Deuteronomy Chapter 3

23I entreated the Lord at that time, saying,   כגוָֽאֶתְחַנַּ֖ן אֶל־יְהֹוָ֑ה בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖וא לֵאמֹֽר:
I entreated: Heb. וָאֶתְחַנַּן [The word] חִנּוּן [and its derivatives] in all cases is an expression signifying [requesting] a free gift. Even though the righteous may base a request on the merit of their good deeds, they request only a free gift of the Omnipresent. Because God had said to him [Moses], “and I will favor (וְחַנֹּתִי) when I wish to favor (אָחֹן)” (Exod. 33:19), he [Moses], he spoke to Him [God], using the expression וָאֶתְחַנַּן. Another explanation: This (חִנּוּן) is one of ten terms which denote prayer (Sifrei).   וָֽאֶתְחַנַּן: אֵין חִנּוּן בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן מַתְּנַת חִנָּם – אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם לַצַּדִּיקִים לִתְלוֹת בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם הַטּוֹבִים אֵין מְבַקְּשִׁים מֵאֵת הַמָּקוֹם אֶלָּא מַתְּנַת חִנָּם, (לְפִי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן אָמַר לוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן וָאֶתְחַנַּן); דָּבָר אַחֵר זֶה אֶחָד מֵעֲשָׂרָה לְשׁוֹנוֹת שֶׁנִּקְרֵאת תְּפִלָּה, כִּדְאִיתָא בְּסִפְרֵי:
at that time: After I had conquered the land of Sihon and Og, I thought that perhaps the vow [which God had made, that I should not enter the land] was nullified, [since the land I entered was part of the land of Canaan].   בָּעֵת הַהִוא: לְאַחַר שֶׁכָּבַשְׁתִּי אֶרֶץ סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג דִּמִּיתִי שֶׁמָּא הֻתַּר הַנֶּדֶר:
saying: This is one of three occasions in which Moses said before the Omnipresent, “I will not let You go until You let me know whether or not You will grant my request” (Sifrei).   לֵאמֹֽר: זֶה אֶחָד מִגּ' מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאָמַר מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם אֵינִי מַנִּיחֲךָ עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי אִם תַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁאֵלָתִי אִם לָאו (ספרי):
24"O Lord God, You have begun to show Your servant Your greatness and Your strong hand, for who is [like] God in heaven or on earth who can do as Your deeds and Your might?   כדאֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֗ה אַתָּ֤ה הַֽחִלּ֨וֹתָ֙ לְהַרְא֣וֹת אֶת־עַבְדְּךָ֔ אֶ֨ת־גָּדְלְךָ֔ וְאֶת־יָֽדְךָ֖ הַֽחֲזָקָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר מִי־אֵל֙ בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם וּבָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה כְמַֽעֲשֶׂ֖יךָ וְכִגְבֽוּרֹתֶֽךָ:
O Lord God: O You Who are merciful (ה׳) in judgment (אלהים) .   ה' אלהים: רַחוּם בַּדִּין:
You have begun to show Your servant: An opening for standing and offering prayer even though the decree has been fixed. He [Moses] said to Him: “I learned [this] from You. You said to me, 'And now leave Me alone’” (Exod. 32: 10). Was I holding You? However, You said this to open the door [as it were and to teach me] that it depended upon me [i.e., my choice whether] to pray for them [or to leave You alone]. So do I think to act now (Sifrei).   אַתָּה הַֽחִלּוֹתָ לְהַרְאוֹת אֶת־עַבְדְּךָ: פֶּתַח, לִהְיוֹת עוֹמֵד וּמִתְפַּלֵּל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּגְזְרָה גְּזֵרָה; אָמַר לוֹ מִמְּךָ לָמַדְתִּי, שֶׁאָמַרְתָּ לִי (שמות ל"ב) "וְעַתָּה הַנִּיחָה לִּי", וְכִי תוֹפֵס הָיִיתִי בְךָ? אֶלָּא לִפְתֹּחַ פֶּתַח, שֶׁבִּי הָיָה תָלוּי לְהִתְפַּלֵּל עֲלֵיהֶם, כְּמוֹ כֵן הָיִיתִי סָבוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַכְשָׁו (ספרי):
Your greatness: This is the attribute of Your goodness. Similarly, it states: “And now, pray, let the strength of my Lord be great” (Num. 14:17-18).   אֶת־גָּדְלְךָ: זוֹ מִדַּת טוּבְךָ, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (במדבר י"ד) "וְעַתָּה יִגְדַּל נָא כֹּחַ ה'":
Your… hand: This is Your right hand which is extended to [accept the repentance of] all who come into the world.   וְאֶת־יָֽדְךָ: זוֹ יְמִינְךָ שֶׁהִיא פְּשׁוּטָה לְכָל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם:
strong [hand]: [The hand is called strong] because by Your mercy, You forcibly subdue the attribute of strict judgment. (Sifrei on Number 27:12)   הַֽחֲזָקָה: שֶׁאַתָּה כוֹבֵשׁ בְּרַחֲמִים אֶת מִדַּת הַדִּין בְּחָזְקָה (ספרי):
For who is [like] God [… who can do as Your deeds]: You cannot be compared to a king of flesh and blood who has advisors and associates who restrain him when he wishes to act with kindness and to forego his regulations. You, however, have no one to prevent you from forgiving me and annulling Your decree. The simple meaning of the verse is: You have begun to show Your servant the battle of Sihon and Og, as it is written: “Behold, I have begun to deliver [Sihon and his land] before you” (2:31). Show me [also] the war of the thirty-one kings [of Canaan]. [See Josh. 12:7-24.]   אֲשֶׁר מִי־אֵל וגו': אֵינְךָ דוֹמֶה לְמֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ יוֹעֲצִין וְסַנְקַתֶּדְרִין הַמַמְּחִין בְּיָדוֹ כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת חֶסֶד וְלַעֲבֹר עַל מִדּוֹתָיו, אַתָּה אֵין מִי שֶׁיִּמְחֶה בְיָדְךָ אִם תִּמְחֹל לִי וּתְבַטֵּל גְּזֵרָתְךָ; וּלְפִי פְשׁוּטוֹ אַתָּה הַחִלּוֹתָ לְהַרְאוֹת אֶת עַבְדְּךָ מִלְחֶמֶת סִיחוֹן וְעוֹג, – כְּדִכְתִיב (דברים ב') "רְאֵה הַחִלֹּתִי תֵּת לְפָנֶיךָ", – הַרְאֵנִי מִלְחֶמֶת ל"א מְלָכִים:
25Pray let me cross over and see the good land that is on the other side of the Jordan, this good mountain and the Lebanon."   כהאֶעְבְּרָה־נָּ֗א וְאֶרְאֶה֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן הָהָ֥ר הַטּ֛וֹב הַזֶּ֖ה וְהַלְּבָנֹֽן:
Pray let me cross over: Heb. אֶעְבְּרָה נָא. [The word] נָא is nothing but an expression of request.   אֶעְבְּרָה־נָּא: אֵין נָא אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה:
this good mountain: This is Jerusalem.   הָהָר הַטּוֹב הַזֶּה: זוֹ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם:
and the Lebanon: This is the Temple (Sifrei).   וְהַלְּבָנֹֽן: זֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ (ספרי):
26But the Lord was angry with me because of you, and He did not listen to me, and the Lord said to me, "It is enough for you; speak to Me no more regarding this matter.   כווַיִּתְעַבֵּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֥ה בִּי֙ לְמַ֣עַנְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖ע אֵלָ֑י וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֵלַי֙ רַב־לָ֔ךְ אַל־תּ֗וֹסֶף דַּבֵּ֥ר אֵלַ֛י ע֖וֹד בַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה:
But the Lord was angry: Heb. וַיִּתְעַבֵּר ה׳ [The hithpa’el conjugation denotes that] He became filled with wrath (Sifrei).   וַיִּתְעַבֵּר ה': נִתְמַלֵּא חֵמָה:
because of you: You caused it for me. Similarly, it states:“They provoked [God] by the waters of Meribah, and Moses suffered because of them” (Ps. 106:32).   לְמַעַנְכֶם: אַתֶּם גְּרַמְתֶּם לִי, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (תהלים ק"ו) "וַיַּקְצִיפוּ עַל מֵי מְרִיבָה וַיֵּרַע לְמֹשֶׁה בַּעֲבוּרָם":
It is enough for you: Heb. רַב-לָךְ [interpreted as: “you have a master רַב.” I.e., pray no more], so that people should not say, “How hard is the Master, and how obstinate and pressing is the disciple!” (Sotah 13b) Another explanation of רַב-לָךְ [explained as “you have much”]: More than this is reserved for you: Much is the goodness that is kept for you. (Sifrei)   רַב־לָךְ: שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ הָרַב כַּמָּה קָשֶׁה וְהַתַּלְמִיד כַּמָּה סַרְבָן וּמַפְצִיר (סוטה י"ג); דָּבָר אַחֵר — רב לך, הַרְבֵּה מִזֶּה שָׁמוּר לְךָ, רַב טוּב הַצָּפוּן לְךָ (ספרי):
27Go up to the top of the hill and lift up your eyes westward and northward and southward and eastward and see with your eyes, for you shall not cross this Jordan.   כזעֲלֵ֣ה | רֹ֣אשׁ הַפִּסְגָּ֗ה וְשָׂ֥א עֵינֶ֛יךָ יָ֧מָּה וְצָפֹ֛נָה וְתֵימָ֥נָה וּמִזְרָ֖חָה וּרְאֵ֣ה בְעֵינֶ֑יךָ כִּי־לֹ֥א תַֽעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֥ן הַזֶּֽה:
and see with your eyes: You requested of Me “Let me… see the good land” (verse 25). I am showing you all of it, as it says: “And the Lord showed him all the Land” (Deut. 34:1).   וּרְאֵה בְעֵינֶיךָ: בִּקַּשְׁתָּ מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת הָאָרֶץ הַטּוֹבָה, אֲנִי מַרְאֶה לְךָ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ל"ב) "וַיַּרְאֵהוּ ה' אֶת כָּל הָאָרֶץ":
28But command Joshua and strengthen him and encourage him, for he will cross over before this people, and he will make them inherit the land which you will see.   כחוְצַ֥ו אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ וְחַזְּקֵ֣הוּ וְאַמְּצֵ֑הוּ כִּי־ה֣וּא יַֽעֲבֹ֗ר לִפְנֵי֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְהוּא֙ יַנְחִ֣יל אוֹתָ֔ם אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְאֶֽה:
But command Joshua: regarding the bother, the burdens and the quarrels [inherent in leadership].   וְצַו אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ: עַל הַטְּרָחוֹת וְעַל הַמַּשָּׂאוֹת וְעַל הַמְּרִיבוֹת:
and strengthen him and encourage him: with your words, so that he will not be discouraged, saying, “Just as my teacher was punished, so will I be punished because of them.” I assure him [says God] that he will cross over [before this people] and he will make [them] inherit [the land]. (cf. Sifrei)   וְחַזְּקֵהוּ וְאַמְּצֵהוּ: בִּדְבָרֶיךָ, שֶׁלֹּא יֵרַךְ לִבּוֹ לוֹמַר כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנֶּעֱנַשׁ רַבִּי עֲלֵיהֶם, כָּךְ סוֹפִי לֵעָנֵשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם, מַבְטִיחוֹ אֲנִי כִּי הוּא יַעֲבֹר וְהוּא יַנְחִיל (ע' ספרי):
for he will cross: If he crosses before them, they will inherit the land, and if not, they will not inherit [it]. So, indeed, we find that when Joshua sent some of the people against Ai and he remained behind, “the men of Ai smote of them” (Josh. 7:5). And when he fell on his face, God said to him, קוּם-לָךְ: written קֻם [without a “vav”, so that it may be read קָם], i.e., it is you standing in your place and sending My children out to war [that brought about this defeat]. Why do you fall on your face? Did I not tell this to your master, Moses, “If he [Joshua] crosses, they will cross, but if not, they will not cross”? (Sifrei)   כִּי־הוּא יַֽעֲבֹר: אִם יַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵיהֶם יִנְחֲלוּ, וְאִם לָאו לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ; וְכֵן אַתָּה מוֹצֵא כְּשֶׁשָּׁלַח מִן הָעָם אֶל הָעַי וְהוּא יָשַׁב, "וַיַּכּוּ מֵהֶם אַנְשֵׁי הָעַי וְגוֹ'" (יהושע ז') וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנָּפַל עַל פָּנָיו אָמַר לוֹ "קֻם לָךְ" – קם לך כְּתִיב, אַתָּה הוּא הָעוֹמֵד בִּמְקוֹמְךָ וּמְשַׁלֵּחַ אֶת בָּנַי לַמִּלְחָמָה, לָמָּה זֶּה אַתָּה נֹפֵל עַל פָּנֶיךָ? לֹא כָךְ אָמַרְתִּי לְמֹשֶׁה רַבְּךָ אִם הוּא עוֹבֵר עוֹבְרִין וְאִם לָאו אֵין עוֹבְרִין (ספרי):
29And we abided in the valley opposite Beth Peor.   כטוַנֵּ֣שֶׁב בַּגָּ֔יְא מ֖וּל בֵּ֥ית פְּעֽוֹר:
And we abided in the valley: [opposite Beth Peor]-and you attached yourselves to idol worship. Nevertheless, “And now, O Israel, hearken to the statutes” (4:1), and you will be forgiven for everything. But I was not privileged to be forgiven (Sifrei).   וַנֵּשֶׁב בַּגָּיְא וגו': וְנִצְמַדְתֶּם לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן ועתה ישראל שמע אל החקים, וְהַכֹּל מָחוּל לְךָ, וַאֲנִי לֹא זָכִיתִי לִמָּחֵל לִי:

Deuteronomy Chapter 4

1And now, O Israel, hearken to the statutes and to the judgments which I teach you to do, in order that you may live, and go in and possess the land which the Lord, God of your forefathers, is giving you.   אוְעַתָּ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שְׁמַ֤ע אֶל־הַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְאֶל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י מְלַמֵּ֥ד אֶתְכֶ֖ם לַֽעֲשׂ֑וֹת לְמַ֣עַן תִּֽחְי֗וּ וּבָאתֶם֙ וִֽירִשְׁתֶּ֣ם אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶֽם:
2Do not add to the word which I command you, nor diminish from it, to observe the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you.   בלֹ֣א תֹסִ֗פוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אָֽנֹכִי֙ מְצַוֶּ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תִגְרְע֖וּ מִמֶּ֑נּוּ לִשְׁמֹ֗ר אֶת־מִצְו‍ֹת֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽנֹכִ֖י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶֽם:
Do not add: for instance, by inserting five sections into the tefillin [instead of four], by using five species for the [commandment of] lulav [on Succoth] instead of four], or by attaching five fringes [instead of four]. And so too, וְלֹא תִגְרְעוּ nor diminish [from it i.e., three instead of four].   לֹא תֹסִפוּ: כְּגוֹן חָמֵשׁ פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת בַּתְּפִלִּין, חֲמֵשֶׁת מִינִין בַּלּוּלָב, וְחָמֵשׁ צִיצִיּוֹת, וְכֵן "לֹא תִגְרְעוּ" (ע' ספרי פ' ראה):
3Your eyes have seen what the Lord did at Baal Peor, for every man who went after Baal Peor, the Lord your God has exterminated from your midst.   געֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ הָֽרֹא֔וֹת אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּבַ֣עַל פְּע֑וֹר כִּ֣י כָל־הָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָלַךְ֙ אַֽחֲרֵ֣י בַֽעַל־פְּע֔וֹר הִשְׁמִיד֛וֹ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ:
4But you who cleave to the Lord your God are alive, all of you, this day.   דוְאַתֶּם֙ הַדְּבֵקִ֔ים בַּֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם חַיִּ֥ים כֻּלְּכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם: