן כֵּן: לְהַקְטִיר לַשָּׁמַיִם בְּכָל מָקוֹם, כִּי אִם בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר. דָּבָר אַחֵר — ונתצתם את מזבחתם, ואבדתם את שמם, לא תעשון כן. אַזְהָרָה לַמּוֹחֵק אֶת הַשֵּׁם וְלַנּוֹתֵץ אֶבֶן מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אוֹ מִן הָעֲזָרָה (מכות כ"ב). אָמַר רַ' יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְכִי תַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתְּךָ שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל נוֹתְצִין אֶת הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת? אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲשׂוּ כְמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם וְיִגְרְמוּ עֲוֹנוֹתֵיכֶם לְמִקְדַּשׁ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם שֶׁיִּתְחָרֵב (ספרי):
5But only to the place which the Lord your God shall choose from all your tribes, to set His Name there; you shall inquire after His dwelling and come there.   הכִּ֠י אִם־אֶל־הַמָּק֞וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֨ר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ מִכָּל־שִׁבְטֵיכֶ֔ם לָשׂ֥וּם אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ שָׁ֑ם לְשִׁכְנ֥וֹ תִדְרְשׁ֖וּ וּבָ֥אתָ שָּֽׁמָּה:
you shall inquire after His dwelling: Heb. לְשִׁכְנוֹ. This is the Mishkan in Shiloh.   לְשִׁכְנוֹ תִדְרְשׁוּ: זֶה מִשְׁכַּן שִׁילֹה:
6And there you shall bring your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and the separation by your hand, and your vows and your donations, and the firstborn of your cattle and of your sheep.   ווַֽהֲבֵאתֶ֣ם שָׁ֗מָּה עֹלֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ וְזִבְחֵיכֶ֔ם וְאֵת֙ מַעְשְׂרֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת תְּרוּמַ֣ת יֶדְכֶ֑ם וְנִדְרֵיכֶם֙ וְנִדְבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וּבְכֹרֹ֥ת בְּקַרְכֶ֖ם וְצֹֽאנְכֶֽם:
and your sacrifices: Obligatory peace offerings.   וְזִבְחֵיכֶם: שְׁלָמִים שֶׁל חוֹבָה:
your tithes: [I.e.,] the tithe of the cattle and the second tithe, to eat them within the walls [of Jerusalem].   מַעְשְׂרֹתֵיכֶם: מַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, לֶאֱכֹל לִפְנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה:
the separation by your hand: These are the first fruits, of which it is stated: “And the kohen shall take the basket from your hand” (Deut. 26:4).   תְּרוּמַת יֶדְכֶם: אֵלּוּ הַבִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶם (דברים כ"ו) וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַטֶּנֶא מִיָּדֶךָ (עי' ספרי):
and the firstborn of your cattle: to give them to the kohen, and he shall offer them up there.   וּבְכֹרֹת בְּקַרְכֶם: לְתִתָּם לַכֹּהֵן וְיַקְרִיבֵם שָׁם:
7And there you shall eat before the Lord, your God, and you shall rejoice in all your endeavors you and your households, as the Lord, your God, has blessed you.   זוַֽאֲכַלְתֶּם־שָׁ֗ם לִפְנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וּשְׂמַחְתֶּ֗ם בְּכֹל֙ מִשְׁלַ֣ח יֶדְכֶ֔ם אַתֶּ֖ם וּבָֽתֵּיכֶ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּֽרַכְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
as the Lord, [your God,] has blessed you: Commensurate to to the blessing, bring [the offerings]. — [Sifrei]   אֲשֶׁר בֵּֽרַכְךָ ה': לְפִי הַבְּרָכָה הָבֵא (ספרי):
8You shall not do as all the things that we do here this day, every man [doing] what he deems fit.   חלֹ֣א תַֽעֲשׂ֔וּן כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲנַ֧חְנוּ עֹשִׂ֛ים פֹּ֖ה הַיּ֑וֹם אִ֖ישׁ כָּל־הַיָּשָׁ֥ר בְּעֵינָֽיו:
You shall not do as all [the things] that we do [here this day]: This refers back to [what is stated above], “For you are crossing the Jordan…” (Deut. 11:31), meaning: When you will cross the Jordan, you immediately are permitted to offer up [sacrifices] on a bamah [a temporary altar] during the entire fourteen years of conquering [the nations] and dividing [the land among the tribes], but on a bamah you may not sacrifice all that you sacrifice “here this day,” in the Mishkan, which is with you and has been anointed and is [thus] fit to sacrifice therein sin-offerings and guilt-offerings, vows and donations, whereas on a bamah, you may sacrifice only what is vowed or donated. And that is the meaning of “every man [doing] what he deems fit” vows and donations that you donate because you deem fit to bring them, not because of any obligation [imposed upon you]; only these may you offer up on a bamah . — [Sifrei; Zev. 117b]   לֹא תַֽעֲשׂוּן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנַחְנוּ עֹשִׂים וגו': מוּסָב לְמַעְלָה עַל כי אתם עברים את הירדן וגו', כְּשֶׁתַּעַבְרוּ אֶת הַיַּרְדֵּן מִיָּד אַתֶּם מֻתָּרִים לְהַקְרִיב בְּבָמָה כָּל י"ד שָׁנָה שֶׁל כִּבּוּשׁ וְחִלּוּק, וּבַבָּמָה לֹא תַקְרִיבוּ כָּל מַה שֶּׁאַתֶּם מַקְרִיבִים פה היום בַּמִּשְׁכָּן, שֶׁהוּא עִמָּכֶם וְנִמְשַׁח וְהוּא כָשֵׁר לְהַקְרִיב בּוֹ חַטָּאוֹת וַאֲשָׁמוֹת נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת, אֲבָל בְּבָמָה אֵין קָרֵב אֶלָּא הַנִּדָּר וְהַנִּדָּב, וְזֶהוּ איש כל הישר בעיניו, נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת, שֶׁאַתֶּם מִתְנַדְּבִים עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵיכֶם לַהֲבִיאָם וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי חוֹבָה, אוֹתָם תַּקְרִיבוּ בַּבָּמָה (שם; זבחים קי"ז):
9For you have not yet come to the resting place or to the inheritance, which the Lord, your God, is giving you.   טכִּ֥י לֹֽא־בָאתֶ֖ם עַד־עָ֑תָּה אֶל־הַמְּנוּחָה֙ וְאֶל־הַנַּֽחֲלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ:
For you have not yet come [to the resting place]: All those fourteen years [of conquering and dividing the land].   כִּי לֹֽא־בָאתֶם: כָּל אוֹתָן י"ד שָׁנָה:
not yet: Heb., עַד עַתָּה, the same as עִדַיִין, “not yet.”   עַד־עָתָּה: כְּמוֹ עֲדַיִן:
to the resting place: This is Shiloh.   אֶל־הַמְּנוּחָה: זוֹ שִׁילֹה:
[or to] the inheritance: This is Jerusalem. — [Sifrei ; Zev. 119a]   נחלה: זוֹ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (ספרי; זבחים קי"ט):
10And you shall cross the Jordan and settle in the land the Lord, your God, is giving you as an inheritance, and He will give you rest from all your enemies surrounding you, and you will dwell securely.   יוַֽעֲבַרְתֶּם֘ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן֒ וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֣ם בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם מַנְחִ֣יל אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְהֵנִ֨יחַ לָכֶ֧ם מִכָּל־אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֛ם מִסָּבִ֖יב וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם־בֶּֽטַח:
And you shall cross the Jordan and settle in the land: You will have apportioned it [among yourselves] and every man will recognize his portion and [the territory of] his tribe.   וַֽעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם בָּאָרֶץ: שֶׁתְּחַלְּקוּהָ וִיהֵא כָל אֶחָד מַכִּיר אֶת חֶלְקוֹ וְאֶת שִׁבְתּוֹ (נ"א – שִׁבְטוֹ):
and He will give you rest: [I.e.,] after conquering and dividing [the land] and having obtained rest from the “nations which the Lord left over, through whom to test Israel” (Judg. 3:1). And that was only in the days of David. Then:   וְהֵנִיחַ לָכֶם: לְאַחַר כִּבּוּשׁ וְחִלּוּק וּמְנוּחָה מִן הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הִנִּיחַ ה' לְנַסּוֹת בָּם אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל – וְאֵין זוֹ אֶלָּא בִּימֵי דָוִד – אָז:

Second Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 12

11And it will be, that the place the Lord, your God, will choose in which to establish His Name there you shall bring all that I am commanding you: Your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, and the separation by your hand, and the choice of vows which you will vow to the Lord.   יאוְהָיָ֣ה הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֥ם בּוֹ֙ לְשַׁכֵּ֤ן שְׁמוֹ֙ שָׁ֔ם שָׁ֣מָּה תָבִ֔יאוּ אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י מְצַוֶּ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֑ם עוֹלֹֽתֵיכֶ֣ם וְזִבְחֵיכֶ֗ם מַעְשְׂרֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ וּתְרֻמַ֣ת יֶדְכֶ֔ם וְכֹל֙ מִבְחַ֣ר נִדְרֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּדְּר֖וּ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
It will be, that the place [which the Lord your God will choose… there you shall bring all that I am commanding you]: [At that time,] build for yourselves the Temple in Jerusalem. And so [Scripture] states concerning David, “And it was, when the king sat in his house and the Lord had given him rest from all his enemies surrounding him, that the king said to Nathan the prophet, 'See now, I dwell in a house of cedars, but the Ark of God dwells within the curtain’” (II Sam. 7:1, 2) [i.e., the temporary Mishkan].   וְהָיָה הַמָּקוֹם וגו': בְּנוּ לָכֶם בֵּית הַבְּחִירָה בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּדָוִד "וַיְהִי כִּי יָשַׁב הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּבֵיתוֹ וַה' הֵנִיחַ לוֹ מִסָּבִיב מִכָּל אוֹיְבָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל נָתָן הַנָּבִיא רְאֵה אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב בְּבֵית אֲרָזִים, וַאֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ הַיְרִיעָה" (שמואל ב ז'):
there you shall bring [all that I am commanding you]: Above (verse 6), [the same expression] is stated referring to Shiloh, but here it is stated referring to Jerusalem. Accordingly, Scripture separates the two to permit [sacrificing on a bamah during the intermediate period] between the existence of] one [sanctuary] and the other. After Shiloh was destroyed, and they came to Nob [and erected the Mishkan there], and then again, when Nob was destroyed and they came to Gibeon, [sacrificing on] a bamah was permitted-until they [finally] arrived in Jerusalem. — [Zev. 119a]   שָׁמָּה תָבִיאוּ וגו': לְמַעְלָה אָמוּר לְעִנְיַן שִׁילֹה וְכָאן אָמוּר לְעִנְיַן יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, וּלְכָךְ חִלְּקָם הַכָּתוּב לִתֵּן הֶתֵּר בֵּין זוֹ לְזוֹ, מִשֶּׁחָרְבָה שִׁילֹה וּבָאוּ לְנֹב וְחָרְבָה נֹב וּבָאוּ לְגִבְעוֹן הָיוּ הַבָּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת עַד שֶׁבָּאוּ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם (זבחים קיט):
the choice of your vows: This teaches that one should bring [offerings] from the choicest. — [Sifrei]   מִבְחַר נִדְרֵיכֶם: מְלַמֵּד שֶׁיָּבִיא מִן הַמֻּבְחָר (ספרי):
12And you shall rejoice before the Lord, your God you and your sons and your daughters and your menservants and your maidservants, and the Levite who is within your cities, for he has no portion or inheritance with you.   יבוּשְׂמַחְתֶּ֗ם לִפְנֵי֘ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֒ אַתֶּ֗ם וּבְנֵיכֶם֙ וּבְנֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְעַבְדֵיכֶ֖ם וְאַמְהֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם וְהַלֵּוִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּשַֽׁעֲרֵיכֶ֔ם כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין ל֛וֹ חֵ֥לֶק וְנַֽחֲלָ֖ה אִתְּכֶֽם:
13Beware, lest you offer up your burnt offerings any place you see.   יגהִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֔ פֶּן־תַּֽעֲלֶ֖ה עֹֽלֹתֶ֑יךָ בְּכָל־מָק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְאֶֽה:
Beware, [lest you offer up your burnt-offerings any place you see]: [This negative form of the positive command in verse 11 is repeated in order] to attach a negative commandment to this matter.   הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ: לִתֵּן לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה עַל הַדָּבָר:
any place you see: [i.e.,] that enters your mind. However, you may offer [anywhere] by the bidding of a prophet, for example, as Elijah [did] on Mount Carmel (I Kings 18: 22). - [Sifrei]   בְּכָל־מָקוֹם אֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֶֽה: אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה בְּלִבְּךָ, אֲבָל אַתָּה מַקְרִיב עַל פִּי נָבִיא, כְּגוֹן אֵלִיָּהוּ בְּהַר הַכַּרְמֶל (שם):
14But only in the place the Lord will choose in one of your tribes; there you shall offer up your burnt offerings, and there you shall do all that I command you.   ידכִּ֣י אִם־בַּמָּק֞וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ בְּאַחַ֣ד שְׁבָטֶ֔יךָ שָׁ֖ם תַּֽעֲלֶ֣ה עֹֽלֹתֶ֑יךָ וְשָׁ֣ם תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י מְצַוֶּֽךָּ:
[But only in the place the Lord will choose] in one of your tribes: in the territory of Benjamin. But above (verse 5), it says, “[the place which the Lord… will choose] from all your tribes.” How can these be reconciled? When David purchased the threshing-floor [later to become the Temple site] from Araunah the Jebusite (II Sam. 24:24), he collected the [required] gold from all the tribes; however, the threshing-floor itself was [situated] in the territory of Benjamin. — [Sifrei]   בְּאַחַד שְׁבָטֶיךָ: בְּחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל בִּנְיָמִין, וּלְמַעְלָה הוּא אוֹמֵר "מִכָּל שִׁבְטֵיכֶם", הָא כֵיצַד? כְּשֶׁקָּנָה דָּוִד אֶת הַגֹּרֶן מֵאֲרַוְנָה הַיְבוּסִי גָּבָה הַזָּהָב מִכָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים, וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם הַגֹּרֶן בְּחֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל בִּנְיָמִין הָיָה (שם):
15However, in every desire of your soul, you may slaughter and eat meat in all your cities, according to the blessing of the Lord, your God, which He gave you; the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the deer, and as of the gazelle.   טורַק֩ בְּכָל־אַוַּ֨ת נַפְשְׁךָ֜ תִּזְבַּ֣ח | וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֣ בָשָׂ֗ר כְּבִרְכַּ֨ת יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽתַן־לְךָ֖ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶ֑יךָ הַטָּמֵ֤א וְהַטָּהוֹר֙ יֹֽאכְלֶ֔נּוּ כַּצְּבִ֖י וְכָֽאַיָּֽל:
However, [you may slaughter and eat meat in all your gates,] in every desire of your soul: What is the text speaking about? If [you think that] it [is speaking] about [non-sacrificial] meat eaten to satisfy the appetite, to permit it for them without offering up any sacrificial portions, [we already have a reference to this, for Scripture] says elsewhere: “When the Lord, your God, expands your boundary… and you say, 'I will eat meat… [you may eat meat…]’” (verse 20). So what is this [verse] speaking about? It is [referring to] animals designated for holy [sacrificial] purposes that had [subsequently] become blemished, that they are to be redeemed [that is, replaced by their equivalent value in money] and they may [then] be eaten anywhere. Now one might think that [this rule applies] even if the blemish is a temporary one. Therefore, Scripture says: רַק -“However” [lit., “only.” This limits the permission to that of a permanent blemish]. — [Sifrei]   רַק בְּכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ: בַּמֶּה הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר? אִם בִּבְשַׂר תַּאֲוָה לְהַתִּירָהּ לָהֶם בְּלֹא הַקְרָבַת אֵמוּרִים הֲרֵי אָמוּר בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר (פסוק כ') "כִּי יַרְחִיב ה' אֶת גְּבוּלְךָ וְגוֹ' וְאָמַרְתָּ אֹכְלָה בָשָׂר וְגוֹ'", בַּמֶּה זֶה מְדַבֵּר? בְּקָדָשִׁים שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהֶם מוּם שֶׁיִּפָּדוּ וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּכָל מָקוֹם, יָכוֹל יִפָּדוּ עַל מוּם עוֹבֵר? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "רַק" (ספרי):
you may slaughter and eat [meat]: You have no permission to shear or milk [the blemished animals], but only to eat the [meat] after their ritual slaughter. — [Bech. 15b]   תִּזְבַּח וְאָֽכַלְתָּ: אֵין לְךָ בָהֶם הֶתֵּר גִּזָּה וְחָלָב אֶלָּא אֲכִילָה עַל יְדֵי זְבִיחָה (בכ' ו'):
the unclean and the clean [may eat thereof]: Since they formerly had holy status, about which it is stated: “And the flesh that touches any unclean thing shall not be eaten” (Lev. 7:19), it is necessary to give explicit permission for both the unclean and clean person alike to eat [from the meat, even] from the same dish…   הַטָּמֵא והטהר: לְפִי שֶׁבָּאוּ מִכֹּחַ קָדָשִׁים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בָּהֶם "וְהַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּכָל טָמֵא לֹא יֵאָכֵל" (ויקרא ז'), הֻצְרַךְ לְהַתִּיר בּוֹ שֶׁטָּמֵא וְטָהוֹר אוֹכְלִים בִּקְעָרָה אַחַת:
as of the deer and as of the gazelle: of which no sacrifice is [ever] brought.   כַּצְּבִי וְכָֽאַיָּֽל: שֶׁאֵין קָרְבָּן בָּא מֵהֶם:
as of the deer, and as of the gazelle: This [comparison to a deer and a gazelle] exempts these [redeemed animals] from [the obligation of] “the foreleg, the jaws, and the maw” (see Deut. 18:3) [just as the deer and the gazelle are exempt from these gifts to the kohen]. — [Chul. 130a; Sifrei]   כַּצְּבִי וְכָֽאַיָּֽל: לְפָטְרָן מִן הַזְּרוֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה (ספרי):
16However, you shall not eat the blood; you shall spill it on the ground like water.   טזרַ֥ק הַדָּ֖ם לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ עַל־הָאָ֥רֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶ֖נּוּ כַּמָּֽיִם:
However, you shall not eat the blood: Although I said that these [animals] do not require sprinkling the blood on the altar, you shall not eat it.   רַק הַדָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי שֶׁאֵין לְךָ בוֹ זְרִיקַת דָּם בַּמִּזְבֵּח, לֹא תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ:
you shall spill it [on the ground] like water: [This comes] to tell you that it does not require covering [with earth (see Lev. 17:13)] (Sifrei ; Chul. 84a). Another explanation: [The phrase, “like water,” teaches us that] it is like water insofar as it renders seeds susceptible [for receiving ritual uncleanness (Lev. 11:38).] - [Chul. 35b]   תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּֽיִם: לוֹמַר לְךָ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כִּסּוּי (ספרי; חולין פ"ד). דָּבָר אַחֵר — הֲרֵי הוּא כַמַּיִם לְהַכְשִׁיר אֶת הַזְּרָעִים (שם ל"ה):
17You may not eat within your cities the tithe of your grain, or of your wine, or of your oil, or the firstborn of your cattle or of your sheep, or any of your vows that you will vow, or your donations, or the separation by your hand.   יזלֹֽא־תוּכַ֞ל לֶֽאֱכֹ֣ל בִּשְׁעָרֶ֗יךָ מַעְשַׂ֤ר דְּגָֽנְךָ֙ וְתִירֽשְׁךָ֣ וְיִצְהָרֶ֔ךָ וּבְכֹרֹ֥ת בְּקָֽרְךָ֖ וְצֹאנֶ֑ךָ וְכָל־נְדָרֶ֨יךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּדֹּ֔ר וְנִדְבֹתֶ֖יךָ וּתְרוּמַ֥ת יָדֶֽךָ:
You may not eat within your cities the tithe of your grain: Scripture comes to attach a negative commandment to this matter [i.e., eating the firstborn, tithes, etc., outside the walls of Jerusalem, in addition to the positive command (stated in verse 6)]. You may not [eat] [Heb. לֹא תוּכַל lit., “you cannot eat.”] Rabbi Joshua the son of Korchah said: You are able, but you are not permitted [to do so]. Similar to this, in the verse “As to the Jebusites, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the children of Judah could not drive them out” (Josh. 15:63), they were [physically] able to do so but they were not so permitted, since Abraham had made a [non-aggression] treaty with them when he bought the cave of Machpelah from them. [In fact,] they were not Jebusites [of the Jebusite nation] but Hittites. They were, however, called Jebusites after the city, named Jebus. So it is explained in Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer (chapter 36). And this is what is stated [when David was about to drive out the Jebusites. They said to him], “Unless you take away the blind and the lame [you shall not come in here]” (II Sam. 5:6), [referring to] the images [that stood at the gates] upon which the oath [that Abraham had taken regarding the Jebusites] was written.   לֹֽא־תוּכַל: בָּא הַכָּתוּב לִתֵּן לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה עַל הַדָּבָר לֹֽא־תוּכַל רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה אוֹמֵר יָכוֹל אַתָּה, אֲבָל אֵינְךָ רַשַּׁאי, כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ (יהושע ט"ו) "וְאֶת הַיְבוּסִי יוֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם לֹא יָכְלוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (יְהוּדָה) לְהוֹרִישָׁם", יְכוֹלִים הָיוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לְפִי שֶׁכָּרַת לָהֶם אַבְרָהָם בְּרִית כְּשֶׁלָּקַח מֵהֶם מְעָרַת הַמַּכְפֵּלָה; וְלֹא יְבוּסִים הָיוּ, אֶלָּא חִתִּיִּים הָיוּ, אֶלָּא עַל שֵׁם הָעִיר שֶׁשְּׁמָהּ יְבוּס, כָּךְ מְפֹרָשׁ בְּפִרְקֵי דְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר (פ' ל"ו), וְהוּא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כִּי אִם הֱסִירְךָ הָעִוְרִים וְהַפִּסְחִים" (שמואל ב ה') – צְלָמִים שֶׁכָּתְבוּ עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת הַשְּׁבוּעָה:
[You may not eat within your gates…] the firstborn of your cattle: This prohibition is addressed to the kohanim [in contrast to “the tithe of your grain,” since Israelites were never permitted to eat the firstborn, even within the walls of Jerusalem].   וּבְכֹרֹת בְּקָֽרְךָ: אַזְהָרָה לַכֹּהֲנִים:
or the separation by your hand: This refers to the first fruits (see above on verse 6). - [Sifrei , Mak. 17a]   וּתְרוּמַת יָדֶֽךָ: אֵלּוּ הַבִּכּוּרִים (ספרי; מכות י"ז):
18But you shall eat them before the Lord, your God, in the place the Lord, your God, will choose you, your son, your daughter, your manservant, your maidservant, and the Levite who is in your cities, and you shall rejoice before the Lord, your God, in all your endeavors.   יחכִּ֡י אִם־לִפְנֵי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ תֹּֽאכְלֶ֗נּוּ בַּמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִבְחַ֜ר יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֘יךָ֘ בּוֹ֒ אַתָּ֨ה וּבִנְךָ֤ וּבִתֶּ֨ךָ֙ וְעַבְדְּךָ֣ וַֽאֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְהַלֵּוִ֖י אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֑יךָ וְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֗ לִפְנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל מִשְׁלַ֥ח יָדֶֽךָ:
[But you shall eat them] before the Lord: [i.e.,] within the walls [of Jerusalem].   לִפְנֵי ה': לִפְנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה:
and the Levite who is in your cities: If you have nothing to give him from his portion, such as the first tithes, then give him the tithe of the poor. And if you have no tithe of the poor, invite him [to partake of] your peace offering. — [Sifrei]   וְהַלֵּוִי אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ: אִם אֵין לְךָ לָתֵת לוֹ מֵחֶלְקוֹ, כְּגוֹן מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן, תֵּן לוֹ מַעְשַׂר עָנִי, אֵין לְךָ מַעְשַׂר עָנִי, הַזְמִינֵהוּ עַל שְׁלָמֶיךָ (ספרי):
19Beware, lest you forsake the Levite all your days upon your land.   יטהִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֔ פֶּן־תַּֽעֲזֹ֖ב אֶת־הַלֵּוִ֑י כָּל־יָמֶ֖יךָ עַל־אַדְמָתֶֽךָ:
Beware, lest you forsake the Levite: This [in addition to the positive command expressed in the previous verse,] is to attach a negative commandment to the matter.   הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ: לִתֵּן לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה עַל הַדָּבָר (ספרי):
[Beware, lest you forsake the Levite…] upon your land: But in exile, you are not admonished regarding him more than poor Israelites. — [Sifrei]   עַל־אַדְמָתֶֽךָ: אֲבָל בַּגּוֹלָה אֵינְךָ מֻזְהָר עָלָיו יוֹתֵר מֵעֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל (שם):
20When the Lord, your God, expands your boundary, as He has spoken to you, and you say, "I will eat meat," because your soul desires to eat meat, you may eat meat, according to every desire of your soul.   ככִּֽי־יַרְחִיב֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֥יךָ אֶת־גְּבֻֽלְךָ֘ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּר־לָךְ֒ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֙ אֹֽכְלָ֣ה בָשָׂ֔ר כִּֽי־תְאַוֶּ֥ה נַפְשְׁךָ֖ לֶֽאֱכֹ֣ל בָּשָׂ֑ר בְּכָל־אַוַּ֥ת נַפְשְׁךָ֖ תֹּאכַ֥ל בָּשָֽׂר:
When [the Lord your God] expands [your boundary… and you say, “I will eat meat,”… you may eat meat]: The Torah teaches proper conduct, that one should not desire to eat meat unless [one lives] in abundance and wealth. — [Chul. 84a.]   כִּֽי־יַרְחִיב וגו': לִמְּדָה תוֹרָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְאַוֶּה אָדָם לֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ רַחֲבַת יָדַיִם וְעֹשֶׁר (חולין פ"ד):
[you may eat meat,] according to every desire of your soul: In the desert, however, the meat of a non-consecrated animal was forbidden to them, unless one first consecrated it and offered it up as a peace offering. — [Sifrei : Chul. 16b]   כל אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ וגו': אֲבָל בַּמִּדְבָּר נֶאֱסַר לָהֶם בְּשַׂר חֻלִּין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מַקְדִּישָׁהּ וּמַקְרִיבָהּ שְׁלָמִים (שם ט"ז):
21If the place the Lord, your God, chooses to put His Name there, will be distant from you, you may slaughter of your cattle and of your sheep, which the Lord has given you, as I have commanded you, and you may eat in your cities, according to every desire of your soul.   כאכִּֽי־יִרְחַ֨ק מִמְּךָ֜ הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִבְחַ֜ר יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֘יךָ֘ לָשׂ֣וּם שְׁמ֣וֹ שָׁם֒ וְזָֽבַחְתָּ֞ מִבְּקָֽרְךָ֣ וּמִצֹּֽאנְךָ֗ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֤ן יְהֹוָה֙ לְךָ֔ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוִּיתִ֑ךָ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֙ בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אַוַּ֥ת נַפְשֶֽׁךָ:
If the place the Lord, your God, chooses to put His Name there, will be distant from you: And you will [consequently] be unable to come and make peace-offerings every day, as [you do] now when the Mishkan goes along with you.   כִּֽי־יִרְחַק מִמְּךָ הַמָּקוֹם: וְלֹא תוּכַל לָבֹא וְלַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלָמִים בְּכָל יוֹם כְּמוֹ עַכְשָׁו שֶׁהַמִּשְׁכָּן הוֹלֵךְ עִמָּכֶם:
you may slaughter… as I have commanded you: We learn [from here] that there is a commandment regarding slaughtering, how one must slaughter. [Since this commandment is not written in the Torah we deduce that] these are the laws of ritual slaughtering given orally to Moses on [Mount] Sinai. — [Sifrei ; Chul. 28a]   וְזָֽבַחְתָּ … כַּֽאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ: לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ צִוּוּי בַּזְּבִיחָה הֵיאַךְ יִשְׁחֹט, וְהֵן הִלְכוֹת שְׁחִיטָה שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ לְמֹשֶׁה בְּסִינַי (שם כ"ח):
22But as the deer and the gazelle are eaten, so may you eat them; the unclean and the clean alike may eat of them.   כבאַ֗ךְ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יֵֽאָכֵ֤ל אֶת־הַצְּבִי֙ וְאֶת־הָ֣אַיָּ֔ל כֵּ֖ן תֹּֽאכְלֶ֑נּוּ הַטָּמֵא֙ וְהַטָּה֔וֹר יַחְדָּ֖ו יֹֽאכְלֶֽנּוּ:
But as the deer [and the gazelle] are eaten, [so you may eat them]: You are not admonished to eat them in a state of ritual purity; if, however, [you will reason:] Just as the fat of the deer and the gazelle is permitted [as food], so too should the fat of non-consecrated animals be permitted. Therefore [to counter this] Scripture says, “but” (אַךְ).   אַךְ כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יֵֽאָכֵל אֶת־הַצְּבִי וגו': אֵינְךָ מֻזְהָר לְאָכְלָן בְּטָהֳרָה, אִי מַה צְּבִי וְאַיָּל חֶלְבָּן מֻתָּר אַף חֻלִּין חֶלְבָּן מֻתָּר? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "אַךְ":
23However, be strong not to eat the blood, for the blood is the soul; and you shall not eat the soul with the flesh.   כגרַ֣ק חֲזַ֗ק לְבִלְתִּי֙ אֲכֹ֣ל הַדָּ֔ם כִּ֥י הַדָּ֖ם ה֣וּא הַנָּ֑פֶשׁ וְלֹֽא־תֹאכַ֥ל הַנֶּ֖פֶשׁ עִם־הַבָּשָֽׂר:
However, be strong not to eat the blood: Since it is stated “be strong” [i.e., resist temptation], you learn that the [Israelites] were inclined to eating blood. Therefore, it is necessary to state, “be strong.” [These are] the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Simeon the son of Azzai, however, says: Scripture comes only to caution you and to instruct you as to what extent you must be steadfast in [fulfilling] the commandments: If regarding blood, which is easy to watch out for, since a person has no desire for it, [the Torah] needed to strengthen you with its admonition, how much more so [must one strengthen oneself] for all other commandments! - [Sifrei]   רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם: מִמַּה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר חֲזַק אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁטוּפִים בַּדָּם לְאָכְלוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ הֻצְרַךְ לוֹמַר חֲזַק דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, רַ' שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן עֲזַאי אוֹמֵר לֹא בָא הַכָּתוּב אֶלָּא לְהַזְהִירְךָ וּלְלַמֶּדְךָ עַד כַּמָּה אַתָּה צָרִיךְ לְהִתְחַזֵּק בַּמִּצְווֹת, אִם הַדָּם שֶׁהוּא קַל לְהִשָּׁמֵר מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מִתְאַוֶּה לוֹ, הֻצְרַךְ לְחַזֶּקְךָ בְאַזְהָרָתוֹ, קַל וָחֹמֶר לִשְׁאָר מִצְווֹת (עי' ספרי):
and you shall not eat the soul with the flesh: This is an admonition against אֵבֵר מִן הַחַי, [the eating of] a limb from a live animal. — [Sifrei; Chul. 102a]   וְלֹֽא־תֹאכַל הַנָּפֶשׁ עִם־הַבָּשָֽׂר: אַזְהָרָה לְאֵבֶר מִן הַחַי (חולין ק"ב):
24You shall not eat it, you shall spill it on the ground, like water.   כדלֹ֖א תֹּֽאכְלֶ֑נּוּ עַל־הָאָ֥רֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶ֖נּוּ כַּמָּֽיִם:
You shall not eat it: This is an admonition against the eating (דָם הַתַּמְצִית), (the last blood oozing [from the incision of slaughtering]). — [Ker. 4b]   לֹא תֹּֽאכְלֶנּוּ: אַזְהָרָה לְדַם הַתַּמְצִית (כריתות ד'):
25You shall not eat it, in order that it be good for you, and for your children after you, when you do what is proper in the eyes of the Lord.   כהלֹ֖א תֹּֽאכְלֶ֑נּוּ לְמַ֨עַן יִיטַ֤ב לְךָ֙ וּלְבָנֶ֣יךָ אַֽחֲרֶ֔יךָ כִּי־תַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה הַיָּשָׁ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
You shall not eat it: This is an admonition against the eating of the blood contained in the limbs [of the animal]. — [Ker. 4b]   לֹא תֹּֽאכְלֶנּוּ: אַזְהָרָה לְדַם הָאֵבָרִים (שם):
in order that it be good for you…: Go forth and learn the [magnitude of] the reward for [observing] the commandments: If [in the case of] blood, which disgusts a person, he who abstains from it earns merit [both] for himself and for his children after him, how much more so [does this apply] to abstaining from theft and immorality, after which man’s soul does lust. — [Mak. 23b]   לְמַעַן יִיטַב לְךָ וגו': צֵא וּלְמַד מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל מִצְווֹת, אִם הַדָּם שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קָצָה מִמֶּנּוּ, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ זוֹכֶה לוֹ וּלְבָנָיו אַחֲרָיו, קַל וָחֹמֶר לְגֶזֶל וַעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם מִתְאַוָּה לָהֶם (מכות כ"ג):
26However, your holy offerings which you will have, and your vows, you shall carry, and come to the place that the Lord chooses.   כורַ֧ק קָֽדָשֶׁ֛יךָ אֲשֶׁר־יִֽהְי֥וּ לְךָ֖ וּנְדָרֶ֑יךָ תִּשָּׂ֣א וּבָ֔אתָ אֶל־הַמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
However, your holy offerings [… you shall carry, and come to the place which the Lord chooses]: Although you are permitted to slaughter unconsecrated animals, I did not permit you to slaughter consecrated animals and eat them in your cities without offering [them] up [on the altar]; rather, you must bring them to the Temple.   רַק קָֽדָשֶׁיךָ: אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַתָּה מֻתָּר לִשְׁחֹט חֻלִּין, לֹא הִתַּרְתִּי לְךָ לִשְׁחֹט אֶת הַקֳּדָשִׁים וּלְאָכְלָן בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ בְּלֹא הַקְרָבָה, אֶלָּא הֲבִיאֵם לְבֵית הַבְּחִירָה:
27And you shall make your burnt offerings the flesh and the blood upon the altar of the Lord, your God, and the blood of your sacrifices shall be poured upon the altar of the Lord, your God, and you shall eat the flesh.   כזוְעָשִׂ֤יתָ עֹֽלֹתֶ֨יךָ֙ הַבָּשָׂ֣ר וְהַדָּ֔ם עַל־מִזְבַּ֖ח יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְדַם־זְבָחֶ֗יךָ יִשָּׁפֵךְ֙ עַל־מִזְבַּח֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְהַבָּשָׂ֖ר תֹּאכֵֽל:
And you shall make your burnt-offerings: If [your sacrifices] are burnt-offerings, place the flesh and the blood on the altar [as it says: הַבָּשָׂר וְהַדָּם עַל-מִזְבַּח - “the flesh and the blood on the altar of the Lord,” with respect to burnt offerings]. But if they are peace-offerings, “the blood of your sacrifices shall be poured upon the altar” first, and afterwards “you shall eat the flesh.” Our Rabbis further deduced that [the words] “However, your holy offerings… [you shall carry]” (verse 26) come to instruct us regarding consecrated animals that are outside the Land [of Israel], as well as to instruct us regarding animals that have been exchanged for other consecrated animals, and regarding the offspring of consecrated animals, that [all of] these must [also] be offered up [in Jerusalem]. — [Sifrei; Bech. 14b]   וְעָשִׂיתָ עֹֽלֹתֶיךָ: אִם עוֹלוֹת הֵן, תֵּן הַבָּשָׂר וְהַדָּם עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּח, וְאִם זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים הֵם, "דַּם זְבָחֶיךָ יִשָּׁפֵךְ" עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ "וְהַבָּשָׂר תֹּאכֵל". וְעוֹד דָּרְשׁוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ, "רַק קָדָשֶׁיךָ" בָּא לְלַמֵּד עַל הַקֳּדָשִׁים שֶׁבְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, וּלְלַמֵּד עַל הַתְּמוּרוֹת וְעַל וַלְדוֹת קָדָשִׁים שֶׁיִּקְרְבוּ (ספרי; בכורות י"ד):
28Keep and hearken to all these words that I command you, that it may benefit you and your children after you, forever, when you do what is good and proper in the eyes of the Lord, your God.   כחשְׁמֹ֣ר וְשָֽׁמַעְתָּ֗ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י מְצַוֶּ֑ךָּ לְמַ֩עַן֩ יִיטַ֨ב לְךָ֜ וּלְבָנֶ֤יךָ אַֽחֲרֶ֨יךָ֙ עַד־עוֹלָ֔ם כִּ֤י תַֽעֲשֶׂה֙ הַטּ֣וֹב וְהַיָּשָׁ֔ר בְּעֵינֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
Keep [and hearken to all these words that I command you]: This [term שְׁמֹר, “keep”] refers to the studying of the Oral Law. [Since it is not written down,] you must “guard” it “in your innards,” so that it should not be forgotten, as it is said, “For it is pleasant that you guard them (תִּשְׁמְרָם) in your innards” (Prov. 22:18). And if you studied, you may understand and fulfill [the commandments], but one who is not [immersed] in study, cannot be [immersed] in practice. — [Sifrei]   שְׁמֹר: זוֹ מִשְׁנָה שֶׁאַתָּה צָרִיךְ לְשָׁמְרָהּ בְּבִטְנְךָ שֶׁלֹּא תִשְׁכַּח, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי כ"ב) "כִּי נָעִים כִּי תִשְׁמְרֵם בְּבִטְנֶךָ", וְאִם שָׁנִיתָ אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁתִּשְׁמַע וּתְקַיֵּם, הָא כָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּכְלַל מִשְׁנָה אֵינוֹ בִּכְלַל מַעֲשֶׂה (עי' ספרי):
[Keep…] all these words [that I command you]: This means that a light commandment should be as precious to you as a difficult commandment. — [Sifrei]   אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים: שֶׁתְּהֵא חֲבִיבָה עָלֶיךָ מִצְוָה קַלָּה כְּמִצְוָה חֲמוּרָה (שם):
[That it may benefit you…when you do] what is good: in the eyes of Heaven.   הַטּוֹב: בְּעֵינֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם:
and proper: in the eyes of man. — [Sifrei]   וְהַיָּשָׁר: בְּעֵינֵי אָדָם:

Third Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 12

29When the Lord, your God cuts off the nations to which you will come to drive them out from before you, and when you drive them out and dwell in their land,   כטכִּֽי־יַכְרִית֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֛מָּה לָרֶ֥שֶׁת אוֹתָ֖ם מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ וְיָֽרַשְׁתָּ֣ אֹתָ֔ם וְיָֽשַׁבְתָּ֖ בְּאַרְצָֽם:
30Beware, lest you be attracted after them, after they are exterminated from before you; and lest you inquire about their gods, saying, "How did these nations serve their gods? And I will do likewise."   להִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֗ פֶּן־תִּנָּקֵשׁ֙ אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֔ם אַֽחֲרֵ֖י הִשָּֽׁמְדָ֣ם מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ וּפֶן־תִּדְר֨שׁ לֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶ֜ם לֵאמֹ֗ר אֵיכָ֨ה יַֽעַבְד֜וּ הַגּוֹיִ֤ם הָאֵ֨לֶּה֙ אֶת־אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־כֵּ֖ן גַּם־אָֽנִי:
Lest you be attracted: Heb. פֶּן-תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחִרֵיהֶם Onkelos renders תִּנָּקֵשׁ as an expression of מוֹקֵשׁ, a “snare.” [However,] I say that he was not meticulous in examining the language, for we do not find a “nun” (נ) in [any form of] the verb “to snare,” not even as a root letter that is [sometimes] omitted from it. However, as an expression denoting vehement movement [from place to place] and rattling, we do find a “nun” (נ), as in “and his knees knocked נָקְשָׁן one against the other [in fear]” (Dan. 5:6). Here, too, I say that פֶּן-תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחִרֵיהֶם means “lest you be attracted to them,” i.e., by becoming bound up in what they do. Similarly, “May a creditor search out (יִנָקֵּשׁ) all that he has” (Ps. 109: 11)-here David cursed the wicked that he should have many creditors and they should continually go after and be attracted to his money.   פֶּן־תִּנָּקֵשׁ: אֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם לְשׁוֹן מוֹקֵשׁ, וַאֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא חָשׁ לְדַקְדֵּק בַּלָּשׁוֹן, שֶׁלֹּא מָצִינוּ נוּ"ן בִּלְשׁוֹן יוֹקֵשׁ, וַאֲפִלּוּ לַיְסוֹד הַנּוֹפֵל מִמֶּנּוּ, אֲבָל בִּלְשׁוֹן טֵרוּף וְקִשְׁקוּשׁ מָצִינוּ נוּ"ן, "וְאַרְכֻּבָתֵהּ דָא לְדָא נָקְשָׁן" (דניאל ה'); וְאַף זֶה אֲנִי אוֹמֵר "פֶּן תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחֲרֵיהֶם" – פֶּן תִּטָּרֵף אַחֲרֵיהֶם, לִהְיוֹת כָּרוּךְ אַחַר מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם; וְכֵן (תהילים ק"ט) "יְנַקֵּשׁ נוֹשֶׁה לְכָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ" – מְקַלֵּל אֶת הָרָשָׁע לִהְיוֹת עָלָיו נוֹשִׁים רַבִּים וְיִהְיוּ מַחֲזִירִין וּמִתְנַקְּשִׁין אַחַר מָמוֹנוֹ:
Beware, lest you be attracted after them, after they are exterminated from before you: [God says:] After you see that I will annihilate them from before you, you ought to consider why these [people] were exterminated; because of the corrupt actions that were in their hands [i.e., that they had committed]. Accordingly, you should not act likewise, lest others come and exterminate you. — [Sifrei 14:54]   אַֽחֲרֵי הִשָּֽׁמְדָם מִפָּנֶיךָ: אַחַר שֶׁתִּרְאֶה שֶׁאַשְׁמִידֵם מִפָּנֶיךָ, יֵשׁ לְךָ לָתֵת לֵב מִפְּנֵי מָה נִשְׁמְדוּ אֵלּוּ, מִפְּנֵי מַעֲשִׂים מְקֻלְקָלִים שֶׁבִּידֵיהֶם, אַף אַתָּה לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כֵן שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ אֲחֵרִים וְיַשְׁמִידוּךָ (עי' ספרי):
How do [these nations] serve [their gods?]: [Until now,] the only cases that incurred the [death] penalty for idolatry were slaughtering, causing to go up in smoke, libation, and prostration [before any other god], as it says, “[He who slaughters [a sacrifice] to the gods shall be destroyed] except to the Lord alone” (Exod. 22:19). [This means that the death punishment is incurred if one commits] things that are done for the Most High [namely the four aforementioned types of worship]. Here [Scripture] teaches you that if it is customary to worship a particular idol by some other rite, such as defacating before [Baal] Peor or casting a stone at Mercurius, this is considered its worship, and [one who performs that form of worship] is liable [to the death penalty]. However, regarding slaughtering, causing to go up in smoke, libation, and prostration, even though it is not customary [for that idol], one is liable [to the death penalty]. — [Sanh. 60b]   אֵיכָה יַֽעַבְדוּ: לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא עָנַשׁ עַל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אֶלָּא עַל זִבּוּחַ וְקִטּוּר וְנִסּוּךְ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב (שמות כ"ב) "בִּלְתִּי לַה' לְבַדּוֹ" – דְּבָרִים הַנַּעֲשִׂים לַגָּבוֹהַּ, בָּא וְלִמֶּדְךָ כָאן שֶׁאִם דַּרְכָּהּ שֶׁל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה לְעָבְדָהּ בְּדָבָר אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן פּוֹעֵר לִפְעוֹר וְזוֹרֵק אֶבֶן לְמַרְקוּלִיס, זוֹ הִיא עֲבוֹדָתוֹ וְחַיָּב, אֲבָל זִבּוּחַ וְקִטּוּר וְנִסּוּךְ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה – אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא כְדַרְכָּהּ חַיָּב (סנהדרין ס'):
31You shall not do so to the Lord, your God; for every abomination to the Lord which He hates, they did to their gods, for also their sons and their daughters they would burn in fire to their gods.   לאלֹא־תַֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה כֵ֔ן לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ כִּי֩ כָל־תּֽוֹעֲבַ֨ת יְהֹוָ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׂנֵ֗א עָשׂוּ֙ לֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם כִּ֣י גַ֤ם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם֙ וְאֶת־בְּנֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם יִשְׂרְפ֥וּ בָאֵ֖שׁ לֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶֽם:
for also their sons [and their daughters they would burn in fire to their gods]: The word גַם, “also,” [comes] to include their fathers and mothers [among those they burned]. Rabbi Akiva stated, “I [once] saw a heathen who bound his father before his dog, which then devoured him.” [Sifrei] [The dog represents the idol, either because it was made in the form of a dog, or this is a pejorative. The dog’s eating the father means that the heathen burned his father in fire before the idol (Zedah Laderech).]   כִּי גַם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם: "גַּם" – לְרַבּוֹת אֶת אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְאִמּוֹתֵיהֶם; אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אֲנִי רָאִיתִי גוֹי שֶׁכְּפָתוֹ לְאָבִיו לִפְנֵי כַלְבּוֹ וַאֲכָלוֹ (ספרי):

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 13

1Everything I command you that you shall be careful to do it. You shall neither add to it, nor subtract from it.   אאֵ֣ת כָּל־הַדָּבָ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֤ר אָֽנֹכִי֙ מְצַוֶּ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֹת֥וֹ תִשְׁמְר֖וּ לַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת לֹֽא־תֹסֵ֣ף עָלָ֔יו וְלֹ֥א תִגְרַ֖ע מִמֶּֽנּוּ:
Everything [that I command you]: less significant [commandments] as well as more significant ones. — [Sifrei]   אֵת כָּל־הַדָּבָר: קַלָּה כַּחֲמוּרָה (שם):
that you shall be careful to do: [This statement] attaches a negative commandment to the positive commandments mentioned in this parashah, for wherever הִשָּׁמֵר is used, it is an expression of a negative commandment. Lashes, however, are not incurred for [infringement of a prohibition when] the term הִשָּׁמֵר is attached to a positive commandment.   תִשְׁמְרוּ לַֽעֲשׂוֹת: לִתֵּן לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה עַל עֲשֵׂה הָאֲמוּרִים בַּפָּרָשָׁה, שֶׁכָּל הִשָּׁמֶר לְשׁוֹן לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה הוּא, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹקִין עַל הִשָּׁמֶר שֶׁל עֲשֵׂה (מכות י"ג):
You shall neither add to it: [e.g., placing] five chapters in tefillin [instead of four], or [using] five species for the lulav [instead of four], or [reciting] four blessings [instead of three] for the “blessing of the kohanim.” - [Sifrei]   לֹֽא־תֹסֵף עָלָיו: חֲמִשָּׁה טֹטָפוֹת, חֲמִשָּׁה מִינִין בַּלּוּלָב, אַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת לְבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים (ספרי):
2If there will arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of a dream, and he gives you a sign or a wonder,   בכִּֽי־יָק֤וּם בְּקִרְבְּךָ֙ נָבִ֔יא א֖וֹ חֹלֵ֣ם חֲל֑וֹם וְנָתַ֥ן אֵלֶ֛יךָ א֖וֹת א֥וֹ מוֹפֵֽת:
[If there will arise among you a prophet…] and he gives you a sign: Heb. אוֹת, [meaning a sign] in the heavens, as it is stated in the case of Gideon [who said to the angel]: “then show me a sign (אוֹת)” (Jud. 6:17), and then it says [further], “let it be dry only upon the fleece [and upon all the ground let there be dew]” (Jud. 6:39).   וְנָתַן אֵלֶיךָ אוֹת: בַּשָּׁמַיִם, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּגִדְעוֹן (שופטים ו') "וְעָשִׂיתָ לִּי אוֹת" וְאוֹמֵר "יְהִי נָא חֹרֶב אֶל הַגִּזָּה" וְגוֹ':
or a wonder: Heb. מוֹפֵת, [meaning a sign] on the earth. (other texts [of Rashi read as follows]:   אוֹ מוֹפֵֽת: בָּאָרֶץ:
and he gives you a sign: in the heavens, as is written, “and they [i.e., the sun, the moon, and the stars] shall be for signs (לְאֹתֹת) and for seasons” [Gen. 1: 14].   וְנָתַן אֵלֶיךָ אוֹת: בשמים דכתיב והיו לאותות ולמועדים:
or a wonder: on the earth, as is written, “If there will be dew on the fleece only, and upon all the ground, dry” [Jud. 6:39]). Even so, you shall not listen to him. But if you say, “Why then does the Holy One, blessed is He, give him the power to perform a sign? [Scripture replies,] ”for the Lord, your God, is testing you [… whether you really love the Lord your God]" (verse 4). - [Sifrei; San. 90a]   אוֹ מוֹפֵֽת: בארץ דכתיב אם טל יהיה על הגזה לבדה ועל כל הארץ חורב) , אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא תִשְׁמַע לוֹ, וְאִם תֹּאמַר מִפְּנֵי מָה נוֹתֵן לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֶמְשָׁלָה לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹת? כי מנסה ה' אלהיכם אתכם (ספרי; עי' סנהדרין צ'):
3and the sign or the wonder of which he spoke to you happens, [and he] says, "Let us go after other gods which you have not known, and let us worship them,"   גוּבָ֤א הָאוֹת֙ וְהַמּוֹפֵ֔ת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר אֵלֶ֖יךָ לֵאמֹ֑ר נֵֽלְכָ֞ה אַֽחֲרֵ֨י אֱלֹהִ֧ים אֲחֵרִ֛ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְדַעְתָּ֖ם וְנָֽעָבְדֵֽם:
4you shall not heed the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream; for the Lord, your God, is testing you, to know whether you really love the Lord, your God, with all your heart and with all your soul.   דלֹ֣א תִשְׁמַ֗ע אֶל־דִּבְרֵי֙ הַנָּבִ֣יא הַה֔וּא א֛וֹ אֶל־חוֹלֵ֥ם הַֽחֲל֖וֹם הַה֑וּא כִּ֣י מְנַסֶּ֞ה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם לָדַ֗עַת הֲיִשְׁכֶ֤ם אֹֽהֲבִים֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶ֖ם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶֽם:
5You shall follow the Lord, your God, fear Him, keep His commandments, heed His voice, worship Him, and cleave to Him.   האַֽחֲרֵ֨י יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֛ם תֵּלֵ֖כוּ וְאֹת֣וֹ תִירָ֑אוּ וְאֶת־מִצְו‍ֹתָ֤יו תִּשְׁמֹ֨רוּ֙ וּבְקֹל֣וֹ תִשְׁמָ֔עוּ וְאֹת֥וֹ תַֽעֲבֹ֖דוּ וּב֥וֹ תִדְבָּקֽוּן:
keep His commandments: the Torah of Moses.   וְאֶת־מצותיו תִּשְׁמֹרוּ: תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה:
heed His voice: the voice of the prophets.   וּבְקֹלוֹ תִשְׁמָעוּ: בְּקוֹל הַנְּבִיאִים:
worship Him: in His sanctuary. — [Sifrei]   וְאֹתוֹ תַֽעֲבֹדוּ: בְּמִקְדָּשׁוֹ (ספרי):
and cleave to Him: Cleave to His ways: bestow kindness, bury the dead, and visit the sick, just as the Holy One, blessed is He, did. — [Sotah 14a]   וּבוֹ תִדְבָּקֽוּן: הִדַּבֵּק בִּדְרָכָיו – גְּמֹל חֲסָדִים, קְבֹר מֵתִים, בַּקֵּר חוֹלִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (סוטה י"ד):
6And that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream shall be put to death; because he spoke falsehood about the Lord, your God Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and Who redeemed you from the house of bondage, to lead you astray from the way in which the Lord, your God, commanded you to go; so shall you clear away the evil from your midst.   ווְהַנָּבִ֣יא הַה֡וּא א֣וֹ חֹלֵם֩ הַֽחֲל֨וֹם הַה֜וּא יוּמָ֗ת כִּ֣י דִבֶּר־סָ֠רָ֠ה עַל־יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֜ם הַמּוֹצִ֥יא אֶתְכֶ֣ם | מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם וְהַפֹּֽדְךָ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית עֲבָדִ֔ים לְהַדִּֽיחֲךָ֙ מִן־הַדֶּ֔רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֧ר צִוְּךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּ֑הּ וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
[Because he spoke] falsehood: Heb. סָרָה, lit. something turned away, removed from the world, which neither existed nor was created, and which I never commanded him to say; destodre in Old French, to distort.   סָרָה: דָּבָר הַמּוּסָר מִן הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה וְלֹא נִבְרָא וְלֹא צִוִּיתִיו לְדַבֵּר כֵּן, דישטו"רנורא בְּלַעַז:
and Who redeemed you from the house of bondage: Even if God had no [other claim] on you other than that He had redeemed you, it would be sufficient [to demand your obedience]. — [Sifrei]   וְהַפֹּֽדְךָ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים: אֲפִלּוּ אֵין לוֹ עָלֶיךָ אֶלָּא שֶׁפְּדָאֲךָ — דַּיּוֹ (ספרי):
7If your brother, the son of your mother, tempts you in secret or your son, or your daughter, or the wife of your embrace, or your friend, who is as your own soul saying, "Let us go and worship other gods, which neither you, nor your forefathers have known."   זכִּ֣י יְסִֽיתְךָ֡ אָחִ֣יךָ בֶן־אִ֠מֶּ֠ךָ אֽוֹ־בִנְךָ֨ אֽוֹ־בִתְּךָ֜ א֣וֹ | אֵ֣שֶׁת חֵיקֶ֗ךָ א֧וֹ רֵֽעֲךָ֛ אֲשֶׁ֥ר כְּנַפְשְׁךָ֖ בַּסֵּ֣תֶר לֵאמֹ֑ר נֵֽלְכָ֗ה וְנַֽעַבְדָה֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתָּ אַתָּ֖ה וַֽאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ:
If [your brother…] tempts you: The term הֲסָתָה always denotes inciting as it is said, אִם ה׳ הֶסִיתְךָ, “If the Lord has incited you against me” (I Sam. 26:19); ametra in Old French, will incite, that he tempts him to do so.   כִּי יְסִֽיתְךָ: אֵין הֲסָתָה אֶלָּא גֵּרוּי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ש"מ כ"ו) אִם ה' הֱסִיתְךָ בִּי, אנסיטר"א בְּלַעַז, שֶׁמַּשִּׂיאוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן:
your brother: from the father[’s side].   אָחִיךָ: מֵאָב:
the son of your mother: from the mother[’s side].   בֶן־אִמֶּךָ: מֵאֵם:
of your embrace: The one that lies in your embrace and is attached (מְחֻקָּה) to you; afichiede in Old French, bound, attached (Greenberg), afichier in Old French, to attach (Gukovitzki). This is similar to וּמֵחֵיק הָאָרֶץ (Ezek. 43:14), which refers to the base [of the altar] that is affixed firmly in the ground.   חֵיקֶךָ: הַשּׁוֹכֶבֶת בְּחֵיקְךָ וּמְחֻקָּה בְּךָ, אפקיי"דא בְּלַעַז, וְכֵן (יחזקאל מ"ג), "וּמֵחֵיק הָאָרֶץ" – מִיסוֹד הַתָּקוּעַ בָּאָרֶץ:
[Or your friend,] who is as your own soul: This refers to your father. Scripture enumerates those [persons] who are dear to you; how much more so [must you apply this] to others [and not spare them]!   אֲשֶׁר כְּנַפְשְׁךָ: זֶה אָבִיךָ, פֵּרֵשׁ לְךָ הַכָּתוּב אֶת הַחֲבִיבִין לְךָ, קַל וָחֹמֶר לַאֲחֵרִים:
[If your brother…tempts you] in secret: Scripture speaks of what commonly [occurs, but does not exclude the other case, i.e., one who entices publicly], for usually the one who entices speaks clandestinely. Similarly, Solomon [describing an episode of enticement,] says: “In the twilight, in the evening time, in the blackness of night and the darkness” (Prov. 7:9). - [Sifrei]   בַּסֵּתֶר: דִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב בַּהוֹוֶה, שֶׁאֵין דִּבְרֵי מֵסִית אֶלָּא בַּסֵּתֶר, וְכֵן שְׁלֹמֹה הוּא אוֹמֵר (משלי ז') "בְּנֶשֶׁף בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם בְּאִישׁוֹן לַיְלָה וַאֲפֵלָה":
[Let us go and worship other gods,] which neither you nor your forefathers have known: This would be a great disgrace for you, for not even the heathen nations forsake what their forefathers have handed down to them. Yet this [man] says to you, “Abandon what your forefathers have handed down to you!” - [Sifrei]   אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַֽאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ: דָּבָר זֶה גְּנַאי גָּדוֹל הוּא לְךָ – שֶׁאַף הָאֻמּוֹת אֵין מַנִּיחִין מַה שֶּׁמָּסְרוּ לָהֶם אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם, וְזֶה אוֹמֵר לְךָ עֲזֹב מַה שֶּׁמָּסְרוּ לְךָ אֲבוֹתֶיךָ (ספרי):
8Of the gods of the peoples around you, [whether] near to you or far from you, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth;   חמֵֽאֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעַמִּ֗ים אֲשֶׁר֙ סְבִיבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם הַקְּרֹבִ֣ים אֵלֶ֔יךָ א֖וֹ הָֽרְחֹקִ֣ים מִמֶּ֑ךָּ מִקְצֵ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵ֥ה הָאָֽרֶץ:
Let us go and worship other gods…] whether near to you or far [from you]: Why did [Scripture] specify [gods] that are “near… or far”? Rather, this is what Scripture says: Through [knowing] the character of those [gods] close to you, you learn the character of those far from you; just as those close to you are devoid of substance, so are those far from you devoid of substance. — [San. 61b; Sifrei]   הַקְּרֹבִים אֵלֶיךָ אוֹ הָֽרְחֹקִים: לָמָּה פֵּרֵט קְרוֹבִים וּרְחוֹקִים? אֶלָּא כָּךְ אָמַר הַכָּתוּב: מִטִּיבָן שֶׁל קְרוֹבִים אַתָּה לָמֵד טִיבָן שֶׁל רְחוֹקִים, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין מַמָּשׁ בַּקְּרוֹבִים, כָּךְ אֵין מַמָּשׁ בָּרְחוֹקִים (סנהדרין ס"א):
[gods… far from you,] from one end of the earth [to the other end of the earth]: This refers to the sun, the moon, and the legion of heavens [i.e., the stars], which extend from one end of the world to the other. — [Sifrei]   מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ: זוֹ חַמָּה וּלְבָנָה וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם שֶׁהֵן מְהַלְּכִין מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ (ספרי):
9You shall not desire him, and you shall not hearken to him; neither shall you pity him, have mercy upon him, nor shield him.   טלֹֽא־תֹאבֶ֣ה ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א תִשְׁמַ֖ע אֵלָ֑יו וְלֹֽא־תָח֤וֹס עֵֽינְךָ֙ עָלָ֔יו וְלֹֽא־תַחְמֹ֥ל וְלֹֽא־תְכַסֶּ֖ה עָלָֽיו:
You shall not desire him: Heb. לֹא-תֹאבֶה. You shall feel no longing (תאב) towards him; do not love him (לֹא תֹאהֲבֶנוּ)). Since it is said, “You shall love your fellow man as yourself” (Lev. 19:18), [therefore it is necessary to tell us that] this person, [however,] you shall not love.   לֹֽא־תֹאבֶה לוֹ: לֹא תְהֵא תָאֵב לוֹ, לֹא תֶּאֱהָבֶנּוּ, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא י"ט) וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ – אֶת זֶה לֹא תֶאֱהַב:
and do not hearken to him: when he pleads for his life, that you should pardon him. [It is necessary to state this] because it says, “[If you see the donkey of your enemy] you shall surely help him” (Exod. 23:5); this person, [however,] you shall not help.   וְלֹא תִשְׁמַע אֵלָיו: בְּהִתְחַנְּנוֹ עַל נַפְשׁוֹ לִמְחֹל לוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ"ג) עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב עִמּוֹ – לָזֶה לֹא תַעֲזֹב:
neither shall you pity him: [It is necessary to state this] because it says, “you shall not stand idly by the blood of your fellow man” (Lev. 19:16). This person [however] you shall not pity. — [Sifrei]   וְלֹא תָחוֹס עֵֽינְךָ עָלָיו: לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא י"ט) לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל דַּם רֵעֶךָ – עַל זֶה לֹא תָחֹס:
[neither shall you…] have mercy upon him: Do not search for merits in his favor.   וְלֹא תַחְמֹל: לֹא תַהֲפֹךְ בִּזְכוּתוֹ:
nor shall you shield him: If you are aware of something that will condemn him, you are not permitted to remain silent. — [Sifrei]   וְלֹא תְכַסֶּה עָלָיו: אִם אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ לוֹ חוֹבָה אֵינְךָ רַשַּׁאי לִשְׁתֹּק (ספרי):
10But you shall surely kill him, your hand shall be the first against him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people.   יכִּ֤י הָרֹג֙ תַּֽהַרְגֶ֔נּוּ יָֽדְךָ֛ תִּֽהְיֶה־בּ֥וֹ בָרִֽאשׁוֹנָ֖ה לַֽהֲמִית֑וֹ וְיַ֥ד כָּל־הָעָ֖ם בָּאַֽחֲרֹנָֽה:
But you shall surely kill him: (If he has left the court, acquitted, have him returned for conviction;) if [on the other hand,] he has left the court convicted, do not return him for acquittal. — [Sifrei]   כִּי הָרֹג תַּֽהַרְגֶנּוּ: אִם יָצָא מִבֵּית דִּין זַכַּאי הַחֲזִירֵהוּ לְחוֹבָה, יָצָא מִבֵּית דִּין חַיָּב אַל תַּחֲזִירֵהוּ לִזְכוּת (שם):
Your hand shall be the first against him [to put him to death]: The one who was tempted [to idolatry by this person] has the duty to put him to death. [However] if he did not die by his hand, he must die by the hand of others, as is stated (in this verse), “and afterwards the hand of all the people, etc.” - [Sifrei]   יָֽדְךָ תִּֽהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִֽאשׁוֹנָה: מִצְוָה בְּיַד הַנִּסָּת לַהֲמִיתוֹ. לֹא מֵת בְּיָדוֹ, יָמוּת בְּיַד אֲחֵרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ויד כל העם וגו' (עי' ספרי):
11And you shall stone him with stones so that he dies, because he sought to lead you astray from the Lord, your God, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.   יאוּסְקַלְתּ֥וֹ בָֽאֲבָנִ֖ים וָמֵ֑ת כִּי בִקֵּ֗שׁ לְהַדִּֽיחֲךָ֙ מֵעַל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ הַמּוֹצִֽיאֲךָ֛ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֥ית עֲבָדִֽים:
12And all Israel shall listen and fear, and they shall no longer do any evil such as this in your midst.   יבוְכָ֨ל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יִשְׁמְע֖וּ וְיִֽרָא֑וּן וְלֹֽא־יוֹסִ֣פוּ לַֽעֲשׂ֗וֹת כַּדָּבָ֥ר הָרָ֛ע הַזֶּ֖ה בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
13If you hear in one of your cities which the Lord, your God, is giving you to dwell therein, saying,   יגכִּֽי־תִשְׁמַ֞ע בְּאַחַ֣ת עָרֶ֗יךָ אֲשֶׁר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֛ לָשֶׁ֥בֶת שָׁ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
[If you will hear in one of your cities which the Lord, your God, gives you] to dwell therein: [The words “to dwell therein” are added] to exclude Jerusalem, which was not apportioned as a dwelling place [for a particular tribe]. — [Sifrei]   לָשֶׁבֶת שָׁם: פְּרָט לִירוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה לְדִירָה (שם):
If you hear… saying: Heb. לֵאמֹר, lit. to say. [If you hear people] saying thus:   כִּֽי־תִשְׁמַע לֵאמֹֽר: אוֹמְרִים כֵּן יָצְאוּ וְגוֹ' –
14"Unfaithful men have gone forth from among you and have led the inhabitants of their city astray, saying, 'Let us go and worship other gods, which you have not known.' "   ידיָֽצְא֞וּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים בְּנֵֽי־בְלִיַּ֨עַל֙ מִקִּרְבֶּ֔ךָ וַיַּדִּ֛יחוּ אֶת־יֽשְׁבֵ֥י עִירָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר נֵֽלְכָ֗ה וְנַֽעַבְדָ֛ה אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְדַעְתֶּֽם:
men: But not women.   אֲנָשִׁים: וְלֹא נָשִׁים:
Unfaithful: Heb. בְּנֵי-בְלִיַּעַל -people without a yoke בְּלִי עוֹל, who have thrown off the yoke of the Omnipresent. — [Sifrei]   בְּנֵֽי־בְלִיַּעַל: בְּלִי עֹל, שֶׁפָּרְקוּ עֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם (שם):
the inhabitants of their city: But not the inhabitants of another city. From here [our Rabbis] said: A city is not considered a “wayward city” (עִיר הַנִדַּחַת) unless men (אֲנָשִׁים) lead it astray, and unless those who lead it astray are from within it. — [San. 111b]   יֽשְׁבֵי עִירָם: וְלֹא יוֹשְׁבֵי עִיר אַחֶרֶת, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ אֵין נַעֲשֵׂית עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת עַד שֶׁיַּדִּיחוּהָ אֲנָשִׁים וְעַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מַדִּיחֶיהָ מִתּוֹכָהּ (סנהדרין קי"א):
15Then you shall inquire, investigate, and ask thoroughly, and, behold, it is true, the matter is certain, that such abomination has been committed in your midst:   טווְדָֽרַשְׁתָּ֧ וְחָֽקַרְתָּ֛ וְשָֽׁאַלְתָּ֖ הֵיטֵ֑ב וְהִנֵּ֤ה אֱמֶת֙ נָכ֣וֹן הַדָּבָ֔ר נֶֽעֶשְׂתָ֛ה הַתּוֹעֵבָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ:
Then you shall inquire, investigate, and ask thoroughly: Heb. וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְחָקַרְתָּ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ הֵיטֵב. From this verse [in combination with others as explained], our Rabbis learned [the law of] the “seven investigations” [in a court of law], since Scripture uses many expressions [of investigation]. Here there are three expressions: דְרִישָׁה, חֲקִירָה, and הֵיטֵב [i.e., “inquiry,” “investigation,” and “thoroughly”]. The term וְשָׁאַלְתָּ, “ask,” is not counted as one [of the seven investigations (חֲקִירוֹת)] and the cross-examinations (בְּדִיקוֹת) [regarding accompanying circumstances] are derived from it. [So far, we have three expressions.] And elsewhere [in the case of collusive witnesses,] it says: וְדָרְשׁוּ הַשּׁוֹפְטִים הֵיטֵב, “And the judges shall inquire thoroughly” (Deut. 19:18). [This adds two more expressions, דְרִישָׁה and הֵיטֵב, to make five altogether.] And still elsewhere [in the case of idolatry,] it says: וְדָרַשְׁתָּ הֵיטֵב, “And you shall inquire thoroughly” (Deut. 17:4) [thus adding two more expressions, דְרִישָׁה and הֵיטֵב, to make up a final total of seven investigatory expressions demonstrating the law of “seven investigations”]. And our Rabbis learned a גְּזֵירָה שָׁוָה [i.e., an inference from an identical word in two passages, which teaches us that the laws in one passage apply to the other passage as well] from [the words] הֵיטֵב הֵיטֵב, to place what is stated in one context in the other context. [I.e., it is accounted as if all seven written in the context of the “wayward city,” as well as in the cases of collusive witnesses and individuals who worshipped idols. I.e., all the seven expressions can be connected together to make seven investigations.] - [San. 40a; Sifrei] [The judges would ask the witnesses the following seven questions: 1) In what shemitah cycle was the crime committed? 2) In what year? 3) In what month? 4) In what day of the month? 5) On what day [of the week]? 6) In what hour? 7) In what place? (San. 5:1)]   וְדָֽרַשְׁתָּ וְחָֽקַרְתָּ וְשָֽׁאַלְתָּ הֵיטֵב: מִכָּאן לָמְדוּ שֶׁבַע חֲקִירוֹת מֵרִבּוּי הַמִּקְרָא, כָּאן יֵשׁ ג' – דְּרִישָׁה וַחֲקִירָה וְהֵיטֵב, וְשָׁאַלְתָּ אֵינוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן, וּמִמֶּנּוּ לָמְדוּ בְּדִיקוֹת – וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים י"ט) "וְדָרְשׁוּ הַשּׁוֹפְטִים הֵיטֵב", וְעוֹד בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר (שם י"ז) "וְדָרַשְׁתָּ הֵיטֵב", לָמְדוּ 'הֵיטֵב' 'הֵיטֵב' לִגְזֵרָה שָׁוָה, לִתֵּן הָאָמוּר שֶׁל זֶה בָּזֶה (סנהדרין מ'):
16You shall surely strike down the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroy it with all that is in it and its livestock, with the edge of the sword.   טזהַכֵּ֣ה תַכֶּ֗ה אֶת־יֽשְׁבֵ֛י הָעִ֥יר הַהִ֖וא לְפִי־חָ֑רֶב הַֽחֲרֵ֨ם אֹתָ֧הּ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֛הּ וְאֶת־בְּהֶמְתָּ֖הּ לְפִי־חָֽרֶב:
You shall surely strike down: Heb. הַכֵּה תַכֶּה. [The double expression is used to explain that] if you cannot execute the death penalty that is prescribed for them, put them to death in some other manner. — [Sifrei ; B.M 31b]   הַכֵּה תַכֶּה: אִם אֵינְךָ יָכוֹל לַהֲמִיתָם בַּמִּיתָה הַכְּתוּבָה בָּהֶם, הֲמִיתֵם בְּאַחֶרֶת (ספרי; בבא מציעא ל"א):
17And you shall collect all its spoil into the midst of its open square, and burn with fire the city and all its spoil, completely, for the Lord, your God; and it shall be a heap of destruction forever, never to be rebuilt.   יזוְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָ֗הּ תִּקְבֹּץ֘ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ רְחֹבָהּ֒ וְשָֽׂרַפְתָּ֣ בָאֵ֗שׁ אֶת־הָעִ֤יר וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ֙ כָּלִ֔יל לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וְהָֽיְתָה֙ תֵּ֣ל עוֹלָ֔ם לֹ֥א תִבָּנֶ֖ה עֽוֹד:
[and burn with fire the city…] for the Lord your God: [i.e.,] for His Name and for His sake.   לה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ: לִשְׁמוֹ וּבִשְׁבִילוֹ:
18And nothing that is doomed to destruction shall cling to your hand, so that the Lord may return from His fierce wrath, and grant you compassion, and be compassionate with you, and multiply you, as He swore to your forefathers.   יחוְלֹֽא־יִדְבַּ֧ק בְּיָֽדְךָ֛ מְא֖וּמָה מִן־הַחֵ֑רֶם לְמַ֩עַן֩ יָשׁ֨וּב יְהֹוָ֜ה מֵֽחֲר֣וֹן אַפּ֗וֹ וְנָֽתַן־לְךָ֤ רַֽחֲמִים֙ וְרִֽחַמְךָ֣ וְהִרְבֶּ֔ךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לַֽאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ:
that the Lord may return from His fierce wrath: For as long as idol worship [exists] in the world, the fierce wrath [of God exists] in the world. — [Sifrei; San. 111b]   לְמַעַן יָשׁוּב ה' מֵֽחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ: שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה בָעוֹלָם חֲרוֹן אַף בָּעוֹלָם (ספרי):
19For you shall hearken to the voice of the Lord your God, to keep all His commandments which I command you this day, to do that which is proper in the eyes of the Lord, your God.   יטכִּ֣י תִשְׁמַ֗ע בְּקוֹל֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמֹר֙ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתָ֔יו אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּ֑וֹם לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ הַיָּשָׁ֔ר בְּעֵינֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:

Fourth Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 14

1You are children of the Lord, your God. You shall neither cut yourselves nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead.   אבָּנִ֣ים אַתֶּ֔ם לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם לֹ֣א תִתְגֹּֽדְד֗וּ וְלֹֽא־תָשִׂ֧ימוּ קָרְחָ֛ה בֵּ֥ין עֵֽינֵיכֶ֖ם לָמֵֽת:
You shall neither cut yourselves: Do not make cuts and incisions in your flesh [to mourn] for the dead, in the manner that the Amorites do, because you are the children of the Omnipresent and it is appropriate for you to be handsome and not to be cut or have your hair torn out.   לֹא תִתְגֹּֽדְדוּ: לֹא תִתְּנוּ גְדִידָה וְשֶׂרֶט בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם עַל מֵת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָאֱמוֹרִיִּים עוֹשִׂין, לְפִי שֶׁאַתֶּם בָּנָיו שֶׁל מָקוֹם וְאַתֶּם רְאוּיִין לִהְיוֹת נָאִים וְלֹא גְּדוּדִים וּמְקֹרָחִים:
[nor make any baldness] between your eyes: [i.e.,] near the forehead. Elsewhere, however, it says: “They shall not make their head bald” (Lev. 21: 5), to make the entire head like between the eyes (בֵּין עֵינַיִם) [i.e., one must not make bald spots on any part of the head]. — [Sifrei]   בֵּין עֵֽינֵיכֶם: אֵצֶל הַפַּדַּחַת, וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא כ"א) לֹא יִקְרְחֻה בְּרֹאשָׁם – לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל הָרֹאשׁ כְּבֵין הָעֵינַיִם (ספרי):
2For you are a holy people to the Lord, your God, and the Lord has chosen you to be a treasured people for Him, out of all the nations that are upon the earth.   בכִּ֣י עַ֤ם קָדוֹשׁ֙ אַתָּ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וּבְךָ֞ בָּחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה לִֽהְי֥וֹת לוֹ֙ לְעַ֣ם סְגֻלָּ֔ה מִכֹּל֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
For you are a holy people: Your holiness stems from your forefathers, and, moreover, “the Lord has chosen you.” - [Sifrei]   כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה: קְדֻשַּׁת עַצְמְךָ מֵאֲבוֹתֶיךָ, וְעוֹד ובך בחר ה':
3You shall not eat any abomination.   גלֹ֥א תֹאכַ֖ל כָּל־תּֽוֹעֵבָֽה:
[You shall not eat] any abomination: Anything that I have declared to be an abomination for you-for instance, if he made a slit in the ear of a firstborn [animal], in order to [be permitted to] slaughter it in the country [i.e., outside the Temple walls, where blemished firstborns must be slaughtered]. This is a thing that I have declared to be an abomination for you, for “no blemish shall be in it” (Lev. 22:21) [meaning that one may not make a blemish on a firstborn or on any sacrificial animal. Our verse] comes to teach here that one may not slaughter [the firstborn] and eat it based on that [deliberately made] blemish. [Another example is] if one cooked meat in milk, which is a thing that I declared an abomination for you; and here Scripture admonishes against eating it. — [Chul. 114b]   כָּל־תּֽוֹעֵבָֽה: כָּל שֶׁתִּעַבְתִּי לְךָ, כְּגוֹן צָרַם אֹזֶן בְּכוֹר כְּדֵי לְשָׁחֳטוֹ בַמְּדִינָה הֲרֵי דָּבָר שֶׁתִּעַבְתִּי לְךָ, כָּל מוּם לֹא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ, בָּא וְלִמֵּד כָּאן שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁחַט וְיֹאכַל עַל אוֹתוֹ הַמּוּם. בִּשֵּׁל בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב הֲרֵי דָּבָר שֶׁתִּעַבְתִּי לְךָ, וְהִזְהִיר כָּאן עַל אֲכִילָתוֹ (חולין קי"ד):
4These are the animals that you may eat: ox, lamb, and kid,   דזֹ֥את הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֹּאכֵ֑לוּ שׁ֕וֹר שֵׂ֥ה כְשָׂבִ֖ים וְשֵׂ֥ה עִזִּֽים:
5gazelle, deer, and antelope, ibex, chamois, bison, and giraffe.   האַיָּ֥ל וּצְבִ֖י וְיַחְמ֑וּר וְאַקּ֥וֹ וְדִישֹׁ֖ן וּתְא֥וֹ וָזָֽמֶר:
This is the animal [which you may eat…] the gazelle, and the deer, and the antelope: [Since the verse begins with “This is the animal (בְּהֵמָה) …” and then goes on to enumerate types of wild beasts (חַיָּה),] we learn that the category of wild beasts (חַיָּה) is included in the category of (בְּהֵמָה), [which usually refers only to domestic animals]. - [Sifrei ; Chul. 71a] We learn also that unclean domestic and wild animals are more numerous than clean [ones] since the less numerous are always enumerated. [Therefore, the clean animals are enumerated here.] - [Sifrei; Chul. 63a]   זאת הבהמה, אַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר: לָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַחַיָּה בִכְלַל בְּהֵמָה, וְלָמַדְנוּ שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה טְמֵאָה מְרֻבָּה מִן הַטְּהוֹרָה, שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם פּוֹרֵט אֶת הַמֻּעָט (ספרי; חולין י"ג):
and the ibex: Heb. וְאַקּוֹ. This is rendered by Targum [Onkelos] as יַעִלָא, [like the Hebrew יָעֵל in the expression] יַעִלֵי סָלַע (Job 39:1). This is known as estainboc [in Old French, mountain goat].   וְאַקּוֹ: מְתֻרְגָּם יַעֲלָא (איוב ל"ט) "יַעֲלֵי סָלַע", הוּא אשטנב"וק:
and the bison: Heb. וּתְאוֹ.[Onkelos renders this:] וְתוּרְבָּלָא, [which is the equivalent of] תּוֹר הַיַעַר, “the ox of the forest,” for בָּאלָא means “forest” in the Aramaic language.   וּתְאוֹ: "תּוֹרְבָּלָא", תּוֹר הַיַּעַר, "בָּלָא" — יַעַר בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי:
6And every animal that has a split hoof and has a hoof cloven into two hoof sections, [and] chews the cud among the animals that you may eat.   ווְכָל־בְּהֵמָ֞ה מַפְרֶ֣סֶת פַּרְסָ֗ה וְשֹׁסַ֤עַת שֶׁ֨סַע֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י פְרָס֔וֹת מַֽעֲלַ֥ת גֵּרָ֖ה בַּבְּהֵמָ֑ה אֹתָ֖הּ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
split: Heb. מַפְרֶסֶת, split, as the Targum [Onkelos renders it].   מַפְרֶסֶת: סְדוּקָה, כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ:
hoof: Heb. פַּרְסָה, plante [in French].   פַּרְסָה: פלאנט"א:
[and has a hoof] cloven [into two hoof sections]: [Hooves] cloven into two “nails,” for there are [animals with hooves] split but not entirely cloven into [two] nails; such animals are unclean.   וְשֹׁסַעַת: חֲלוּקָה בִשְׁתֵּי צִפָּרְנַיִם, שֶׁיֵּשׁ סְדוּקָה וְאֵינָהּ חֲלוּקָה בַּצִּפָּרְנַיִם, וְהִיא טְמֵאָה:
among the animals - [that you may eat]: Heb. בַּבְּהֵמָה This [means literally “within the animal”], meaning that anything found inside the beast, you may eat. From here [our Rabbis] said that a fetus becomes permitted to be eaten through the [proper] slaughtering of its mother [without requiring its own slaughtering]. — [Chul. 69a]   בַּבְּהֵמָה: מַשְׁמַע מַה שֶּׁנִּמְצָא בַבְּהֵמָה אֱכֹל, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ שֶׁהַשְּׁלִיל נִתָּר בִּשְׁחִיטַת אִמּוֹ (חולין ס"ט):
7But you shall not eat of those that chew the cud, or of those that have the split hooves: the cloven one, the camel, the hyrax, and the hare, for they chew the cud, but do not have split hooves; they are unclean for you.   זאַ֣ךְ אֶת־זֶ֞ה לֹ֤א תֹֽאכְלוּ֙ מִמַּֽעֲלֵ֣י הַגֵּרָ֔ה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵ֥י הַפַּרְסָ֖ה הַשְּׁסוּעָ֑ה אֶת־הַ֠גָּמָ֠ל וְאֶת־הָֽאַרְנֶ֨בֶת וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָ֜ן כִּי־מַֽעֲלֵ֧ה גֵרָ֣ה הֵ֗מָּה וּפַרְסָה֙ לֹ֣א הִפְרִ֔יסוּ טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶֽם:
the cloven one: This is a certain creature that has two backs and two spinal columns (Chul. 60b). Our Rabbis said: Why are [these animals and birds] repeated [here, since they are already mentioned in Lev. 11]? Because of the [animal called] שְׁסוּעָה, and in [the category of] fowl because of the רָאָה, both of which are not mentioned in Torath Kohanim [i.e., Lev.]. — [Chul. 63b]   הַשְּׁסוּעָה: בְּרִיָּה הִיא שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ שְׁנֵי גַּבִּין וּשְׁתֵּי שִׁדְרָאוֹת (שם ס'); אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ לָמָּה נִשְׁנוּ? בַּבְּהֵמוֹת מִפְּנֵי הַשְּׁסוּעָה וּבָעוֹפוֹת מִפְּנֵי הָרָאָה, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמְרוּ בְּתּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים (שם ס"ג):
8And the pig, because it has a split hoof, but does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. You shall neither eat of their flesh nor touch their carcass.   חוְאֶת־הַֽ֠חֲזִ֠יר כִּֽי־מַפְרִ֨יס פַּרְסָ֥ה הוּא֙ וְלֹ֣א גֵרָ֔ה טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶ֑ם מִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָ֖ם לֹ֥א תִגָּֽעוּ:
nor touch their carcass: Our Rabbis explained [that this refers only to] the Festival[s], for a person is obliged to purify himself for the Festival. One might think that [all Israelites] are prohibited [from touching a carcass] during the entire year. Therefore, Scripture states [in reference to the uncleanness of a corpse], “Say to the kohanim … [none shall be defiled for the dead…]” (Lev. 21:1). Now if in the case of the uncleanness caused by a [human] corpse, which is a stringent [kind of uncleanness, only] kohanim are prohibited regarding it but [ordinary] Israelites are not prohibited, then in the case of uncleanness caused by a carcass [of an animal], which is light [i.e., a less stringent uncleanness], how much more so [is the case that ordinary Israelites are permitted to touch these carcasses]!   וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּֽעוּ: רַבּוֹתֵינוּ פֵּרְשׁוּ — בָּרֶגֶל, שֶׁאָדָם חַיָּב לְטַהֵר אֶת עַצְמוֹ בָּרֶגֶל, יָכוֹל יִהְיוּ מֻזְהָרִים בְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "אֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹ'", וּמַה טֻּמְאַת הַמֵּת חֲמוּרָה, הַכֹּהֲנִים מֻזְהָרִים וְאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻזְהָרִים, טֻמְאַת נְבֵלָה קַלָּה, לֹא כָּל שֶׁכֵּן:
9These you may eat of all that are in the waters; all that have fins and scales, you may eat.   טאֶת־זֶה֙ תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמָּ֑יִם כֹּ֧ל אֲשֶׁר־ל֛וֹ סְנַפִּ֥יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֖שֶׂת תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
10But whatever does not have fins and scales, you shall not eat; it is unclean for you.   יוְכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁ֧ר אֵין־ל֛וֹ סְנַפִּ֥יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֖שֶׂת לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
11You may eat every clean bird.   יאכָּל־צִפּ֥וֹר טְהֹרָ֖ה תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
You may eat every clean bird: [“Every”] comes to include [as permissible to eat] the bird that is set free [in the purification rite] of a metzora (see Lev. 14:7). - [Sifrei ; Kid. 57a]   כָּל־צִפּוֹר טְהֹרָה תֹּאכֵֽלוּ: לְהַתִּיר מְשֻׁלַּחַת שֶׁבַּמְּצֹרָע (ספרי; קידושין נ"ז):
12But these are those from which you shall not eat: The eagle [or the griffin vulture], the ossifrage, the osprey;   יבוְזֶ֕ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תֹֽאכְל֖וּ מֵהֶ֑ם הַנֶּ֥שֶׁר וְהַפֶּ֖רֶס וְהָֽעָזְנִיָּֽה:
But these are those from which you shall not eat: [The word “which” comes] to forbid [as food] the [bird that is] slaughtered [in the purification rite of a metzora]. — [Sifrei; Kid. 57a]   וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֹֽאכְלוּ מֵהֶם: לֶאֱסֹר אֶת הַשְּׁחוּטָה (שם):
13and the white vulture, and the black vulture, and the kite after its species;   יגוְהָֽרָאָה֙ וְאֶת־הָ֣אַיָּ֔ה וְהַדַּיָּ֖ה לְמִינָֽהּ:
the white vulture and the black vulture: רָאָה, אַיָּה and דַּיָּה are [names for] the same [or similar] bird. Why is its name called רָאָה ? Because it sees (רוֹאֶה) very well. And why does [Scripture] admonish you with all its names? In order not to give an opponent any opportunity to disagree, so that the one who wishes to prohibit should not call it רָאָה, and the one who wishes to permit it will say, “This one is named דַּיָּה,” or “This one is named אַיָּה,” and Scripture did not prohibit this one!" And in the case of birds, [Scripture] enumerates the unclean species, to teach that the clean birds are more numerous than the unclean [in contrast with Rashi on verses 4-5, regarding animals]. Therefore, it enumerates the fewer ones. - [Chul. 63b]   הראה והאיה: הִיא רָאָה הִיא אַיָּה הִיא דַיָּה, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ רָאָה? שֶׁרוֹאָה בְּיוֹתֵר, וְלָמָּה הִזְהִיר בְּכָל שְׁמוֹתֶיהָ? שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לְבַעַל דִּין לַחֲלֹק – שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הָאוֹסְרָהּ קוֹרֵא אוֹתָהּ רָאָה, וְהַבָּא לְהַתִּיר אוֹמֵר זוֹ דַּיָּה שְׁמָהּ אוֹ אַיָּה שְׁמָהּ, וְזוֹ לֹא אָסַר הַכָּתוּב. וּבָעוֹפוֹת פֵּרֵט לְךָ הַטְּמֵאִים לְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָעוֹפוֹת הַטְּהוֹרִים מְרֻבִּים עַל הַטְּמֵאִים, לְפִיכָךְ פֵּרֵט אֶת הַמֻּעָט (חולין ס"ג):
14And every raven after its species;   ידוְאֵ֥ת כָּל־עֹרֵ֖ב לְמִינֽוֹ:
15And the ostrich, and the owl, and the gull, and the hawk after its species;   טווְאֵת֙ בַּ֣ת הַיַּֽעֲנָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָ֖ס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁ֑חַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּ֖ץ לְמִינֵֽהוּ:
16The falcon, and the ibis, and the bat;   טזאֶת־הַכּ֥וֹס וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁ֖וּף וְהַתִּנְשָֽׁמֶת:
the bat: Heb. וְהַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת, calve-soriz [in Old French], bat, [chauve souris in modern French. Note that Rashi on Isa. 2:20 brings this laaz for עִטַלֵּף, whereas here and in Lev. 11:18, he brings it for תִּנְשֶׁמֶת and does not identify עִטַלֵּף.   התנשמת: קלב"א שורי"ץ:
17And the pelican, and the magpie, and the cormorant;   יזוְהַקָּאָ֥ת וְאֶת־הָֽרָחָ֖מָה וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָֽךְ:
the cormorant: [or the gull] Heb. שָׁלָךְ, [a bird] that draws out (שׁוֹלֶה) fish from the sea. — [Chul. 63b]   שלך: הַשּׁוֹלֶה דָּגִים מִן הַיָּם (שם):
18And the stork, and the heron and its species, and the hoopoe, and the atalef.   יחוְהַ֣חֲסִידָ֔ה וְהָֽאֲנָפָ֖ה לְמִינָ֑הּ וְהַדּֽוּכִיפַ֖ת וְהָֽעֲטַלֵּֽף:
and the hoopoe: וְהַדּוּכִיפַת. The wild rooster, [which is called] in Old French haruppe, and which has a double crest. — [Gittin 68]   דוכיפת: הוּא תַּרְנְגוֹל הַבָּר, וּבְלַעַז הרו"פא, וְכַרְבָּלְתּוֹ כְפוּלָה (גיט' ס"ח):
19And every flying insect is unclean for you; they may not be eaten.   יטוְכֹל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶ֑ם לֹ֖א יֵֽאָכֵֽלוּ:
flying insects: שֶׁרֶץ. These are the lowly [creatures] that swarm on the ground: flies, hornets, and the unclean species of locusts. [All these] are called שֶׁרֶץ.   שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף: הֵם הַנְּמוּכִים, הָרוֹחֲשִׁים עַל הָאָרֶץ. זְבוּבִין וּצְרָעִים וַחֲגָבִים טְמֵאִים קְרוּיִים שֶׁרֶץ:
20You may eat any clean fowl.   ככָּל־ע֥וֹף טָה֖וֹר תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
You may eat every clean fowl: But not the unclean ones. Here [Scripture] comes to attach a positive commandment to the negative commandment. Similarly, in the case of [clean] animals, it says: “that you may eat” (verse 6), [but] not the unclean ones. A prohibition inferred from a positive commandment [is regarded as] a positive commandment, so that one [who eats such food] transgresses a positive and a negative commandment.   כָּל־עוֹף טָהוֹר תֹּאכֵֽלוּ: וְלֹא אֶת הַטָּמֵא, בָּא לִתֵּן עֲשֵׂה עַל לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה; וְכֵן בַּבְּהֵמָה "אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ", וְלֹא בְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, וְלָאו הַבָּא מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה עֲשֵׂה, לַעֲבֹר עֲלֵיהֶם בַּעֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה:
21You shall not eat any carcass. You may give it to the stranger who is in your cities, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a foreigner; for you are a holy people to the Lord, your God. You shall not cook a kid in its mother's milk.   כאלֹא־תֹֽאכְל֣וּ כָל־נְ֠בֵלָ֠ה לַגֵּ֨ר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶ֜יךָ תִּתְּנֶ֣נָּה וַֽאֲכָלָ֗הּ א֤וֹ מָכֹר֙ לְנָכְרִ֔י כִּ֣י עַ֤ם קָדוֹשׁ֙ אַתָּ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁ֥ל גְּדִ֖י בַּֽחֲלֵ֥ב אִמּֽוֹ:
You shall not eat any carcass. You may give it] to the stranger who is within your cities: [i.e.,] a resident alien (גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב), who has accepted upon himself not to worship idols, but he eats carcasses [animals not ritually slaughtered]. — [Sifrei]   לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ: גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְאוֹכֵל נְבֵלוֹת (ספרי):
for you are a holy people to the Lord: Sanctify yourself with that which is permitted to you; i.e., there are things which are technically permissible, but which some people treat as forbidden. In the presence of these people, do not treat those things as permissible. — [Sifrei]   כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לה': קַדֵּשׁ אֶת עַצְמְךָ בַּמֻּתָּר לְךָ – דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִים וַאֲחֵרִים נוֹהֲגִים בָּהֶם אִסּוּר, אַל תַּתִּירֵם בִּפְנֵיהֶם (שם):
You shall not cook a kid [in its mother’s milk]: [This is stated] three times [here, in Exod. 23:19, and in Exod. 34:26], to exclude wild animals, fowl, and unclean animals [from the prohibition of cooking meat in milk]. — [Chul. 113a]   לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי: שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִים, פְּרָט לְחַיָּה וּלְעוֹפוֹת וְלִבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה (חולין קי"ג):

Fifth Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 14

22You shall tithe all the seed crop that the field gives forth, year by year.   כבעַשֵּׂ֣ר תְּעַשֵּׂ֔ר אֵ֖ת כָּל־תְּבוּאַ֣ת זַרְעֶ֑ךָ הַיֹּצֵ֥א הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה שָׁנָ֥ה שָׁנָֽה:
You shall tithe [all the seed crop]: What has one matter to do with the other [i.e., the prohibition of cooking a kid, and tithing]? The Holy One, blessed is He, said to Israel: Do not cause Me to destroy the [developing] kernels (גְּדָיִים) of grain, while they are yet in their “mother’s womb” [i.e., in the husks], for if you do not tithe your produce properly, when it is near ripening I will bring forth an easterly wind, which will blast them, as it is said, “and blast before becoming standing grain” (II Kings 19:26) (Tanchuma). [And just as cooking the kid in its mother’s milk and the tithes are juxtaposed,] so is the topic of the first fruits (בִּכּוּרִים) [juxtaposed to cooking the kid in its mother’s milk (see Exod. 23:19, 34:26), to teach us that, if you do not bring your first fruits to the Temple as commanded, your fruit produce will wither].   לא תבשל גדי‎ … עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר: מָה עִנְיַן זֶה אֵצֶל זֶה? אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל: אַל תִּגְרְמוּ לִי לְבַשֵּׁל גְּדָיִים שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה עַד שֶׁהֵן בִּמְעֵי אִמּוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁאִם אֵין אַתֶּם מְעַשְּׂרִים מַעַשְׂרוֹת כָּרָאוּי כְּשֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל אֲנִי מוֹצִיא רוּחַ קָדִים וְהִיא מְשַׁדַּפְתָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב י"ט) "וּשְׁדֵפָה לִפְנֵי קָמָה", וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן בִּכּוּרִים (פסיק' ר'; תנחומא):
[You shall tithe…] year by year: From here, we derive [the ruling] that one may not give tithes from the new [crop] for the old [i.e., from this year’s crop for last year’s]. — [Sifrei]   שָׁנָה שָׁנָה: מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין מְעַשְּׂרִין מִן הֶחָדָשׁ עַל הַיָּשָׁן (ספרי):
23And you shall eat before the Lord, your God, in the place He chooses to establish His Name therein, the tithes of your grain, your wine, and your oil, and the firstborn of your cattle and of your sheep, so that you may learn to fear the Lord, your God, all the days.   כגוְאָֽכַלְתָּ֞ לִפְנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בַּמָּק֣וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר֘ לְשַׁכֵּ֣ן שְׁמ֣וֹ שָׁם֒ מַעְשַׂ֤ר דְּגָֽנְךָ֙ תִּֽירשְׁךָ֣ וְיִצְהָרֶ֔ךָ וּבְכֹרֹ֥ת בְּקָֽרְךָ֖ וְצֹאנֶ֑ךָ לְמַ֣עַן תִּלְמַ֗ד לְיִרְאָ֛ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
And you shall eat [before the Lord your God, in the place He chooses… the tithes of your grain…]: This refers to ma’aser sheini, “the second tithe,” for we have already learned to give ma’aser rishon, “the first tithe,” to the Levites, as it is said, “[Speak to the Levites…] when you take from the children of Israel [the tithe]… ” (Num. 18:26), and it gives them permission to eat it anywhere [not only in Jerusalem], as it is said, “and you may eat it in any place” (Num. 18:31). Thus you must conclude that this one [which may be eaten by its owners and must be eaten in Jerusalem,] is another tithe [namely, the second tithe].   וְאָֽכַלְתָּ וגו': זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. שֶׁכְּבָר לִמְּדָנוּ לִתֵּן מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן לַלְוִיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "כִּי תִקְחוּ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ'" (במדבר י"ח) וְנָתַן לָהֶם רְשׁוּת לְאָכְלוֹ בְּכָל מָקוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּכָל מָקוֹם" (שם י"ח), עַל כָּרְחֲךָ זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר אַחֵר הוּא:
24And if the way be too long for you, that you are unable to carry it, for the place which the Lord, your God, will choose to establish His Name therein, is too far from you, for the Lord, your God, will bless you   כדוְכִֽי־יִרְבֶּ֨ה מִמְּךָ֜ הַדֶּ֗רֶךְ כִּ֣י לֹ֣א תוּכַל֘ שְׂאֵתוֹ֒ כִּֽי־יִרְחַ֤ק מִמְּךָ֙ הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִבְחַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לָשׂ֥וּם שְׁמ֖וֹ שָׁ֑ם כִּ֥י יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
For [the Lord your God] will bless you: so that your produce will be too much to carry.   כִּי יְבָֽרֶכְךָ: שֶׁתְּהֵא הַתְּבוּאָה מְרֻבָּה לָשֵׂאת:
25Then you shall turn it into money, and bind up the money in your hand, and you shall go to the place the Lord, your God, will choose.   כהוְנָֽתַתָּ֖ה בַּכָּ֑סֶף וְצַרְתָּ֤ הַכֶּ֨סֶף֙ בְּיָ֣דְךָ֔ וְהָֽלַכְתָּ֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְחַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בּֽוֹ:
26And you shall turn that money into whatever your soul desires; cattle, sheep, new wine or old wine, or whatever your soul desires, and you shall eat there before the Lord, your God, and you shall rejoice, you and your household.   כווְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה הַכֶּ֡סֶף בְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּ֨ה נַפְשְׁךָ֜ בַּבָּקָ֣ר וּבַצֹּ֗אן וּבַיַּ֨יִן֙ וּבַשֵּׁכָ֔ר וּבְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּשְׁאָֽלְךָ֖ נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ וְאָכַ֣לְתָּ שָּׁ֗ם לִפְנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֖ אַתָּ֥ה וּבֵיתֶֽךָ:
[And you will turn that money] into whatever your soul desires: This is a כְּלָל, a general statement [not limited to anything in particular. Whereas the next expression,]   בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשְׁךָ: – כְּלָל:
cattle, or sheep, new wine or old wine: [represents a] פְּרָט, a “specification” [that is, it details particular things, limiting the matter to those things. After this, the verse continues,]   בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר: – פְּרָט:
or whatever your soul desires: [The verse] again reverts to a כְּלָל, a “general statement.” [Now we have learned that when a verse expresses a כְּלָל, a פְּרָט, and then a כְּלָל again, as in this case, we apply the characteristics of the פְּרָט to the whole matter. That is,] just as the items listed in the פְּרָט 1) are products of things themselves produced by the earth [e.g., wine comes from grapes], and 2) are fitting to be food for man, [so must the money replacing them be used to purchase such products]. — [Eruvin 27a]   וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁאָֽלְךָ נַפְשְׁךָ: – חָזַר וְכָלַל, מַה הַפְּרָט מְפֹרָשׁ וְלַד וַלְדוֹת הָאָרֶץ וְרָאוּי לְמַאֲכַל אָדָם וְכוּ' (עירובין כ"ז):
27And [as for] the Levite who is in your cities you shall not forsake him, for he has neither portion nor inheritance with you.   כזוְהַלֵּוִ֥י אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תַֽעַזְבֶ֑נּוּ כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין ל֛וֹ חֵ֥לֶק וְנַֽחֲלָ֖ה עִמָּֽךְ:
And [as for] the Levite… - you shall not forsake him: By not giving him the first tithe.   וְהַלֵּוִי לֹא תַֽעַזְבֶנּוּ: מִלִּתֵּן לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן:
for he has neither portion nor inheritance with you: This excludes gleanings (Lev. 19:9), forgotten sheaves (Deut. 24:19), the end of the field (Lev. 19:9), [all of which are left for the poor,] and ownerless things, for the Levite does have a portion in these things, just as you do, and [consequently,] they are not subject to tithing.   כִּי אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַֽחֲלָה עִמָּֽךְ: יָצְאוּ לֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וְהֶפְקֵר, שֶׁאַף הוּא יֵשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק עִמְּךָ בָּהֶן כָּמוֹךָ, וְאֵינָן חַיָּבִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂר:
28At the end of three years, you shall take out all the tithe of your crop in that year and place it in your cities.   כחמִקְצֵ֣ה | שָׁל֣שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים תּוֹצִיא֙ אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר֙ תְּבוּאָ֣תְךָ֔ בַּשָּׁנָ֖ה הַהִ֑וא וְהִנַּחְתָּ֖ בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
At the end of three years [you shall take out all the tithe of your crop in that year]: This comes to teach us that if one kept his tithes from the first and the second year of the shemitah [cycle], he has to remove them from his house in the third [year].   מִקְצֵה שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים: בָּא וְלִמֵּד שֶׁאִם הִשְׁהָה מַעַשְׂרוֹתָיו שֶׁל שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁנִיָּה לִשְׁמִטָּה, שֶׁיְּבַעֲרֵם מִן הַבַּיִת בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית:
29And the Levite because he has no portion or inheritance with you and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are in your cities, will come and eat and be satisfied; so that the Lord, your God, will bless you in all the work of your hand that you will do.   כטוּבָ֣א הַלֵּוִ֡י כִּ֣י אֵין־לוֹ֩ חֵ֨לֶק וְנַֽחֲלָ֜ה עִמָּ֗ךְ וְ֠הַגֵּ֠ר וְהַיָּת֤וֹם וְהָֽאַלְמָנָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ וְאָֽכְל֖וּ וְשָׂבֵ֑עוּ לְמַ֤עַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכָל־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָֽדְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
And the Levite… will come: And take the first tithe.   וּבָא הַלֵּוִי: וְיִטֹּל מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן:
and the stranger, and the orphan… [will come]: And take the second tithe, which this year [the third in the seven year cycle], belongs to the poor, and you [yourself] may not eat it in Jerusalem, in the manner you were required to eat the second tithe in the [first] two years [of this cycle].   וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם: וְיִטְּלוּ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל עָנִי שֶׁל שָׁנָה זוֹ, וְלֹא תֹאכְלֶנּוּ אַתָּה בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנִּזְקַקְתָּ לֶאֱכֹל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁל שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים:
will come and eat and be satisfied: Give them enough to satisfy them. From here [our Rabbis] said: One must not give the poor from the threshing floor less [than half a kav of wheat, or a kav of barley] (Sifrei). And you go up to Jerusalem with the [second] tithe of the first and the second years which you have delayed [to bring], and you shall confess: “I have removed the sanctified things from the house” (see Deut. 26:13), as is stated in [the section beginning with] “When you have finished tithing…” (Deut. 26:12).   וְאָֽכְלוּ וְשָׂבֵעוּ: תֵּן לָהֶם כְּדֵי שָׂבְעָן, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין לֶעָנִי בַּגֹּרֶן וְכוּ' (ספרי קי). וְאַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם בַּמַּעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁנִיָּה שֶׁהִשְׁהֵיתָ, וּמִתְוַדֶּה "בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן הַבַּיִת" כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּפֹרָשׁ בְּכִי תְכַלֶּה לַעְשֵׂר (דברים כ"ו):

Sixth Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 15

1At the end of seven years you will make a release.   אמִקֵּ֥ץ שֶֽׁבַע־שָׁנִ֖ים תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה שְׁמִטָּֽה:
At the end of seven years [you shall make a release]: One might think that this means seven years [starting from the transaction] of each loan. Scripture, therefore, states, “The seventh year [i.e., the year of release] has approached…” (verse 9). But if you say [that] “seven years” [means] for each loan, after each individual loan, how has it approached? [No loan was yet transacted.] Consequently, you learn [that Scripture means] seven years according to the counting of the Shemitha [cycle]. — [Sifrei]   מִקֵּץ שֶֽׁבַע־שָׁנִים: יָכוֹל שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים לְכָל מִלְוָה וּמִלְוָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "קָרְבָה שְׁנַת הַשֶּׁבַע", וְאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים לְכָל מִלְוָה וּמִלְוָה, לְהַלְוָאוֹת כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, הֵיאַךְ הִיא קְרֵבָה? הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים לְמִנְיַן הַשְּׁמִטָּה (ספרי):
2And this is the manner of the release; to release the hand of every creditor from what he lent his friend; he shall not exact from his friend or his brother, because time of the release for the Lord has arrived.   בוְזֶה֘ דְּבַ֣ר הַשְּׁמִטָּה֒ שָׁמ֗וֹט כָּל־בַּ֨עַל֙ מַשֵּׁ֣ה יָד֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַשֶּׁ֖ה בְּרֵעֵ֑הוּ לֹֽא־יִגֹּ֤שׂ אֶת־רֵעֵ֨הוּ֙ וְאֶת־אָחִ֔יו כִּֽי־קָרָ֥א שְׁמִטָּ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
to release the hand of every creditor: Heb. שָׁמוֹט כָּל-בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ, [lit. to release every master the loan of his hand, which makes no sense. Therefore, Rashi interprets the verse to mean] to release the hand of every creditor [from reclaiming the loan].   שָׁמוֹט כָּל־בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ: שָׁמוֹט אֶת יָדוֹ שֶׁל כָּל בַּעַל מַשֶּׁה:
3From the foreigner you may exact; but what is yours with your brother, your hand shall release.   גאֶת־הַנָּכְרִ֖י תִּגֹּ֑שׂ וַֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ אֶת־אָחִ֖יךָ תַּשְׁמֵ֥ט יָדֶֽךָ:
From the foreigner you may exact: This is a positive command (See Ramban.). - [Sifrei]   אֶת־הַנָּכְרִי תִּגֹּשׂ: זוֹ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה (שם):
4However, there will be no needy among you, for the Lord will surely bless you in the land the Lord, your God, is giving you for an inheritance to possess.   דאֶ֕פֶס כִּ֛י לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־בְּךָ֖ אֶבְי֑וֹן כִּֽי־בָרֵ֤ךְ יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵֽן־לְךָ֥ נַֽחֲלָ֖ה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ:
However, there will be no needy among you: But further on it says, “For there will never cease to be needy [within the land]” (verse 11). [These two verses seem to contradict each other. However, the explanation is:] When you perform the will of the Omnipresent, there will be needy among others but not among you. If, however, you do not perform the will of the Omnipresent, there will be needy among you. - [Sifrei]   אֶפֶס כִּי לֹא יִֽהְיֶה־בְּךָ אֶבְיוֹן: וּלְהַלָּן הוּא אוֹמֵר "כִּי לֹא יֶחְדַּל אֶבְיוֹן"? אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁאַתֶּם עוֹשִׂים רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם אֶבְיוֹנִים בַּאֲחֵרִים וְלֹא בָכֶם, וּכְשֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם עוֹשִׂים רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם אֶבְיוֹנִים בָּכֶם:
needy: Heb. אֶבְיוֹן, [denoting someone who is] poorer than an ע ָנִי. The term אֶבְיוֹן means“to yearn for” (תָּאֵב) , i.e., one who yearns for everything [because he has nothing]. — [Vayikra Rabbah 34:6, see B.M. 111b]   אֶבְיוֹן: דַּל מֵעָנִי, וּלְשׁוֹן אֶבְיוֹן שֶׁהוּא תָּאֵב לְכָל דָּבָר (עי' ויקרא רבה ל"ד):
5However, if you hearken to the voice of the Lord, your God, to be careful to do all this commandment, which I am commanding you today.   הרַ֚ק אִם־שָׁמ֣וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַ֔ע בְּק֖וֹל יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לִשְׁמֹ֤ר לַֽעֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֛ר אָֽנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ הַיּֽוֹם:
However, if you hearken [to the voice of the Lord, your God]: then “there will be no needy among you” (verse 4).   רַק אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע: אָז לא יהיה בך אביון:
you hearken: Heb. שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע. [The repetition of the verb form suggests:] If one listens a little, he will be granted the opportunity to listen much [i.e., he will be taught much Torah as a reward]. — [Sifrei]   שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע: שָׁמַע קִמְעָא מַשְׁמִיעִין אוֹתוֹ הַרְבֵּה (ספרי):
6For the Lord, your God, has blessed you, as He spoke to you, and you will lend to many nations, but you will not borrow; and you will rule over many nations, but they will not rule over you.   וכִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ בֵּֽרַכְךָ֔ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּר־לָ֑ךְ וְהַֽעֲבַטְתָּ֞ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֗ים וְאַתָּה֙ לֹ֣א תַֽעֲבֹ֔ט וּמָֽשַׁלְתָּ֙ בְּגוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים וּבְךָ֖ לֹ֥א יִמְשֹֽׁלוּ:
[For the Lord, your God, has blessed you,] as He has spoken to you: And where did He speak about this? “Blessed are you in the city…” (Deut. 28:3). - [Sifrei]   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לָךְ: וְהֵיכָן דִּבֵּר? (דברים כ"ח) בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה בָּעִיר (ספרי):
and you will lend: Heb. וְהַעֲבַטְתָּ. Whenever an expression denoting lending refers to a lender [of money], it adopts the hiph’il [causative] form. For example, וְהִלְוִיתָ, or וְהַעֲבַטְתָּ, you will lend. However, if it would have said וְעָבַטְתָּ, [in the kal, simple conjugation,] it would be referring to the borrower, like וְלָוִיתָ, you will borrow.   וְהַֽעֲבַטְתָּ: כָּל לְשׁוֹן הַלְוָאָה כְּשֶׁנּוֹפֵל עַל הַמַּלְוֶה נוֹפֵל בִּלְשׁוֹן מַפְעִיל, כְּגוֹן וְהִלְוִיתָ, וְהַעֲבַטְתָּ. וְאִם הָיָה אוֹמֵר וְעָבַטְתָּ הָיָה נוֹפֵל עַל הַלֹּוֶה, כְּמוֹ וְלָוִיתָ:
and you will lend to [many] nations: One might think that you will borrow from this one and lend that one. Therefore, Scripture states, “but you will not borrow.”   וְהַֽעֲבַטְתָּ גּוֹיִם: יָכוֹל שֶׁתְּהֵא לֹוֶה מִזֶּה וּמַלְוֶה לָזֶה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וְאַתָּה לֹא תַעֲבֹט":
and you will rule over many nations: One might think that [at the same time] other nations will rule over you. Therefore, Scripture states, “but they will not rule over you.” - [Sifrei]   וּמָֽשַׁלְתָּ בְּגוֹיִם רַבִּים: יָכוֹל גוֹיִם אֲחֵרִים מוֹשְׁלִים עָלֶיךָ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וּבְךָ לֹא יִמְשֹׁלוּ" (שם):
7If there will be among you a needy person, from one of your brothers in one of your cities, in your land the Lord, your God, is giving you, you shall not harden your heart, and you shall not close your hand from your needy brother.   זכִּי־יִֽהְיֶה֩ בְךָ֨ אֶבְי֜וֹן מֵֽאַחַ֤ד אַחֶ֨יךָ֙ בְּאַחַ֣ד שְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ בְּאַ֨רְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֣ן לָ֑ךְ לֹ֧א תְאַמֵּ֣ץ אֶת־לְבָֽבְךָ֗ וְלֹ֤א תִקְפֹּץ֙ אֶת־יָ֣דְךָ֔ מֵֽאָחִ֖יךָ הָֽאֶבְיֽוֹן:
If there will be among you a needy person: The most needy person has priority. - [Sifrei]   כִּי־יִֽהְיֶה בְךָ אֶבְיוֹן: הַתָּאֵב תָּאֵב קוֹדֵם:
from one of your brothers: Your brother on your father’s side has priority over your brother on your mother’s side. — [Sifrei]   מֵֽאַחַד אַחֶיךָ: אָחִיךָ מֵאָבִיךָ קוֹדֵם לְאָחִיךָ מֵאִמְּךָ:
[in one of] your cities: The poor of your city have priority over the poor of another city. - [Sifrei]   שְׁעָרֶיךָ: עֲנִיֵּי עִירְךָ קוֹדְמִים לַעֲנִיֵּי עִיר אַחֶרֶת:
you shall not harden [your heart]: Some people suffer [as they deliberate] whether they should give [to the needy] or they should not give; therefore it says: “you shall not harden [your heart].” Some people stretch out their hand [to give], but then close it; therefore it says: “nor close your hand.” - [Sifrei]   לֹא תְאַמֵּץ: יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁמִּצְטַעֵר אִם יִתֵּן אִם לֹא יִתֵּן, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר "לֹא תְאַמֵּץ". יֵשׁ לְךָ שֶׁפּוֹשֵׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְקוֹפְצָהּ, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר "לֹא תִקְפֹּץ" (שם):
[nor close your hand] from your needy brother: If you do not give him, you will ultimately become a “brother of the needy” [i.e., becoming needy yourself]. — [Sifrei]   מֵֽאָחִיךָ הָֽאֶבְיֽוֹן: אִם לֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ, סוֹפְךָ לִהְיוֹת אָחִיו שֶׁל אֶבְיוֹן (שם):
8Rather, you shall open your hand to him, and you shall lend him sufficient for his needs, which he is lacking.   חכִּֽי־פָתֹ֧חַ תִּפְתַּ֛ח אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֖ ל֑וֹ וְהַֽעֲבֵט֙ תַּֽעֲבִיטֶ֔נּוּ דֵּ֚י מַחְסֹר֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֶחְסַ֖ר לֽוֹ:
[Rather] you shall open [your hand]: Even many times.   פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח: אֲפִלּוּ כַמָּה פְעָמִים (שם):
[Rather] you shall open [your hand]: Heb. כִּי-פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח. Here, the word כִּי has the meaning of “rather” [whereas in verse 7 it means “if,” and in verse 10, “because”].   כִּֽי־פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח: הֲרֵי כִי מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן אֶלָּא:
and you shall lend: If he does not want [your money] as a [charitable] gift, give it to him as a loan. — [Sifrei ; Keth. 67b]   וְהַֽעֲבֵט תַּֽעֲבִיטֶנּוּ: אִם לֹא רָצָה בְמַתָּנָה תֵּן לוֹ בְּהַלְוָאָה (עי' שם; כתובות ס"ז):
[lend him] sufficient for his needs: However, you are not commanded to make him wealthy. — [Sifrei]   דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ: וְאִי אַתָּה מְצֻוֶּה לְהַעֲשִׁירוֹ:
[sufficient for his needs,] what he is lacking: Even a horse to ride on and a servant to run before him [if he is accustomed to this type of lifestyle]. - [Sifrei; Keth. 67b]   אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ: אֲפִלּוּ סוּס לִרְכֹּב עָלָיו וְעֶבֶד לָרוּץ לְפָנָיו (שם):
he [is lacking]: Heb. יֶחְסַר לוֹ, lit. what is lacking for him. This refers to a wife [i.e., you should help him marry a wife]. Similarly, it is stated: “I shall make for him (לוֹ) a helpmate opposite him” (Gen. 2:18). - [Keth. 66b]   לוֹ: זוֹ אִשָּׁה וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (בראשית ב') אֶעֱשֶׂה לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ (ספרי):
9Beware, lest there be in your heart an unfaithful thought, saying, "The seventh year, the year of release has approached," and you will begrudge your needy brother and not give him, and he will cry out to the Lord against you, and it will be a sin to you.   טהִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֡ פֶּן־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה דָבָר֩ עִם־לְבָבְךָ֨ בְלִיַּ֜עַל לֵאמֹ֗ר קָֽרְבָ֣ה שְׁנַת־הַשֶּׁ֘בַע֘ שְׁנַ֣ת הַשְּׁמִטָּה֒ וְרָעָ֣ה עֵֽינְךָ֗ בְּאָחִ֨יךָ֙ הָֽאֶבְי֔וֹן וְלֹ֥א תִתֵּ֖ן ל֑וֹ וְקָרָ֤א עָלֶ֨יךָ֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא:
and he will cry out [to the Lord] against you: One might think this is a requirement [namely, that this poor man is obliged to “cry out… against you”]. Therefore, Scripture says, “[On his day you shall give him his payment…] so that he will not cry against you [to the Lord]” (Deut. 24:15). - [Sifrei 15:138]   וְקָרָא עָלֶיךָ: יָכוֹל מִצְוָה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר וְלֹא יִקְרָא:
and it will be a sin to you: in any case, even if he does not cry [against you]. If so, why does it say, “and he will cry out… against you?” [It means that God says:] I hasten to punish in response to the one who cries out more than to the one who does not cry out. — [Sifrei]   וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵֽטְא: מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא יִקְרָא. אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר "וְקָרָא עָלֶיךָ"? מְמַהֵר אֲנִי לִפָּרַע עַל יְדֵי הַקּוֹרֵא יוֹתֵר מִמִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא (שם):
10You shall surely give him, and your heart shall not be grieved when you give to him; for because of this thing the Lord, your God, will bless you in all your work and in all your endeavors.   ינָת֤וֹן תִּתֵּן֙ ל֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־יֵרַ֥ע לְבָֽבְךָ֖ בְּתִתְּךָ֣ ל֑וֹ כִּ֞י בִּגְלַ֣ל | הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכָל־מַֽעֲשֶׂ֔ךָ וּבְכֹ֖ל מִשְׁלַ֥ח יָדֶֽךָ:
You shall surely give him: Even a hundred times. — [Sifrei]   נָתוֹן תִּתֵּן לוֹ: אֲפִלּוּ מֵאָה פְעָמִים:
him: [meaning] between him and you [i.e., privately]. - [Sifrei]   לוֹ: בֵּינוֹ וּבֵינְךָ:
for because of this thing: Heb. דָּבָר, lit. word. Even if you said [i.e., gave him your “word”] that you would give, you will receive a reward for the saying along with the reward for the deed. — [Sifrei]   כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר: אֲפִלּוּ אָמַרְתָּ לִתֵּן, אַתָּה נוֹטֵל שְׂכַר הָאֲמִירָה עִם שְׂכַר הַמַּעֲשֶׂה (שם):
11For there will never cease to be needy within the land. Therefore, I command you, saying, you shall surely open your hand to your brother, to your poor one, and to your needy one in your land.   יאכִּ֛י לֹֽא־יֶחְדַּ֥ל אֶבְי֖וֹן מִקֶּ֣רֶב הָאָ֑רֶץ עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָֽנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר פָּ֠תֹ֠חַ תִּפְתַּ֨ח אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֜ לְאָחִ֧יךָ לַּֽעֲנִיֶּ֛ךָ וּלְאֶבְיֹֽנְךָ֖ בְּאַרְצֶֽךָ:
Therefore: Heb. עַל-כֵּן, here meaning מִפְּנֵי כֵן, [i.e.,] “because of this,” or “therefore.”   עַל־כֵּן: מִפְּנֵי כֵן:
saying: I offer you advice for your own good. — [Sifrei]   לֵאמֹר: עֵצָה לְטוֹבָתְךָ אֲנִי מַשִּׂיאֲךָ:
[You shall surely open your hand] to your brother, to your poor one: To which brother? To your poor one.   לְאָחִיךָ לַּֽעֲנִיֶּךָ: לְאֵיזֶה אָח? לֶעָנִי:
to your poor one: Heb. לַעֲנִיֶּךָ, [spelled] with one “yud,” [singular form,] means one poor person, but עֲנִיֶּיךָ‏ with two “yud”s [the second “yud” denoting the plural form,] means two poor people. [Here, since it is written with one “yud,” meaning one poor person, thus modifying אָחִיךָ‏, your brother, which is in the singular]. See Yosef Hallel, Leket Bahir, Chavel.   לַּֽעֲנִיֶּךָ: בְּיוֹ"ד אֶחָד — לְשׁוֹן עָנִי אֶחָד הוּא, אֲבָל עֲנִיֶּיךָ בִשְׁנֵי יוֹדִי"ן — שְׁנֵי עֲנִיִּים:
12If your brother, a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman, is sold to you, he shall serve you for six years, and in the seventh year you shall send him forth free from you.   יבכִּֽי־יִמָּכֵ֨ר לְךָ֜ אָחִ֣יךָ הָֽעִבְרִ֗י א֚וֹ הָֽעִבְרִיָּ֔ה וַֽעֲבָֽדְךָ֖ שֵׁ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֑ים וּבַשָּׁנָה֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔ת תְּשַׁלְּחֶ֥נּוּ חָפְשִׁ֖י מֵֽעִמָּֽךְ:
If [your brother…] is sold to you: By others [but not one who sells himself because of poverty]. Scripture is speaking here of one whom the court sold [for a theft that he had committed]. But has it not already been stated, “If you buy a Hebrew servant” (Exod. 21:2) and there, too, Scripture is referring to one whom the court sold (Mechilta)? Nevertheless, [it is repeated here] because of two points which are new here: The first is that it is written [here] “or a Hebrew woman,” that she, too, [like a manservant,] goes free at the end of six [years]. This does not mean a woman whom the court has sold, for a woman is not sold [by the court] on account of a theft, since it is stated [that the thief will be sold] “for his theft” (Exod. 22:2), not for her theft. Thus, [we are referring here to] a minor whom her father sold [as a handmaid], and it teaches you here that if six years terminate before she shows signs [of puberty], she goes free (Exod. 21:7-11). The second new point here is: “You shall surely provide him.”   כִּֽי־יִמָּכֵר לְךָ: עַל יְדֵי אֲחֵרִים, בִּמְכָרוּהוּ בֵּית דִּין בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר; וַהֲרֵי כְבָר נֶאֱמַר "כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי" וּבִמְכָרוּהוּ בֵית דִּין הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר? אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים שֶׁנִּתְחַדְּשׁוּ כָּאן, אֶחָד שֶׁכָּתוּב או העבריה אַף הִיא תֵצֵא בְּשֵׁשׁ. וְלֹא שֶׁמְּכָרוּהָ בֵית דִּין, שֶׁאֵין הָאִשָּׁה נִמְכֶּרֶת בִּגְנֵבָתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "בִּגְנֵבָתוֹ" וְלֹא "בִגְנֵבָתָהּ" – אֶלָּא בִקְטַנָּה שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ אָבִיהָ, וְלִמֵּד כָּאן שֶׁאִם יָצְאוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים קֹדֶם שֶׁתָּבִיא סִימָנִין תֵּצֵא, וְעוֹד חִדֵּשׁ כָּאן העניק תעניק:
13And when you send him forth free from you, you shall not send him forth empty-handed.   יגוְכִֽי־תְשַׁלְּחֶ֥נּוּ חָפְשִׁ֖י מֵֽעִמָּ֑ךְ לֹ֥א תְשַׁלְּחֶ֖נּוּ רֵיקָֽם:
14You shall surely provide him from your flock, from your threshing floor, and from your vat, you shall give him from what the Lord, your God, has blessed you   ידהַֽעֲנֵ֤יק תַּֽעֲנִיק֙ ל֔וֹ מִצֹּ֣אנְךָ֔ וּמִגָּרְנְךָ֖ וּמִיִּקְבֶ֑ךָ אֲשֶׁ֧ר בֵּֽרַכְךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ תִּתֶּן־לֽוֹ:
You shall surely provide him: Heb. הַעֲנֵיק תַּעֲנִיק. [The root ענק] denotes an ornament worn high [on the upper portion of the body] within view of the eye. [Thus, this verse means that you should give him] something through which it will be recognized that you have benefited him. Others explain [the word הַעֲנֵיק] as an expression of loading on his neck [meaning that you should load him with gifts].   הַֽעֲנֵיק תַּֽעֲנִיק: לְשׁוֹן עֲדִי בַּגֹּבַהּ וּבְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן, דָּבָר שֶׁיְּהֵא נִכָּר שֶׁהֱטִיבוֹתָ לוֹ; וְיֵשׁ מְפָרְשִׁים לְשׁוֹן הַטְעָנָה עַל צַוָּארוֹ:
[You shall surely provide him] from your flock, from your threshing floor, and from your vat: One might think that I must [give him] only these things [listed in the verse here]. Therefore, Scripture states, “from what the Lord, your God, has blessed you,” meaning, from everything with which your Creator has blessed you. Then why are these mentioned? Just as these particular things are within the realm of blessing, so too, you should provide him only with what falls within the realm of blessing. This [therefore] excludes mules, [which are sterile, and are thus not considered within the realm of blessing] (Kid. 17a). In tractate Kiddushin (17a) our Rabbis derived by means of a gezerah shavah how much one must give the servant of each kind.   מִצֹּאנְךָ וּמִגָּרְנְךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ: יָכוֹל אֵין לִי אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ בִּלְבַד, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר אשר ברכך – מִכָּל מַה שֶּׁבֵּרַכְךָ בּוֹרַאֲךָ. וְלָמָּה נֶאֶמְרוּ אֵלּוּ? מָה אֵלּוּ מְיֻחָדִים שֶׁהֵם בִּכְלַל בְּרָכָה אַף כָּל שֶׁהוּא בִּכְלַל בְּרָכָה, יָצְאוּ פְּרָדוֹת; וְלָמְדוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בְמַסֶּכֶת קִדּוּשִׁין (דף י"ז) בִּגְזֵרָה שָׁוָה כַּמָּה נוֹתֵן לוֹ מִכָּל מִין וָמִין:
15And you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord, your God, redeemed you; therefore, I am commanding you this thing today.   טווְזָֽכַרְתָּ֗ כִּ֣י עֶ֤בֶד הָיִ֨יתָ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיִּפְדְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָֽנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה הַיּֽוֹם:
And you shall remember that you were a slave [in the land of Egypt]: And I loaded you up [with booty], and then did so a second time, from the spoil of Egypt and from the spoil at the Sea [of Reeds]; so too should you load him up, and then do so a second time. — [Sifrei]   וְזָֽכַרְתָּ כִּי עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ: וְהֶעֱנַקְתִּי וְשָׁנִיתִי לְךָ מִבִּזַּת מִצְרַיִם וּבִזַּת הַיָּם, אַף אַתָּה הַעֲנֵק וּשְׁנֵה לוֹ (ספרי):
16And it will be, if he says to you, "I will not leave you," because he loves you and your household, for it is good for him with you,   טזוְהָיָה֙ כִּֽי־יֹאמַ֣ר אֵלֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א אֵצֵ֖א מֵֽעִמָּ֑ךְ כִּ֤י אֲהֵֽבְךָ֙ וְאֶת־בֵּיתֶ֔ךָ כִּי־ט֥וֹב ל֖וֹ עִמָּֽךְ:
17Then you shall take an awl and put it through his ear and into the door, and he shall be a servant to you forever; and also to your maidservant you shall do likewise.   יזוְלָֽקַחְתָּ֣ אֶת־הַמַּרְצֵ֗עַ וְנָֽתַתָּ֤ה בְאָזְנוֹ֙ וּבַדֶּ֔לֶת וְהָיָ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֶ֣בֶד עוֹלָ֑ם וְאַ֥ף לַֽאֲמָֽתְךָ֖ תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־כֵּֽן:
[And he shall be] a servant [to you] forever: Heb. לְעוֹלָם. One might think that [לְעוֹלָם, “forever”] is to be interpreted literally. Therefore, Scripture states: “[And you shall sanctify the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It will be a Jubilee for you;] and you shall return, every man to his property, and you shall return, every man to his family” (Lev. 25:10). Consequently, you learn that the term לְעוֹלָם here can mean only the period until the Jubilee. [This period is also called לְעוֹלָם.]- [Mechilta 21:6]   עֶבֶד עוֹלָם: יָכוֹל כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר "וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶל מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ תָּשֻׁבוּ" (ויקרא כ"ה), הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁאֵין זֶה אֶלָּא עוֹלָמוֹ שֶׁל יוֹבֵל (מכילתא שמות כ"א):
and also to your maidservant you will do likewise: to provide her. One might think that Scripture includes her concerning the piercing [of the ear] as well. Therefore, it states, “And if the manservant (הָעֶבֶד) will clearly say, [I love my master…then…his master shall bore his ear with an awl]” (Exod. 21:5-6); [i.e.,] a manservant (עֶבֶד) must have his ear pierced, but not a maidservant. — [Sifrei]   וְאַף לַֽאֲמָֽתְךָ תַּֽעֲשֶׂה־כֵּֽן: הַעֲנֵק לָהּ; יָכוֹל אַף לִרְצִיעָה הִשְׁוָה הַכָּתוּב אוֹתָהּ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמָר (שמות כ"א) "וְאִם אָמֹר יֹאמַר הָעֶבֶד" – עֶבֶד נִרְצָע וְאֵין אָמָה נִרְצַעַת (ספרי):
18You shall not be troubled when you send him free from you, for twice as much as a hired servant, he has served you six years, and the Lord, your God, will bless you in all that you shall do.   יחלֹֽא־יִקְשֶׁ֣ה בְעֵינֶ֗ךָ בְּשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ֙ אֹת֤וֹ חָפְשִׁי֙ מֵֽעִמָּ֔ךְ כִּ֗י מִשְׁנֶה֙ שְׂכַ֣ר שָׂכִ֔יר עֲבָֽדְךָ֖ שֵׁ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֑ים וּבֵֽרַכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
for twice as much as a hired servant: From here our Rabbis said: A Hebrew slave serves both by day and by night, and that is double the amount of labor of a man hired only for day work. And what is his service during the night? That his master gives him a Canaanite maidservant [as a wife], and the [resultant] children [belong] to the master. — [Sifrei , Kid. 15a]   כִּי מִשְׁנֶה שְׂכַר שָׂכִיר: מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ עֶבֶד עִבְרִי עוֹבֵד בֵּין בַּיּוֹם וּבֵין בַּלַּיְלָה, וְזֶהוּ כִפְלַיִם שֶׁבַּעֲבוֹדַת שְׂכִירֵי יוֹם. וּמַהוּ עֲבוֹדָתוֹ בַלַּיְלָה? רַבּוֹ מוֹסֵר לוֹ שִׁפְחָה כְנַעֲנִית וְהַוְּלָדוֹת לָאָדוֹן (ספרי):

Seventh Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 15

19Every firstborn male that is born of your cattle or of your flock you shall sanctify to the Lord, your God. You shall neither work with the firstborn of your ox, nor shear the firstborn of your flock.   יטכָּל־הַבְּכ֡וֹר אֲשֶׁר֩ יִוָּלֵ֨ד בִּבְקָֽרְךָ֤ וּבְצֹֽאנְךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר תַּקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹ֤א תַֽעֲבֹד֙ בִּבְכֹ֣ר שׁוֹרֶ֔ךָ וְלֹ֥א תָגֹ֖ז בְּכ֥וֹר צֹאנֶֽךָ:
Every firstborn male… you shall sanctify [to the Lord]: But elsewhere (Lev. 27:26) it says, “[But the firstborn which will be a firstborn for the Lord of the livestock,] no man shall sanctify it.” How is this [reconciled]? [The verse in Leviticus means that] one may not sanctify [the firstborn] to be another sacrifice [but only as a firstborn sacrifice]. And our verse here teaches us that it is a duty to proclaim [over the firstborn animal], “You are hereby sanctified as a firstborn.” Another explanation: It is impossible to say “sanctify [this firstborn animal],” because [Scripture] already says, “no man shall sanctify it” (Lev. 27:26). And yet it is impossible to say that we shall not sanctify it, for [here] it already says, “you shall sanctify.” So how [can these two verses be reconciled]? [The answer is that we are dealing with an indirect sanctification, namely:] One may sanctify the value of the privilege [i.e., the owner of the firstborn animal has the privilege of choosing to which kohen he will give it. This privilege has a market value, namely how much an Israelite will pay so that the owner of the firstborn will give it to his grandson who is a kohen . The verse, therefore, means:] one may dedicate the value of this privilege according to its benefit and give it to the Temple [treasury]. — [Ar . 29a]   כָּל־הַבְּכוֹר תַּקְדִּישׁ: וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר (ויקרא כ"ז) הוּא אוֹמֵר "לֹא יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ אֹתוֹ", הָא כֵיצַד? אֵינוֹ מַקְדִּישׁוֹ לְקָרְבָּן אַחֵר; וְכָאן לִמֵּד שֶׁמִּצְוָה לוֹמַר הֲרֵי אַתָּה קָדוֹשׁ לִבְכוֹרָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר — אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר "תַּקְדִּישׁ", שֶׁכְּבָר נֶאֱמַר "לֹא יַקְדִּישׁ", וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר "לֹא יַקְדִּישׁ", שֶׁהֲרֵי כְבָר נֶאֱמַר "תַּקְדִּישׁ", הָא כֵיצַד? מַקְדִּישׁוֹ אַתָּה הֶקְדֵּשׁ עִלּוּי וְנוֹתֵן לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ כְּפִי טוֹבַת הֲנָאָה שֶׁבּוֹ (ערכין כ"ט):
You shall neither work with the firstborn of your ox, nor shear [the firstborn of your flock]: The Rabbis derived that also the converse [i.e., shearing your ox and working the flock] is prohibited. Scripture is merely speaking [here] of the usual manner [in which these animals are used]. — [Bech. 25a]   לֹא תַֽעֲבֹד בבכור שׁוֹרֶךָ וְלֹא תָגֹז וגו': אַף הַחִלּוּף לָמְדוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁאָסוּר, אֶלָּא שֶׁדִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב בַּהוֹוֶה (בכורות כ"ה):
20You shall eat it before the Lord, your God, year by year, in the place the Lord chooses-you and your household.   כלִפְנֵי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֤יךָ תֹֽאכְלֶ֨נּוּ֙ שָׁנָ֣ה בְשָׁנָ֔ה בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה אַתָּ֖ה וּבֵיתֶֽךָ:
You shall eat it before the Lord, your God: [Scripture] is addressing the kohen, for we have already found [a statement to the effect] that it [the firstborn] is part of the dues given to kohanim, whether the animal is unblemished or whether it is blemished. For it is stated, “and their flesh [i.e., of the firstborn animals] shall be yours [i.e., the kohen 's]” (Num. 18:18). - [Bech. 28a] [In both cases, the kohen is entitled to eat the entire animal. The difference between the blemished and the unblemished animals is that the blemished animal is slaughtered outside the Temple, and its flesh may be eaten anywhere by anyone invited by the kohen. The unblemished animal, however, must be slaughtered in the Temple courtyard, its blood dashed on the altar, and its fat burned on the altar. The flesh must be eaten by the kohen and his household within the time allotted for eating it.]   לִפְנֵי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ תֹֽאכְלֶנּוּ: לַכֹּהֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר, שֶׁכְּבָר מָצִינוּ שֶׁהוּא מִמַּתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה אֶחָד תָּם וְאֶחָד בַּעַל מוּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר י"ח) וּבְשָׂרָם יִהְיֶה לָּךְ וְגוֹ' (בכ' כ"ח):
[You shall eat it before the Lord…] year by year: From here we derive the law that one should not delay it [i.e., from sacrificing it] beyond its first year (Bech. 28a). [If so, however,] one might think that it becomes unfit [as a sacrifice] when the first year has elapsed. [Therefore, the Torah tells us that] it [the firstborn animal] has already been compared to ma’aser [sheini], as it is said, “And you shall eat before the Lord, your God… the tithes of your grain, your wine, and your oil, and the firstborn of your cattle and of your sheep” (Deut. 14:23). Just as ma’aser sheini does not become unfit [when it is left over] from one year to the next, neither does the firstborn animal become unfit. However, [this verse means] that the proper way to fulfill this commandment [of the firstborn animal] is during its first year.   שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה: מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין מַשְׁהִין אוֹתוֹ יוֹתֵר עַל שְׁנָתוֹ; יָכוֹל יְהֵא פָּסוּל מִשֶּׁעָבְרָה שְׁנָתוֹ, כְּבָר הֻקַּשׁ לְמַעֲשֵׂר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י"ד) וְאָכַלְתָּ לִפְנֵי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וּבְכֹרֹת בְּקָרְךָ וְצֹאנֶךָ, מַה מַּעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אֵינוֹ נִפְסָל מִשָּׁנָה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ אַף בְּכוֹר אֵינוֹ נִפְסָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁמִּצְוָה תּוֹךְ שְׁנָתוֹ (בכ' כ"ז):
year by year: If one slaughtered it at the end of its first year [on the last day], he may eat it on that day and one day of the next year. This teaches [us] that it [a firstborn animal] may be eaten for two days and one [intervening] night. — [Bech. 27b]   שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה: אִם שְׁחָטוֹ בְּסוֹף שְׁנָתוֹ אוֹכְלוֹ אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם וְיוֹם אֶחָד מִשָּׁנָה אַחֶרֶת, לִמֵּד שֶׁנֶּאֱכָל לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים וְלַיְלָה אֶחָד (שם):
21And if there be any blemish in it, whether it be lame, or blind, or any ill blemish, you shall not sacrifice it to the Lord, your God.   כאוְכִי־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה ב֜וֹ מ֗וּם פִּסֵּ֨חַ֙ א֣וֹ עִוֵּ֔ר כֹּ֖ל מ֣וּם רָ֑ע לֹ֣א תִזְבָּחֶ֔נּוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
[And if there be any] blemish [in it]: [This is] a כְּלָל, a general statement [not limiting itself to anything in particular].   מוּם: כְּלָל:
lame, or blind: [This is] a פְּרָט, particular things, [limiting the matter to these things].   פִּסֵּחַ אוֹ עִוֵּר: פְּרָט:
any ill blemish: [Once again the verse] reverts to כְּלָל, a general statement. [Now we have learned that when a verse expresses a כְּלָל, then a פְּרָט, and then a כְּלָל again, just as in this case, we apply the characteristics of the פְּרָט to the whole matter.] Just as the blemishes detailed [lame or blind] are externally visible blemishes that do not heal, so too, any externally visible blemish that does not heal [renders a firstborn animal unfit for sacrifice and may be eaten as ordinary flesh]. — [Bech. 37a]   כֹּל מוּם רָע: חָזַר וְכָלַל — מַה הַפְּרָט מְפֹרָשׁ מוּם הַגָּלוּי וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר, אַף כָּל מוּם שֶׁבַּגָּלוּי וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר (שם ל"ז):
22You shall eat it within your cities, the unclean and the clean together, as the deer, and as the gazelle.   כבבִּשְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ תֹּֽאכְלֶ֑נּוּ הַטָּמֵ֤א וְהַטָּהוֹר֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו כַּצְּבִ֖י וְכָֽאַיָּֽל:
23However, you shall not eat its blood; you shall pour it on the ground, as water.   כגרַ֥ק אֶת־דָּמ֖וֹ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑ל עַל־הָאָ֥רֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶ֖נּוּ כַּמָּֽיִם:
However, you shall not eat its blood: [Although eating the blood of any animal is prohibited, this prohibition is mentioned here] so that you should not say: “Since this [blemished firstborn animal] is entirely permitted [to be eaten now after its blemish, even though] it started out from a forbidden status, since it was sanctified, [and now it is permitted] for it is slaughtered outside [the Temple] without having to be redeemed, and [it may be] eaten. I might [therefore] think that its blood is permitted as well!” Therefore, Scripture states, “However, you shall not eat its blood.”   רַק אֶת־דָּמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵל: שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְכֻלּוֹ הֶתֵּר הַבָּא מִכְּלַל אִסּוּר הוּא, שֶׁהֲרֵי קָדוֹשׁ וְנִשְׁחָט בַּחוּץ בְּלֹא פִדְיוֹן וְנֶאֱכָל, יָכוֹל יְהֵא אַף הַדָּם מֻתָּר, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר רק את דמו לא תאכל:

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 16

1Keep the month of spring, and make the Passover offering to the Lord, your God, for in the month of spring, the Lord, your God, brought you out of Egypt at night.   אשָׁמוֹר֙ אֶת־חֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֔יב וְעָשִׂ֣יתָ פֶּ֔סַח לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ כִּ֞י בְּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֗יב הוֹצִ֨יאֲךָ֜ יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם לָֽיְלָה:
Keep the month of spring: Heb. אָבִיב. Before it [Nissan] arrives, watch that it should be fit for the אָבִיב, ripening [capable of producing ripe ears of barley by the sixteenth of the month], to offer up in it the omer meal offering. And if not, proclaim it a leap year [thereby enabling you to wait another month, until the barley ripens]. — [San. 11b]   שָׁמוֹר אֶת־חֹדֶשׁ הָֽאָבִיב: מִקֹּדֶם בּוֹאוֹ שְׁמֹר שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לְאָבִיב – לְהַקְרִיב בּוֹ אֶת מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר, וְאִם לָאו עַבֵּר אֶת הַשָּׁנָה (עי' סנהדרין י"א):
[for in the month of spring the Lord, your God, brought you] out of Egypt at night: But did they not go out by day, as it is said, “on the morrow of the Passover the children of Israel went out…” (Num. 33:3)? However, since during the night Pharaoh gave them permission to leave, as it is said, “So he called for Moses and Aaron at night [and said, ‘Rise up, go out from among my people…]’ ” (Exod. 12:31), [therefore, here it says “at night”]. — [Ber. 9a]   מִמִּצְרַיִם לָֽיְלָה: וַהֲלֹא בַּיּוֹם יָצְאוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ל"ג) מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח יָצְאוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ'? אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה נָתַן לָהֶם פַּרְעֹה רְשׁוּת לָצֵאת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות י"ב) וַיִּקְרָא לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְאַהֲרֹן לַיְלָה וְגוֹ' (בראשית ט'):
2You shall slaughter the Passover sacrifice to the Lord, your God, [of the] flock, and [the Festival sacrifices of the] cattle, in the place which the Lord will choose to establish His Name therein.   בוְזָבַ֥חְתָּ פֶּ֛סַח לַֽיהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ צֹ֣אן וּבָקָ֑ר בַּמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה לְשַׁכֵּ֥ן שְׁמ֖וֹ שָֽׁם:
You shall slaughter the Passover sacrifice to the Lord, your God, [of the] flock: As it is said, “You may take [it] either from the sheep or from the goats” (Exod. 12:5).   וְזָבַחְתָּ פֶּסַח לה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ צֹאן: שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות י"ב) מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן הָעִזִּים תִּקָּחוּ:
and…cattle: These are slaughtered as the chagigah [Festival offering]. If a large group was formed for the Passover offering, they bring a Festival offering along with it, so that the Passover sacrifice will be eaten [after a sufficient meal, and therefore] after the required satiation. [Everyone had to designate himself to a particular company of people, which was then relevant to one particular Passover offering (Pes. 69a-70b).] Our Rabbis also derived many other things from this verse. — [Sifrei ; Pes. 70a]   וּבָקָר: תִּזְבַּח לַחֲגִיגָה, שֶׁאִם נִמְנוּ עַל הַפֶּסַח חֲבוּרָה מְרֻבָּה, מְבִיאִים עִמּוֹ חֲגִיגָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נֶאֱכָל עַל הַשֹּׂבַע (פסחים ס"ט); וְעוֹד לָמְדוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ דְּבָרִים הַרְבֵּה מִפָּסוּק זֶה:
3You shall not eat leaven with it; for seven days you shall eat with it matzoth, the bread of affliction, for in haste you went out of the land of Egypt, so that you shall remember the day when you went out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life.   גלֹֽא־תֹאכַ֤ל עָלָיו֙ חָמֵ֔ץ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֛ים תֹּֽאכַל־עָלָ֥יו מַצּ֖וֹת לֶ֣חֶם עֹ֑נִי כִּ֣י בְחִפָּז֗וֹן יָצָ֨אתָ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לְמַ֣עַן תִּזְכֹּ֗ר אֶת־י֤וֹם צֵֽאתְךָ֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י חַיֶּֽיךָ:
the bread of affliction: [I.e.,] bread that brings to mind the affliction they suffered in Egypt. — [Sifrei]   לֶחֶם עֹנִי: לֶחֶם שֶׁמַּזְכִּיר אֶת הָעֹנִי שֶׁנִּתְעַנּוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם (ספרי):
for in haste you went out of the land of Egypt: And the dough [that you had prepared for eating] did not have time to become leavened, so this [matzah] will be for you as a reminder. And the haste [here] is not on your part, but on the part of the Egyptians, for so it says, “So the Egyptians took hold of the people [to hasten to send them out of the land]” (Exod. 12:33). - [Sifrei; Ber. 9a]   כִּי בְחִפָּזוֹן יָצָאתָ: וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק בָּצֵק לְהַחֲמִיץ וְזֶה יִהְיֶה לְךָ לְזִכָּרוֹן; וְחִפָּזוֹן לֹא שֶׁלְּךָ הָיָה אֶלָּא שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם, שֶׁכֵּן הוּא אוֹמֵר "וַתֶּחֱזַק מִצְרַיִם עַל הָעָם וְגוֹ'" (ספרי):
so that you shall remember: By eating the Passover sacrifice and the matzah, the day you went out [of the land of Egypt].   לְמַעַן תִּזְכֹּר: עַל יְדֵי אֲכִילַת הַפֶּסַח וְהַמַּצָּה את יום צאתך:
4And no leaven shall be seen with you within all your border for seven days; neither shall any of the flesh you slaughter on the preceding day in the afternoon, remain all night until the morning.   דוְלֹא־יֵֽרָאֶ֨ה לְךָ֥ שְׂאֹ֛ר בְּכָל־גְּבֻֽלְךָ֖ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים וְלֹֽא־יָלִ֣ין מִן־הַבָּשָׂ֗ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּזְבַּ֥ח בָּעֶ֛רֶב בַּיּ֥וֹם הָֽרִאשׁ֖וֹן לַבֹּֽקֶר:
neither shall any of the flesh you slaughter on the preceding day in the afternoon, remain all night until the morning: This is an admonition regarding leaving over the flesh of the Passover sacrifice, offered up by future generations, because [so far this prohibition] had been mentioned only with regard to the Passover sacrifice offered in Egypt (see Exod. 12:10). And יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן stated here is the fourteenth of Nissan [the preceding day, and not the fifteenth, which is the first day of Passover], just as it says: “but on the preceding day (בַּיוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן) you shall clear away leaven from your houses” (Exod. 12:15). Now since Scripture digressed from the subject of the Passover sacrifice and began to speak of the rules pertaining to the seven days [of the Festival]-such as, “seven days you shall eat with it matzoth ” (verse 3); “And no leaven shall be seen with you within all your border for seven days” (verse 4)-it was necessary to specify to which slaughtering [Scripture] is admonishing. For had it written only “neither shall any of the flesh you slaughter in the afternoon, remain all night until the morning” [without saying “the preceding day”], I might have thought that the peace offerings slaughtered during all the seven days are also subject to [the prohibition of] “And you shall not leave any of it until the morning,” (Exod. 12:10), and may be eaten only for [one] day and a night. Therefore, it is written: “on the preceding day in the evening,” [thereby clarifying that the verse is referring to the Passover sacrifice]. Another explanation: Scripture is referring to the Festival offering brought on the fourteenth of Nissan [and not to the specific Passover sacrifice], and it teaches with reference to it that it may be eaten for two days [and the intervening night]. Now the רִאשׁוֹן mentioned here [according to this explanation], is the first day of the Festival [i.e., the fifteenth of Nissan, rather than the preceding day]. And this is the meaning of the verse: The flesh of the Festival offering, which you slaughtered in the afternoon, shall not remain overnight after the first day of the Festival until the morning of the second day [the sixteenth of Nissan], but rather, it is to be eaten on the fourteenth and the fifteenth [and the intervening night]. And thus it is taught in tractate Pes. (71b).   וְלֹא־יָלִין מִן־הַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר תִּזְבַּח בָּעֶרֶב בַּיּוֹם הָֽרִאשׁוֹן לַבֹּֽקֶר: אַזְהָרָה לַמּוֹתִיר בְּפֶסַח דּוֹרוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא בְּפֶסַח מִצְרַיִם; וְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן הָאָמוּר כָּאן הוּא י"ד בְּנִיסָן, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר "אַךְ בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שְׂאוֹר מִבָּתֵּיכֶם" (שמות י"ב); וּלְפִי שֶׁנִּסְתַּלֵּק הַכָּתוּב מֵעִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְהִתְחִיל לְדַבֵּר בְּחֻקּוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים, כְּגוֹן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל עָלָיו מַצּוֹת, וְלֹא יֵרָאֶה לְךָ שְׂאֹר בְּכָל גְּבֻלְךָ, הֻצְרַךְ לְפָרֵשׁ בְּאֵיזוֹ זְבִיחָה הוּא מַזְהִיר, שֶׁאִם כָּתַב וְלֹא יָלִין מִן הַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר תִּזְבַּח בָּעֶרֶב לַבֹּקֶר הָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר שְׁלָמִים הַנִּשְׁחָטִים כָּל שִׁבְעָה כֻּלָּן בְּבַל תּוֹתִירוּ וְאֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִין אֶלָּא לְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה, לְכָךְ כָּתַב בערב ביום הראשון. דָּבָר אַחֵר בַּחֲגִיגַת י"ד הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, וְלִמֵּד עָלֶיהָ שֶׁנֶּאֱכֶלֶת לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים, וְהָרִאשׁוֹן הָאָמוּר כָּאן בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, וְכֵן מַשְׁמָעוּת הַמִּקְרָא – בְּשַׂר חֲגִיגָה אֲשֶׁר תִּזְבַּח בָּעֶרֶב לֹא יָלִין בְּיֹ"טֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד בָּקְרוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי, אֲבָל נֶאֱכֶלֶת הִיא בְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר וּבַחֲמִשָׁה עָשָׂר, וְכָךְ הִיא שְׁנוּיָה בְמַסֶּכֶת פְּסָחִים (דף ע"א):
5You shall not sacrifice the Passover offering within any of your cities, which the Lord, your God, is giving you.   הלֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לִזְבֹּ֣חַ אֶת־הַפָּ֑סַח בְּאַחַ֣ד שְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ:
6Except at the place which the Lord, your God, will choose to establish His Name-there you shall slaughter the Passover offering in the afternoon, as the sun sets, at the appointed time that you went out of Egypt.   וכִּי אִם־אֶל־הַמָּק֞וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֨ר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ֙ לְשַׁכֵּ֣ן שְׁמ֔וֹ שָׁ֛ם תִּזְבַּ֥ח אֶת־הַפֶּ֖סַח בָּעָ֑רֶב כְּב֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ מוֹעֵ֖ד צֵֽאתְךָ֥ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
in the afternoon, as the sun sets, at the appointed time that you went out of Egypt: These are three separate times. Towards evening---after six hours slaughter it. At sunset eat it. At the time you left you burn it, meaning that it is disqualified as notar, and must be removed to the burning site.   בָּעָרֶב כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מוֹעֵד צֵֽאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָֽיִם: הֲרֵי שְׁלֹשָׁה זְמַנִּים חֲלוּקִים, בָּעֶרֶב מִשֵּׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וּלְמַעְלָה זָבְחֵהוּ, וּכְבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ תֹּאכְלֵהוּ, וּמוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ אַתָּה שׂוֹרְפֵהוּ, כְּלוֹמַר נַעֲשֶׂה נוֹתָר וְיֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה (ספרי; ברכות ט'):
7And you shall roast [it] and eat [it] in the place which the Lord, your God, will choose, and you shall turn away in the morning and go to your dwellings.   זוּבִשַּׁלְתָּ֙ וְאָ֣כַלְתָּ֔ בַּמָּק֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְחַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בּ֑וֹ וּפָנִ֣יתָ בַבֹּ֔קֶר וְהָֽלַכְתָּ֖ לְאֹֽהָלֶֽיךָ:
And you shall roast [it]: Heb. וּבִשַּׁלְתָּ. [Here] this term means “roasted in fire” (צְלִי אֵשׁ) (see Exod. 12:9), for roasting is also included in the general term of בִּשּׁוּל, “cooking.”   וּבִשַּׁלְתָּ: זֶהוּ צְלִי אֵשׁ, שֶׁאַף הוּא קָרוּי בִּשּׁוּל:
and you shall turn away in the morning [and go to your dwellings]: [i.e.,] the morning of the second day [of Passover]. This teaches that [the pilgrim] is required to remain [in Jerusalem] the night when the Festival terminates. — [Sifrei ; Pes. 95b; Chag. 17a-b]   וּפָנִיתָ בַבֹּקֶר: לְבָקְרוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁטָּעוּן לִינָה לֵיל שֶׁל מוֹצָאֵי י"ט (ספרי; פסחים צ"ה; חגיגה י"ז):
8For six days you shall eat matzoth, and on the seventh day there shall be a halt to the Lord, your God. You shall not do any work [on it].   חשֵׁ֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים תֹּאכַ֣ל מַצּ֑וֹת וּבַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֗י עֲצֶ֨רֶת֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה מְלָאכָֽה:
For six days you shall eat matzoth: But elsewhere it says, “For seven days [you shall eat matzoth]!” (Exod. 12:15). [The solution is:] For seven days you shall eat matzoth from the old [produce] and six days [i.e., the last six days, after the omer has been offered] you may eat matzoth prepared from the new [crop]. Another explanation: It teaches that the eating of matzoh on the seventh day of Passover is not obligatory, and from here you learn [that the same law applies] to the other six days [of the Festival], For the seventh day was included in a general statement [in the verse “For seven days you shall eat matzoth,” but in the verse: “Six days you shall eat matzoth”] it has been taken out of this general [statement], to teach us that eating matzoh [on the seventh day] is not obligatory, but optional. [Now we have aready learned that if something is singled out of a general statement, we apply the relevant principle not only to itself but to every thing included in the general category. Thus the seventh day] is excluded here not to teach regarding itself, rather to teach regarding the entire generalization [i.e., the entire seven days of the Festival]. Just as on the seventh day the eating of matzah is optional, so too, on all the other days, the eating of matzah is optional. The only exception is the first night [of Passover], which Scripture has explicitly established as obligatory, as it is said, “in the evening, you shall eat matzoth” (Exod. 12:18). - [Mechilta on Exod 12:18; Pes. 120a]   שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת: וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר (שמות י"ב) הוּא אוֹמֵר "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים"? שִׁבְעָה מִן הַיָּשָׁן וְשִׁשָּׁה מִן הֶחָדָשׁ (ספרי; מנחות ס"ו); דָּבָר אַחֵר — לִמֵּד עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה בַּשְּׁבִיעִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ חוֹבָה, וּמִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד לְשֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁבִיעִי בִּכְלָל הָיָה וְיָצָא מִן הַכְּלָל לְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין אֲכִילַת מַצָּה בּוֹ חוֹבָה אֶלָּא רְשׁוּת, וְלֹא לְלַמֵּד עַל עַצְמוֹ יָצָא, אֶלָּא לְלַמֵּד עַל הַכְּלָל כֻּלּוֹ יָצָא, מַה שְּׁבִיעִי רְשׁוּת אַף כֻּלָּם רְשׁוּת, חוּץ מִלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהַכָּתוּב קְבָעוֹ חוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות י"ב) "בָּעֶרֶב תֹּאכְלוּ מַצֹּת" (מכילתא; פסחים ק"כ):
[and on the seventh day there shall be] a halt to the Lord your God: עִצֶרֶת. Keep yourself back from work. Another explanation: [עִצֶרֶת means] a gathering for eating and drinking, as the expression, “Let us detain (נַעַצְרָה) you” (Judg. 13:15).   עֲצֶרֶת לה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ: עֲצֹר עַצְמְךָ מִן הַמְּלָאכָה; דָּבָר אַחֵר — כְּנוּפְיָא שֶׁל מַאֲכָל וּמִשְׁתֶּה, לְשׁוֹן "נַעְצְרָה נָּא אוֹתָךְ" (שופטים י"ג):
9You shall count seven weeks for yourself; from[the time] the sickle is first put to the standing crop, you shall begin to count seven weeks.   טשִׁבְעָ֥ה שָֽׁבֻעֹ֖ת תִּסְפָּר־לָ֑ךְ מֵֽהָחֵ֤ל חֶרְמֵשׁ֙ בַּקָּמָ֔ה תָּחֵ֣ל לִסְפֹּ֔ר שִׁבְעָ֖ה שָֽׁבֻעֽוֹת:
from [the time] the sickle is first put to the standing crop, [you shall begin to count seven weeks]: [I.e.,] from the time the omer is harvested [on the sixteenth of Nissan], which is the beginning of the harvest. — [see Lev . 23:10, Sifrei ; Men. 71a]   מֵֽהָחֵל חֶרְמֵשׁ בַּקָּמָה: מִשֶּׁנִּקְצַר הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא רֵאשִׁית הַקָּצִיר (עי' ספרי; מנחות ע"א):
10And you shall perform the Festival of Weeks to the Lord, your God, the donation you can afford to give, according to how the Lord, your God, shall bless you.   יוְעָשִׂ֜יתָ חַ֤ג שָֽׁבֻעוֹת֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ מִסַּ֛ת נִדְבַ֥ת יָֽדְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתֵּ֑ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
the donation you can afford to give: [I.e.,] sufficient generous donation from you; according to the blessing [that God bestows upon you], bring peace offerings of happiness [these are extra peace offerings in addition to the Festival offerings] and invite guests to eat [with you].   מִסַּת נִדְבַת יָֽדְךָ: דֵּי נִדְבַת יָדְךָ, הַכֹּל לְפִי הַבְּרָכָה הָבֵא שַׁלְמֵי שִׂמְחָה וְקַדֵּשׁ קְרוּאִים לֶאֱכֹל:
11And you shall rejoice before the Lord, your God, -you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite who is within your cities, and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are among you, in the place which the Lord, your God, will choose to establish His Name therein.   יאוְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֞ לִפְנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ אַתָּ֨ה וּבִנְךָ֣ וּבִתֶּ֘ךָ֘ וְעַבְדְּךָ֣ וַֽאֲמָתֶ֒ךָ֒ וְהַלֵּוִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ וְהַגֵּ֛ר וְהַיָּת֥וֹם וְהָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּקִרְבֶּ֑ךָ בַּמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִבְחַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לְשַׁכֵּ֥ן שְׁמ֖וֹ שָֽׁם:
the Levite… the stranger, the orphan, and the widow: [God says:] These are My four, corresponding to your four, [namely,] “Your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant.” If you shall gladden Mine, I will gladden yours. — [Midrash Aggadah, Midrash Hagadol. Compare Tanchuma 18, Pesikta d’Rav Kahana p.100a. Note that in incunabula editions, this comment of Rashi is connected to the preceding one: and invite guests to eat [with you]: the Levite… the stranger, the orphan, and the widow. [God says:] These are My four…]   לוי גר יתום ואלמנה: אַרְבָּעָה שֶׁלִּי כְּנֶגֶד אַרְבָּעָה שֶׁלְּךָ – בנך ובתך ועבדך ואמתך, אִם אַתָּה מְשַׂמֵּחַ אֶת שֶׁלִּי אֲנִי מְשַׂמֵּחַ אֶת שֶׁלְּךָ:
12And you shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and you shall keep and perform these statutes.   יבוְזָ֣כַרְתָּ֔ כִּי־עֶ֥בֶד הָיִ֖יתָ בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם וְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֣ וְעָשִׂ֔יתָ אֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה:
And you shall remember that you were a slave [in Egypt]: On this condition did I redeem you [from Egypt], that you keep and perform these statutes.   וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ וגו': עַל מְנָת כֵּן פְּדִיתִיךָ, שֶׁתִּשְׁמֹר וְתַעֲשֶׂה אֶת הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה:
13You shall make yourself the Festival of Sukkoth for seven days, when you gather in [the produce] from your threshing floor and your vat.   יגחַ֧ג הַסֻּכֹּ֛ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בְּאָ֨סְפְּךָ֔ מִגָּרְנְךָ֖ וּמִיִּקְבֶֽךָ:
You shall make yourself the Festival of Sukkoth…] when you gather in [the produce]-: [i.e.,] at the time of the ingathering, when you bring the summer fruits into the house. Another explanation: “when you gather in [the produce] from your threshing floor and your vat” (‏בְּאָסְפְּךָ מִגָּרְנְ‏ךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ) teaches that we should cover the sukkah [only] with the waste products that come from the threshing floor and the vat [i.e., with things that have grown from the ground, have become detached, and are not susceptible to ritual uncleanness. Since they are not foods and are not vessels, they are not susceptible to spiritual uncleanness. - R.H. 13a; Suk. 12a]   בְּאָסְפְּךָ: בִּזְמַן הָאָסִיף שֶׁאַתָּה מַכְנִיס לַבַּיִת פֵּרוֹת הַקַּיִץ; דָּבָר אַחֵר — באספך מגרנך ומיקבך, לִמֵּד שֶׁמְּסַכְּכִין אֶת הַסֻּכָּה בִּפְסֹלֶת גֹּרֶן וְיֶקֶב (ראש השנה י"ג; סוכה י"ב):
14And you shall rejoice in your Festival-you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are within your cities.   ידוְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֖ בְּחַגֶּ֑ךָ אַתָּ֨ה וּבִנְךָ֤ וּבִתֶּ֨ךָ֙ וְעַבְדְּךָ֣ וַֽאֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְהַלֵּוִ֗י וְהַגֵּ֛ר וְהַיָּת֥וֹם וְהָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
15Seven days you shall celebrate the Festival to the Lord, your God, in the place which the Lord shall choose, because the Lord, your God, will bless you in all your produce, and in all the work of your hands, and you will only be happy.   טושִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֗ים תָּחֹג֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֣י יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֞ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בְּכֹ֤ל תְּבוּאָֽתְךָ֙ וּבְכֹל֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדֶ֔יךָ וְהָיִ֖יתָ אַ֥ךְ שָׂמֵֽחַ:
and you will only be happy: According to its simple meaning, this is not an expression denoting a command, but rather an expression of an assurance [i.e., I promise you that you will be happy]. But according to its oral interpretation, [our Rabbis] learned from this to include the night before the last day of the Festival for the obligation of rejoicing. — [see Suk. 48a; Sifrei]   וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ שָׂמֵֽחַ: לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ אֵין זֶה לְשׁוֹן צִוּוּי אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן הַבְטָחָה, וּלְפִי תַלְמוּדוֹ לָמְדוּ מִכָּאן לְרַבּוֹת לֵילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה (שם מ"ח):
16Three times in the year, every one of your males shall appear before the Lord, your God, in the place He will choose: on the Festival of Matzoth and on the Festival of Weeks, and on the Festival of Sukkoth, and he shall not appear before the Lord empty-handed.   טזשָׁל֣וֹשׁ פְּעָמִ֣ים | בַּשָּׁנָ֡ה יֵֽרָאֶה֩ כָל־זְכ֨וּרְךָ֜ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בַּמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְחָ֔ר בְּחַ֧ג הַמַּצּ֛וֹת וּבְחַ֥ג הַשָּֽׁבֻע֖וֹת וּבְחַ֣ג הַסֻּכּ֑וֹת וְלֹ֧א יֵֽרָאֶ֛ה אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה רֵיקָֽם:
and he shall not appear before the Lord empty-handed: But bring burnt-offerings of appearance (עוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה) [which are obligatory when appearing before the Lord in Jerusalem on the Festivals] and Festival peace-offerings. - [Chag. 8b]   וְלֹא יֵֽרָאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵי ה' רֵיקָֽם: אֶלָּא הָבֵא עוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה וְשַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה:
17[Every] man [shall bring] as much as he can afford, according to the blessing of the Lord, your God, which He has given you.   יזאִ֖ישׁ כְּמַתְּנַ֣ת יָד֑וֹ כְּבִרְכַּ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽתַן־לָֽךְ:
[Every] man [shall bring] as much as he can afford: One who has many eaters [i.e., a large family] and many possessions should bring many burnt-offerings and many peace-offerings. — [Sifrei; Chag. 8b]   אִישׁ כְּמַתְּנַת יָדוֹ: מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אוֹכְלִין הַרְבֵּה וּנְכָסִים מְרֻבִּין יָבִיא עוֹלוֹת מְרֻבּוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים מְרֻבִּים (ספרי; חגיגה ח'):

Maftir Portion

Devarim (Deuteronomy) Chapter 16

13You shall make yourself the Festival of Sukkoth for seven days, when you gather in [the produce] from your threshing floor and your vat.   יגחַ֧ג הַסֻּכֹּ֛ת תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים בְּאָ֨סְפְּךָ֔ מִגָּרְנְךָ֖ וּמִיִּקְבֶֽךָ:
You shall make yourself the Festival of Sukkoth…] when you gather in [the produce]-: [i.e.,] at the time of the ingathering, when you bring the summer fruits into the house. Another explanation: “when you gather in [the produce] from your threshing floor and your vat” (‏בְּאָסְפְּךָ מִגָּרְנְ‏ךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ) teaches that we should cover the sukkah [only] with the waste products that come from the threshing floor and the vat [i.e., with things that have grown from the ground, have become detached, and are not susceptible to ritual uncleanness. Since they are not foods and are not vessels, they are not susceptible to spiritual uncleanness. - R.H. 13a; Suk. 12a]   בְּאָסְפְּךָ: בִּזְמַן הָאָסִיף שֶׁאַתָּה מַכְנִיס לַבַּיִת פֵּרוֹת הַקַּיִץ; דָּבָר אַחֵר — באספך מגרנך ומיקבך, לִמֵּד שֶׁמְּסַכְּכִין אֶת הַסֻּכָּה בִּפְסֹלֶת גֹּרֶן וְיֶקֶב (ראש השנה י"ג; סוכה י"ב):
14And you shall rejoice in your Festival-you, and your son, and your daughter, and your manservant, and your maidservant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are within your cities.   ידוְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֖ בְּחַגֶּ֑ךָ אַתָּ֨ה וּבִנְךָ֤ וּבִתֶּ֨ךָ֙ וְעַבְדְּךָ֣ וַֽאֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְהַלֵּוִ֗י וְהַגֵּ֛ר וְהַיָּת֥וֹם וְהָֽאַלְמָנָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
15Seven days you shall celebrate the Festival to the Lord, your God, in the place which the Lord shall choose, because the Lord, your God, will bless you in all your produce, and in all the work of your hands, and you will only be happy.   טושִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֗ים תָּחֹג֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בַּמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֣י יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֞ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בְּכֹ֤ל תְּבוּאָֽתְךָ֙ וּבְכֹל֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂ֣ה יָדֶ֔יךָ וְהָיִ֖יתָ אַ֥ךְ שָׂמֵֽחַ:
and you will only be happy: According to its simple meaning, this is not an expression denoting a command, but rather an expression of an assurance [i.e., I promise you that you will be happy]. But according to its oral interpretation, [our Rabbis] learned from this to include the night before the last day of the Festival for the obligation of rejoicing. — [see Suk. 48a; Sifrei]   וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ שָׂמֵֽחַ: לְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ אֵין זֶה לְשׁוֹן צִוּוּי אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן הַבְטָחָה, וּלְפִי תַלְמוּדוֹ לָמְדוּ מִכָּאן לְרַבּוֹת לֵילֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה (שם מ"ח):
16Three times in the year, every one of your males shall appear before the Lord, your God, in the place He will choose: on the Festival of Matzoth and on the Festival of Weeks, and on the Festival of Sukkoth, and he shall not appear before the Lord empty-handed.   טזשָׁל֣וֹשׁ פְּעָמִ֣ים | בַּשָּׁנָ֡ה יֵֽרָאֶה֩ כָל־זְכ֨וּרְךָ֜ אֶת־פְּנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בַּמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִבְחָ֔ר בְּחַ֧ג הַמַּצּ֛וֹת וּבְחַ֥ג הַשָּֽׁבֻע֖וֹת וּבְחַ֣ג הַסֻּכּ֑וֹת וְלֹ֧א יֵֽרָאֶ֛ה אֶת־פְּנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה רֵיקָֽם:
and he shall not appear before the Lord empty-handed: But bring burnt-offerings of appearance (עוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה) [which are obligatory when appearing before the Lord in Jerusalem on the Festivals] and Festival peace-offerings. - [Chag. 8b]   וְלֹא יֵֽרָאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵי ה' רֵיקָֽם: אֶלָּא הָבֵא עוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה וְשַׁלְמֵי חֲגִיגָה:
17[Every] man [shall bring] as much as he can afford, according to the blessing of the Lord, your God, which He has given you.   יזאִ֖ישׁ כְּמַתְּנַ֣ת יָד֑וֹ כְּבִרְכַּ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽתַן־לָֽךְ:
[Every] man [shall bring] as much as he can afford: One who has many eaters [i.e., a large family] and many possessions should bring many burnt-offerings and many peace-offerings. — [Sifrei; Chag. 8b]   אִישׁ כְּמַתְּנַת יָדוֹ: מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אוֹכְלִין הַרְבֵּה וּנְכָסִים מְרֻבִּין יָבִיא עוֹלוֹת מְרֻבּוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים מְרֻבִּים (ספרי; חגיגה ח'):

Haftarah

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 54

11O poor tempestuous one, who was not consoled, behold I will set your stones with carbuncle, and I will lay your foundations with sapphires.   יאעֲנִיָּ֥ה סֹֽעֲרָ֖ה לֹ֣א נֻחָ֑מָה הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֜י מַרְבִּ֚יץ בַּפּוּךְ֙ אֲבָנַ֔יִךְ וִֽיסַדְתִּ֖יךְ בַּסַּפִּירִֽים:
tempestuous one: whose heart storms with many troubles.   סוערה: שלבה סוער ברובי צרות:
I will set with carbuncle: I pave your floor with carbuncle stones.   מרביץ בפוך: רוצף רצפתך מאבני נופך:
12And I will make your windows of jasper and your gates of carbuncle stones, and all your border of precious stones.   יבוְשַׂמְתִּ֚י כַּֽדְכֹד֙ שִׁמְשֹׁתַ֔יִךְ וּשְׁעָרַ֖יִךְ לְאַבְנֵ֣י אֶקְדָּ֑ח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵ֖ךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵֽפֶץ:
jasper: Heb. כַּדְכֹד, a kind of precious stone.   כדכד: מין אבן טובה:
your windows: Jonathan renders: your woodwork, and Menahem associated it with (Dan. 7:10): “ministered to Him (יְשַׁמְּשׁוּנֵהּ).” (Menahem, apparently renders: your utensils, i.e., the vessels that serve you.) And some interpret it as an expression of a sun (שֶׁמֶשׁ), windows through which the sun shines, and they make opposite it a barrier of kinds of colored glass for beauty, and Midrash Psalms interprets שִׁמְשׁוֹתַיִךְ as well as שֶׁמֶשׁ וּמָגֵן (Ps. 84:12) as “the pinnacles of the wall.”   שמשותיך: י"ת אמך ומנחם חברו עם ישמשוניה ויש פותרין ל' שמש חלונות שחמה זורחת בהן ועושין כנגדו מחיצה במיני זכוכית צבעים לנוי ומדרש תהלים פותר שמשותיך ושמש ומגן (תהילים פ״ד:י״ב) שיני החומה:
of carbuncle stones: Heb. אֶקְדָּח. Jonathan renders: of gomer stones. Gumrin is the Aramaic translation of גֶּחָלִים, coals. He interprets אֶקְדָּח as an expression similar to (supra 50:11) “who kindle (קֹדְחֵי) fire,” and they are a type of stones that burn like torches and that is the carbuncle (karbokle in O.F.), an expression of a coal. Others interpret it as an expression of a drill, i. e., huge stones of which the entire opening of the doorway is drilled, and the doorposts, the threshold, and the lintel are all hewn from the stone.   לאבני אקדח: י"ת לאבני גמר גומרין תרגום גחלים פתר אקדח לשון קדחי אש והם מין אבנים טובות בוערות כלפידי' והוא קרבונקל"א לשון גחלת ויש פותרין ל' מקדח אבנים גדולות שכל חלל הפתח קדוח בתוכו והמזוזות והמפתן והסף כולן מתוך האבן הם:
of precious stones: Desirable stones [from Jonathan].   לאבני חפץ: לאבני צרוך:
13And all your children shall be disciples of the Lord, and your children's peace shall increase.   יגוְכָל־בָּנַ֖יִךְ לִמּוּדֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְרַ֖ב שְׁל֥וֹם בָּנָֽיִךְ:
14With righteousness shall you be established, go far away from oppression, for you shall not fear, and from ruin, for it will not come near you.   ידבִּצְדָקָ֖ה תִּכּוֹנָ֑נִי רַֽחֲקִ֚י מֵעֹ֙שֶׁק֙ כִּי־לֹ֣א תִירָ֔אִי וּמִ֨מְּחִתָּ֔ה כִּ֥י לֹֽא־תִקְרַ֖ב אֵלָֽיִךְ:
go far away from oppression: [Although grammatically this is the imperative, here it is the future,] like (supra 52:2) “Shake yourself from the dust.” You will be far away from those who oppress you.   רחקי מעושק: כמו (לעיל נב) התנערי מעפר תרחקי מן העושקי' אותך:
[go far away from oppression: You will stay far from oppressing other peoples in the manner the wicked do, that they accumulate money through robbery, but you will not need to rob, for you will not fear poverty or straits, or ruin, for it shall neither come nor shall it approach you. [Abarbanel]]   רחקי מעושק: תרחק מלעשוק בני אדם כדרך שעושים רשעים שאוספי' ממון מגזל אבל אתם לא תצרכו לגזול כי לא תיראו מדלות ועניות וממחתה כי לא תבא ולא תקר' אליך אברבנאל)
[With righteousness: that you will perform, you will be established with an everlasting redemption, and you will be far from people’s oppression for you will not fear; you will not even have terror or fear of them, and you will be far from ruin, for it will not come near you. [Ayalah Sheluchah]]   בצדקה: שתעשה תהיה נכונה בגאולת עולם ותהיה רחוקה מעושק בני אדם כי לא תראי אפי' פחד ויראה לא יהיה לך מהם ותהיה רחוקה ממחתה שלא תקרב אליך, איל"ה שלוח'):
15Behold, the one with whom I am not, shall fear, whoever mobilizes against you shall defect to you.   טוהֵ֣ן גּ֥וֹר יָג֛וּר אֶ֖פֶס מֵֽאוֹתִ֑י מִי־גָ֥ר אִתָּ֖ךְ עָלַ֥יִךְ יִפּֽוֹל:
Behold, the one with whom I am not, shall fear: Heb. גּוֹר יָגוּר. Behold, he shall fear and dread evil decrees, he with whom I am not, i.e., Esau. ([Mss. read:] the wicked Esau and his ilk.)   הן גור יגור אפס מאותי: הן ירא יירא ויגור מגזרת רעו' אותו שאין אני עמו הוא שעיר:
whoever mobilizes against you: Heb. גָר. Whoever mobilizes against you for war. Alternatively, מִי גָר [means:] whoever contends with you (וְנִתְגָּרֶה). And our Rabbis explained it as referring to the proselytes (גֵּרִים) , [i.e.,] to say that we will not accept proselytes in Messianic times. And even according to the simple meaning of the verse it is possible to explain: whoever became sojourners with you in your poverty, shall dwell with you in your wealth. Comp. (Gen. 25:18) “In the presence of all his brethren he dwelt (נָפָל).”   מי גר אתך: מי אשר נאסף עליך למלחמה, או מי גר מי שנתגרה בך, ורבותינו פירשוהו בגרים לומ' שאין מקבלי' גרים לימות משיחנו ואף בפשוטו של מקרא יתכן מי שנעשו גרים אתך בעניותך עליך יפול בעשירותך כמו על פני כל אחיו נפל (בראשית כ״ה:י״ח):
16Behold I have created a smith, who blows on a charcoal fire and produces a weapon for his work, and I have created a destroyer to destroy [it].   טזהִנֵּ֚ה (כתיב הִןֵ֚) אָֽנֹכִי֙ בָּרָ֣אתִי חָרָ֔שׁ נֹפֵ֙חַ֙ בְּאֵ֣שׁ פֶּחָ֔ם וּמוֹצִ֥יא כְלִ֖י לְמַֽעֲשֵׂ֑הוּ וְאָנֹכִ֛י בָּרָ֥אתִי מַשְׁחִ֖ית לְחַבֵּֽל:
Behold I: am He Who created a smith who devises a weapon, and I am He Who has created a destroyer that destroys it. That is, to say: I am He Who incited the enemy against you; I am He Who has prepared retribution for him.   הנה אנכי: אשר בראתי חרש המתקן כלי ואני אשר בראתי משחית המחבלו כלו' אני הוא שגריתי בך את האוי' אני הוא שהתקנתי לו פורעניות:
and produces a weapon for his work: For necessity. He completes it according to all that is necessary.   ומוציא כלי למעשהו: לצורך גומרו כל צורכו:
17Any weapon whetted against you shall not succeed, and any tongue that contends with you in judgment, you shall condemn; this is the heritage of the servants of the Lord and their due reward from Me, says the Lord.   יזכָּל־כְּלִ֞י יוּצַ֚ר עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ לֹ֣א יִצְלָ֔ח וְכָל־לָשׁ֛וֹן תָּֽקוּם־אִתָּ֥ךְ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט תַּרְשִׁ֑יעִי זֹ֡את נַֽחֲלַת֩ עַבְדֵ֨י יְהֹוָ֧ה וְצִדְקָתָ֛ם מֵאִתִּ֖י נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
Any weapon whetted against you: Any weapon that they will whet and sharpen for you, i.e., to battle with you.   כל כלי יוצר: כל כלי זיין אשר ילטשוהו ויחדדהו בשבילך להלחם בך:
whetted: Heb. יוּצַר, an expression similar to (Jos. 5:2) “sharp knives (חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים),” also (Ps. 89:44) “You have also turned the edge of his sword (צוּר חַרְבּוֹ).”   יוצר: ל' חרבות צורים (יהושע ה׳:ב׳) אף תשיב צור חרבו (תהילים פ״ט:מ״ד):

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) Chapter 55

1Ho! All who thirst, go to water, and whoever has no money, go, buy and eat, and go, buy without money and without a price, wine and milk.   אה֚וֹי כָּל־צָמֵא֙ לְכ֣וּ לַמַּ֔יִם וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵין־ל֖וֹ כָּ֑סֶף לְכ֚וּ שִׁבְרוּ֙ וֶֽאֱכֹ֔לוּ וּלְכ֣וּ שִׁבְר֗וּ בְּלוֹא־כֶ֛סֶף וּבְל֥וֹא מְחִ֖יר יַ֥יִן וְחָלָֽב:
Ho! All who thirst: Heb. הוֹי. This word הוֹי is an expression of calling, inviting, and gathering, and there are many in Scripture, [e. g.,] (Zech. 2:10) “Ho! Ho! and flee from the north land.”   הוי כל צמא: הוי זה ל' קריאה וזימון וקיבוץ הוא ויש הרבה במקרא (זכריה ב) הוי הוי ונוסו מארץ צפון:
go to water: to Torah.   לכו למים: לתורה:
buy: Heb. שִׁבְרוּ. Comp. (Gen. 42:3) “To buy (לִשְׁבֹּר) corn,” buy.   שברו: ל' לשבור בר (בראשית מב) קנו:
wine and milk: Teaching better than wine and milk.   יין וחלב: לקח טוב מיין וחלב:
2Why should you weigh out money without bread and your toil without satiety? Hearken to Me and eat what is good, and your soul shall delight in fatness.   בלָ֚מָּה תִשְׁקְלוּ־כֶ֙סֶף֙ בְּלוֹא־לֶ֔חֶם וִיגִיֽעֲכֶ֖ם בְּל֣וֹא לְשָׂבְעָ֑ה שִׁמְע֨וּ שָׁמ֚וֹעַ אֵלַי֙ וְאִכְלוּ־ט֔וֹב וְתִתְעַנַּ֥ג בַּדֶּ֖שֶׁן נַפְשְׁכֶֽם:
Why should you weigh out money: Why should you cause yourselves to weigh out money to your enemies without bread?   למה תשקלו כסף: למה תגרמו לכם לשקול כסף לאויביכם בלא לחם:
3Incline your ear and come to Me, hearken and your soul shall live, and I will make for you an everlasting covenant, the dependable mercies of David.   גהַטּ֚וּ אָזְנְכֶם֙ וּלְכ֣וּ אֵלַ֔י שִׁמְע֖וּ וּתְחִ֣י נַפְשְׁכֶ֑ם וְאֶכְרְתָ֚ה לָכֶם֙ בְּרִ֣ית עוֹלָ֔ם חַסְדֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד הַנֶּאֱמָנִֽים:
the dependable mercies of David: For I will repay David for his mercies.   חסדי דוד: שאגמול לדוד חסדיו:
4Behold, a witness to nations have I appointed him, a ruler and a commander of nations.   דהֵ֛ן עֵ֥ד לְאוּמִּ֖ים נְתַתִּ֑יו נָגִ֥יד וּמְצַוֵּ֖ה לְאֻמִּֽים:
a witness to nations: A prince and a superior over them, and one who will reprove and testify of their ways to their faces. ([Mss., however, read:] One who reproaches them for their ways to their faces.)   לאומים: שר וגדול עליהם ומוכיח ומעיד דרכיהם על פניהם:
5Behold, a nation you do not know you shall call, and a nation that did not know you shall run to you, for the sake of the Lord your God and for the Holy One of Israel, for He glorified you.   ההֵ֣ן גּ֚וֹי לֹֽא־תֵדַע֙ תִּקְרָ֔א וְג֥וֹי לֹֽא־יְדָע֖וּךָ אֵלֶ֣יךָ יָר֑וּצוּ לְמַ֙עַן֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְלִקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כִּ֥י פֵֽאֲרָֽךְ:
Behold, a nation you do not know you shall call: to your service, if you hearken to Me, to the name of the Lord that is called upon you.   הן גוי לא תדע תקרא: לשמושך אם אלי תשמעו לשם ה' הנקרא עליך:
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