Deuteronomy Chapter 7

1When the Lord, your God, brings you into the land to which you are coming to possess it, He will cast away many nations from before you: the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivvites, and the Jebusites, seven nations more numerous and powerful than you.   אכִּ֤י יְבִֽיאֲךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּ֑הּ וְנָשַׁ֣ל גּוֹיִֽם־רַבִּ֣ים | מִפָּנֶ֡יךָ הַֽחִתִּי֩ וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁ֨י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִ֜י וְהַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֣י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֗י וְהַֽחִוִּי֙ וְהַיְבוּסִ֔י שִׁבְעָ֣ה גוֹיִ֔ם רַבִּ֥ים וַֽעֲצוּמִ֖ים מִמֶּֽךָּ:
He will cast away: Heb. וְנָשַׁל. This is an expression meaning casting away, and causing to fly. Similarly is (Deut. 19:5),“and the iron [axe blade] will cause to fly [from the tree].”   ונשל: לשון השלכה והתזה, וכן (דברים יט, ה) ונשל הברזל:
2And the Lord, your God, will deliver them to you, and you shall smite them. You shall utterly destroy them; neither shall you make a covenant with them, nor be gracious to them.   בוּנְתָנָ֞ם יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ לְפָנֶ֖יךָ וְהִכִּיתָ֑ם הַֽחֲרֵ֤ם תַּֽחֲרִים֙ אֹתָ֔ם לֹֽא־תִכְרֹ֥ת לָהֶ֛ם בְּרִ֖ית וְלֹ֥א תְחָנֵּֽם:
nor be gracious to them: Heb. וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם This means, you must not show them any grace (חֵן) . It is forbidden for a person to say,“How handsome is this heathen!” Another explanation: Do not grant them a settlement (חֲניָּה) in the land. (Avodah Zarah 20a)   לא תחנם: לא תתן להם חן. אסור לו לאדם לומר כמה נאה גוי זה. דבר אחר אל תתן להם חנייה בארץ:
3You shall not intermarry with them; you shall not give your daughter to his son, and you shall not take his daughter for your son.   גוְלֹ֥א תִתְחַתֵּ֖ן בָּ֑ם בִּתְּךָ֙ לֹֽא־תִתֵּ֣ן לִבְנ֔וֹ וּבִתּ֖וֹ לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח לִבְנֶֽךָ:
4For he will turn away your son from following Me, and they will worship the gods of others, and the wrath of the Lord will be kindled against you, and He will quickly destroy you.   דכִּֽי־יָסִ֤יר אֶת־בִּנְךָ֙ מֵאַֽחֲרַ֔י וְעָֽבְד֖וּ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים וְחָרָ֤ה אַף־יְהֹוָה֙ בָּכֶ֔ם וְהִשְׁמִֽידְךָ֖ מַהֵֽר:
For he will turn away your son from following Me: i.e., the heathen’s son, if he marries your daughter, will turn away your [grand]son whom your daughter will bear to him, from following Me. This teaches us that your daughter’s son, born of a heathen man, is called “your son,” but your son’s son, born of a heathen woman, is not called “your son,” but “her son.” For Scripture [first says, “Do not give your daughter to his son, and do not take his daughter for your son.” Then it follows with “For he will turn away your son….” However], referring to “do not take his daughter,” it does not say“For she will turn away your son…” [because he is considered her son, not yours (Kid. 68b).   כי יסיר את בנך מאחרי: בנו של גוי כשישא את בתך יסיר את בנך אשר תלד לו בתך מאחרי. למדנו שבן בתך הבא מן הגוי קרוי בנך, אבל בן בנך הבא מן הגויה אינו קרוי בנך אלא בנה, שהרי לא נאמר על בתו לא תקח כי תסיר את בנך מאחרי, אלא כי יסיר את בנך וגו':
5But so shall you do to them: You shall demolish their altars and smash their monuments, and cut down their asherim trees, and burn their graven images with fire.   הכִּ֣י אִם־כֹּ֤ה תַֽעֲשׂוּ֙ לָהֶ֔ם מִזְבְּחֹֽתֵיהֶ֣ם תִּתֹּ֔צוּ וּמַצֵּֽבֹתָ֖ם תְּשַׁבֵּ֑רוּ וַֽאֲשֵֽׁירֵהֶם֙ תְּגַדֵּע֔וּן וּפְסִֽילֵיהֶ֖ם תִּשְׂרְפ֥וּן בָּאֵֽשׁ:
their altars: Heb. מִזְבְּחֹתֵיהֶם [A מִזְבֵּח is a structure] built up [of several stones].   מזבחתיהם: של בנין:
and… their monuments: Heb. וּמַצֵּבֹתָם [A מַצֵּבָה is a structure made] of one stone. \b their asherim trees Trees that are worshipped (\b0Avodah Zarah 48a).   מצבותם: אבן אחת:
and… their graven images: [These are] images (i.e., idols).   ואשירהם: אילנות שעובדין אותן:
6For you are a holy people to the Lord, your God: the Lord your God has chosen you to be His treasured people, out of all the peoples upon the face of the earth.   וכִּ֣י עַ֤ם קָדוֹשׁ֙ אַתָּ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ בְּךָ֞ בָּחַ֣ר | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ לִֽהְי֥וֹת לוֹ֙ לְעַ֣ם סְגֻלָּ֔ה מִכֹּל֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
7Not because you are more numerous than any people did the Lord delight in you and choose you, for you are the least of all the peoples.   זלֹ֣א מֵֽרֻבְּכֶ֞ם מִכָּל־הָֽעַמִּ֗ים חָשַׁ֧ק יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּכֶ֖ם וַיִּבְחַ֣ר בָּכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־אַתֶּ֥ם הַמְעַ֖ט מִכָּל־הָֽעַמִּֽים:
Not because you were [more] numerous: [This is to be understood] according to its simple meaning. But its midrashic explanation [understanding וְלֹא מֵרֻבְּכֶם as “not because you are great”] is: Because you do not boast about yourselves when I shower good upon you. This is why I delighted in you [says God].   לא מרבכם: כפשוטו. ומדרשו לפי שאין אתם מגדילים עצמכם כשאני משפיע לכם טובה לפיכך חשקתי בכם:
For you are the least [of all the peoples]: You humble yourselves as, e.g., Abraham, who said, “For I am dust and ashes” (Gen. 18:27), and Moses and Aaron, who said, “but of what [significance] are we?” (Exod. 16:7) Unlike Nebuchadnezzar, who said, “I will liken myself to the Most High,” (Isa. 14:14), and Sennacherib, who said, (Isa. 36:20), “Who are they among all the gods of thelands [who saved their land from my hand]?” and Hiram, who said,“I am a god, I have sat in a seat of God” (Ezek. 28:2). (Chul. 89a)   כי אתם המעט: הממעטין עצמכם, כגון אברהם, שאמר (בראשית יח, כז) ואנכי עפר ואפר, וכגון משה ואהרן שאמרו (שמות טז, ח) ונחנו מה, לא כנבוכדנצר שאמר (ישעיה יד, יד) אדמה לעליון, וסנחריב שאמר (שם לו, כ) מי בכל אלהי הארצות, וחירם שאמר (יחזקאל כח, ב) אל אני מושב אלהים ישבתי:
for you are the least: Heb. כִּי-אַתֶּם הַמְעַט Here כִּי is an expression of“because.”   כי אתם המעט: הרי כי משמש בלשון דהא:
8But because of the Lord's love for you, and because He keeps the oath He swore to your forefathers, the Lord took you out with a strong hand and redeemed you from the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt.   חכִּי֩ מֵאַֽהֲבַ֨ת יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶתְכֶ֗ם וּמִשָּׁמְר֤וֹ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נִשְׁבַּע֙ לַֽאֲבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם הוֹצִ֧יא יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם בְּיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֑ה וַיִּפְדְּךָ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית עֲבָדִ֔ים מִיַּ֖ד פַּרְעֹ֥ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרָֽיִם:
But because of the Lord’s love: Heb. כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת ה׳ Here, [however,] כִּי is an expression of “but.” [Thus, the verses read] Not because you were more numerous… did the Lord delight in you, but because of the Lord’s love for you.   כי מאהבת ה': הרי כי משמש בלשון אלא. לא מרובכם חשק ה' בכם, אלא מאהבת ה' אתכם:
and because He keeps the oath: Heb. וּמִשָּׁמְרוֹ means, “and because of His keeping the oath” [not “and from His keeping the oath”].   ומשמרו את השבועה: מחמת שמרו את השבועה:
9Know, therefore, that the Lord, your God He is God, the faithful God, Who keeps the covenant and loving kindness with those who love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations.   טוְיָ֣דַעְתָּ֔ כִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ ה֣וּא הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים הָאֵל֙ הַנֶּֽאֱמָ֔ן שֹׁמֵ֧ר הַבְּרִ֣ית וְהַחֶ֗סֶד לְאֹֽהֲבָ֛יו וּלְשֹֽׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְו‍ֹתָ֖יו (כתיב מצותו) לְאֶ֥לֶף דּֽוֹר:
to a thousand generations: But earlier, (verse 5:10) it says: “To thousands [of generations].” [Why the difference?] Here, where it is adjacent to “those who keep His commandments,” it says: “to a thousand generations” [because it is referring to those who obey God out of fear] but previously, where it is adjacent to those who love Him, it says:“for thousands [of generations].” (Sotah 31a)   לאלף דור: ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים ה, ט) לאלפים, כאן שהוא סמוך אצל לשומרי מצותיו, העושין מיראה, הוא אומר לאלף, ולהלן שהוא סמוך אצל לאוהביו, העושין מאהבה, ששכרם יותר גדול, הוא אומר לאלפים:
with those who love Him: Those who perform [the commandments] out of love.   לאוהביו: אלו העושין מאהבה:
and keep His commandments: Those who perform [the commandments] out of fear.   ולשומרי מצותיו: אלו העושין מיראה:
10And He repays those who hate Him, to their face, to cause them to perish; He will not delay the one who hates Him, but he will repay him to his face.   יוּמְשַׁלֵּ֧ם לְשֽׂנְאָ֛יו אֶל־פָּנָ֖יו לְהַֽאֲבִיד֑וֹ לֹ֤א יְאַחֵר֙ לְשׂ֣נְא֔וֹ אֶל־פָּנָ֖יו יְשַׁלֶּם־לֽוֹ:
And He repays those who hate Him to their face: During his lifetime, He pays him his good reward, in order to cause him to be lost from the World to Come.   ומשלם לשנאיו אל פניו: בחייו משלם לו גמולו הטוב כדי להאבידו מן העולם הבא:
11You shall therefore, observe the commandments, the statutes, and the ordinances, which I command you this day to do.   יאוְשָֽׁמַרְתָּ֨ אֶת־הַמִּצְוָ֜ה וְאֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָֽנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ הַיּ֖וֹם לַֽעֲשׂתָֽם:
this day to do them: But in the future, in the World to Come, you will receive their reward (Eruvin 22a).   היום לעשותם: ולמחר לעולם הבא ליטול שכרם: